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Light Emitting Diode, LED

LED
LED
LED

101 8 8

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LED

1.1 LED

1.1.1

1.1.2

1.1.3

1.1.4 LED

15

1.1.5LED

19

1.1.6

21

1.1.7LED

23

1.2

32

1.2.1LED

34

1.2.2LED

38

1.2.3LED

46

1.2.4LED

55

1.2.5LED

58

70

77

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L E D


2.1

82

2.1.1

82

2.1.2

83

2.1.3

85

2.1.4

85

2.1.5

87

2.2

90

2.2.1

90

2.2.2

91

2.2.3

92

2.2.4

94

2.2.5

95

2.3 p-n

96

2.3.1

96

2.3.2

98

2.3.3

99

2.3.4p-n

100

2.3.5

104

2.4

81

104

2.4.1

104

2.4.2

106

2.4.3

107

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2.4.4

109

2.4.5

111

2.5

114

2.5.1 LED

114

2.5.2

116

2.5.3

118

2.5.4

120

2.5.5

123

2.5.6

125

2.6

130

2.6.1LED

130

2.6.2

131

2.6.3AC/DC Converters

133

2.6.4 LED

133

2.6.5LED

135

138

150

LED
3.1 LED

151
152

3.1.1

152

3.1.2LED

156

3.1.3LED

166

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3.1.4

166

3.1.5LED

168

3.1.6LED

169

3.1.7LEDMR16

176

3.1.8LED

179

3.1.9LED

181

3.2 LED

183

3.2.1

184

3.2.2

185

3.2.3

187

3.2.4LED

191

3.2.5

193

195

207

LED

209

4.1 LED

210

4.1.1

210

4.1.2LED

224

4.1.3LED

225

4.2 LED
4.2.2LED OLED

227
230

233

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234

237

243

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LED

1. LED
2.

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LED

1.1 LED
1.1.1
LED Henry
Joseph Round SiC

1-1

electroluminescence, EL

LED Round

LED
1-1
Characteristic
Luminous Flux

Symbol

Unit

Description

lm

Luminous intensity

cd

Illuminance

lx,lm/m2

1 lux = 1 lm/m2

Luminance

Cd/m2

black-body radiator

N/A

DIN 6169

Color temperature

CCT

C o l o r- r e n d e r i n g
index (CRI)

Ra

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1.1LED

Henry
Henry Joseph
Joseph Round
Round

1-1Henry Joseph Round

1920 Oleg Vladimirovich Losev


1-2
1927 Losev Russian journal


1
-10 -

-

-

-

10

1 1 1

-1

-

-

First photograph
of light emitted by
SiC LED
(after O. V. Lossev,
1)
SiC crystal

-

Oleg Vladimirovich
Losev

1-2Oleg Vladimirovich Losev I-V

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LED

LED LED
20
21
1955 Radio Corporation of America
Rubin Braunstein GaAs
Infrared
1961 TI Bob Biard Gary Pittman
GaAs
LED
1962 General Electric Company Nick
Holonyak Jr. University of Illinois at
Urbana-ChampaignVapor Phase Epitoxy, VPE
GaAsP GaAs
LED LED
LED Holonyak Jr.
LED LD 1-3 Holonyak
1972 Holonyak Jr. M. George Craford
GaAsP GaAs
LED LED 10 LED

20 70 LED
LED
LED LED LED

LED 70 GaP
LED


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1.1LED

Nick Holonyak Jr.


LED

Shuji Nakamura
LED

1-3Holonyak
wikipedia.org, engineering.ucsb.edu

1 20 80

LED 10 LED
1990 LED
1993 Nichia Corp.Shuji
NakamuraInGaN/GaN
LED N GaN InGaN
I. Akasaki P
GaN LED
LED InGaN In
InGaN
LED LD

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LED

20
LED LD 1-3

LED LED1996
InGaN LED
Y 3 Al 5 O 12 CeYAGCe LED
2006 Millennium Technology
Prize LED LED
LED LED LED
LED
Incandescent BulbsFluorescent lamp
Halogen Bulbs LED 60 lm/W
100 lm/W 1-4

LUMINOUS EFFICIENCY (lm/W)

LED

100

10

AlInGaP/GaP
AlInGaP/GaAs
AlGaAs/AlGaAs

Conventional LED

Nitride LED

AlGaAs/GaAs
1

GaP:N
GaP:(Zn, O)

