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ID: 1064

Geophysical and geological QC in seismic data processing Gao Jun* , Ling Yun and Sun Desheng,BGP CNPC
Summary Based on the concept of relative spatial resolution in seismic exploration, the processing procedure that both enhances the vertical resolution and relatively preserves the information of the reservoir as well as the techniques for attenuating the near-surface effects are critical to get a high-precision seismic imaging result. More importantly, a scientific and efficient QC flow is a guarantee of success. This paper proposes a geophysical and geological monitoring method for QC of the whole processing flow. A case study and discussion are also presented. The result demonstrates that relative spatial reservoir information can be preserved in the final result with the help of strict monitoring and controlling procedure. Introduction Vertical resolution of seismic data can hardly meet the requirment of geological interpretation due to the near surface variation, earth absorption, and highfrequency noise. We put forward an idea of relative spatial resolution in seismic exploration based on the geological concepts (Ling et al, 2007). During data processing, it is important to improve the resolution of seismic image while removing the spatial variation caused by non-reservoir factors and preserving the relative spatial information of the reservoir at the same time. Therefore the resolution enhancing processing techniques that preserve the relative reservoir information become a key factor in a sucessful processing project and an efficient QC will guarantee the success. The image quality of seismic data is largely dependent on the quality of the acquisition, however, some processing steps may hurt seismic signal when applying absorption compensation and noise attenuation. For this reason, the QC on acquisition data and processing steps are very important. Conventional seismic data analysis method includes surface elevation analysis, frequency spectrum analysis, F-K spectrum analysis, linear moveout analysis on shot gathers, common offset gather analysis as well as statistical autocorrelation on shot gathers. All these methods played very important roles in data processing. However, how to estimate earth absorption, and the spatial variation of the high frequency noise and the exciting source energy still remains a tough job. Also when a large volume of 3D data was concerned, the analysis of the data quality shot by shot, trace by trace as what was done in conventional processing becomes almost impossible. Here we propose a practical and higly efficient analysis method, which could do quantitative analysis fast and efficiently on the whole 3D volume on the aspects such as source energy, source wavelet, highfrequency noise and earth absorption. And we will discuss these techniques through a 3D case study in east China. Reservoir information preserved resolution enhancing processing & geophysical QC The research area is located in a transition zone of land, wetland, and shallow water. Three different shooting and receiving patterns were applied (Figure 1). On land and wetland area, dynamite was used as source and swampy 20DX geophone with 12 geophone array for receiving; while in shallow water area, mostly airgun was used for shooting, except for the northern part of one of the swatch where dynamite was used instead, and for receiving FB-2512 single hydrophone was used.

CPS/SEG Beijing 2009 International Geophysical Conference & Exposition

Twostep statistical deconvolution (shot and receiver gather) was adopted to minimize the source wavelet variation. which includes shot lithology. 2004) is the elimination of shooting. receiving and near-surface condition degrade data quality and how to eliminate these effects and maintain the spatial distribution information of the reservoir is one of the major objectives for seismic data processing. Source energy is a kind of indication of shooting status. and quantitatively analysis of data quality ( Ling et al. The peculiarity of this processing flow (Ling et al. with each point being the statistical source wavelet of a shot. This is a relative amplitude preserved approach that compensates the energy absorption and frequency decay due to the near-surface and earth absorption. From these figures. with each point representing the statistical source energy of a shot. shot depth. and CPS/SEG Beijing 2009 International Geophysical Conference & Exposition . and 3D monitoring and quantitative analysis implemented at every major processing step as well.Figure 3 Wavelet analyses in 3D area Figure 1 Shooting and receiving in acquisition We firstly analyzed the raw 3D data acquired.. wetland and shallow water area. Figure 4 is the statistical autocorrelation of the shots along a line crossing land. 2005). 2002). The main geophysical monitoring methods include source energy. Figure 2 shows the energy of the shot for whole 3D. source wavelet and high-frequency noise monitoring in 3D volume. Figure4 Statistical autocorrelation on the control line Figure 2 Source energy detection in 3D area For resolution enhancement. However shot gather and receiver gather statistical deconvolution separately could better solve the problem. receiving and near-surface effects under the condition of relative reservoir information preservation. Figure 3 shows the variation of source wavelet for this 3D volume. thus the surface consistent deconvolution could not deal with the shot and receiver ghost in one run. we assume that the cycles of the shot ghost and receiver ghost are different from each other. the technique of time-frequency domain spherical spreading and absorption compensation was used (Ling et al. it is clear that the variations in shooting.

