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Version 0.1, 2004

Version 0.0, Interim Edition TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL PREFACE TO VERSION 0.1 OF THIS MANUAL The Abu Dhabi Traffic Control Devices Manual has been developed by the Abu Dhabi Municipality RoadDepartment to provide guidance to consultants and contractors working on Department projects in thegreater Abu Dhabi metropolitan area.To help ensure the conformity of traffic control devices within the UAE, this manual is based chiefly on theequivalent Dubai manual. Where appropriate, this manual also incorporates standards from the draft Gulf Cooperation Council traffic control devices manual and the Road Department's Standard Drawings .

Table of Contents Page No. Version 0.1 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL i CHAPTER 1: GENERAL PROVISIONS 1.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-11.1.1 REQUIREMENTS AND PURPOSE OFTRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-11.1.2 STANDARDIZATION OF APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-11.1.3 APPROVAL FOR PLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-21.1.4 EXCESSIVE USE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-21.1.5 ADVERTISING SIGNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-21.2 CLASSIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-21.2.1 ROUTE DESIGNATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-21.2.2 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE CLASSIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-21.3 SCOPE OF APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3 CHAPTER 2: TRAFFIC SIGNS GENERAL

2.1 UNIFORMITY OF ATTRIBUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-12.1.1 SHAPE CODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-12.1.2 SIZE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-12.1.3 COLOR CODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-32.1.4 LEGENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-32.1.5 RETROREFLECTION AND ILLUMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-32.2 TRAFFIC SIGN PLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-52.2.1 LATERAL PLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-52.2.2 VERTICAL PLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-92.2.3 LONGITUDINAL PLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-92.2.4 OVERHEAD INSTALLATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-102.2.5 ORIENTATION ANGLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-10 CHAPTER 3: REGULATORY SIGNS 3.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-13.1.1 FUNCTION AND OBJECTIVES OF REGULATORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . .3-23.1.2 SUBCLASSIFICATION OF REGULATORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-23.2 CONTROL SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-23.2.1 STOP SIGN 301 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-23.2.2 GIVE WAY (YIELD) SIGN 302 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-33.2.3 GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS SIGN 303 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-53.2.4 NO ENTRY SIGN 304 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-63.2.5 ONE WAY SIGNS 305, 306, AND 307 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363.3 MANDATORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-73.3.1 AHEAD ONLY SIGN 321 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-73.3.2 TURN RIGHT (OR LEFT) ONLY SIGN 322 (OR 323) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-73.3.3 TURN RIGHT (OR LEFT) ONLY SIGN 324 (OR 325) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-73.3.4 PASS EITHER SIDE SIGN 326 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-93.3.5 KEEP RIGHT (OR LEFT) SIGN 327 (OR 328) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-103.3.6 ROUNDABOUT SIGN 329 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-103.3.7 U-TURN SIGN 330 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-113.4 PROHIBITORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-113.4.1 MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-113.4.1.1 MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGNS 339 TO 344 . . . . . . . . . . . .3-113.4.1.2 DUAL SPEED LIMIT SIGN COMBINATION AND DUALMAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGN 345 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-13

ii TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table of Contents Page No. 3.4.2 NO LEFT (OR RIGHT) TURN SIGN 346 (OR 347) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-153.4.3 NO UTURN SIGN 348 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-163.4.4 NO OVERTAKING SIGN 349 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-163.4.5 NO INFLAMMABLE GOODS SIGN 350 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-173.4.6 NO GOODS VEHICLES SIGN 351 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-173.4.7 NO PEDESTRIANS SIGN 352 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-173.4.8 NO CYCLISTS SIGN 353 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3183.4.9 NO HORNS SIGN 354 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-183.4.10 MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT SIGN 355 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-193.4.11 MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT SIGN 356 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-193.4.12 QUALIFICATION PLATE SIGN 365 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-193.5 PARKING CONTROL SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-203.5.1 NO STOPPING SIGNS 370, 371, 372, AND 373 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-213.5.2 NO PARKING SIGNS 377, 378, AND 379 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-223.5.3 PAY-AND-DISPLAY PARKING SIGNS 383, 384, AND 385 . . . . . . . . . .3-233.5.4 PARKING FOR DISABLED PERSONS SIGNS 386, 387,, AND 388 . . . .3-233.5.5 PARKING TIME LIMIT SIGNS 389, 390, AND 391 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-233.5.6 BUS STOP SIGN 392 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3253.5.7 TAXI STAND SIGN 393 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-253.5.8 DROP-OFF PICK-UP ONLY SIGN 394 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-263.6 FREEWAY CONTROL SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-263.6.1 BEGINNING OF FREEWAY SIGN 398 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-263.6.2 END OF FREEWAY SIGN 399 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-27 CHAPTER 4: WARNING SIGNS 4.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-14.1.1 FUNCTION AND OBJECTIVES OF WARNING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-24.1.2 SUBCLASSIFICATION OF WARNING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-24.2 ADVANCE WARNING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-24.2.1 JUNCTION AHEAD SIGNS 401 TO 406 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-24.2.2 NO THROUGH ROAD SIGNS 407, 408, AND 409 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-44.2.3 MERGING TRAFFIC SIGNS 410 AND 411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-54.2.4 RIGHT (OR LEFT) CURVE SIGN 412 (OR 413) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-54.2.5 BENDS AHEAD SIGN 414 AND 415 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-64.2.6 TWO-WAY TRAFFIC SIGN 416 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-64.2.7 LANE ENDS SIGNS 417 AND 418 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-74.2.8 UTURN AHEAD SIGN 419 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-84.2.9 ROUNDABOUT AHEAD SIGN 420 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-84.2.10 ROAD NARROWS AHEAD SIGN 421 TO 423 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-84.2.11 DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS AHEAD SIGN 424 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-94.2.12 MAXIMUM HEADROOM SIGN 425 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-104.2.13 CHILDREN SIGN 426 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-104.2.14 PEDESTRIAN CROSSING AHEAD SIGN 427 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-114.2.15 STOP CONTROL AHEAD SIGN 428 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-114.2.16 GIVE-WAY CONTROL AHEAD SIGN 429 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-124.2.17 TRAFFIC

SIGNALS AHEAD SIGN 430 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-124.2.18 QUAYSIDE SIGN 431 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-134.2.19 DRAWBRIDGE AHEAD SIGN 432 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-134.2.20 ANIMALS AHEAD SIGN 433 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-134.2.21 LOW-FLYING AIRCRAFT SIGN 434 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-14

iii TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table of Contents Page No. 4.2.22 SPEED HUMP AHEAD SIGN 435 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-144.2.23 TUNNEL SIGN 436 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-144.2.24 FALLING ROCK SIGN 437 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-154.2.25 SLIPPERY SURFACE SIGN 438 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-154.2.26 GENERAL WARNING SIGN 450 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-154.3 HAZARD MARKER SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-164.3.1 HAZARD PLATE SIGNS 451 AND 452 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-164.3.2 SINGLE CHEVRON RIGHT (OR LEFT) SIGN 454 (OR 455) . . . . . . . . .4-174.3.3 MULTIPLE CHEVRON RIGHT (OR LEFT) SIGN 456 (OR 457) . . . . . .4-194.3.4 T-JUNCTION CHEVRON SIGN 458 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-194.4 DIAGRAMMATIC SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-204.4.1 TRAFFIC MOVEMENT AFFECTED BY OBSTRUCTION SIGNS . . . . .4-214.4.1.1 LANE DROP SIGN 465 (FROM THE RIGHT) AND 466(FROM THE LEFT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-214.4.1.2 BEGINNING/END OF MEDIAN SIGNS 472 AND 473 . . . . . .4224.4.2 ADDITIONAL LANE AND LANES MERGE SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-224.4.2.1 ADDITIONAL LANE SIGNS 480 AND 481 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-234.4.2.2 JOINING LANE SIGNS 482 OR 483 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-234.4.2.3 LANE MERGE SIGNS 490 AND 492 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-244.4.3 LANE USE CONTROL BY REGULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-244.4.3.1 LANE USE CONTROL TRUCKS ANDBUSSES SIGNS 484 AND 485 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-244.4.3.2 LANE USE CONTROL DIRECTIONALRESTRICTION SIGN 486 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-254.5 HIGH VEHICLE WARNING SIGN 495 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-25 CHAPTER 5: GUIDE SIGNS 5.1 PRINCIPLES OF DIRECTIONAL GUIDANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-15.5.1 METHOD OF PROVIDING GUIDANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-15.1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF GUIDE SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-15.1.3 ROUTE NUMBERING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-25.1.4 PRIMARY DESTINATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-25.1.4.1 CONTROL DESTINATIONS FOR EMIRATE ROUTES . . . . . . .5-45.1.4.2 CONTROL DESTINATIONS FORNON-EMIRATE ROUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-45.1.4.3 OTHER LOCAL DESTINATIONS FORNON-EMIRATE ROUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-45.1.5 SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-55.1.6 COLOR CODING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-55.1.7 INFORMATION TO BE DISPLAYED ON SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-65.1.8 DESTINATIONS NOT ELIGIBLE FOR DISPLAYON GUIDE SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-75.1.9 TRAILBLAZING SIGNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-75.2 GENERAL STANDARDS FOR GUIDE SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-85.2.1 LANGUAGE AND LETTERING STYLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .585.2.2 AMOUNT OF LEGEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-85.2.3 SIZE OF LETTERING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-95.2.4 SIGN BORDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-135.2.5 INTERNAL SPACING . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-135.2.6 ARROWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-13

iv TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table of Contents Page No. 5.2.6.1 CHEVRON ARROW TYPES 1 AND 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-135.2.6.2 STACK SIGN ARROW TYPE 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-145.2.6.3 STACK SIGN ARROW TYPES 4 AND 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-145.2.6.4 STACK SIGN ARROW TYPE 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-145.2.6.5 DOWNWARD POINTING ARROW TYPE 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5175.2.6.6 UPWARD POINTING ARROW TYPE 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-175.2.6.7 MAP ARROW TYPE 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-175.2.7 ROUTE NUMBER EMBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-185.2.7.1 EMIRATE ROUTE EMBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-185.2.7.2 ABU DHABI ROUTE EMBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-185.2.8 SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATION SIGN SYMBOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5195.3 ROUTE MARKER SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-195.3.1 USE OF ROUTE MARKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-195.3.2 EMIRATE ROUTE MARKER SIGN 501 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-205.3.3 ABU DHABI ROUTE MARKER SIGN 502 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-205.4 TRAILBLAZING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-225.4.1 USE OF TRAILBLAZING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-225.4.2 AIRPORT TRAILBLAZER SIGN 503 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-235.4.3 CITY CENTER TRAILBLAZER SIGN 504 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-235.4.4 EMIRATE ROUTE TRAILBLAZER SIGN 505 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-235.4.5 ABU DHABI ROUTE TRAILBLAZER SIGN 506 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-245.4.6 SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATION TRAILBLAZER SIGN 507 . . . . . . . .5-245.4.7 FREEWAY TRAILBLAZER SIGN 508 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-255.4.8 PARKING TRAILBLAZER SIGN 509 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-255.5 AT-GRADE JUNCTION SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-255.5.1 TYPES OF AT-GRADE JUNCTION SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-255.5.2 ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK SIGN 511 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-265.5.2.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-265.5.2.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5265.5.2.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-265.5.2.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-265.5.3 ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK SIGN 512 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-275.5.3.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-275.5.3.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5275.5.3.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-285.5.3.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-285.5.4 ADVANCE MAP SIGN 513 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-295.5.4.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-295.5.4.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5295.5.4.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-295.5.4.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-295.5.5 ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL SIGN 514 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-315.5.5.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-315.5.5.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5315.5.5.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-315.5.5.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-315.5.6 CHEVRON DIRECTION SIGN 515 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-325.5.6.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .5-325.5.6.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5325.5.6.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-32

v TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table of Contents Page No. 5.5.6.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-335.6 GRADESEPARATED JUNCTION SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-345.6.1 TYPES OF GRADE-SEPARATED JUNCTION SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-345.6.2 ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION SIGN 551 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-355.6.2.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-355.6.2.2 APPLICATION AND LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-355.6.2.3 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-375.6.3 EXIT DIRECTION SIGN 552 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-405.6.3.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-405.6.3.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-405.6.3.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-405.6.3.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5405.6.4 ONGOING DIRECTION SIGN 553 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-445.6.4.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-445.6.4.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-445.6.4.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-445.6.4.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5445.6.5 GORE EXIT SIGNS 554 AND 556 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-475.6.5.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-475.6.5.2 APPLICATION AND LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-475.6.5.3 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-475.6.6 SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT SIGN 557 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-485.6.6.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-485.6.6.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-485.6.6.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-485.6.6.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-485.7 GENERAL INFORMATION SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-495.7.1 DISTANCE SIGN 585 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5495.7.1.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-495.7.1.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-495.7.1.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-495.7.1.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-495.7.2 HIGH VEHICLE EXIT SIGN 586 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-505.7.2.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-505.7.2.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-505.7.2.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-505.7.3 TEXT SIGN 588 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-505.7.3.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-505.7.3.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-505.7.3.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-515.7.3.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-515.7.4 SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE SIGN 589 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-515.7.4.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-515.7.4.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5515.7.4.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-515.7.4.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-515.7.5 FIRE HYDRANT SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE SIGN 590 . . . . . . . . . . . .5-525.7.5.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-525.7.5.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-525.7.5.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-52

vi TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table of Contents Page No. 5.7.5.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-525.7.6 GENERAL SERVICE SIGN 591 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-525.7.6.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-525.7.6.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-525.7.6.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5535.7.6.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-535.8 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-545.8.1 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURETRAILBLAZER SIGN 595 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-545.8.2 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTUREENTRANCE BANNER SIGN 596 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-545.8.3 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTUREENTRANCE SIGN 597 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-555.8.4 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTUREEXIT SIGN 598 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-55 CHAPTER 6: PAVEMENT MARKINGS 6.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-16.1.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-16.1.2 MARKING TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-16.1.3 COLOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-26.1.4 CONFIGURATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-26.1.5 IMPLEMENTATION OF THISPAVEMENTMARKING GUIDANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-36.2 REGULATORY MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-36.2.1 STOP LINE MARKING 601 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-46.2.2 GIVE WAY LINE MARKING 602 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-46.2.3 PEDESTRIAN CROSSING MARKING 603 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-66.2.4 NO PASSING LINE MARKING 611 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-66.2.5 CHANNELIZING LINE MARKING 612 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-76.2.6 EDGE LINE MARKING 613 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-86.2.7 LANE DIRECTION ARROW MARKINGS 614 TO 619(INCLUDING STRAIGHT, RIGHT TURN, LEFT TURN,STRAIGHT/RIGHT, STRAIGHT/LEFT, AND RIGHT/LEFT) . . . . . . . . . .6-86.2.8 PARKING ENVELOPE LINE MARKING 620 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6106.2.9 PARKING SPACE LINE 621 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-126.3 WARNING MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-126.3.1 RUMBLE STRIPS MARKING 650 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-126.3.2 SPEED HUMP MARKING 651 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-166.3.3 DIVIDING LINE MARKING 652 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-176.3.4 LANE LINE MARKING 654 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-176.3.5 LANE END ARROW MARKING 656 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-176.3.6 CHEVRON MARKING 657 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-186.3.7 HATCH MARKING 658 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6186.4 GUIDANCE MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-186.4.1 GUIDE LINE MARKING 680 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-186.4.2 CONTINUITY LINE MARKING 661 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-196.5 RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS (RPM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-196.5.1 GENERAL . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-206.5.2 RETROREFLECTIVE RPM MARKING R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-20

vii TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table of Contents Page No. 6.5.3 NONRETROREFLECTIVE RPM MARKING N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-226.6 CURB PAINTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-226.6.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-226.6.2 NO PARKING MARKING 690 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-226.6.3 VISIBILITY PAINTING MARKING 691 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-236.7 OBJECT MARKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-236.7.1 OBJECT MARKER DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-236.7.2 OBJECTS IN THE ROADWAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6246.7.3 OBJECTS ADJACENT TO THE ROADWAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-246.8 TEXT PAVEMENT MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-246.8.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-246.8.2 TEXT SYMBOL MARKINGS 695 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-256.9 DELINEATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-276.9.1 DELINEATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-276.9.2 DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-276.9.3 CURB MARKINGS FOR DELINEATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-276.9.4 DELINEATOR APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-276.9.5 DELINEATOR PLACEMENT AND SPACING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-286.10 BARRICADES AND CHANNELIZING DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-286.10.1 BARRICADES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-286.10.2 CHANNELIZING DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-286.11 CURB PAINTING AND PAVEMENT MARKINGFOR FIRE HYDRANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-306.11.1 CURB PAINTING FOR FIRE HYDRANTSALONG ROADWAYS MARKING 695 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-306.11.2 CURB PAINTING AND PAVEMENT MARKINGFOR FIRE HYDRANTS ADJACENT TO PARKING SPACES . . . . . . . .6-30 CHAPTER 7: ROADWORKS TRAFFIC CONTROL 7.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-17.1.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-17.1.1.1 SAFETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-17.1.1.2 UNIFORMITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-17.1.1.3 FUNCTIONALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-27.1.1.4 MAINTENANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-27.1.2 TRAFFIC CONTROL ZONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-27.1.2.1 ADVANCE WARNING AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-47.1.2.2 TRANSITION AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-47.1.2.3 STABILIZATION AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-47.1.2.4 WORK AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-57.1.2.5 TERMINATION AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-57.1.3 DEPLOYING ROADWORKS DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-57.2 TRAFFIC SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-67.2.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-67.2.2 REGULATORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-67.2.2.1 CONTROL SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-67.2.2.2 MANDATORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-117.2.2.3

PROHIBITORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-117.2.2.4 PARKING CONTROL SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-117.2.2.5 FREEWAY CONTROL SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-12

viii TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table of Contents Page No. 7.2.3 WARNING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-127.2.3.1 ADVANCE WARNING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-127.2.3.2 HAZARD MARKER SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-147.2.3.3 DIAGRAMMATIC WARNING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-147.2.4 GUIDE SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-167.3 CHANNELIZATION DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-177.3.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7177.3.2 PAVEMENT MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-177.3.2.1 PAINTED MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-187.3.2.2 RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-197.3.3 CONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-197.3.3.1 TRAFFIC CONE DEVICE 7459 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-207.3.3.2 CONE DESIGN PARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7207.3.3.3 CONE APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-207.3.4 BARRIERS AND BARRICADES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-217.3.4.1 BARRICADE DEVICE 7460 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-217.3.4.2 BARRIERS AND BARRICADEDESIGN PARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-217.3.4.3 BARRIER AND BARRICADE APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . .7-247.3.5 DELINEATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-247.3.5.1 DELINEATOR SIGNS 7454 AND 7455 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-247.3.5.2 DELINEATOR DESIGN PARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7257.3.5.3 DELINEATOR APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-257.3.6 OBJECT MARKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-257.3.7 DRUM DEVICE 7461 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-257.3.8 ILLUMINATED DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-267.3.8.1 WARNING AND DELINEATION LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-267.3.8.2 WARNING ARROW SIGN PANELS SIGN 7462 . . . . . . . . . . .7267.3.8.3 ILLUMINATED DEVICE APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-287.3.9 FLOODLIGHTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-297.4 OTHER FORMS OF TRAFFIC CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-297.4.1 HAND SIGNALING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-297.4.2 PILOT CAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-307.4.3 TEMPORARY TRAFFIC SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-30 CHAPTER 8: TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 8.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-18.2 ATGRADE JUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-18.2.1 ROAD JUNCTIONS IN COMMUNITY AREAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-18.2.2 ARTERIAL MIDBLOCK U-TURN ANDLOCAL T-JUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-38.2.3 ARTERIAL MIDBLOCK LEFT TURN ATLOCAL ROAD T-JUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-38.2.4 SERVICE ROAD CONNECTIONS TO AN ARTERIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-68.2.5 LARGE ROUNDABOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-88.2.6 LARGE SIGNALIZED ROUNDABOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-88.2.7 SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-118.2.8

FREEWAY CROSSROADS WITHSMALL ROUNDABOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-11

ix TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table of Contents Page No. 8.2.9 FREEWAY CROSSROADS AT A SIGNALIZEDDIAMOND INTERCHANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-148.2.10 MINI ROUNDABOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-168.3 GRADE-SEPARATED JUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-168.3.1 FREEWAY WITH ONE-LANE EXIT, NO LANE DROP . . . . . . . . . . . . .8168.3.2 FREEWAY WITH TWO-LANE EXIT, ONE LANE DROP . . . . . . . . . . . .8-198.3.3 INTERCHANGE WITH A C-D ROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-198.3.4 FREEWAY SYSTEMS INTERCHANGE WITHTWO CLOSELY SPACED EXITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-228.3.5 FREEWAY SYSTEMS INTERCHANGE WITHA TWO-LANE EXIT AND RAMP SPLIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-228.3.6 FREE-FLOW RAMP CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-258.4 ROADWORKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-258.4.1 TYPICAL TAPER DETAIL TRANSITION AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-258.4.2 TYPICAL CROSSOVER DETAIL TRANSITION AREA . . . . . . . . . .8-288.4.3 TYPICAL TAPER DETAIL TERMINATION AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-288.4.4 SHORT WORK SITE TWO-WAY TRAFFIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-288.4.5 WORK SITE CLOSE TO SIDE ROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-288.4.6 ROAD CLOSURE DETOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-338.4.7 MAINTENANCE WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-338.4.8 TYPICAL TWO-LANE TAPER DETAIL TRANSITION AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-368.4.9 MINOR-ROAD SINGLE-LANE OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8368.5 SCHOOL ZONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-36 CHAPTER 9: SIGNALS 9.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-19.1.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-19.1.2 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-19.1.3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OFTRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-49.1.4 AREA OF CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-49.1.5 TYPES OF TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .949.1.6 PORTABLE TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-59.2 TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-59.2.1 MEANING OF VEHICULAR TRAFFIC CONTROLSIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-59.2.1.1 GREEN TRAFFIC SIGNAL INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-59.2.1.2 YELLOW TRAFFIC SIGNAL INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-59.2.1.3 RED TRAFFIC SIGNAL INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-59.2.2 USE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-69.2.2.1 NONFLASHING INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-69.2.2.2 ARROW INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-69.2.2.3 PROHIBITED COMBINATIONS OF TRAFFICCONTROL SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-79.2.2.4 INDICATIONS THAT MAY FOLLOWOTHER INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-79.3 DESIGN AND LOCATION OF VEHICULARTRAFFIC CONTROL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-79.3.1 SIZE AND DESIGN OF TRAFFIC SIGNAL LENSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-7

x TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table of Contents Page No. 9.3.2 NUMBER AND ARRANGEMENT OF INDICATIONSIN A TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL FACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-119.3.3 ILLUMINATION OF TRAFFIC CONTROL LENSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-119.3.4 VISIBILITY AND SHIELDING OF SIGNAL FACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-119.3.5 NUMBER AND LOCATION OF SIGNAL FACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-129.3.6 HEIGHT OF SIGNAL FACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-159.3.7 DESIGN AND LOCATION OF TRAFFIC CONTROLSIGNAL SUPPORTS AND CONTROLLER CABINETSFOR SAFETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-159.4 SIGNAL USE CRITERIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9229.4.1 FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-229.4.2 ENGINEERING DATA REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-239.4.3 CRITERION 1 MINIMUM VEHICULAR VOLUME . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-239.4.4 CRITERION 2 INTERRUPTION OFCONTINUOUS TRAFFIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-309.4.5 CRITERION 3 MINIMUM PEDESTRIAN VOLUME . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-319.4.6 CRITERION 4 SCHOOL CROSSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-319.4.7 CRITERION 5 PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-339.4.8 CRITERION 6 ACCIDENT EXPERIENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-339.4.9 CRITERION 7 COMBINATION OF CRITERIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-349.4.10 CRITERION 8 SHORT PEAK PERIODTRAFFIC VOLUME CRITERION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9349.4.11 CRITERION 9 ESTIMATE OF TRAFFIC ONSTREET TO BE CONSTRUCTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-369.4.12 SELECTION OF PRETIMED ORTRAFFICACTUATED CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-369.4.13 PEDESTRIAN ACTUATION OFTRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9379.4.14 SIGNAL CRITERIA ANALYSIS FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-379.5 TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-379.5.1 VEHICLE CHANGE AND CLEARANCE INTERVALS . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-379.5.2 PREVENTION OF UNEXPECTEDTRAFFIC CONFLICTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-419.5.3 PROTECTIVE FAIL-SAFE CIRCUITRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9419.5.4 SEQUENCE OF TRAFFIC CONTROLSIGNAL INDICATIONS (OPERATING PLANS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-419.5.5 COORDINATION OF TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-629.5.6 FLASHING OPERATION OFTRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-629.5.7 CONTINUITY OF OPERATION OFTRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-639.5.8 CONTROL PREEMPTION BY PRIORITY TRAFFIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-639.5.9 MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-639.5.10 VEHICLE SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-649.5.11 USE OF SIGNS WITH TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-659.5.12 OPERATION OF TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS BYHAND CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-659.6 PEDESTRIAN SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9659.5.1 MEANING OF PEDESTRIAN SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-659.5.2 USE OF PEDESTRIAN SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-66

xi TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table of Contents Page No. 9.6.3 DESIGN OF PEDESTRIAN SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-669.6.4 LOCATION OF PEDESTRIAN SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . .9-679.6.5 PEDESTRIAN PUSHBUTTON DETECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-679.6.6 PEDESTRIAN SIGNAL PHASES ANDINTERVAL TIMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-679.7 FLASHING BEACONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-689.7.1 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION BEACONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9689.7.2 SPEED LIMIT SIGN BEACON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-689.7.3 INTERSECTION CONTROL BEACON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-699.7.4 STOP SIGN BEACON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-699.7.5 DESIGN AND OPERATION OF FLASHING BEACONS . . . . . . . . . . . .9-69 LIST OF FIGURES 1-1 Classification of Traffic Control Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131-2 Roads Owned and Managed by theAbu Dhabi Municipality Road Department . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-42-1 Standard Sign Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-22-2 Lateral and Vertical Positioning of Regulatory and Warning Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-72-3 Lateral and Vertical Positioning of Guide and General Information Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-82-4 Sign Orientation Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-103-1 Longitudinal Position of Stop Sign 301 and Give Way Sign 302 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-43-2 Use of One Way Signs 305, 306, and 307 with Signs 346 and 347 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-83-3 Typical Use of Maximum Speed Limit Signs 340 to 344 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-143-4 Dual Speed Limit Sign Combination (typical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-153-5 No Stopping Sign Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-213-6 No Stopping with Time Limit Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-223-7 No Parking Sign Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-223-8 Pay and Display Parking Sign Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-233-9 Parking for Disabled Persons Sign Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-243-10 Parking Time Limit Sign Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-243-11 Examples of Sign Combinations in the Parking Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-254-1 Typical Hazard Plate Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-174-2 Examples of Applications of Sign 454 and Sign 455 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-184-3 Typical Application of Multiple Chevron Signs 456 and 457 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-195-1 Route Numbering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-35-2 Principles of Legibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-125-3 Typical Guidesign Internal Spacing Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-145-4 Arrow-Type Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-155-5 Approved Supplemental Destination Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-205-6 Use of Route Marker Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-215-7 Advance Direction Sign 551 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-365-8 Exit Direction Sign 552 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-415-9 Ongoing Direction Sign 553 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .5-455-10 Gore Exit Signs 554 and 556 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-475-11 Supplemental Exit Sign 557 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-485-12 Sign 590 with No Stopping Sign 370 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-525-13 General Services Iconic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-546-1 Use of No Passing Line 611 at Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-46-2 Transverse Regulatory Pavement Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-56-3 Longitudinal Regulatory Pavement Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-9

xii TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table of Contents Page No. 6-4 Typical Regulatory Arrow Pavement Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6116-5 Warning Pavement Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6136-6 Combined Regulatory and Warning Pavement Markings as Painted Islands . . . . . . . . . . .6146-7 Guidelines for Using Rumble Strip Marking 650 for Speed Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6156-8 Guidance Pavement Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6196-9 Use of Raised Pavement Markers (RPMs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6216-10 Object Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6256-11 Typical Delineator Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6266-12 Barricades and Channelizing Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6296-13 Curb Painting for Fire Hydrants Along Roadways Marking 695 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-316-14 Curb Painting and Pavement Marking for Fire HydrantsAdjacent to Parking Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-327-1 Roadworks Zone Traffic Control Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-37-2 Regulatory Signs at Roadworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-77-3 Warning Signs at Roadworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-87-4 Diagrammatic Signs at Roadworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-97-5 Guide Signs at Roadworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-107-6 Examples of Directional Barricade Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-227-7 Examples of Nondirectional Barricade Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-238-1 Road Junctions in Community Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-28-2 Arterial Midblock U-Turn and Local Road T-Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-48-3 Arterial Midblock Left Turn at Local Road T-Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-58-4 Service Road Connections to an Arterial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-78-5 Large Roundabout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-98-6 Large Signalized Roundabout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-108-7 Signalized Roundabout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-128-8 Freeway Crossroads with Small Roundabout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-138-9 Freeway Crossroads at a Signalized Diamond Interchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-158-10 Mini Roundabout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-178-11 Freeway with One-Lane Exit, No Lane Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-188-12 Freeway with Two-Lane Exit, One Lane Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-208-13 Interchange with a C-D Road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-218-14 Freeway Systems Interchange with Two Closely Spaced Exits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-238-15 Freeway Systems Interchange with a Two-Lane Exit and Ramp Split . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-248-16 FreeFlow Ramp Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-268-17 Typical Taper Detail Transition Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-278-18 Typical Crossover Detail Transition Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-29819 Typical Taper Detail Termination Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-30820 Short Work Site Two-Way Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-31821 Work Site Close to Side Road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-32822 Road Closure Detour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-348-

23 Maintenance Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-35824 Typical Two-Lane Taper Detail Transition Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8378-25 Minor-Road Single-Lane Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8388-26 School Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8399-1 Typical Arrangements of Indications on Signal Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9119-2 Required Location of Signal Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9149-3 Signal Face Location and Indications without Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9169-4 Signal Face Location and Indications with Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .917

xiii TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table of Contents Page No. 9-5 Signal Face Location and Indications School or Pedestrian Midblock Crossings (pushbutton signal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-189-6 School or Pedestrian Midblock Crossings (flashing amber) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-199-7 Typical Mast Arm Mounting of Signal Heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-209-8 Typical Pole Mounting of Signal Heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-219-9 Vehicle Volume Count Field Data Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-249-10 Traffic Volume Summary Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-259-11 Pedestrian Count Field Data Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-269-12 Condition Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-279-13 Typical Collision Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-289-14 Vehicle Speed Study Field Data Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-299-15 Example of a Test for Criterion 2, Interruption of Continuous Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-329-16 Peak Hour Volume Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-359-17 Peak Hour Volume Criteria (less than 10,000 population or above 65 km/h) . . . . . . . . . . .9-359-18 Completed Traffic Signal Criteria Analysis Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-389-19 Standard Four-Phase Traffic Signal Without Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-449-20 Signal Operating Plan No. 1 Standard Signal Operating Plan Without Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-459-21 Signal Operating Plan No. 2 Standard Signal Operating Plan With Pedestrian Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9469-22 Signal Operating Plan No. 3 Leading Protected/Permissive Left TurnFrom One Approach With Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-479-23 Signal Operating Plan No. 4 Permissive Left Turn on Green Disk From Opposite Approaches With Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-489-24 Signal Operating Plan No. 5 Leading Protected/Permissive Left TurnFrom Opposite Approaches With Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-499-25 Signal Operating Plan No. 6 Leading Protected/Prohibited Left TurnFrom One Approach Intersection With One-Way Street With Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-509-26 Signal Operating Plan No. 7 Intersection of Two Divided StreetsWith Service Roads Stop or Signal Control on the Service Roads Without Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-519-27 Signal Operating Plan No. 8 Leading Protected/Prohibited Left TurnFrom Two Approaches Leading Protected/Permissive Left Turn FromTwo Other Approaches Intersection of Two Divided Streets WithLeft-Turn Bays With Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-529-28 Signal Operating Plan No. 9 T Intersection With a One-Way ServiceRoad Along the Principal Street Without Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-539-29 Signal Operating Plan No. 10 T Intersection With Left-Turn Bay Continuous Traffic on the Principal Street . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-549-30A Intersection Plan Traffic-Actuated Signal With Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-559-30B Movements Doing Each of the Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-559-31A Table of Conflicting and Nonconflicting Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-569-31B Signal Indications to be Used in the Change and Clearance Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-579-32 Three-Phase, Lead-Lag Diamond