GaAsP:N

Fluorescent

Incandescent

Edison's Lamp

GaAsP
0.1

10 1 10 1 10 1 10 1 000 00 010 01

YEAR

1-4LED


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1.1LED

1.1.2

Solidstate lighting, SSL


Light Emitting Diode, LED
Organic Light Emitting Diode, OLEDPloymer
Light Emitting Diode, PLED

CNT

RGB Field Emission Light,


FEL
1-5

LED

OLED

PLED

CNT-FEL

1-5

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LED

1.1.3
(A)

19
Humphry Davy, 17781829
1879
Thomas Alva Edison, 18471931

1-6

Evolution of Lighting

Luminous Efciency (lm/W)

00

10

Electrical
Discharge Lamps

High-Pressure
Sodium

Light Emitting
Diodes

Metal Halide

100

Best LED

Fluorescent
0
Tungsten-Halogen

Incandescents
0
10

Mercury Vapor
ors
ect
e
dR
e
LEDs
ap
Sh

White LEDs

Conventional Incandescent

10

10

Year

10

000

00

1-6


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1.1LED

380780 nm 1-7

LED

Incandescent

HAL

MVP
HMV
HPS

CMH

FL
LPS

MHL

LED

OLED
FEL

1-7

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LED

(B)
(1)

Fluorescent lamp

253.7 nm 185 nm
253.7 nm

1-7
1-2

BASE

1-7
nanoforce.com

10

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1.1LED

1-2

T C U

2D

Fa
G13R17
G10q

KrArHg

(2) HID

HID High Intensity Discharge


1-8 HID

1-9 HID 1-3


HID

11

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LED

1-8HID
energy.gov

000K

00K

000K

000K

000K

10000K

1000K

1000K

BLUE

GREEN

PURPLE

PINK

1-9 HID
articles.dashzracing.com

12

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1.1LED

1-3HID

30006000K

(3)

Incandescent Lamp
1-10
3400
Tungsten Wire

80%
20%

20%

13

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LED

Ar
InMo
Ni
Fe-Ni+Cu

Ni
Cu

1-10
(4)

Halogen lamp
1-11

800

2501400
250

Halogen

14

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1.1LED

1-11

Cycle
4

1.1.4 LED
(A) LED
Light-Emitting Diode, LED p-n

spontaneous emission

15

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LED

p p-type Semiconductor
n n-type Semiconductor 1-12
p n p-n p-n
junction p-n p
n
p-n

p-n

LED p-n
band gap

+
+

+
+

+ -

1-12LED

1-13
3 22 1810

16

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1.1LED

010

1
1
LED

1
110

100

0-0lm/W
1-0lm/W

0-0lm/W
@000

OLED
-0lm/W

[lm/W (Nichia)
@00 (Lab)]

1-13

60 1879
1938

1996 LED
LED
OLED OLED
LED OLED

LED LED

LED
17

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LED

(B) LED
LED

LED UVLED200410 nm
LED450780 nm LED8501550 nm
1-14 LED

LED

LED

~nm
(GaN/AlGaN)

LED

LED

~0nm
(GaAs/AlGaAs)

LED

LED+

LED

0-0nm
(GaN/InGaN)

LED

0/nm (GaN/InGaN)
0nm (GaP:N)

LED

0nm
(AlInGaP)

LED

nm (AlInGaP)
0nm (AlGaAs)
0nm (GaP:Zn,O)

1-14LED
(1) UVLED

UV LED UVAUVB
UVCUVD UVD
1-4UV LED

UVA UVB

UVC LED

18

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1.1LED

1-4UVAUVB UVC
UVA

320400nm

UVB
275320nm

UVC
200275nm

200902

(2) LED

LED LED
LED LED GaPGaAsP AlGaAs

LED AlInGaP InGaN

LED
InGaN LED
(3) LED

LED
IrDA
LED/LD CD

1.1.5LED
LED
19

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LED

1-5 LED
LED
LED

LED

20-30% 70-80%

LED
100
LED

1-5LED

n Sec

I. LED
II.
III.

I. 60% 40% 40%


60%40% = 24%
II.

15 lm/W

60-80 lm/W

LED 120 lm/W

20

I.

