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Intel P4 (2000)

Moores Law

Transistor count: 42,000,000

Intel i7 (2008)

Transistor count: 731 000 000 731,000,000

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Department of Electrical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering

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IC_Implication.pdf (#16)

MOS Transistor

Gate Source Drain

Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) transistor is the fundamental building blocks for modern ICs. ICs ISD = f (VGS, VSD). The channel conductance (ISD/ VSD) can be controlled by VGS. The gate (silicon) oxide provides electrical insulation between Gate and Substrate. Any current flows between Gate and substrate is called gate leakage current, which will interfere with ISD and is detrimental to the functioning of the transistor.

Channel

Silicon oxide Silicon Metal

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IC_Implication.pdf (2/6)

Shrinking the Size of MOS Transistors g


Gate Source Drain

Device scaling (down) is the key to achieve more powerful and cheaper computer chips chips.
More transistors in the same amount area. Faster operation speed. Lower power consumption of each transistor (longer battery life). Lower voltage operation (can be powered by a single battery).

Channel

Device scaling need to be done in 3D.


Reduce the x/y dimension of gate, source, drain and channel , (length/width). Reduce the thickness of the silicon oxide.

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Department of Electrical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering

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IC_Implication.pdf (3/6)

Fundamental Challenge in Down-Scaling g g


Gate Source Drain d Channel V2 Electron tunneling t li

T0 e (

2 k2i d ) 2 k2i d )

16 E (V2 E ) ( e V22

k 2i

2m(V2

E)

When the thickness of the silicon oxide is reduced to 1 nm, significant tunneling leakage will occur. This sets a fundamental limit of device scaling. Use high-dielectric-constant insulator (high-k dielectric)
HfO, CeO. A reasonable thickness of the insulator with even higher V2 can still be used in downscaled MOS transistors.

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IC_Implication.pdf (4/6)

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IC_Implication.pdf (5/6)

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IC_Implication.pdf (6/6)

Scanning Tunneling Microscope g g p


T
d

T0 e (
I tunnel I 0T0 e (

2 k2i d )

k 2i

2m(V2

E)

I 0T
2 k2i d )

f (d )

Tiny surface features caused d and thus Itunnel to change. How? Why only working on conductor surface? Why working best at very low temperature? Why using a sharp probe tip?

STM image of Ni (100) surface SOURCE: Courtesy of IBM

STM image of Pt (111) surface SOURCE: Courtesy of IBM Department of Electrical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering

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STM.pdf (#15)

Conduction between two copper wires pp

FACT 1: Copper is inevitably oxidized in the air air. FACT 2: Copper oxide is a good insulator. Question 1: Why is it still conducting when we touch two copper wires? Question 2: Why is it not conducting when the copper wires are heavily corroded?

Copper Copper oxide

Copper

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Department of Electrical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering

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Tunneling.pdf (#14)

Electron tunneling indicated by solution of SE

Solving SE at two-interface and three-layer boundary condition. When E>V, 0<T<1. When E<V, 0<T<1 (tunneling effect).

Metal 1

Metal 2
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Tunneling.pdf (2/2)

Today's topics: 1) 2) 3) 4) electron tunneling scanning tunneling microscope electron tunneling issues in ICs Quiz #1 review

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Lecture #6 (#13)

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Lecture #6 (2/3)

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Lecture #6 (3/3)

Quantum Well Laser Device


M1 M2 M1 M1 M2 M1 M2 M1 M2 Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Electrical current pumping to put electrons from Ei to Ej. The relaxation of electron relaxation from Ej to Ei will create an output photon with energy equals to Ej-Ei. Changing the thickness of M2 can tune the wavelength of light emission. For optical communication

M1

M1 M1 M1 M1

E i, j E j

Ei

hf

1 L2

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Department of Electrical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering

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PWD.pdf (#12)

Quantum Dots
UV light

Quantum dots are semicondutor nanoparticles. They form (3D) quantum potential wells for the electrons. Photon energy: hf (hc/ ). The frequency of light increases from red to violet, so does the energy of the photon.

Magic of size !

Infrared: lower energy and longer wavelength (~1m). ( 1m). Ultraviolet: higher energy and shorter wavelength (~.3 m).