Interchange Ramp Signal Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-589-33 Four-Phase Diamond Interchange Ramp Signal Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-599-34 Four-Phase, TwoOverlap Diamond Interchange Ramp Signal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-609-35 Three-Phase, Lag-Lag Diamond Interchange Ramp Signal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-619-36 Pedestrian Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-66

xiv TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table of Contents Page No. LIST OF TABLES 1-1 Roadway Types by Functional Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122-1 Regulatory and Warning Sign Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232-2 Traffic Sign Background and Legend Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242-3 Lateral and Vertical Positioning of Traffic Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263-1 Guidelines for Speed Limit Sign Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3134-1 Guidelines for Positioning Advance Warning Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414-2 Junction Spacing Requirements for Signs 405 and 406 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .444-3 Spacing on Curves for Signs 451, 452, 454, and 455 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4165-1 Emirates Route Control Destinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .545-2 Locations Eligible for Supplemental Destination Signing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .555-3 Guide Sign Background Color Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .565-4 Information Eligible for Display on Guide Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .575-5 Places Not Eligible for Display on Guide Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .585-6 Recommended x Height for Guide Signs (millimeters) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5116-1 Colors of Longitudinal Pavement Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .636-2 Use of No Passing Line 611 on Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .676-3 Use of No Passing Line 611 and Channelizing Line 612 at Junctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .676-4 Lane End Arrows Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6186-5 Suggested Maximum Spacing for Highways Delineators on Bends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6287-1 Location of Roadworks Sign 7441 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7137-2 Recommended Cone Spacings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7217-3 Warning Arrow Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7279-1 Permissible Sequential Traffic Control Signal Indications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-89-2 Additional Permissible Sequential Traffic Control Signal IndicationsDuring Signal Preemption Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-109-3 Required Advanced Visibility of Traffic Control Signal Indications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-129-4 Minimum Vehicular Volumes for Criterion 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-309-5 Minimum Vehicular Volumes for Criterion 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-309-6 Minimum Vehicular Volumes for Criterion 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-319-7 Minimum Vehicular Volumes for Criterion 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-369-8 Vehicle Change Interval (seconds) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-409-9 Vehicle Red Clearance Interval (seconds) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-40

Version 0.1 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL 1-1 1 GENERALPROVISIONS 1.1 GENERAL 1.1.1 REQUIREMENTS ANDPURPOSE OF TRAFFICCONTROL DEVICES The Abu Dhabi Traffic Control Devices Manualestablishes the basic guidelines and principlesthat dictate the design, application, and mainte-nance of traffic control devices. These devices,including traffic signs, pavement markings, andsignals, are placed on, over, or adjacent to a pub-lic road and act to regulate, warn, or guide thetraffic flow on that facility. In order to fulfill theduty of promoting safe and efficient vehicularmovement, a traffic control device should meetthese basic requirements: The device should fulfill an important need.The device should command attention. The device should convey a clear, simplemeaning. The device should command the respect of motorists. The device should be positioned to give suf-ficient time for proper response.The basic purpose of traffic control devices is toprovide visual information to the motorist. Theinformation is conveyed in three ways to the roaduser: As regulations. As warnings. As guidance.Therefore, traffic control devices are commonlycategorized into three groups with the followingspecific purposes: Regulatory devices should be used to:- inform of traffic laws, regulations, andstatutes.- instruct to take some physical action.- prohibit certain vehicular maneuvers.- permit certain vehicular maneuvers.- establish road user right-of-way. Warning devices should be used to:- indicate potential hazards.- identify major changes in road character-istics.- locate physical obstructions.- inform of regulatory controls ahead.- advise of appropriate actions.

Guide devices should be used to:- establish route identification.- direct motorists to destinations.delineate lane assignments.- provide general information to motorists.The requirements and purposes of traffic controldevices can be achieved through the properdesign, application, placement, maintenance,management, and uniformity, as specified in thismanual. 1.1.2 STANDARDIZATION OFAPPLICATION Traffic control devices applied in predictableways can significantly improve the safety andoperation of roadways. When nonstandarddevices are used in nonstandard applications,road users may tend to disregard and disrespectthe intended regulations or warnings. The need tostandardize traffic control devices in Abu Dhabihas heightened due to the following factors: Road networks are becoming increasinglymore complex. Traffic speeds and volumes are increasing. The number of visitors and, therefore, driversunfamiliar with the city is increasing.In an effort to standardize the application of traf-fic control devices, the following objectives mustbe achieved: Accuracy: Where the sign face accuratelydisplays a relationship to the road conditionsbeing experienced. Uniformity: Where the sign face, color, leg-end, symbol, etc., are designed such that the

1-2 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 motorist can reduce reading and comprehen-sion times whereby the time available to takeproper action is maximized. Consistency: Where like situations aresigned and marked in a consistent or likemanner. Continuity: Where the message is displayedcontinuously until the information providedis no longer relevant to the circumstances orthe road conditions. 1.1.3 APPROVAL FOR PLACEMENT Traffic control devices should be placed only withthe approval of the Abu Dhabi Municipality forthe purpose of regulating, warning, and guidingtraffic. The use of traffic control devices in anyMunicipal or privately owned semipublic areawithout proper approval should not be permitted.When given approval by the Abu DhabiMunicipality for the erection of specific devices,construction contractors, public utility compa-nies, and police agencies are permitted to erectconstruction, maintenance, and other warningsigns to protect the public provided that suchsigns, markings, and devices conform to the stan-dards contained in this manual. 1.1.4 EXCESSIVE USE OF TRAFFICCONTROL DEVICES Due care should be taken to limit the number of traffic signs and markings used. Regulatory andwarning signs should be used conservatively asthese signs, if used excessively, tend to lose theireffectiveness and road users could disregard theirmessage. However, a frequent display of guidesigns is recommended to reassure motorists of their location and route. 1.1.5 ADVERTISING SIGNING Any signs or markings placed on the road systemnot having approval by the Abu DhabiMunicipality should be removed. Any signs ormarkings advertising or promoting a privatecompany, their products, or services should beprohibited from the public road right of wayunless specifically authorized. 1.2 CLASSIFICATION 1.2.1 ROUTE DESIGNATION A route designation system that includes a rangeof road classifications has been developed toassist in the consistent application of guidanceand information signs. The local and regionalroad network has been defined by various roadclassifications, each with a distinct character,purpose, and level of access control. The roadclassifications in Abu Dhabi are listed anddescribed inTable 1-1. 1.2.2 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICECLASSIFICATION The traffic control devices included in the AbuDhabi Traffic Control Devices Manual are trafficsigns, pavement markings, and signals. Signs,markings, and signals are broadly grouped intothree major categories:

Regulatory. Warning. Guide. Table 1-1 Roadway Types by Functional ClassificationRoadway Type for DesignRoadwayClassificationUrban Rural PrimaryFreewayExpresswayFreewayExpresswaySecondaryArterial(Main Roads)Frontage RoadsArterial Primary SecondaryLocalSector Road Primary SecondaryCollector Local Access

1-3 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 A fourth group of signs and markings is that of roadworks devices. This group includes all of thethree major categories of devices.The categories of typical traffic control devicesare defined inFigure 1-1with subclasses identi-fied for each. 1.3 SCOPE OF APPLICATION The guidance in this manual is to be practiced onall roads owned and managed by the Abu DhabiMunicipality Road Department. The roads man-aged by the Department include all roads on AbuDhabi Island and roads on the mainland in thevicinity of Abu Dhabi Island. In exceptionalcases, the Department also constructs and man-ages road improvements in other areas of AbuDhabi Emirate.Figure 1-2 is a map showing the general bound-aries of the roads owned and managed by theDepartment in the vicinity of Abu Dhabi. Typical TrafficControl Devices Regulatory WarningGuide PavementMarkingSignsPavementMarkingSignals SignsControlMandatoryProhibitoryParking ControlFreeway ControlAdvance WarningHazard Marker Diagrammatic WarningAt-grade JunctionsGrade-separated JunctionsGeneral InformationRoute NumbersTrailblazingPavementMarkingSignals Signs ROADWORKS Figure 1-1 Classification of Traffic Control Devices

1-4 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1

2-1 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 2 TRAFFIC SIGNS GENERAL Traffic signs should be installed only when stipu-lated by the principles of this manual and/orwhen deemed warranted on the basis of a trafficengineering evaluation. Traffic signs are neces-sary to advise motorists of traffic regulations thatapply at specific locations and/or at specifictimes and to warn of hazards that may not other-wise be self apparent. Traffic signs also providemotorists with information concerning routes,destinations and locations of interest.The standardization of traffic signs in theirappearance, placement, and design simplifies thetask of road users in finding, recognizing, andunderstanding signs and markings. It also aidsroad users, the Traffic Police, and the legal sys-tem in having a common interpretation of signmeanings and messages.The meanings and applications of specific stan-dard traffic signs are described in detail inChapters 3, 4, 5, and 7of this manual. This chap-ter deals with the attributes and criteria of signsin general. 2.1 UNIFORMITY OFATTRIBUTES Uniformity of attributes applies to shape, dimen-sions, color, legend, conspicuousness, and night-time visibility of signs. The standardization of these attributes is necessary for an efficient anduniform signing system. 2.1.1 SHAPE CODE Standard sign shapes are as shown inFigure 2-1and their principal features are listed below: The OCTAGON shape is reserved exclusive-ly for the STOP sign. The TRIANGULAR shape, with the pointdown, is reserved exclusively for the GIVEWAY (YIELD) sign. The CIRCULAR shape is reserved exclu-sively for regulatory signs such as speed limitsigns. The RECTANGLE, with the long axis verti-cal, is used primarily for regulatory signs(primarily parking control and one-waysigns). The shape is also used for diagram-matic warning signs and may occasionally beused for guide signs. The TRIANGULAR shape, with the pointup, is used exclusively for advance warningsigns such as a sign warning a driver of acurve ahead. The RECTANGLE, with the long axis hori-zontal, is the primary shape for direction andgeneral information guide signs and as sup-plemental plates or qualification plates belowother sign shapes. It is also used for the one-way regulatory sign.

The POINTED RECTANGLE, with the longaxis horizontal, is used exclusively forchevron signs.Other shapes should not be used for sign paneloutline shapes unless specifically approved bythe Abu Dhabi Municipality Road Department. 2.1.2 SIZE The size of a traffic sign is important for two pri-mary reasons: Conspicuousness: A sign must be of suffi-cient size to command the attention of driv-ers against the background of the roadwayenvironment. Legibility: The legend (text or symbol) of thesign must be of sufficient size to allowrecognition and comprehension by driverstraveling at roadway design speeds.For guide signs, which are largely text based, thesign sizes will vary widely depending on theamount of legend and the lettering size of the leg-end. Legibility is the primary factor controllingguide sign sizes.Sizing guide signs on the basis of legibility willgenerally ensure that a guide sign will be con-spicuous. The parameters affecting guide signsizing are discussed fully inChapter 5of thismanual and therefore are not generalized herein.

2-2 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Reserved exclusively for the STOP sign.Reserved exclusively for the GIVE WAY (YIELD) sign.Reserved exclusively for REGULATORY signs (mandatory and prohibitory).Primarily used for REGULATORY SIGNS. Also used for DIAGRAMMATIC WARNING signs.Reserved exclusively for CHEVRON DIRECTION signs.Primary shape for GUIDE signs including DIRECTION signs andGENERAL INFORMATION signs. Also used for ONE WAY signand SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE or QUALIFICATION PLATEbelow other signs.Reserved exclusively for ADVANCE WARNING signs. Figure 2-1 Standard Sign Shapes

2-3 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 For regulatory and warning signs, a standardiza-tion of size is possible and is in fact necessary.Regulatory and warning signs, which are moresymbol oriented than text oriented, tend to bemuch smaller in size than guide signs. Because of their relatively small size, conspicuousness is anequally important factor as legibility in sizingregulatory and warning signs.Table 2-1presents guidelines for selecting theappropriate sign sizes for regulatory and warningsigns. 2.1.3 COLOR CODE Table 2-2establishes the background colors, leg-end colors, and border colors to be used for traffic signs in Abu Dhabi.Sign background and legend colors or uses otherthan those listed inTable 2-2are not permitted. 2.1.4 LEGENDS The legend of a traffic sign is the element thatprovides a sign with a unique and definitivemeaning or message. The legend may be com-posed of a symbol, a text message, or both.Symbols used should be the same in appearanceas those shown in this manual. When new sym-bols are approved for usage, especially on warn-ing signs, aSUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign589 (see Section 5.7.4of this manual) shouldaccompany these signs for a period of up to threeyears, if deemed necessary, for public education.Standard text messages in Arabic and Englishshould be used when an appropriate symbol isnot available. Symbolic messages given in thismanual should be used in preference to text mes-sages whenever available. Otherwise, word mes-sages should be as brief as possible. TheDepartments standard Arabic and English fontsshould be used for text on all types of signs. Theheight of the Arabic aleph character should be1.4 times the height of the English x letterheight. Numerical legends and their correspon-ding unit of measure should be displayed inEnglish and Arabic except in the specific case of route numbers. 2.1.5 RETROREFLECTION ANDILLUMINATION Traffic signs are generally required to function onan around-the-clock basis. It is thus necessarythat they exhibit the same shape and color duringboth day and night hours. To accomplish this, allsign faces should be constructed using retrore-flective sheeting.Retroreflective sheeting gains its name from thedesign characteristic of the sheeting whereby thesheeting is capable of capturing light comingfrom a vehicle headlight and reflecting a signifiTable 2-1 Regulatory and Warning Sign Sizes 1, 2 Operating Speed 3 (km/h)RecommendedRegulatory Sign Size 4, 5

(millimeter)RecommendedWarning Sign Size 6 (millimeter)Required MinimumClear Visibility(meters) 40 600 750 5060 750 900 6080 900 1200 80 > 100 1200 1500 100Notes:1. Sizes smaller than the lower limits shall not be used without specific authorization.2. The sizes for regulatory signs are not applicable to parking control signs and freeway control signs.3. When it is known that 85th percentile speeds are significantly different from posted speed limits, sign sizes should bechosen based on an 85th percentile speed.4. Regulatory sign sizes refer to a circle diameter. For the STOP sign, the diameter represents an inscribed circle.5. Warning sign sizes refer to the apex to apex measurement of the side of the triangular sign. GIVE WAY signs should besized in the same way as warning signs.6. Sizes shown are desirable minimums. Larger sign sizes, particularly for warning signs, may be used in particularly criticalsituations.

2-4 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 cant portion of that light back to the eye of thedriver. This reflected light is what drivers see,allowing them to distinguish the shape, color, andultimately the message of the sign. Since signsmust be located outside of the travel path of avehicle, the nighttime visibility of a sign isdependent upon the ability of the sheeting mate-rial to capture light striking the surface of thesign at an angle and reflect that light back at thesame angle. This feature, called angularity, is oneof the primary measures of the functionality of aretroreflective sheeting material. Type-MP high-intensity microprismatic retroreflective sheetinghas very favorable properties with respect toangularity and thus should be used for sheetingon all traffic signs of all types described in thismanual unless otherwise specifically stated.A vehicle directs the largest percentage of itsheadlight output slightly below horizontal (andpredominantly to the right), especially underlow-beam operation. Thus, ground-mountedsigns (particularly those on the right side of theroadway) will generally be well lit by vehicleheadlights and will be capable of retroreflectingenough light to provide adequate nighttime con-spicuousness and legibility. However, this is notusually the case for signs mounted overhead.Overhead signs are generally guide signs con-taining multiple pieces of information that mustbe viewed and understood by drivers traveling atrelatively high speeds and/or under heavy trafficvolumes and/or through complex interchangemaneuvers. Thus these signs must be conspicu-ous and legible from a relatively long distance toprovide adequate time for a driver to comprehendthe messages being conveyed. Particularly onurban roadways, where driving is done with lowbeam headlights, the intensity of light from vehi-cles striking the sign face is too low to providethis long distance legibility.For this reason, all overhead signs should be illu-minated except in cases where all of the follow-ing conditions are met: When the roadway is not lighted, and When the sign is visible from a distance of 370 meters or more, and Table 2-2 Traffic Sign Backgrounds and Legend Colors 1 Sign Class Background Color Legend Color Border Color Regulatory Control Red/Blue White White/None Mandatory Blue White NoneProhibitory White Black RedParking White Red/Green

2 Red/GreenFreeway control Blue White White Warning White Black 3 Red Guide Emirates Routes direction Blue White 4 White Abu Dhabi roads direction Blue White 4 White Supplemental direction Brown White White Street name signs local/collector roads 5 Blue/Green White MetallicDistance (Emirates Route) Blue White White Parking Blue White White Other Blue White White Roadworks all signs except regulatory control Yellow Black 3 Red/BlackNotes:1. This table provides general information. Exceptions and variations exist in most sign classes.2. Permissive parking signs also include a white on blue parking symbol.3. Warning signs may include red in the legend to represent such things as hazard areas. Hazard marker signs includered arrow shapes.4. Route numbers and abbreviations within the route

emblem shall be yellow.5. Street name signs are not covered in this manual. Their standards and installation fall under the authority of other Municipality sections.