Processing result and geological QC We checked the processing flow that applied time-frequency domain spherical spreading and absorption compensation and two-step statistical deconvolution on the data and strict geophysical QC on each processing step through comprehensive analysis of the processing result. CPS/SEG Beijing 2009 International Geophysical Conference & Exposition .1-1. it is evident that the wavelet variation due to shooting. frequency and wavelet. Therefore with the effect of earth absorption. Moreover. receiving and near-surface changes is basically eliminated. The variation range changed from 0.explosion response.25-0. thus further influencing the resolution of image and credibility of the inversion for reservoir. with a 75% decrease. etc. Various kinds of high frequency noises were also included in the acquisition data. Source wavelet contains important information for reservoir variation delineation. This is one of the main reasons of difficult imaging in high-frequency component. Figure6 Statistical spectral of shot gathers at major processing steps Figure 7 is the source wavelet QC result that compares the spatial variation of wavelet between before and after processing. Figure 5 Statistical source energy analysis Figure 6 is the comprehensive spectral analysis result during processing at a control shot point.65 for processed one. However. the relative information of reservoir is preserved and the near-surface effects are attenuated after the processing. On the final result. thus effectively eliminating the influence of non-reservoir factors and ensuring the reservoir information preserved and resolution enhanced in the processing result. With all the monitoring methods mentioned above. The goal is to see if the vertical resolution is enhanced. such as shot depth.0 for raw data to 0. charge size and shot lithology. on the autocorrelation analysis result in the control line (Figure 8). and further lower the ability of reservoir delineation. It is clear that the spatial variation of wavelet was reduced greatly after processing. and the amplitude of these noises did not attenuate with travel time. the S/N of the reflection gets lower as the travel distance and frequency increase. Figure 5 shows the 3D source energy distribution of 30Hz component around the target layer. there are many factors in data acquisition that contribute to the spatial source wavelet variation. even more so for inversion. the energy at 100Hz increased to 40dB and the frequency band at -20dB changed from 10-50Hz to 10150Hz. The variation in source energy will induce variation in seismic amplitude. And the energy differences at different frequencies got removed. the data quality is carefully watched out and the optimal parameters are chosen at each processing step. thus the data resolution is improved. The spatial variation of source energy got eliminted after processing.

except near the fault area. Figure 8 Statistical autocorrelation alone control line Figure 9 shows stack sections both before and after processing at one of the control line. and Figure9 Control line stack section comparison before and after processing To further discribe the processing result of spatial reservoir information preserved approach. and could fully meet the requirment of geological interpretation. As the seismic attributes are evaluated along the reference layer in the area. (2) the processing flow presented in this paper can effectively eliminate source. Moreover. It is pretty much the case for attribute study of this data. Figure10a result Seismic attributes for final processing Figure10b Seismic attributes for final processing result Conclusions With all discussed above. but after processing these effects get removed. shooting and receiving are different as the data was acquired in the transition zone of land and shallow water. Therefore the final result reached the expected goal. some geological monitoring result was added. and near-surface conditions. the variation of the attribute is gentle.Figure 7 Wavelet analysis of final result average phase and coherence analysis result. some conclusions can be reached: (1) the analysis of raw data demonstrates that the acquisition quality is strongly affected by the changes of source. receiver. the ghosts also got suppressed and image resolution was greatly improved. while the S/N was maintained. receiver. Figure 10 shows the horizon CPS/SEG Beijing 2009 International Geophysical Conference & Exposition . The amplitude and frequency differences due to near-surface variation were greatly reduced.

37(5): 433-440 CPS/SEG Beijing 2009 International Geophysical Conference & Exposition .. which will be beneficial to evaluation of thin bed reservoirs and their characteristics. Y. 2004. Oil Geophysical Prospecting.. 40(2): 176-182 Ling Yun. Based on 2. (3) accompanied with the processing flow. Oil Geophysical Prospecting. 39(5): 543-552 Ling. 2007. Et al. and interpretation will be an important solution for the exploration of onshore thin bed reservoirs in China. Gao J. 2002. and Wu L. Lin. a systematic quality control and monitor method guarantees high-precision processing results. 2005. Oil Geophysical Prospecting.near-surface effects and enhance the resolution with relative preservation of reservoir information. 3. 3D seismic data monitoring and evaluation. the concept of relative spatial-resolution in seismic exploration. Reference 1. processing. Y. J. 45(5): 433-450 Ling. Relative reservoir information preserved resolution enhancing processing techniques. J.Sun D. Geophysical Prospecting for Petroleum. Spherical Divergence and Absorption in Time and Frequency Domain. Ling. (4) based on the relative spatial-resolution concept. Gao. 4. an integrated strategy in terms of acquisition. Y..

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