II. LED

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LED 20, 26, 30, 32, 33, 34, 60,

184

71, 110, 114, 116, 135, 139, 152,

82, 83

156, 216, 227, 228

23, 73, 82, 83, 104,

LED 24, 27, 155, 156, 157,

155

158, 176, 151, 155, 156, 157, 158,

47, 50, 52

176, 151

102

LED 145, 156, 186, 188, 189,


190, 192, 227
n 16, 34, 87, 89, 100, 138

165

87, 88, 89,

p 16, 34, 89, 100

99, 102, 108, 118, 119, 139


154, 188

-
82
56, 94, 95

186, 194
186, 194
6, 7, 8, 10, 20, 21, 75, 181,
182, 183, 196

2, 4, 7, 9, 15, 16, 17, 20, 36,


46, 50, 53, 54, 63, 65, 66, 75, 77,

79, 81, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104,

154, 164

106, 111, 123, 127, 138, 145, 144,

184, 195

114, 132, 129, 152, 176, 178, 180,

91, 92, 145

183, 184, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191,

184

146, 192, 193, 196, 206, 192, 213,

2, 4, 7, 16, 18, 19, 23, 34, 35,

214, 230, 233, 213, 146, 149, 213,

42, 49, 50, 52, 53, 73, 75, 81, 82,

145

83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 94, 92,


94, 95, 100, 138, 100, 121, 81,

-
82
132, 133

154, 155, 168, 177, 180, 195, 208,


210, 232, 95, 96, 97, 100, 104,
107, 109, 111, 112, 114, 115, 118,
119, 120, 121, 123, 130, 138, 139,
237

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L E D
144, 145, 149
18, 20, 26, 34, 58, 60, 74,

156
87, 88, 89,

104, 152, 153, 156, 161, 195, 211


-
82
-
82
85

108, 118
158, 159, 160
230
9, 17, 230
7
84, 85, 89, 92, 94, 96, 97,

17, 75, 127, 149,


196

104

6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, 17, 25, 27,

70, 74, 131, 159, 162, 166, 176,

15

179, 180, 196, 203, 223, 225, 233

2, 11, 12, 15, 17, 21, 69, 70,

166

127, 148, 162, 163, 166, 185, 186,

179

196, 197, 200, 202, 203, 204, 205,


206, 222

188, 189

2, 113, 121, 122, 127, 140,

220

148, 180, 185, 186, 187, 197, 198,


199, 201, 203, 205, 207
186, 199
2, 9, 20, 143, 144, 161, 166,
183, 185, 186, 187, 197, 199, 200,
202, 203, 205, 206, 207, 222, 229,
230
186, 187, 206
156
84, 85, 86, 87, 93, 96, 102
84
36, 52
69, 70, 83, 116, 156
238

33, 34, 58, 59, 75, 143, 144


7
132, 176
131
158, 163
40, 44
50
220
220
96
2, 3, 35, 37, 53, 56, 64, 66, 75, 82,

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83, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 92, 93, 94,

194

95, 96, 99, 116, 123, 125, 128,

27, 28, 152, 230

219

38, 43

82

63

230

YAG187

63
33
83
38, 41, 44
42
20, 23, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 42,
58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67,
68, 69, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 79, 110,
116, 123, 124, 125, 139, 140, 142,
143, 144, 146, 147, 148, 149, 152,
155, 156, 166, 185, 186, 187, 193,
200, 203, 205, 206, 214, 220, 221,
222, 223, 234
34, 58, 59, 129

84, 85
158, 163, 164
63
38, 39, 70, 73
4, 33, 47, 49, 72
65, 142, 201
158, 159, 162
210, 211
58, 59, 60, 63
87
230
82
4, 5, 35, 42, 51, 53, 83, 86,
94, 95, 104, 112, 138, 149