2-5 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 When the horizontal curvature of the roadapproaching the sign has no less than a 250meter radius.The standard means of illuminating overheadsigns should be through the use of external illu-mination using mercury-vapor wide-beam flood-lights. Other means of external lighting, internallighting, or legend-outline lighting will be per-mitted only on a special case demonstration basiswhen authorized by the Abu Dhabi MunicipalityRoad Department. 2.2 TRAFFIC SIGNPLACEMENT This section deals with the placement of ground-mounted and overhead signs. Proper placementof traffic signs refers to the lateral, vertical, andlongitudinal positioning that provides the neces-sary sign legibility for the passing motorists.Without proper placement the efforts to select,design, fabricate, and apply traffic signs are wast-ed. However, since no two roads are aligned anddesigned alike, the guidelines for sign placementgiven here are intended to be interpreted with ameasure of flexibility. Sound engineering judge-ment on an individual project basis, following thegeneral guidelines provided here, must beapplied so that sign visibility and legibility aremaximized.It should never be assumed that a poorlydesigned roadway can be corrected by providingsuperior traffic signing. The basic guidelines of sign placement must be considered early in theroad design process. This applies particularly tothe provision of guide signs and sequences of guide signs on multilane expressways and free-ways and even more so to signs required withincomplex interchanges. Except as identified inthis section, all traffic signs should be positionedon the right side of the roadway facing theapproaching traffic or overhead close to the cen-ter of the travel lanes to which the signs apply.Under certain motoring conditions traffic signscan be placed on the left side of the road. Theseconditions are: Divided roadways and one-way roads wheresupplementary regulatory, warning, or guidesigns are needed. Two-way roadways where sharp right curvesexist. Multilane freeways where visibility of right-side signs is blocked (this can also be a war-rant for the use of overhead signs, particular-ly guide signs). At roadworks, particularly for signs locatedwithin the advance warning area.Every sign location must be thoroughly checkedto identify any possible visibility obstructions.Typical problem placement locations include: Downhill dips in the roadway.

Crest vertical curves. Parked or stationary vehicles blocking visi-bility. Trees and other foliage blocking visibility. Proximity of other (existing) traffic signs infront of or behind the new sign under consideration.In addition, signs should be placed to avoidblocking or impeding the pedestrian or bicycleflow along sidewalks and trails. While trafficsigns are placed to enhance the safety conditionsof a roadway, they are fixed obstacles which canpose a hazard if struck by motorists. Therefore,the sign supports must be protected appropriatelyand the supports themselves should not beoverdesigned. 2.2.1 LATERAL PLACEMENT Since signs are a roadside hazard if struck, theyshould be placed at as great a distance from thepavement edge as practical. However, the furtherremoved that signs are from the pavement edgethe less conspicuous and legible they become tomotorists. Every opportunity to position trafficsigns behind crash barriers, guardrail, or otherroadside safety barriers should be pursued.Figures 2-2 and 2-3 and Table 2-3describe therequirements for lateral placement of signs.

2-6 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table 2-3 Lateral and Vertical Positioning of Traffic Signs (refers to Figures 2-2 and 2-3)Roadway Type Dimension Minimum(millimeters)Maximum(millimeters)Remarks A 600 3000B 3600 9000C 2100 2500 See Notes 5, 6, and 7D 1600 2500 See Notes 7, 8, and 9E 500 1600 See Notes 5, 6, and 8F 2100 2500 See Note 5G - 6000 See Note 10H 50 -I 600 - See Note 11J 9000 -K 6000 6500 See Note 12 FreewayExpresswayMajor ArterialFrontage L 1800 4200 See Note 10A 300 1000B 600 2000C 2100 2500 See Notes 5, 6, and 7D 1900 2500 See Notes 7, 8, and 9E 1200 1600 See Notes 5, 6, and 8F 2100 2500 See Note 5G - 6000 See Note 10I 600 - See Note 11K 6000 6500 See Note 12 ArterialCollector Local L 1800 4200 See Note 10NOTES:1. Dimension letters refer to Figures 2-2 and 2-3.2. If no dimension value is given in the table this means that the dimension concerned is variable.3. Lateral dimension reference points are defined as follows:X - Face of curb, guardrail, or barrier.Y - Edge of pavement.Z - Edge of shoulder.4. For large, multipost signs with a breakaway post system, the minimum clearance between the underside of the signand the ground below it shall be 2250 millimeters. This will permit a standard vehicle striking the post to pass under the sign panel.5. In urban areas (assumed to be curbed but may sometimes not have curbs) vertical dimensions are the minimumclearance from the bottom of the sign to the ground below.6. Certain regulatory signs, principally the mandatory turn signs 322, 323, 326, 327 and 328 are commonly located infront of drivers as they approach a turn. These signs should be mounted as per dimension E rather than C if sodoing will not create a visual obstruction.7. When two signs of different classes are mounted on the same post a regulatory sign should be mounted above anadvance warning sign.8. In rural areas (assumed to be uncurbed) vertical dimensions are measured up from the near side edge of pavementelevation (Point Y). If the roadway is superelevated such that it rises in the direction of the sign, the pavement surfaceslope shall be extended to the furthest edge of the sign and the vertical dimension taken from that elevation.9. The use of a mounting height of less than 2000 millimeters is not recommended for Dimension D for signs with asingle support unless the support is provided with a breakaway system.10. The maximum value stated may be exceeded but individual detailed structural designs shall be provided for allsupport structures.11. When posts are required to be located behind a flexible beam guardrail, the minimum dimension shall be checked for compatibility with the maximum deflection of the railing being used.12. The minimum dimension given is the point of minimum clearance between the bottom of the sign support structureand the pavement surface (including shoulder if sign is over shoulder) vertically below. Minimum clearance will be 6.0meters for gantries and 6.5 meters for cantilevers.

2-7 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 AAAEACDCXXXXDetail 2-2-1: Standard Regulatory SignsParking ControlSignsBDZ/YDetail 2-2-2: Standard Advanced Warning SignsBDZ/YEZBEZBXAEDetail 2-2-3: Hazard Warning SignsAAXX 150 millimeters Detail 2-2-4: Gore Hazard Marker Detail 2-2-5: Diagrammatic Warning SignsBZ/Y ED Figure 2-2 Lateral and Vertical Positioning of Regulatory and Warning Signs

2-8 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Detail 2-3-1: Street Name and Action Direction SignsCommunity Street NameAAXCEVerticalLateralMedianC 0.5 MedianWidth AXDetail 2-3-2: Route Marker and Gore Exit Direction SignsCurbedCurbedUncurbedUncurbedXXCDZ/YZ/YBGoreZ ZEAADetail 2-3-3: Guide and General Information SignsEFGFGBDetail 2-3-4: Overhead Direction SignsGantryCantilever IXKHJYLKXI Figure 2-3 Lateral and Vertical Positioning of Guide and General Information Signs

2-9 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 2.2.2 VERTICAL PLACEMENT The vertical placement of a traffic sign should bedetermined as the least distance measured fromthe pavement or ground surface to the undersideof the sign, taking account of cross fall or superelevation if the sign is positioned over the road-way. The mounting height of a traffic sign affectsthe following elements: The visibility of the sign. Pedestrian hazard of striking the underside of signs. The breakaway safety of the support struc-ture.Figures 2-2 and 2-3 and Table 2-3describe therequirements for vertical placement of signs. 2.2.3 LONGITUDINAL PLACEMENT Longitudinal placement is the element of signpositioning that is the least definable. Guidelinesfor the longitudinal placement are general andsubject to the specific field and road conditions,particularly in urban areas. The longitudinalplacement along a road depends on the sign type,criticality of message, and maneuver required.Traffic sign positions can, and should, be movedlongitudinally in many situations in order to: Improve visibility. Avoid blocking other signs. Improve roadside safety. Increase spacing between adjacent signs.As a general guide, regulatory signs are placedwhere the mandate/prohibition starts or applies.Regulatory signs may commonly be repeatedalong a section of road to improve driver aware-ness of the application of the regulations.Warning signs are placed sufficiently far inadvance of the condition being indicated on thesign to allow adequate response time to the warn-ing. Guide signs should be placed at regular posi-tions that best guide the motorist to routes anddestinations of interest.General guidelines for the longitudinal placementof signs are provided below:

Most regulatory signs are placed where theirmessage is applied. These sign messages typ-ically refer to one point (e.g., a STOP sign) orremain in effect until another regulatory signchanges the requirement (e.g., a SPEEDLIMIT sign). When regulatory signs are located in advanceof the point of application of the regulation,an accompanying distance referring to thepoint of application should be displayed, nor-mally with a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATEsign. Advance warning signs should be providedwell in advance of the hazard or conditionbeing signed. The motorist must recognizethe message, determine the appropriateresponse, and adjust his speed accordinglyprior to arriving at the hazard. The distancethat an advance warning sign is located fromthe hazard therefore varies with the speed atwhich the hazard can be safely negotiatedand with the speed of approach the greaterthe speed reduction required, the greater thelongitudinal distance that the sign should belocated in advance of the hazard.Table 4-1 inChapter 4gives detailed guidelines on thesedistances. Hazard marker signs should be located asclose as possible to the hazard they are mark-ing. Directional guide signs should be provided inadvance of intersections, interchanges, andexits to allow the motorist to make the neces-sary decisions and actions. Detailed guide-lines for advance distances and the sequenc-ing order of freeway direction signs are pro-vided inChapter 5 and are illustrated inChapter 8. On rural roads, a minimum longitudinalspacing between smaller signs of 75 metersto 80 meters is recommended. On urban roads, a minimum longitudinalspacing between smaller signs of 45 metersto 50 meters is recommended. On rural roads, a longitudinal spacingbetween larger signs of 150 meters to 300meters is desirable. On urban roads, a minimum longitudinalspacing between larger signs of 90 meters to175 meters is desirable.

2-10 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 On freeways, a minimum longitudinal spac-ing of 200 meters between signs should beadhered to.When there is competition from several signs forspace along a road it is generally better practiceto increase distances between signs rather than toreduce them in order to solve specific problems.However, when guide signs are involved, greatcare must be exercised in the vicinity of minorside-road junctions to ensure that confusion is notcreated as a result of a sign position. It is alsooften a better solution to a problem of smaller,closely spaced signs to mount the signs on a com-mon support, particularly if, as may be the casewith regulatory and warning signs, their mes-sages are associated. In such a case the regulato-ry sign should be mounted above the warningsign. The minimum clearance requirement mustbe applied to the lower of the two signs.Site and field staff must be trained to recognizepotential sign placement problems. They musthave the authority initiative, and skill to adjust asign position from that appearing on a drawing inorder to overcome local difficulties without cre-ating an undesirable or unsafe side effect. 2.2.4 OVERHEAD INSTALLATIONS Overhead traffic sign installations may be mount-ed to road bridges, overcrossing structures, orsupport structures. The signs placed on overheadstructures should be located directly over theaffected travel lane(s). Overhead structures andsigns are typically provided on freeways, multi-lane facilities, and heavily traveled roads.Overhead guide signs should be used when oneor more of the following general conditions arepresent: All grade separated interchanges throughroadways. All roadways with four or more lanes in onedirection. All roadways with three or more lanes in onedirection and with peak-hour design-yearone-way traffic in excess of 1,000 vehiclesper hour. Restricted sight distance. High percentage of trucks. High speed traffic. Consistency of sign message locationthrough a series of intersections.

Insufficient space for ground-mounted signs. 2.2.5 ORIENTATION ANGLE Ground-mounted traffic signs should be placed atapproximate right angles to traffic that must readthe message. Specifically, signs located less than9.0 meters from the edge of pavement should beoriented at 93 to the line of approaching traffic.This slight rotation from true right angle elimi-nates many of the glare problems that can occurwhen retroreflective sheeting is used. For signsgreater than 9.0 meters from the pavement edgean orientation of 87 to the line of approachingtraffic is recommended.Figure 2-4 illustrates sign orientation in these twodistance conditions. Less than 9.0m93 Edge of pavement Greater than 9.0m87 Edge of pavement Figure 2-4 Sign Orientation Angle

3-1 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 3 REGULATORY SIGNS 3.1 GENERAL Regulatory signs are used to control the actionsof road users. They indicate what road users mustdo and what they must not do. Failure to obey aregulatory sign, unless directed otherwise by atraffic officer, constitutes an offense. For this rea-son it is important that those who erect regulato-ry signs do so with a clear knowledge of otherregulatory signs in the vicinity in order to avoidconflicting regulatory messages being presentedto road users.Regulatory signs must be easy to understand, dif-ficult to misinterpret, and easy to enforce withoutargument. To this end symbols are recommendedwhenever possible rather than words to pass onregulatory messages. The use of exclusive shapesfor regulatory signs, such as the octagon for theSTOP sign and the inverted triangle for the GIVEWAY sign, together with the reserved use of a cir-cular shape for most other regulatory signsensures that their function can be instantly recog-nized by road users.The significance or meaning of each individualregulatory sign is given in subsequent sections of this chapter. It should be clearly understood thata regulatory sign applies for 24 hours a day andto all road users approaching the sign. If it isrequired to modify either or both of these twofactors the sign must be altered in some way. Thiscan be achieved by either: Qualifying the meaning of the sign with aQUALIFICATION PLATE. Use of a variable message sign.The use of a QUALIFICATION PLATE below aregulatory sign may qualify the meaning of thesign in any number of ways: By indicating the time(s) of the day that thesign is operational. For example, a NOSTOPPING sign required to operate onlyduring peak hours should display a plate withthe appropriate times of the peak periodsindicated below the NO STOPPING sign. By showing that a specific class of vehicle isobliged or prohibited from taking someaction while the rest of road users are not.For example, a TURN RIGHT ONLY signrequired to apply to heavy vehicles but notother traffic should display a plate with thepictogram or symbol of a heavy vehiclebelow the TURN RIGHT ONLY sign. The only exception to the above rule is theNO U-TURN sign when required to indicatethat the sign is applicable to heavy vehiclesonly. This case is further described inSections 3.4.3 and 4.2.8.It is also possible to add information to a regula-tory sign that does not modify its application butsimply gives road users additional informationabout its operation. Examples of such applica-tions are:

If a speed limit is reduced in the vicinity of aschool the SPEED LIMIT sign may have aSUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indi-cating SCHOOL. If an advance warning sign is considered nec-essary before the introduction of a regulatorysign and an appropriate warning sign is notavailable, a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATEsign 589 may be displayed below the regula-tory sign indicating the distance to the start of the regulation. A second regulatory sign,without such a plate, must be placed at thepoint from which the regulation is to apply.In order to maintain the clarity of messagerequired of regulatory signs it is recommendedthat only one symbol should be used on a sign. If two messages are required, two signs should beused.There are many aspects of the control of roadusers and of the safe, good behavior of road userswhich apply throughout the road network. Thismakes it impractical to exercise the necessarycontrol by means of erecting a large number of regulatory signs.

3-2 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 3.1.1 FUNCTION AND OBJECTIVESOF REGULATORY SIGNS It is the function of regulatory signs to supple-ment the rules of the road to further control theactions of road users, when necessary, in thesense that road users should take, or not take,specific actions as indicated by such signs.It is the function of regulatory signs to indicatethe existence of general laws or regulations madein the interests of road safety, such as by SPEEDLIMIT signs. Alternatively, regulatory signs maycontrol traffic movement by means of STOP orGIVE WAY signs or traffic signals in the interestsof good traffic order and operational efficiency. Itcan also be the function of a regulatory sign toindicate a change in the general levels of controlexisting for road users to a different level of con-trol. NO OVERTAKING, NO PARKING, orother restrictions are examples of this.In erecting regulatory signs, the road authoritymust seek the objective of only providing somany regulatory signs as is necessary, with ade-quate levels of enforcement, to ensure the safeand orderly movement of traffic. The provisionof too many regulatory signs will result in a dis-respect for the signing system by road users anda failure to achieve the desired objective.It should be the objective of any specific regula-tory sign to transfer the required message to theintended road users as clearly and as quickly aspossible with a minimum effect on the complex-ity of the driving task. In order to achieve thisobjective, regulatory signs must be of adequatesize and must be correctly positioned to attractthe attention of road users. 3.1.2 SUBCLASSIFICATION OFREGULATORY SIGNS In order to assist the understanding of the differ-ent functions of different types of regulatory signthe class is further subdivided: Control signs assign priority right of way ordirection of travel. Mandatory signs indicate actions that mustbe taken. Prohibitory signs indicate prohibited actionor objects. Parking control signs regulate parking andstopping. Freeway control signs indicate limits of roads classified as freeways.Many of the signs in these classes may also beused at roadworks. The roadworks signs univer-sally use a black symbol on a yellow backgroundwith the exception of any control signs used atroadworks which retain the colors shown in thefollowing sections.All classes of regulatory sign apply on a 24-hourbasis unless otherwise indicated by a secondarymessage (see Section 3.1). Signs in all classesmay also have a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATEsign 589 located below the regulatory sign.In working with regulatory signs it often helps toconsider the way in which the function of anindividual sign message is indicated. This func-tion can be considered as exercising control orrestriction in one

of three ways as follows:1. By imposing a restrictive limit, e.g., anupper mass limit.2. By requiring or prohibiting a particularaction, e.g., a turn.3. By controlling a particular type of object(indicated by a pictogram or symbol of theobject), e.g., a heavy vehicle. 3.2 CONTROL SIGNS The signs in this group have a common functionin that they are used to allocate priority right-ofway or direction of movement. 3.2.1 STOP SIGN 301 Sign 301 requires that the driver of a vehicleshould come to a full and complete stop withsuch vehicle at the STOP LINE pavement mark-ing 601 and that the driver should not proceeduntil it is safe to do so.STOP signs should not be used unless engineer-ing judgment indicates that one or more of thefollowing conditions exist:

3-3 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 1. Intersection of a less important road with amain road where application of the normalright-ofway rule is unduly hazardous.2. Street entering a through highway or street.3. Unsignalized intersection in a signalizedarea.4. Other intersections where a combination of high speed, restricted view, and serious acci-dent record indicates a need for control bythe STOP sign.Prior to the application of these warrants, consid-eration should be given to less restrictive meas-ures, such as GIVE WAY sign 302 (Section3.2.2), where a full stop is not necessary at alltimes. Periodic reviews of existing installationsmay be desirable to determine whether, becauseof changed conditions, the use of less restrictivecontrol or no control could accommodate trafficdemands safely and more effectively.STOP signs should never be used on the throughroadways of expressways. Properly designedexpressway interchanges provide for the continu-ous flow of traffic, making STOP signs unneces-sary even on the entering roadways. Where at-grade intersections are temporarily justified forlocal traffic in sparsely populated areas, STOPsigns should be used on the entering roadways toprotect the through traffic. STOP signs may alsobe required at the end of diverging roadways atthe intersection with other highways not designedas expressways. In most of these cases, thespeeds will not warrant any great increase in thesign sizes.STOP signs should not be erected at intersectionswhere traffic control signs are operating. Theconflicting commands of two types of controldevices are confusing. If traffic is required to stopwhen the operation of the stop-and-go signals isnot warranted, the signals should be put on flash-ing operation with the red flashing light facingthe traffic that must stop.Where two main highways intersect, the STOPsign or signs should normally be posted on theminor street to stop the lesser flow of traffic.Traffic engineering studies, however, may justifya decision to install a STOP sign or signs on themajor street, as at a three-way intersection wheresafety considerations may justify stopping thegreater flow of traffic to permit a leftturningmovement.Portable or part-time STOP signs should not beused except for emergency purposes. Also, STOPsigns should not be used for speed control.STOP sign 301 should be located on the rightside of the intersecting side street between 3 and15 meters in advance of the near-side edge of thecrossroad (seeFigure 3-1). A second STOP sign301 should be similarly located on the left side of the roadway when the side street is a one-waystreet with two or more lanes, and a central islandor median exists.A STOP sign 301 should not be used at a junctionhaving a traffic signal or a GIVE WAY sign 302controlling another approach.STOP sign 301 should have a red backgroundwith a white border and white legend. 3.2.2 GIVE WAY (YIELD) SIGN 302 Sign 302 requires that the driver of a vehicleshould yield right-of-way at a GIVE WAY pavement marking 602 to all traffic on the roadwayintersecting the roadway on which he is traveling,where such traffic is so close as to constitute adanger or potential danger. The driver should alsogive way to pedestrian and bicycle traffic cross-ing his path at that point. Sign 301

3-4 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 The GIVE WAY sign may be warranted:1. At the entrance to an intersection where it isnecessary to assign right-of-way and wherethe safe approach speed on the entranceexceeds 15 kilometers per hour.2. On the entrance ramp to an expresswaywhere an acceleration lane is not provided.3. At intersections on a divided highway wherethe median between the roadways is morethan 30 feet wide. At such intersections, aSTOP sign may be used at the entrance to thefirst roadway of the divided highway and aGIVE WAY sign may be placed at theentrance to the second roadway.4. Where there is a separate or channelizedright-turn lane, without an adequate acceleration lane.5. At any intersection where a special problemsexists and where an engineering study indi-cates the problem to be susceptible to correc-tion by use of the GIVE WAY sign.GIVE WAY signs generally should not be placedto control the major flow of traffic at an intersec-tion. However, GIVE WAY signs may beinstalled to control a major traffic movement Centerline 300 Minimum600 PreferredSign 301/302(See Note 3)Curb RadiusPer Design15000MaximumAcceptable Sign PlacementArea Envelope (See Note 2)3000Maximum3000Minimum(See Note 4) Notes:1. Dimensions are shown in millimeters.2. The preferred sign location is a point behind the curbline, within the acceptable sign placement envelope, closest to thestop line unless another position within the envelope gives better visibility of the sign for approaching traffic.3. Sign orientation should be at right angles to the centerline unless a right turn only is permitted, in which case a radial orien-tation is required.4. The 3000 minimum dimension may be increased to 5000 when a conflict with a community street name sign would occur.Figure 3-1 Longitudinal Position of Stop Sign 301 and Give Way Sign 302

where a majority of drivers in that movement aremaking right turns. At such an intersection, GIVEWAY signs should not be erected on more thanone approach.GIVE WAY signs should not be used on thethrough roadways of expressways. They may beused on an entering roadway without an adequateacceleration lane, but in a well-designed inter-change, the sign would interfere with the freemerging movement, and it should not be usedunder those circumstances.GIVE WAY sign 302 should be located on theright side of the intersecting side street between 3and 15 meters in advance of the near side edge of the crossroad (seeFigure 3-1). A second GIVEWAY sign 302 should be similarly located on theleft side of the roadway when the street is a oneway street with two or more lanes and a centralisland or median.A GIVE WAY sign should not be used at a junc-tion having a STOP sign controlling anotherapproach.A GIVE WAY sign should not be used at at-gradejunctions when these are provided with appropri-ately designed full acceleration lanes.GIVE WAY sign 302 should have a white back-ground with a broad red border. 3.2.3 GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANSSIGN 303 Sign 303 requires that the driver of a vehicleshould yield right-of-way to pedestrians crossingthe roadway or waiting to cross the roadway. 3-5 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Sign 302 Sign 303 should be used in conjunction withPEDESTRIAN CROSSING pavement marking603 and GIVE WAY pavement marking 602.GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303 shouldbe used in advance of all marked pedestriancrossings which are not otherwise controlled bySTOP sign 301, GIVE WAY sign 302 or trafficsignals.GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303 shouldbe located on the right side of the roadway 3meters in advance of GIVE WAY pavementmarking 602. GIVE WAY pavement marking 602should be at least 3 meters and preferably 6meters in advance of PEDESTRIAN CROSSINGpavement marking 603. A second GIVE WAY TOPEDESTRIANS sign 303 should be provided onthe left side of the roadway when a median islandor other central island is provided in advance of the pedestrian crossing.GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303 shouldhave the following color pattern: The upper, GIVE WAY sign should have awhite background with a broad red border. The lower sign, indicating pedestrians,should have a red background with a whiteicon and border. Sign 303

3-6 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 3.2.4 NO ENTRY SIGN 304 Sign 304 indicates to drivers of vehicles thatentry is prohibited to all vehicular traffic.NO ENTRY sign 304 should be used to prohibitwrong way entry to a roadway when confusionmay exist as to the direction of travel of traffic inthe roadway (see Section 3.2.5, ONE WAY signs305, 306, and 307 ).NO ENTRY sign 304 should be located on theright and left sides of a one-way roadway. NOENTRY sign 304 should be oriented at 90degrees to the direction of wrong way travel.Sign 304 should have a red background with awhite legend and a thin white border. 3.2.5 ONE WAY SIGNS 305, 306, AND307 Signs 305, 306, and 307 indicate to drivers of vehicles that the only permitted direction of travel, in the road or portion of road on which theyare erected, is in the direction indicated by thearrow on the sign. Signs 305, 306, and 307 maybe displayed to indicate directions straight ahead,to the right, or to the left.ONE WAY signs 305, 306, and 307 should beused in preference to NO ENTRY sign 304 innetworks of intersecting one-way streets. ONEWAY signs 306 and 307 should be used to indi-cate to drivers of vehicles that the direction of travel in streets intersecting the one in which theyare traveling is in one direction towards them andto inhibit the possibility of wrong way entry tosuch streets. ONE WAY sign 305 may also beused to indicate that a street is a one-way street ina straight ahead direction (this practice is intend-ed to make drivers aware that when they return tosuch a street from a private property or a parkingarea that they must turn only in one direction, itbeing impractical to indicate the direction of trav-el at all points of access along a one-way street).When used to indicate the direction of travel inan intersecting street ONE WAY signs 306 and307 should be located on both sides of the intersecting street so that both signs can be seen clear-ly by drivers traveling in the through street.When used to indicate the direction of travelwithin a one-way roadway ONE WAY sign 305should be located on the right side of single-laneone-way streets and on both sides of oneway Sign 304Sign 305Sign 306Sign 307

3-7 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 streets with two or more lanes. If necessary, addi-tional signs should be strategically placed withrespect to local accesses from properties or park-ing areas (seeFigure 3-2).ONE WAY signs 305, 306, and 307 are the oneexception to the general color code for the con-trol group of regulatory signs. ONE WAY signs305, 306, and 307 should have a blue backgroundwith a white legend and a thin white border.NOTE: In some situations, regulatory signs 304,321 thru 328, 346, and/or 347 may be used inplace of or in addition to ONE WAY signs todelineate a one-way road system. Specificapproval should be obtained from the Abu DhabiMunicipality Department for one-way systemsigning. 3.3 MANDATORY SIGNS The signs in this group have the function thatthey are used to indicate to road users actions thatthey must take or that are mandatory. 3.3.1 AHEAD ONLY SIGN 321 Sign 321 requires that the driver of a vehicleshould proceed only straight ahead in the direc-tion indicated by the arrow on the sign.AHEAD ONLY sign 321 should be located onthe right side of a two-way roadway and on theleft side of a one-way roadway. The function of the AHEAD ONLY sign 321 differs from that of the ONE WAY sign 305 in that, while the ONEWAY sign may indicate the mandatory directionin a street at a junction, other directions of travelat the junction may be chosen. AHEAD ONLYsign 321 indicates that drivers have no otherchoice but to proceed straight ahead. A 600-mil-limeter sign 321 may be mounted on the postbelow a traffic signal when appropriate.A typical example for the use of AHEAD ONLYsign 321 would be at a signal-controlled cross-road intersection with a free right turn and a ded-icated left turn lane or lanes separated from thethrough route by a splitter island. In this instance,if the driver is located in one of the through lanesthe AHEAD ONLY movement is the only avail-able option and should be signed accordingly.AHEAD ONLY sign 321 should have a bluebackground with a white icon and a thin whiteborder. 3.3.2 TURN RIGHT (OR LEFT) ONLYSIGN 322 (OR 323) Signs 322 (or 323) require that the driver of avehicle should proceed only to the right (or to theleft - the arrow direction being reversed) at thejunction. TURN RIGHT (or LEFT) ONLY signs322 (or 323) should be located on the far side of a roadway facing drivers to which they apply.Signs 322 (and 323) should have a blue back-ground with a white legend and a thin white bor-der. 3.3.3 TURN RIGHT (OR LEFT)AHEAD ONLY SIGN 324 (OR325) Signs 324 (or 325) require that the driver of avehicle should proceed only to the right (or to theleft the arrow direction being reversed) at thejunction ahead.TURN RIGHT (or LEFT) AHEAD ONLY signs324 (or 325) should be located on the right sideof a two-way roadway and on the left side of aone-way roadway at a distance of approximately50 meters from the junction to which it applies.Signs 324 (or 325) should normally only be pro-vided when the alignment of the approach to thejunction is such that the layout of the junction is Sign 321

3-8 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 301301307 346 306 307 305305 Access toproperty or parking ** * * Optional subject totraffic volumes 347301301346307 See Section 3.2.5 Note 301301 346306305305 347 Figure 3-2 Use of One Way Signs 305, 306, and 307 with Signs 346 and 347

3-9 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Sign 322Sign 323Sign 324 not readily obvious. A 600-millimeter sign 324(or 325) may be mounted on the post below atraffic signal where appropriate.Signs 324 (and 325) should have a blue back-ground with a white icon and a thin white border. 3.3.4 PASS EITHER SIDE SIGN 326 Sign 326 indicates to the driver of a vehicle thathe may pass to either side of an obstruction in theroadway, such as a traffic island.PASS EITHER SIDE sign 326 should be locatedon a traffic divider, near the nose of the divider,so that there is a minimum clearance of 300 mil-limeters between the edges of the divider and thesign. The most common application of sign 326will be at entrances to collector-distributor roadsand road splits. Sign 326Sign 325

3-10 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 PASS EITHER SIDE signs 326 should have ablue background with a white icon and a thinwhite border. 3.3.5 KEEP RIGHT (OR LEFT) SIGN327 (OR 328) Signs 327 (or 328) indicate to the driver of avehicle that he should pass to the right (or to theleft, the arrow direction being reversed) of anobstruction in the roadway.KEEP RIGHT (or LEFT) signs 327 (or 328)should be located as near as possible to the lead-ing edge of the obstruction so that there is at leasta clearance of 300 millimeters from the closestpath of vehicles. Use of signs 327 (or 328) mostcommonly applies to traffic islands or refuges intwo-way roadways or at the beginning of medianisland when a single two-way carriagewaywidens to become a dual carriageway. If such acondition occurs on a vertical curve it may beeffective to mount two type 327 (or 328) signsone above the other.Signs 327 and 328 should have a blue back-ground with a white icon and a thin white border. 3.3.6 ROUNDABOUT SIGN 329 Sign 329 requires that the driver of a vehicleshould proceed only in a counterclockwise direction at the roundabout ahead.ROUNDABOUT sign 329 should be locatedbelow GIVE WAY sign 302 in advance of theentry to a roundabout when on the approach con-cerned, it may not be obvious that the junctionahead is a roundabout. In such circumstances,sign 329 may be used in addition to advancewarning ROUNDABOUT AHEAD sign 420.Sign 420 should be located as indicated inChapter 4.Should mini roundabouts be instituted in AbuDhabi, sign 329 should be used to directmotorists to operate within the junction in a man-ner consistent with driving rules for a round-about. Sign 327Sign 328Sign 329

3-11 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 ROUNDABOUT sign 329 should have a bluebackground with a white icon and a thin whiteborder. 3.3.7 U-TURN SIGN 330 Sign 330 notifies the driver of a vehicle that hemay make a U-turn.U-TURN sign 330 should be located at the end of the traffic median on the near side of the possibleU-turn road configuration. At signalized intersec-tions, it should be attached to the traffic signalpost supporting the signals for traffic comingfrom the opposite direction.In Abu Dhabi, U-TURN sign 330 is often usedwith a NO TRUCKS qualification plate 365mounted below.U-TURN sign 330 should have a blue back-ground with a white icon and a thin white border. 3.4 PROHIBITORY SIGNS The signs in this group have the function to indi-cate to road users actions that they must not take,or which are prohibited. Prohibitions may applyin the form of limits, or to certain actions orobjects. Maximum limits such as speed or heightlimits are indicated in circular signs without adiagonal slash. Prohibitions on actions or objectsare indicated in circular signs which include adiagonal slash. Sign 330 3.4.1 MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGNS 3.4.1.1 MAXIMUM SPEED LIMITSIGNS 339 TO 344 Signs 339 to 344 prohibit drivers of vehiclesfrom exceeding the maximum speed limit indi-cated in kilometers per hour by means of a num-ber on such a sign.In Abu Dhabi, the following speed limits shouldbe in effect unless otherwise posted: 30 km/h: School zone. 40 km/h: Selected roadways in areas with ahigh concentration of pedestrians. 60 km/h: Urban dual carriageway. 80 km/h: Selected roadways with limitedaccess and control. 100 km/h: Rural roads. 120 km/h: Freeways and expressways.MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT signs 339 to 344should be provided after the point of access fromanother roadway or when:

There is a change in speed limit along a spe-cific route. There is a reduction in speed limit betweenintersecting roadways of like types. The road environment that would be the cri-terion for the speed limit cannot be easilyidentified by drivers. The distance between postings exceed thoseindicated inTable 3-1.The sign numbers apply as follows: Sign 339: 30 km/h (seeChapter 8for guid-ance on use of Sign 339 in school zones). Sign 340: 40 km/h. Sign 341: 60 km/h. Sign 342: 80 km/h. Sign 343: 100 km/h. Sign 344: 120 km/h.The following guidelines and comments shouldbe considered as being applicable to general oraverage conditions. Specific circumstances maywarrant a variation in application when the prin-

3-12 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Sign 339Sign 340Sign 341Sign 342Sign 343Sign 344