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Department of Electrical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering

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PWD.pdf (2/4)

Quantum Dots
L Ej Ei UV absorption (pumping)

Ei , j

1 L2

Ej

UV absorption (pumping)

Ei L

Ej Ej Ei Ei

Red light emission (Relaxation)

Blue light emission (Relaxation)

Relaxation

Ei , j

Ej
Relaxation

Ei

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PWD.pdf (3/4)

Quantum Dots Application pp


Biomarkers for Cancer Imaging High-efficiency and Wide-spectrum Solar Cell

Different size of quantum dots

Different Ei,j

Absorb light of different

Utilize most energy in the sunlight

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Department of Electrical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering

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PWD.pdf (4/4)

Discrete Energy Level in Potential Well gy

When E>V, (x)|2 can be non-zero at any CONTINOUS E value (level). When E V, (x)|2 can be non-zero ONLY at a series of DISCRETE (single) E values (levels) E<V, non zero (E1, E2, E3).
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e_PW.pdf (#11)

Discrete Energy Level in Potential Well gy


Discrete (integer: 1, 2, 3, 4), Continuous (decimal: 1.0, 1.01, 1.011.) When the energy of an electron (E) is smaller than the height of the potential well (V2) The electron current transmission coefficient T = 0. The electron is confined in the well. E is discrete and can only take a value among a list of allowable energy levels (E1, E2, E3) If the energy of an electron is Ei, we say the electron stays at (occupy) the ith energy level. Each allowable energy has it own maximum capacity (number of states). Once it is fully occupied, no more electron can stay at this energy level. An electron can lose or gain its energy to stay at other energy levels (as long as they are not full). Normally, more electrons stay at lower energy levels.

(Level: 4, Height: 30 ft)

Elevator breaks down. Help!!!

E3 (5 5eV) (5.5eV) V2 (7eV) E2 (2.2eV) ( )

(Level: 3, Height: 20 ft)

(Level: 2, Height: 10 ft)

E1 (1.0eV)

(Level: 1, Height: 0 ft)

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Department of Electrical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering

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e_PW.pdf (2/2)

1)Electrons in potential well 2)Potential well with rigid walls 3) electron/photon interaction in potential well 4) quantum well devices

When we have a small width was can see the discrete energy jumps, but when L is big, the change will look so small that the energy looks almost continuous.

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Lecture #5 (#10)

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Lecture #5 (2/3)

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Lecture #5 (3/3)

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Hw #1 (#9)

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Hw #1 (2/6)

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Hw #1 (3/6)

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Hw #1 (4/6)

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Hw #1 (5/6)

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Hw #1 (6/6)

Electron existence at certain location is altered by the potential energy there.

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Lecture 4 (#8)

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Lecture 4 (2/7)

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Lecture 4 (3/7)

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Lecture 4 (4/7)

Probability of electrons being reflected at the interface. Probability of electron transmission/emmision

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Lecture 4 (5/7)

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Lecture 4 (6/7)

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Lecture 4 (7/7)

Hall Probes for Magnetic Field Measurement


y z x t
Hall element

Bias Voltage Ix Uy

Voltage + meter

Bz

Uy

I RH x Bz t

Bz

Uy

t RH I x

Uy

By setting up the bias current (Ix) flowing into the Hall element and monitoring the traverse Hall voltage output (Uy), the input magnetic field (Bz) can be sensed (figured out backwards). sensed
Jun Zou

Hall probe and Gauss meters

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HallApplication.pdf (#7)

Non-contact or Wireless position sensing by measuring field strength


When a tooth of the magnetic gear moves closely to the Hall sensor, it gives out higher output voltage (Uy) due to increased , g g p g ( magnetic field (Bz).

Uy

RH

Ix Bz t

Uy

Bz

By carefully designing the pitch and width of the teeth, a very specific waveform of Uy can be created to trace the rotation speed and angle of the gear and shaft.
Magnetic gear

Uy Bz

Hall sensor
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HallApplication.pdf (2/3)

Digital Compass g p
Bz Uy

Ix Honeywell at digikey.com

Hall sensor is most sensitive to the magnetic field perpendicular to the plane containing the bias current and Hall voltage terminals. Using two or three Hall sensors allows 2-axis or 3-axis detection of the magnetic field direction. Hall sensor can be readily integrated with microelectronics. Jun Zou
Department of Electrical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering

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HallApplication.pdf (3/3)

Lorentz Force
Moving electron interacting with static magnetic field
Pointing into the board

z x y

FLorentz

Bz -e

Bz vx

+q

vx

FLorentz

q v B

FLorentz

q v B sin

FLorentz

The direction follows the right hand rule of V cross B B.

FLorentz

e v B

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Department of Electrical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering

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HallEffect.pdf (#6)

Hall Effect
Flow of electron in solids is deflected by external magnetic field due to the Lorentz force.