158, 163

63

31, 153, 158, 159, 161, 176

5, 16, 35, 85, 86, 87, 92, 94, 95,

58, 60

104, 112, 120, 121, 138, 139, 144,

87, 88, 107

145

185, 186

98, 99, 101, 107, 233

103

83, 138

4, 13, 18, 19, 32, 36, 104

194

220

184

214

184, 185, 199

LED164, 223, 230

184

11, 12
239

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L E D

65

38, 40, 41

158, 165

83

184, 185, 186, 193,

32, 33, 34, 38, 39, 40, 43, 44,

195, 196, 199


184, 193, 194, 195,
199

45, 47, 49, 51, 69, 70, 83, 116


32, 33, 69, 70, 116
7, 17

4, 5, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38,

17, 20, 32, 33, 37, 42, 58, 60,

44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53,

61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 72, 75,

54, 55, 57, 59, 62, 63, 66, 67, 69,

76, 79, 116, 117, 118, 123, 128,

70, 71, 72, 73, 79, 114, 115, 116,

142, 143, 144, 148, 149, 152, 156,

117, 118, 124, 141, 142, 144, 146,

166, 168, 178, 179, 181, 182, 183,

148, 183, 211, 212, 218, 219, 220,

197, 200, 206, 212, 217, 218, 219,

221

220, 221, 222

60, 61, 62, 65, 68, 69, 130,


168, 212, 218
171

67, 179, 218, 219


17, 20, 33, 68, 152, 168,
200, 218

33, 47, 72

219

58

156

36, 47

86

82

34, 35, 36, 37, 47, 51, 55, 72,

82

73, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 92, 115,

82

116, 126, 128, 138, 141, 148, 221

97

34, 35, 116

102

35, 36, 47, 83, 115, 116,

56, 57

148

102

83, 87, 116

14

19, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 47,

14

55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 68, 69, 71,

6, 9, 14, 15, 25, 75, 166, 196

75, 76, 77, 117, 118, 142, 143,

69

155, 156, 168, 186, 192, 197, 203,

240

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205, 211, 212, 214, 215, 216, 219,

112, 113, 115, 119, 130, 139, 149,

234

230, 231, 232

33, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45

231, 232

38, 39, 40, 43

63

158, 159

2, 16, 71

5, 53, 82, 187

158, 162

5, 35, 37, 51, 52, 54, 82, 94,


104, 116, 141, 145, 146, 219
2, 4, 7, 9, 15, 16, 17, 20,
36, 46, 53, 54, 63, 65, 66, 75, 77,
81, 104, 106, 111, 114, 123, 127,
129, 138, 144, 145, 146, 79, 149,
152, 146, 152, 176, 180, 183, 184,
187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193,
196, 206, 213, 214, 230, 233
34, 110, 138, 142, 144, 145,
230, 231, 232
82, 85, 86, 88, 94, 95, 96, 97
3, 15, 98, 99, 101, 105,
107, 108, 119, 139, 233

54
187
4, 5, 47, 51, 52, 87, 88, 89, 90,
103, 104, 114, 139, 145
2, 9, 11, 13, 69, 70, 74, 75,
127, 162, 163, 164, 186, 196, 197,
204, 205, 215, 223, 224, 230
186, 196
101
2, 3, 35, 37, 53, 82, 219

88

65, 131, 132

210

65, 99, 131, 145

89, 100, 108, 109, 149, 201

223

62, 65, 66, 67, 68, 72, 76, 79,

2, 75, 171, 180, 188, 197, 198,


199, 202, 204, 211
53
230, 231, 232
15, 16, 18, 20, 84, 85, 86, 87,
88, 89, 92, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102,
104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111,

141, 142, 144, 149, 183, 192, 219,


220, 221
61, 62, 65, 117, 168, 182,
218, 219, 220, 221
61, 218
61, 218
61, 218
9, 61, 76, 121, 218
241

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L E D
61, 218
4, 17, 20, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35,

125, 148
35, 42, 53, 82

36, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53,

82

54, 55, 56, 57, 72, 73, 114, 115,

4, 35, 53, 82, 104

116, 141, 143, 144, 155, 211

82

29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 53, 54, 55,


56

4
221, 222

103

102

102

82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 92, 94, 96

2, 197, 198, 202

82

88
84, 85, 86, 87
43, 44

100, 101
100

90

158, 164

5, 35, 36, 37, 40, 44, 45, 53,

173

54, 57, 71, 73, 116, 141, 144, 211,

186, 197, 206

219

6, 7, 10, 11, 18, 20, 60, 69,

63

70, 71, 72, 74, 76, 125, 126, 127,

148

128, 129, 130, 139, 142, 143, 147,

AFS

148, 187, 197, 198, 200, 203, 205,

158, 165

214, 215, 230

230

6, 9, 10, 11, 17, 23, 73, 154,


162, 165, 166, 179, 180, 191, 223
10, 11, 23, 165, 179, 180,
223
104, 115, 121

178

156
83

184
23, 59, 72, 75, 123, 124,
242

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(02)2705-5066

LED. .
, 2012.09

ISBN 978-957-11-6825-8 ()
1.2.3.
469.45

101016520

5DF6

LED

Devices & Introductory Industry of Light-Emitting Diode











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