3-13 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 ciples involved should be applied with engineer-ing judgment.When the provision of a MAXIMUM SPEEDLIMIT sign is warranted, signs should be locatedas indicated inTable 31.Figure 3-3illustrates the typical use of MAXIMUM SPEED LIMITSIGNS 341 to 343.A MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign should alsobe provided when a change in maximum speedlimit occurs along a route. It is not uncommonthat a decrease in maximum speed limit may beas much as 40 km/h (e.g., from 100 km/h down to60 km/h). In such a situation, an appropriateMAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign should be pro-vided for each 20 km/h decrease in speed limit sothat the maximum decrease in speed limit postedat any one time is 20 km/h. The minimum dis-tance between successively decreasing speedlimit signs should be 500 meters.It is not necessary to post maximum speed limitson major roads after minor joining access roads,except in the unlikely event that with roads of equal status the one being entered has a lowermaximum speed limit than drivers would havereason to expect.MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT signs 339 to 344should have a white background, a black legend,and a thick red border. 3.4.1.2 DUAL SPEED LIMIT SIGNCOMBINATIONS AND DUALMAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGN345 Many Abu Dhabi roadways have one speed limitfor cars and another, lower speed limit for trucksand other heavy vehicles. Signing for these con-ditions should be done using a dual speedlimitsign combination or with a dual speed limit signcombination complemented by DUAL MAXI-MUM SPEED LIMIT sign 345.All roadways with dual speed limits should besigned using a sign combination as shown inFigure 3-4.The combination is made up of two maximumspeed limit signs mounted on a single pole, oneabove the other, with a truck qualification platemounted at the bottom, below the sign indicatingthe speed limit for trucks. The sign indicating thespeed limit for cars should be mounted above the Table 3-1 Guidelines for Speed Limit Sign LocationSituation In Which SignIs To Be ProvidedSign LocationAfter Point Of AccessWarrants For Additional Signs (1) Parking Area or Service Road within 10 meters Not applicableUrban Single Carriageway within 50 meters Not applicableUrban Dual Carriageway within 50 meters - Above 60 km/h (2) , 4 km between postings- 60 km/h (2) ,

2 km between postings- Below 60 km/h (2) , 1 km between postings Rural Roads within 100 meters - 100 km/h (2) , 10 km between postings- 80 km/h (2) , 4 km between postings Notes:1. Additional signs should be provided at the rate of one extra sign approximately in the middle of the length of section betweenpostings as given in the table. A posting represents the initial provision of a MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign in terms of thecriteria given above and as illustrated in Figure 3-3.2. Refers to the maximum speed limit posted on the section of road. Sign 345 (typical)

3-14 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1

3-15 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 sign indicating the speed limit for trucks andother heavy vehicles.On roadways with dual speed limits, dual speedlimit sign combinations should be located aswould normal speed limit signs, in accordancewith the distances specified inTable 3-1.In some conditions, it may be advantageous tocomplement dual speed limit sign combinationswith DUAL MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign345. This sign takes the appearance of a typicalguide sign in color and shape. However, its largesize and the limited information on it precludesthe potential for confusion on the part of driversand clearly emphasizes the respective speed lim-its of the two different types of vehicles.DUAL MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign 345 isto be ideally located in wide, open areas adjacentto the roadway. DUAL MAXIMUM SPEEDLIMIT sign 345 should be considered a comple-ment to but not a substitute for dual speed limitsign combinations, and thus its placement in adual speed limit zone should not affect the place-ment or frequency of dual speed limit sign com-binations. Dual speed limit sign combinationsshould first be correctly positioned according tothe guidelines inTable 3-1; DUAL MAXIMUMSPEED LIMIT sign 345 should be added subse-quently as deemed useful.When used, DUAL MAXIMUM SPEED LIMITsign 345 should be evenly interspersed with dualspeed limit sign combinations. Good engineeringjudgement should be exercised in determiningthe location and frequency of DUAL MAXI-MUM SPEED LIMIT sign 345 in a dual speedlimit zone, but its frequency should not exceedthe guidelines inTable 3-1. 3.4.2 NO LEFT (OR RIGHT) TURNSIGN 346 (OR 347) Signs 346 (or 347) indicate to drivers of vehiclesthat they should not turn to the left or right, as thecase may be, at the junction or entrance where thesigns are displayed. Sign 346Sign 347 Figure 3-4 Dual Speed Limit Sign Combination (typical)

Signs 346 (or 347) should be located on the sideof the roadway towards which the illegal turnwould be made, not more than 25 meters inadvance of the point where the prohibitionapplies.Signs 346 or 347 should only be used in situa-tions where the left (or right) turn would, undernormal circumstances, be expected by drivers tobe available. Their use is generally not necessarywhen roadway geometry clearly indicates thatturns are not intended at the location under con-sideration. A 600 millimeter sign 346 (or 347)may be mounted on the post below a traffic sig-nal where appropriate.Signs 346 and 347 should have a white back-ground, a black icon, a thick red diagonal line,and a thick red border. 3.4.3 NO U-TURN SIGN 348 Sign 348 indicates to drivers of vehicles that theyshould not perform a U-turn at the junction orbreak in the median island ahead.NO U-TURN sign 348 should be located notmore than 25 meters in advance of the point towhich the prohibition applies. The sign may berepeated at the point of prohibition.Sign 348 may be required when the parallel car-riageway is too narrow to accept safe U-turns orwhen such a movement cannot safely be accom-modated due to limitations in traffic signal tim3-16 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Sign 348 ings or where there is a conflict with pedestrianmovements.NO U-TURN sign 348 may be made specific to atime of day by means of a QUALIFICATIONPLATE sign 365 mounted below the sign. A 600-millimeter sign 348 may be mounted on the postbelow a traffic signal where appropriate. NO U-TURN for specific vehicle types is the oneexception to this rule and is further explained inSection 4.2.8.NO U-TURN sign 348 should have a white back-ground, a black icon, a thick red diagonal line,and a thick red border. 3.4.4 NO OVERTAKING SIGN 349 Sign 349 prohibits the driver of a vehicle fromovertaking another vehicle traveling in the samedirection within the next 500 meters.NO OVERTAKING sign 349 may be used inaddition to NO PASSING LINE pavement mark-ing 611 when this is likely to be ineffective dueto adverse conditions or other factors. Sign 349should be located on the left side of the road. If the overtaking message is required for a distancein excess of 500 meters the sign should berepeated at 500 meter intervals.NO OVERTAKING sign 348 should have awhite background, a black icon, a thick red diag-onal line, and a thick red border. Sign 349

3-17 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 3.4.5 NO INFLAMMABLE GOODSSIGN 350 Sign 350 prohibits the driver of a vehicle trans-porting inflammable goods, including inflammable gases in portable cylinders, from proceedingbeyond the sign.NO INFLAMMABLE GOODS sign 350 may beused in advance of any area, such as a tunnel,where transported inflammable goods represent aparticular hazard. The sign should be located onthe right of the roadway at the point from whichthe prohibition is required to apply. This positionshould permit vehicles carrying inflammablegoods to take an alternative route. In practice it islikely that other prohibitions may apply at suchplaces. It is recommended that all necessary pro-hibitory signs be displayed on a custom designedbacking board with a white background color anda thin red border of the style used for diagram-matic warning signs. It is also recommended thata similar combined sign be displayed in advanceof the exit or turn onto the alternative route withan appropriate explanatory text message such asAlternative Route 150 m.NO INFLAMMABLE GOODS sign 350 shouldhave a white background, a black icon, a thick red diagonal line, and a thick red border. Thedetail of the flame within the truck icon on thelegend should be red and yellow. Sign 350 3.4.6 NO GOODS VEHICLES SIGN351 Sign 351 prohibits drivers of goods vehicles fromproceeding beyond the sign.NO GOODS VEHICLES sign 351 should belocated on the right side of the roadway at thepoint from which the prohibition is required toapply. This point should be chosen where analternative route is available to drivers of goodsvehicles.NO GOODS VEHICLES sign 351 may be madespecific to a particular time of day rather than forthe full 24-hours by means of a QUALIFICA-TION PLATE sign 365, indicating the applicabletime period or periods, mounted below the sign.In a similar way the NO GOODS VEHICLESsign 351 may be made applicable to goods vehi-cles exceeding a specific weight by the mountingof QUALIFICATION PLATE below the signwhich displays the weight limit in the form 10T where the unit T refers to a metric tonne.Where appropriate this weight limit may bereplaced by a length limit such as 6.0 m.NO GOODS VEHICLES sign 351 should have awhite background, a black icon, a thick red diag-onal line, and a thick red border. 3.4.7 NO PEDESTRIANS SIGN 352 Sign 352 prohibits pedestrians from proceedingbeyond the sign. Sign 351

3-18 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 NO PEDESTRIANS sign 352 may be displayedin any position where it is required to prohibitpedestrian movement or access, normally acrossa roadway. Such places may include specificparts of a roadway or junction which pedestriansotherwise might expect to be able to use, butwhich are considered unsafe due to the trafficmanagement arrangements of the road or junction. Sign 352 should be used with a size of 300millimeters unless a larger size is warranted forconspicuousness.NO PEDESTRIANS sign 352 should have awhite background, a black icon, a thick red diag-onal line, and a thick red border. 3.4.8 NO CYCLISTS SIGN 353 Sign 353 prohibits cyclists from proceedingbeyond the sign. Sign 352 NO CYCLISTS sign 353 may be displayed inany position where it is required to prohibitcyclist movement or access. If pedestrian move-ment or access is not otherwise prohibited,cyclists may proceed provided they dismount andwalk their bicycles. Sign 353 should be used witha size of 300 millimeters unless a larger size iswarranted for conspicuousness.Sign 353 should have a white background, ablack icon, a thick red diagonal line, and a thick red border. 3.4.9 NO HORNS SIGN 354 Sign 354 prohibits the driver of a vehicle fromsounding the horn or other audible device of hisvehicle within 75 meters of the sign.NO HORNS sign 354 may be used in the vicini-ty of hospitals or other places where it is consid-ered necessary to limit traffic noise. Sign 354should be located on the right side of the roadwayat the point where the prohibition is required toapply. Additional signs may be placed at 150meter intervals if the prohibition is required oversome distance.Sign 352 should have a white background, ablack icon, a thick red diagonal line, and a thick red border. Sign 353Sign 354

3-19 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 3.4.10MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT SIGN355 Sign 355 prohibits drivers of vehicles exceeding theindicated height from proceeding beyond the sign.MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 355 shouldbe located 25 to 50 meters in advance of any lim-ited height structure that has a minimum clear-ance of less than 4.2 meters, preferably on boththe right and left sides of the approach roadway.The height indicated within the sign should be atleast 100 millimeters less than the actual mini-mum clearance measured under the structure.The height should be expressed on the sign to thenext lowest one decimal place of a meter.The maximum legal height for a vehicle in AbuDhabi is 4.2 meters.Sign 355 must not be used as an advance warningsign. The sign should always be preceded by anadvance warning MAXIMUM HEADROOMsign 425 (seeChapter 4).Sign 355-4.2 should be located on both sides of the road at all Emirates Route border crossingsinto Abu Dhabi Emirate and on all exit roadsfrom cargo-handling seaports.MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 355 shouldhave a white background, a black legend, and athick red border. Sign 355 3.4.11 MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT SIGN356 Sign 356 incorporates sign 355 into a larger signand includes an iconic symbol and text toincrease visibility and reinforce the signs mes-sage.MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 356 shouldbe used only where vehicles exceeding AbuDhabis legal vehicle height limit may use theroad on an exceptional basis. It should be placedwhere it is deemed tall truck traffic may enter thehighway. It should be located on both the rightand left sides of the roadway.The height indicated within the sign should be atleast 100 millimeters less than the actual mini-mum clearance measured under the structure.The height should be expressed on the sign to thenext lowest one decimal place of a meter.MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 356 shouldhave a white background, a black border, and ablack and red legend. 3.4.12QUALIFICATION PLATE SIGN365 Sign 365 provides a secondary message that qual-ifies or restricts the primary message of anotherregulatory sign. Sign 365 is never used alone andis always mounted directly below the regulatorysign that it qualifies. The background color, bor-der color, and message color of sign 365 shouldcorrespond to those of the associated regulatory Sign 356

3-20 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 sign with which it is mounted (this also applies toroadworks versions of regulatory signs).Ordinarily, regulatory signs apply 24 hours a day,7 days a week and are relevant to all vehiclespassing that sign. QUALIFICATION PLATEsign 365 is used when the regulatory message isintended to apply to only certain times or days,and/or to only certain types or classes of vehicles.Thus, a QUALIFICATION PLATE sign 365 maycontain textual messages or symbols such as, butnot limited to, the following: 08:00 TO 20:00. 8 m. Except Friday. Truck (symbol). 10 T.When it is desired to add to a regulatory signinformation that does not qualify the message of the sign, a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589should be used. 3.5 PARKING CONTROLSIGNS The signs in this group apply to the control andregulation of stopping and parking. The signs inthe group are available to clarify stopping orparking controls in complex environments or toindicate circumstances where limited or part-timerestrictions operate for part(s) of a day or apply tospecific classes of vehicle.The group includes circular prohibition signs,which are commonly contained within a rectan-gular background. The prohibitory meaning of the sign is not affected by its manner of display.The reason for placing the sign within a rectan-gular background is to provide a suitable base todisplay relevant secondary information whichlimits the application of the sign in some way.Parking control signs may be prohibitory signs orpermissive signs. Prohibitory parking controlsigns use a red border, text, and arrow whereaspermissive parking signs, which may still containa restrictive element in their message (e.g., amaximum duration of stay), use a green border,text and arrow. Prohibitory and permissive park-ing control signs may be mounted side-by-sideon sections of street where a stopping or parkingprohibition changes to permitted parking. If thereare no time or payment controls over the use of aparking area it is not necessary to erect parkingcontrol signs.Not all numbered signs are illustrated. Examplesare shown inFigures 3-5 to 3-8. Sign 365

3-21 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 3.5.1 NO STOPPING SIGNS 370, 371,372, AND 373 Sign 370 prohibits the driver of a vehicle fromstopping his vehicle at any time along the sectionof road beyond such a sign, subject to compliancewith a traffic signal, the direction of a traffic offi-cer, or to avoid a collision. The action of NOSTOPPING sign 370 should cease automaticallywhen a driver leaves the roadway on which it isprovided unless he comes under the control of another NO STOPPING sign on the roadwaywhich he enters.The use of NO STOPPING sign 370 is appropri-ate on high speed roads such as major arterialswhich have limited points of access. Sign 370should be located on the right side of such multi-lane one-way roadways within 150 meters of apoint of entry to the roadway and in such a waythat the sign is at right angles to the normal direc-tion of travel.NO STOPPING sign 370 should not be usedindiscriminately but should be limited to situa-tions where: The stopping of vehicles will pose a severesafety or capacity problem, and There is a situation whereby a significantnumber of drivers are stopping their vehicles,and Where another form of regulatory sign orpavement marking would not otherwisemake stopping illegal.Thus, the use of sign 370 should generally not beincluded in new designs, but rather as a retrofitwhen a particular stopping problem has beenidentified.QUALIFICATION PLATE sign 365 should beused to convey regulatory limits with messagessuch as the following: For 1000 m. On Bridge. In Thru Lanes. End.Signs 371, 372 and 373 require that the driver of a vehicle should not stop his vehicle at any timealong a section of road within 40 meters of sucha sign, subject to compliance with a traffic signal,the direction of a traffic officer, or to avoid a col-lision. Signs 371, 372, and 373 should include anarrow to indicate the direction of application of the restriction from the sign.NO STOPPING signs 371, 372, and 373 shouldbe located on the right and/or left side of theroadway, as appropriate, with the sign face paral-lel to the curbline or edge of roadway. The maxi-mum distance between signs to give adequatecoverage to a full section of nonarterial urbanroadway should be 80 meters. When a stoppingprohibition is to be applied to a section of road-way for a distance less than 80 meters two NOSTOPPING signs 371 and 373 should be used,one at each end of the section of roadway. Therange of arrow variations with signs 371, 372,and 373 is

illustrated inFigure 3-5.NO STOPPING signs 371, 372, and 373 may bemade specific to a particular time of day, ratherthan the full 24 hours, by indicating within the Figure 3-5 No Stopping Sign VariantsSign 370 Sign 373Sign 372Sign 371

to a full section of urban roadway should be 80meters. When a parking prohibition is to beapplied to a section of roadway for a distance lessthan 80 meters two NO PARKING signs 377 and379 should be used, one at each end of the sectionof roadway.NO PARKING signs 377, 378, and 379 may bemade specific to a particular time of day, ratherthan the full 24 hours, by indicating within thesign face the applicable time period or time peri-ods. The manner of display should be as illustrat-ed inFigure 3-6, with the substitution of the NOPARKING disc for the NO STOPPING disc andthe use of specific sign numbers 380, 381 and382.The range of arrow variations with signs 377,378, and 379 is illustrated inFigure 3-7.sign face the applicable time period or time peri-ods. Alternatives, with their specific sign num-bers, are illustrated inFigure 36. 3.5.2 NO PARKING SIGNS 377, 378,AND 379 Signs 377, 378, and 379 require that the driver of a vehicle should not park his vehicle at any timealong a section of road within 40 meters of sucha sign. Signs 377, 378, and 379 should include anarrow to indicate the direction of application of the restriction from the sign.NO PARKING signs 377, 378, and 379 should belocated on the right and/or left side of the roadway, as appropriate, with the sign face parallel tothe curbline or edge of roadway. The maximumdistance between signs to give adequate coverage 3-22 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Figure 3-7 No Parking Sign VariantsSign 377 Sign 379Sign 378 : :: :: :: : Figure 3-6 No Stopping with Time Limit DisplaysSign 374Sign 375 Sign 376