Bz z x y FLorentz l t Uy=0 Ix
time Uy

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HallEffect.pdf (2/4)

Hall Effect
A built-in voltage drop (Hall voltage) is created as the result of electron accumulation when FLorentz > FE .
Uy Bz z x y FE E FLorentz w Ix
time

t UH=Ew

Uy

FLorentz > FE
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Department of Electrical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering

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HallEffect.pdf (3/4)

Hall Effect
At steady state, FE = FLorentz and the electrons are not deflected any more. The built-in electrical field and the Hall voltage start to built in saturate.
Bz l FE E FLorentz Ix w UH=Ew
time Uy

Uy

1 Ix Bz eN e t

t: dimension in the direction of the magnetic field (Bz)

RH
FLorentz = FE
Jun Zou

1 eN e

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HallEffect.pdf (4/4)

Topics covered: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) hall effect hall effect application de broglie's hypothesis scanning electron microscope calculation example

When a piece of current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, a transverse voltage will be generated.

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Lecture #3 (#5)

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Lecture #3 (2/5)

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Lecture #3 (3/5)

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Lecture #3 (4/5)

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Lecture #3 (5/5)

Motion of Electrons in Solids


Electrons will collide into atoms and other electrons, which cause a a delay and affects the current of the electrons in the material Atomic structure matters How they're arranged in space Vibration of their atomic centers So many things affect its mobility.

The motion of electrons is hardly a smooth process. The electrons repeatedly collide into much larger and vibrating atomic centers.
Stop slow down or change direction. Stop, direction

The magnitude and frequency of collision is affected by


Atomic structure (material) Crystal lattice arrangement (material) Vibration of atomic centers (temperature)

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Department of Electrical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering

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ElectronMotion.pdf (#4)

Drift of Electrons under Electrical Field

In the presence of an electrical field, all electrons start to accelerate and drift in the opposite direction of the field. As a result, there is a d d ift i th it di ti f th fi ld A lt th i net current flow in the same direction of the field. However, the acceleration can only last a short while between two collisions. collisions This stop-n-go process is repeated again and again stop-n-go again. Statistically, there is an average time interval and distance, in which electrons can be driven by the electric field and move freely (without collisions). These are so called mean free time ( ) and mean free path.
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ElectronMotion.pdf (2/2)

Conductor (Metal) ( )
E U

E
Lots of free electrons (1023/cm3) to form electron gas. Electron gas serves as glue to bond the atomic centers (ions) g g ( ) through attractive electrostatic forces (metallic bond). The free electrons can move (drift) when an external electrical field is applied.
In opposite direction. pp Form a strong current flow in the same direction of the electrical field.
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Conductivity.pdf (#3)

Insulator (NaCl) ( )

E
All electrons are tightly confined to their atomic masters (Na and Cl ions). ions) The positively charged Na ions and the negatively charged Cl ions directly bond to each other through attractive electrostatic forces (ionic bond). No free electrons. N f l t
No current flow when an external electrical field is applied.

Nacl water solution is a good conductor? g

The dissociated Na+ and Cl- ions contribute to the conduction.


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Conductivity.pdf (2/6)

Insulator (SiO2) (
O O Si O O Si O O Si O

E
Adjacent silicon and oxygen atoms share electrons (covalent bond). The covalent electrons are tightly confined to their masters. No free electrons.
No current flow when an external electrical field is applied.

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Conductivity.pdf (3/6)

Semiconductor (Silicon) ( )
Si S Si Si S Si Si S Si Si S Si Si S Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Adjacent silicon atoms share electrons (covalent bond). The covalent electrons are not tightly confined to their masters.

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Conductivity.pdf (4/6)

Semiconductor (Silicon) ( )
Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

E
When some electrons obtained enough energy, they can escape.
Form a f free electron and leave a hole behind ( (electron hole pair ( (EHP)). )) 10/cm3) . Limited number of electrons and holes (10 There is limited current flow when an external electrical field is applied. Semiconductor.

Jun Zou

Department of Electrical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering

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Conductivity.pdf (5/6)

Semiconductor (Silicon) ( )
Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

E
When an electron loses its energy, it can recombine with a hole to neutralize each other. The tunability in the number of electrons forms the foundation of many solid-state devices (e.g., solar cells and LEDs).

Jun Zou

Department of Electrical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering

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Conductivity.pdf (6/6)

Two main questions. -how many free electrons are there? -how free is the mobility of the electrons in the pic of material?

Mass of electron "felt" by the electrostatic driving force. The effective mass is also related to the material properties.

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Lecture 2 (#2)

Determines the operation speed of things such as computer parts. The mobility is important in all aspects and describes how fast processors can operate. Certain materials, thus are wanted for faster parts and so the price if that material will be much more expensive.

Electrical conductivity

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Lecture 2 (2/3)

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Lecture 2 (3/3)

www.ece.tamu.edu/~junzou/370/index.htm

Fundamental SI units Length: Meter

For an electron: M = 9.1 x 10^-31 kg e= 1.6x10^-19 C

Time: Second Energy: Joule Mass: Kg

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Lecture #1 (#1)

# of charges in unit length, area, volume

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Lecture #1 (2/3)

Ratio of electric field over current density

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Lecture #1 (3/3)