3.5.3 PAY-AND-DISPLAY PARKINGSIGNS 383, 384, AND 385 Signs 383, 384, and 385 indicate to drivers of vehicles using the parking area designated by thesign that they should pay the appropriate tariff atthe designated payment point and should affixthe ticket/notice received on the inside of thewindscreen of the vehicle so that it can beobserved from outside the vehicle.PAY-AND-DISPLAY PARKING signs 383 and385 should be located at each end of a row of parking bays served by a PAY-AND-DISPLAYpayment point, with the sign face parallel to thecurbline or edge of roadway. The arrows on thesigns will indicate the point from which thePAY-AND-DISPLAY criteria applies, and willgenerally point towards the payment point. PAY-AND-DISPLAY PARKING sign 384 should belocated at intermediate intervals between PAY-AND-DISPLAY PARKING signs 383 and 385only when the row of parking bays is consideredto be of sufficient length as to warrant the provi-sion of additional PAY-AND-DISPLAY pay-ment points. If it is necessary to advise drivers of time limits applicable to the parking area thisshould be done using appropriate PARKINGTIME LIMIT signs 389, 390, and 391 in additionto signs 383, 384, and 385 in a manner similar tothe examples inFigure 3-11. 3-23 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 The range of PAY AND DISPLAY PARKINGsigns 383, 384, and 385 is illustrated inFigure 38. 3.5.4 PARKING FOR DISABLEDPERSONS SIGNS 386, 387, AND388 Signs 386, 387,and 388 indicate to drivers of vehicles that the parking area designated by thesign is reserved for use by disabled persons onlyand that it should not be used by other drivers.When a single PARKING FOR DISABLEDPERSONS sign 387 is required for a single park-ing bay it should be located on the sidewalk approximately in the center of the length or widthof the parking bay. In such an application thearrow is omitted. In other applications, signs 386and 388 should be displayed in a similar mannerto that described for NO PARKING signs 377and 379 (seeSection 3.5.2). Sign 387 should beused only to identify a single parking bay.The range of PARKING FOR DISABLED PER-SONS signs 386, 387, and 388 is illustrated inFigure 3-9. 3.5.5 PARKING TIME LIMIT SIGNS389, 390, AND 391 Signs 389, 390, and 391 indicate to drivers of vehicles using the parking area designated by the Figure 3-8 Pay and Display Parking Sign VariantsSign 383Sign 384Sign 385

3-24 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 sign that there are time limits to their use of theparking area. The time limit may apply in one orboth of two ways: To the maximum duration of the parkingperiod. To the times of day that parking is permitted.Signs 389, 390, and 391 should include an arrowto indicate the direction of application of the timerestrictions indicated on the sign (seeFigure 310).PARKING TIME LIMIT signs 389, 390, and 391should be displayed in the same manner as NOSTOPPING signs 374, 375, and 376 and NOPARKING signs 377, 378, and 379 with regard toposition and frequency. In an area where mixedprohibition (signs 377, 378, and 379) and permissive (signs 383 to 391) signs are used prohi-bition and permissive signs may be mounted nextto each other with arrows pointing in appropriatedirections.The messages of the PARKING TIME LIMITsigns 389, 390, and 391 may be varied. The dura-tion of stay limit or the time of day limit may beomitted if one or other is not appropriate to thecircumstances of the parking area. Sign 389Sign 390 Sign 391 Figure 3-10 Parking Time Limit Sign VariantsSign 386Sign 387 Sign 388 Figure 3-9 Parking for Disabled Persons Sign Variants

Figure 3-11illustrates some of the sign combina-tions possible within this group of signs. 3.5.6 BUS STOP SIGN 392 Sign 392 indicates to drivers that the section of roadway designated is reserved for the stoppingor standing of buses. BUS STOP sign 392 shouldbe located at the edge of the sidewalk so that itcan be seen by pedestrians and bus drivers(mounted perpendicular to the curb). It should bepositioned near the end of the loading area andindicate the position for the driver to stop andpassengers to queue.BUS STOP sign 392 should have a white back-ground. The icon should be offset on a blue back-ground and the horizontal dividing lines should beblue. Both Arabic and English text should be red. 3.5.7 TAXI STAND SIGN 393 Sign 393 indicates to drivers of vehicles that thesection of roadway designated is reserved for thestopping or standing of taxis only, and that suchsection of road should not be used by other vehi-cles.The space reserved by TAXI STAND sign 393should not be used for the unattended parking of taxis. Taxis may only stand in the space whilewaiting for fares.Taxi stand locations must be approved by theTraffic Police.TAXI STAND sign 393 should have a whitebackground. The icon and the horizontal dividinglines should be blue. The border and the Arabicand English text should be red. 3-25 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Sign 392Sign 381Sign 380 Sign 382Sign 390 Sign 391Sign 388 Sign 371Sign 381 Sign 389 Figure 3-11 Examples of Sign Combinations in the Parking Group

3-26 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 3.5.8 DROP-OFF PICK-UP ONLYSIGN 394 Sign 394 indicates to drivers of vehicles that thesection of roadway designated is reserved fordropping off or picking up passengers. These sec-tions of roadways may be used by any type vehi-cle, public or private.The space reserved by sign 394 should not beused for the unattended parking of any vehicle.Sign 394 is also generally used near the begin-ning of the loading area at bus stops, allowingother vehicles to use the bus stop for drop-off andpick-up. Approval should be obtained from theRoad Department before installing Sign 394 in abus stop.DROP-OFF PICKUP ONLY sign 394 shouldhave a white background. The car-and-personicon and the horizontal dividing lines should beblue. The border, the prohibition icon, and theArabic and English text should be red. 3.6 FREEWAY CONTROL SIGNS The signs in this group indicate to road userswhich roads are classified as freeways. In doingso they make road users aware of the application,and removal, of the particular Rules of theRoad relevant to the use of freeways. 3.6.1 BEGINNING OF FREEWAYSIGN 398 Sign 398 indicates to drivers of vehicles that adual carriageway freeway begins and that thevarious controls and prohibitions become effec-tive beyond the sign.Freeway rules invoked by sign 398 should meanthat, except in case of emergency, no personshould: Operate a nonmotorized vehicle on or nearthe freeway. Be on foot on or near the freeway. Stop or reverse a vehicle on the roadway. Stop, park, or drive on a shoulder, median, orroadside area. Drive at a speed less than 70 km/h or 30 km/hless than the prevailing traffic speed,whichever is lower. Sign 393Sign 394Sign 398

3-27 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 The BEGINNING OF FREEWAY sign 398should be located on the right side within the firstthird of the length of all freeway on-ramps and onthe right side, and left side when a median islandis available, when a non-freeway roadwaybecomes a freeway in a straight-ahead situation.Sign 398 should have a blue background with awhite icon and border. 3.6.2 END OF FREEWAY SIGN 399 Sign 399 indicates to the drivers of vehicles thata freeway is about to end and that the relevantfreeway rules are no longer applicable.END OF FREEWAY sign 399 should be locatedon the right side within the final third of thelength of all freeway off-ramps. When a freewayends, but continues as a non-freeway road, sign399 should be located on the right side, and if amedian island is available, on the left side of theroadway. It should be noted that if it is requiredthat some of the prohibitions provided for on thefreeway be retained, specific prohibition signsshould be erected accordingly beyond sign 399.END OF FREEWAY sign 399 should have a bluebackground with a white icon and border. Thediagonal slash should be red. Sign 399

4-1 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 4 WARNING SIGNS 4.1 GENERAL Warning signs are used to make drivers aware of hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions inthe roadway which drivers might not otherwiseexpect to see due to the nature of the hazard, thehazard being hidden or partially hidden, or due tothe drivers workload at the time. Advance warn-ing signs have a unique triangular shape and thewarning message is given in the majority of instances by a symbolic representation of thehazard or potential hazard.In order to maintain the credibility of warningsigns they should only be used when a need hasbeen established or a warrant satisfied. If warningsigns are used automatically to warn of fullyvisible everyday road features, those warningsigns which really are important are likely to beless effective.Most warning signs are located in advance of thehazard to which they refer. To be effective as aclass, warning signs must be positioned consis-tently. The location of warning signs should, inpart, be related to the speed with which the haz-ard can be negotiated. This in turn relates to thedifference between the speed at the hazard andthe speed when viewing the sign.Table 41givesguidelines for the positioning of advance warningsigns. Distances inTable 4-1are based on stan-dard traffic-engineering stopping-sight distanceequations (distance needed to reduce speed fromapproach speed to safe operating speed at haz-ard).It is also important that there be an adequate clearvisibility distance to the warning sign. The avail-ability of this distance must be checked at thetime of installation of the sign. Clear visibilitydistance cannot be assumed to exist simplybecause it appears to be available from reading aplan of a section of road. Engineers need to exer-cise professional judgement on site to ensuredrivers have adequate clear visibility to a warn-ing sign.Likewise, sound engineering judgement isrequired for placement of warning signs used toalert drivers to temporary road conditions or par-ticularly hazardous conditions. In either of thesesituations, distances from the sign to the hazardmay need to be increased or decreased from theguidelines inTable 4-1. It may also be the casethat multiple warning signs are needed to effec-tively alert drivers to a single hazard. Engineersshould consider either of these options during ini-tial installation and prepared to review this deci-sion in the future if deemed warranted. Table 4-1 Guidelines for Positioning Advance Warning SignsPosted Speed at Hazard (km/h)<20 30 40 50 60 70 80ApproachSpeed (km/h)Preferred Distance of Sign from Hazard (meters) 30 Note 1 Note 2 - - - - -40 25 Note 1 Note 2 - - - -50 75 60 Note 1 Note 2 - - -60 125 110 100 50 Note 2 - -70 150 140 125 110 50 Note 2 -80 175 160 150 125 100 60 Note 290 200 185 175 150 140 75 65100 250 230 200 180 175 125 100110 275 250 225 210 190 160 130120 300 275 250 230 210 190 175NOTES:1. No suggested minimum distances are provided for these speeds, as placementlocation is dependent on site conditions and other signing to provide an adequateadvance warning for the driver.2. No specific recommended placement distance are provided for these speeds. TheEngineer should exercise professional engineering judgement in light of localconditions.

4-2 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 The function of each individual warning sign isgiven in subsequent sections of this chapter. If awarning sign is required for which there is nosymbol GENERAL WARNING sign 450 shouldbe used in conjunction with a SUPPLEMEN-TARY PLATE sign 589 (seeSection 4.2.26).SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 may beattached below an advance warning sign toenhance the message of the sign (seeSection5.7.4). 4.1.1 FUNCTION AND OBJECTIVESOF WARNING SIGNS It is the function of warning signs to alert driversto hazardous or potentially hazardous conditionson or adjacent to the roadway. This function maybe exercised in the form of an advance warningof a hazard ahead or by marking the actual phys-ical hazard.The objective of warning signs is to transfer thedesired warning message to road users as clearlyand as quickly as possible with a minimumimpact on the driving task and in so doing to cre-ate the safest practical road environment forusers. In order to achieve this objective warningsigns must be of adequate size and must be cor-rectly positioned to attract the attention of roadusers in time for them to take the required action.By providing warning signs the design engineermust have as an objective the creation of an ade-quate level of road safety while using the fewestpossible signs. 4.1.2 SUBCLASSIFICATION OFWARNING SIGNS In order to clarify the different functions of warn-ing signs the class is further subdivided as follows: Advance warning signs. Hazard marker signs. Diagrammatic signs. 4.2 ADVANCE WARNINGSIGNS The signs in this group should all be used inadvance of the hazard or potential hazard towhich they relate. Consistent with this functionthey have a unique triangular shape in order toattract the attention of drivers sufficiently earlyfor their message to be effective. Advance warn-ing signs are therefore not appropriate to mark oridentify the point location of the hazard. Hazardmarker signs should be used for such a purpose(seeSection 4.3). 4.2.1 JUNCTION AHEAD SIGNS 401TO 406 Signs 401 to 406 warn drivers of vehicles of ajunction ahead.CROSSROAD AHEAD sign 401, SIDE ROADAHEAD signs 403 and 404 and STAGGEREDSIDE ROAD AHEAD signs 405 and 406 arespecifically for use on a major road to indicatethe presence and layout of the junction ahead. T-JUNCTION AHEAD sign 402 may be used on amajor or minor road although its use on majorroads is not likely to be common.Signs 401 to 406 should be located on the rightside of the roadway at a distance from the junc-tion as indicated inTable 4-1and with a clearsight

distance to the sign. A SUPPLEMENTARYPLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to thejunction to the nearest 20 meters should beattached below all signs 401 to 406.Signs 401 to 406 should be considered for use inan urban area only when all of the following con-ditions apply: The junction is not controlled by traffic sig-nals. There are no advance direction signs. With the exception of T-JUNCTIONAHEAD sign 402, there are no STOP orGIVE WAY signs or road markings on themajor road approach. No other means is available to improve theidentification of the junction from an ade-quate distance to allow drivers to safelynegotiate a turn. That is,there are no roadmarkings, gore signing, or street name signs.Signs 405 and 406 should only be used when thedistance between the staggered side roads is less

4-3 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Sign 401Sign 405Sign 406Sign 403 Sign 404Sign 402

NO THROUGH ROAD signs 407, 408, and 409should have a white background and a thick redborder. The icon should be black and red, withblack representing the road and a red stumprepresenting the end of the throughway. 4-4 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 than that given inTable 4-2. If the distanceexceeds the value shown, two type 403 or 404signs should be used, the signs being located inaccordance withTable 4-1. STAGGEREDJUNCTION AHEAD signs 405 and 406 shouldbe located at the distance given inTable 4-1inadvance of the first of the two side road junc-tions.It is also appropriate to consider the use of CROSSROAD AHEAD sign 401 and T-JUNC-TION AHEAD sign 402 on the minor roadapproach to a rural junction, particularly if theroad alignment is not straight on the approach tothe junction. For such an application the width of both legs of the symbol on CROSSROADAHEAD sign 401 should be sized similarly tothat for T-JUNCTION AHEAD sign 402.Signs 401 to 406 should have a white back-ground, a black icon, and a thick red border. 4.2.2 NO THROUGH ROAD SIGNS407, 408, AND 409 Signs 407 to 409 are to warn drivers of vehiclesthat the road indicated on the sign is not availableto through traffic, i.e., the road is a dead-end roador is closed to through traffic for some reason.NO THROUGH ROAD signs 407 to 409 shouldbe located on the right side of the roadway at adistance from the junction as indicated inTable4-1and with a clear sight distance.Signs 407 to 409 should only be used when it isnot otherwise obvious that the road concerned isnot a through road. The use of sign 409 is appro-priate in advance of a crossroad when the straightahead leg of the junction is not a through road. Table 4-2 Junction Spacing Requirements for Signs 405 and 406Operating Speed(8th Percentile)(km/h)Distance BetweenJunctions(meters) Up to 45 <6045 to 65 <15065 to 85 <200 $ 85<300 Sign 408Sign 409Sign 407

4-5 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 4.2.3 MERGING TRAFFIC SIGNS 410AND 411 Signs 410 and 411 are to warn drivers of vehiclesof a junction ahead where two streams of traffictraveling in the same direction, and of equal pri-ority, are required to merge into one stream.MERGING TRAFFIC sign 410 should be locat-ed on the right side of the through roadway at adistance from the junction of the roadways asindicated inTable 4-1, subject to adequate clearsight distance being available.MERGING TRAFFIC sign 411, if required,should be located on the right side of the joiningroadway at a distance from the junction of theroadways as indicated inTable 4-1, subject toadequate clear sight distance being available. Sign 410Sign 411 Sign 411 need only be used when the anglebetween the two merging roadways makes it dif-ficult to position sign 410 so that it may beviewed from both roadways. Signs 410 and 411should not be used if the traffic on the joiningroadway is subject to stop or give way control.MERGING TRAFFIC signs 410 and 411 shouldhave a white background, a black icon, and athick red border. 4.2.4 RIGHT (OR LEFT) CURVE SIGN412 (OR 413) Signs 412 and 413 warn drivers of vehicles thatthere is a curve in the road ahead to the right (orleft) which requires caution.RIGHT CURVE sign 412 should be located onthe right side of the roadway at a distance fromthe start of a right-hand curve as indicated in Sign 412Sign 413

4-6 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 BENDS AHEAD signs 414 and 415 should havea white background, a black icon, and a thick redborder. 4.2.6 TWO-WAY TRAFFIC SIGN 416 Sign 416 warns drivers of vehicles in a one wayroadway that the roadway ahead carries traffic inboth directions.TWO-WAY TRAFFIC sign 416 should be locat-ed on the left side of a one way roadway at a dis-tance from the start of the two way roadway asindicated inTable 4-1and with a clear sight dis-tance to the sign. A second sign 416 may bemounted on the right side of the roadway foradditional emphasis. A SUPPLEMENTARYPLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to thestart of two-way traffic may be attached below Sign 414Sign 415 Table 4-1and with a clear sight distance to thesign. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589indicating the recommended speed at which thecurve may be safely negotiated should beattached below sign 412. Sign 413 should be usedsimilarly for a left-hand curve.RIGHT (or LEFT) CURVE sign 412 (or 413)should be used in advance of a horizontal curvethat can only be negotiated comfortably byreducing speed by one tenth or more of the oper-ating speed of traffic on the preceding straight.Sign 412 (or 413) should not be used on road-ways with a basic posted speed less than 60 kilo-meters per hour, except for exceptional circum-stances.RIGHT (OR LEFT) CURVE sign 412 (or 413)should have a white background, a black icon,and a thick red border. 4.2.5 BENDS AHEAD SIGNS 414AND 415 Signs 414 and 415 warn drivers of vehicles thatthere are sharp reverse direction curves in theroad ahead.BENDS AHEAD signs 414 and 415 should belocated on the right side of the roadway at a dis-tance from the start of the first curve as indicatedinTable 4-1and with a clear sight distance. ASUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicatingthe recommended speed at which the curves maybe safely negotiated should be attached belowsigns 414 and 415. The symbol direction mustalways be specified so that it is correctly orientedfor the first curve or bend to be entered, e.g., leftbefore right (414) or right before left (415).BENDS AHEAD signs 414 and 415 should onlybe displayed when: The bends can only be negotiated comfort-ably by reducing speed by more than onetenth of the operating speed of traffic on thepreceding straight, and/or The length of the straight between curves isless than 120 meters, or The nature of the reverse curves is not obvi-ous to approaching drivers.

4-7 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Sign 416 sign 416. The sign may be repeated once the two-way section of roadway is fully developed if additional emphasis is needed.TWO-WAY TRAFFIC sign 416 should be usedwhen a one way roadway or carriagewaybecomes a two way roadway. This conditioncommonly occurs at the end of a dual carriage-way. The sign is therefore commonly used withDUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS AHEAD sign424.TWO-WAY TRAFFIC sign 416 should have awhite background, a black icon, and a thick redborder. 4.2.7 LANE ENDS SIGNS 417 AND418 Signs 417 and 418 warn drivers of vehicles thatthe right-hand or left-hand lane ends ahead.LANE ENDS signs 417 and 418 should be locat-ed on the right side of the roadway on two-wayroadways. Whenever possible a sign should belocated on the left side as well, particularly whenthe lane on the left side of a one way carriagewayis ending ahead. Signs 417 and 418 should not beused if the reduction in road width does not resultin a reduction in the number of lanes. In suchinstances the appropriate ROAD NARROWSAHEAD sign 421, 422, or 423 should be used.Signs 417 and 418 should be located as indicatedinTable 4-1in advance of the lane reductiontaper and clear sight distance to the signs shouldbe available. Sign 417Sign 418 A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicat-ing the distance to the start of the lane reductiontaper should be attached below signs 417 and418.LANE ENDS sign 417 and 418 should be pro-vided in advance of any lane drop situation on anarterial road that is not clearly demarcated byoverhead guide signs. If necessary the larger dia-grammatic warning LANE DROP signs 465 and466 may be specified for improved conspicuityon arterial roads, and should be used for highspeed freeway or expressway locations.LAND ENDS signs 417 and 418 should have awhite background, a black icon, and a thick redborder.

4-8 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 4.2.8 U-TURN AHEAD SIGN 419 Sign 419 warns drivers of vehicles that they arepermitted to make a U-turn at the junction ormedian opening ahead.U-TURN AHEAD sign 419 should be located onthe median island of a dual carriageway roadwayon the left side of the roadway at a distance fromthe junction or median opening as indicated inTable 4-1and with a clear sight distance to thesign. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589indicating the distance to the point where a U-turnis permitted should be attached below sign 419.U-TURN AHEAD sign 419 should be providedin advance of median openings provided specifi-cally for U-turns or at which U-turns are permitted. U-TURN AHEAD sign 419 should not beprovided in situations where the availability of aUturn is apparent or can be accurately anticipat-ed by a driver (e.g., as almost all signalized intersections in Abu Dhabi allow U-turns, no U-TURN AHEAD sign 419 is necessary in advanceof a signalized intersection).Subject to the distance available, in particularbetween opposing U-turns through a medianisland, U-TURN AHEAD sign 419 may be locat-ed further from the point of U-turn than the dis-tance given inTable 4-1in order to reassure driv-ers that an opportunity to Uturn exists ahead.The distance given on the supplementary platemust reflect such an adjustment in position andindicate the actual distance to the U-turn. Underno circumstances should sign 419 for a U-turn Sign 419 ahead be located in advance of the median open-ing for a U-turn from the opposite direction.UTURN AHEAD sign 419 should have a whitebackground, a black icon, and a thick red border. 4.2.9 ROUNDABOUT AHEAD SIGN420 Sign 420 warns drivers of vehicles of a round-about ahead.ROUNDABOUT AHEAD sign 420 should belocated on the right side of the roadway at a dis-tance from the roundabout as indicated inTable4-1and with a clear sight distance to the sign. ASUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicatingthe distance to the junction to the nearest 20meters should be attached below sign 420. Anadditional sign may be placed on the left side of a one-way carriageway.Sign 420 should only be considered for use whenit is not obvious at the distance given inTable 4-1that there is a roundabout ahead.ROUNDABOUT AHEAD sign 420 should havea white background, a black icon, and a thick redborder. 4.2.10ROAD NARROWS AHEADSIGNS 421 TO 423 Signs 421 to 423 warn drivers of vehicles that theroadway ahead narrows from the right side (421),the left side (422) or from both sides (423). Sign 420

ROAD NARROWS AHEAD signs 421 to 423should be located on the right side of the roadwayon two way roadways and, where practical, onboth sides of one way roadways. The normalapplication of these should be for temporary road 4-9 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Sign 421Sign 422Sign 423 narrowing situations at roadworks when theextent of the narrowing is less than a full lanewidth. If the road width reduction results in areduction in the number of lanes, then LANEENDS signs 417 and 418 should be used instead.Signs 421 to 423 should be used when the widthof a roadway is reduced on the left or right, orboth sides, at a quicker rate than would be thecase by a standard design taper.ROAD NARROWS AHEAD signs 421 to 423should have a white background, a black icon,and a thick red border. 4.2.11 DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDSAHEAD SIGN 424 Sign 424 warns drivers of vehicles that the oneway roadway forming part of a dual carriagewayroad on which they are traveling is about tobecome a single carriageway roadway carryingtwo way traffic.DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS AHEAD sign424 should be located on the left and right handsides of a one way roadway which is about tobecome part of a single carriageway roadway, ata distance from where the two carriagewaysforming the dual carriageway come together asindicated inTable 4-1and with a clear sight dis-tance to the sign. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATEsign 589 indicating the distance to the start of thetwo way roadway should be attached below sign424. Sign 424

4-10 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS AHEAD sign424 may be used with TWO WAY TRAFFIC sign416. When both signs are used sign 416 shouldbe located as indicated inTable 4-1and sign 424should be positioned in advance of sign 416 sothat clear sight distance is maintained to sign 416.DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS AHEAD sign424 should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red border. 4.2.12MAXIMUM HEADROOM SIGN425 Sign 425 warns drivers of vehicles that the clear-ance available under an overhead structure aheadis restricted to the amount indicated in meters onthe sign.Sign 425 should be located on the right side of the roadway.MAXIMUM HEADROOM sign 425 should notbe displayed for any structure with minimumclearance of 5.0 meters or greater. For structureswith a clearance less than and 5.0 meters sign 425should be provided as indicated inTable 4-1andwith a clear sight distance to the sign. In such aninstance it is not normally considered necessaryto provide prohibition MAXIMUM HEIGHTLIMIT sign 355 at such structures.MAXIMUM HEADROOM sign 425 and MAX-IMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 355 should both bedisplayed for any structure with a minimumclearance of less than 5.0 meters. Sign 355should be located as indicated inSection 3.4.10 Sign 425 and sign 425 should be located in advance of thestructure in such a position that the driver of anover-height vehicle may turn off onto an alterna-tive route. In such instances it may be necessaryto provide a custom designed information sign,incorporating sign 425, advising drivers of over-height vehicles of the alternative route.Unless specified otherwise by the Department,the height to be indicated on sign 425 should be200 millimeters less than the actual minimumclearance measured under the structure, furtherrounded down to the nearest one decimal point of a meter.The maximum legal height of a vehicle in theUnited Arab Emirates is 4.2 meters.MAXIMUM HEADROOM sign 425 shouldhave a white background, a black icon, and athick red border. 4.2.13CHILDREN SIGN 426 Sign 426 warns drivers of vehicles of the likeli-hood that children are on or adjacent to the roadahead due to the presence of a school, play-ground, or other activity area.CHILDREN sign 426 should be located on theright side of the roadway and, where possible, onthe left side as well, at a distance from the start of the area where children are likely to be present asindicated inTable 4-1and with a clear sight dis-tance to the sign. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATEsign 589 indicating the specific reason for the Sign 426

4-11 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 presence of children such as School orPlayground in Arabic and English should beattached below sign 426.CHILDREN sign 426 should be provided inadvance of any appropriate roadway area whichis potentially hazardous to children.CHILDREN sign 426 should have a white background, a black icon, and a thick red border. 4.2.14PEDESTRIAN CROSSINGAHEAD SIGN 427 Sign 427 warns drivers of vehicles that there is amarked and/or signalized pedestrian crossingahead at which pedestrians have right-of-way.PEDESTRIAN CROSSING AHEAD sign 427should be located on the right side of the roadwayand, where possible, on the left side as well, at adistance from the crossing as indicated inTable4-1and with a clear sight distance to the sign. ASUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicatingthe distance to the pedestrian crossing should beattached below sign 427.PEDESTRIAN CROSSING AHEAD sign 427should be provided in advance of all markedpedestrian crossings and mid-block signalizedpedestrian crossings. Sign 427 should not belocated at a pedestrian crossing to mark the posi-tion of the crossing. All unsignalized pedestriancrossings should be marked by GIVE WAY TOPEDESTRIANS sign 303. PEDESTRIANCROSSING AHEAD sign 427 should not be proSign 427 vided at pedestrian crossings located at signal-ized or sign controlled legs of an intersection.PEDESTRIAN CROSSING AHEAD sign 427should have a white background, a black icon,and a thick red border. 4.2.15STOP CONTROL AHEAD SIGN428 Sign 428 warns drivers of vehicles of the pres-ence of a STOP sign 301 ahead and that theyshould prepare to stop.STOP CONTROL AHEAD sign 428 should belocated on the right side of the roadway at a dis-tance from the STOP sign as indicated inTable 4-1and with a clear sight distance to the sign. ASUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicatingthe distance to the STOP sign 301 should beattached below sign 428. An additional signshould be provided on the left side of the road-way on a median island if the roadway is part of a dual carriageway.STOP CONTROL AHEAD sign 428 should onlybe considered for use when: It is not obvious at the distance given inTable 4-1that there is a STOP control ahead,and/or The approach speed is in excess of 60 km/h.STOP CONTROL AHEAD sign 428 should havea white background, a red icon, and a thick redborder. Sign 428

4-12 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 4.2.16GIVE-WAY CONTROL AHEADSIGN 429 Sign 429 warns drivers of vehicles of the pres-ence of a GIVE-WAY sign 302 ahead and thatthey should prepare to yield right-of-way andstop if necessary.GIVE-WAY CONTROL AHEAD sign 429should be located on the right side of the road-way at a distance from the GIVE WAY sign 302as indicated inTable 4-1and with a clear sightdistance to the sign. A SUPPLEMENTARYPLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to theGIVE WAY sign 302 should be attached belowsign 429. An additional sign should be providedon the left side of the roadway on a medianisland if the roadway is part of a dual carriage-way.GIVE-WAY CONTROL AHEAD sign 429should only be considered for use when either orboth of the following conditions exist: It is not obvious at the distance given inTable 4-1that there is a GIVE-WAY controlahead. The approach speed is in excess of 60 km/h.GIVE-WAY CONTROL AHEAD sign 428should have a white background, a red icon, anda thick red border. 4.2.17TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEADSIGN 430 Sign 430 warns drivers of vehicles that the junc-tion or pedestrian crossing ahead is controlled bytraffic signals.TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD sign 430 shouldbe located on the right side of the roadway at adistance from the traffic signal as indicated inTable 4-1and with a clear sight distance to thesign. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589indicating the distance to the traffic signal shouldbe attached below sign 430. An additional signshould be provided on the left side of the road-way on a median island if the roadway is part of a dual carriageway.TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD sign 430 shouldonly be considered for use when: It is not obvious at the distance given inTable 4-1that there is a TRAFFIC SIGNALcontrol ahead, and/or The signalized junction is remote or isolatedfrom other signalized junctions.In addition to the above situations, sign 430 maybe installed for a short period of 3 to 6 monthswhen a new traffic signal is commissioned butmust be removed after such a period, subject tothe warrant criteria given above.TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD sign 430 shouldhave a white background and a thick red border. Sign 429Sign 430

Sign 432 should have a white background, ablack icon, and a thick red border. 4.2.20ANIMALS AHEAD SIGN 433 Sign 433 warns drivers of vehicles of the possi-ble presence of attended or unattended animalson or adjacent to the road ahead.ANIMALS AHEAD sign 433 should be locatedon the right side of the road at a distance from thepoint at which animals are likely to occur nearthe roadway as indicated inTable 4-1and with aclear sight distance to the sign. A SUPPLEMEN-TARY PLATE sign 589 may be attached belowsign 433 indicating the distance for which thehazard can be expected to occur.The symbol on an ANIMALS AHEAD sign maybe that representing camels, sheep, or goats. If domestic animals are regularly herded across 4-13 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 The icon should have a black background with, indescending order, red, yellow, and green lights. 4.2.18QUAYSIDE SIGN 431 Sign 431 warns drivers of vehicles that there is anunprotected quayside, jetty, or river bank ahead.The sign 431 symbol may be reversed.QUAYSIDE sign 431 should be located on theright side of a roadway which runs directly alongthe side of a quay, jetty, or river bank. Sign 431should, if practical, be positioned in advance of the unprotected quayside, jetty, or river bank by adistance as indicated inTable 4-1and with a clearsight distance to the sign.QUAYSIDE sign 431 should have a white back-ground, a black icon, and a thick red border. 4.2.19DRAWBRIDGE AHEAD SIGN432 Sign 432 warns drivers of vehicles that there is anopening bridge or drawbridge in the road ahead.Currently, Abu Dhabi has no drawbridges.If a drawbridge is eventually constructed in AbuDhabi, sign 432 should be located as the result of an engineering assessment, meeting the require-ments indicated inTable 4-1, and in considera-tion of clear sight distance. A SUPPLEMEN-TARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance tothe drawbridge should be attached below sign432. Sign 432Sign 433Sign 431

4-14 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 roadways, temporary signs displaying the appro-priate symbol should be set up in advance of thecrossing point. Such signs should preferably indi-cate the distance to the crossing point.ANIMALS AHEAD sign 433 should have awhite background, a black icon, and a thick redborder. 4.2.21LOW-FLYING AIRCRAFT SIGN434 Sign 434 warns drivers of vehicles that they maybe distracted by low flying aircraft or a suddenaircraft noise and to drive with due care.LOW-FLYING AIRCRAFT sign 434 should belocated on the right side of the roadway at a dis-tance from the point where the distraction mayoccur as indicated inTable 4-1and with a clearsight distance to the sign.LOW-FLYING AIRCRAFT sign 434 should onlybe provided when aircraft are likely to over-flythe roadway or to fly in close proximity to theroadway.Sign 434 should have a white background, ablack icon, and a thick red border. 4.2.22SPEED HUMP SIGN 435 Sign 435 warns drivers of vehicles that one ormore speed humps exist in the roadway aheadand that they should reduce their speed in orderto negotiate them.SPEED HUMP sign 435 should be located on theright side of the roadway at a distance as indicat-ed inTable 4-1and with a clear sight distance tothe sign. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589should be provided below sign 435. This mayindicate one or more of the following: The distance for which speed humps are pro-vided, or An appropriate text message such as SpeedHumps or Traffic Calming.SPEED HUMP sign 435 should have a whitebackground, a black icon, and a thick red border. 4.2.23TUNNEL SIGN 436 Sign 436 is to warn drivers of vehicles that thereis a tunnel on the roadway ahead and that driversmay be subjected to reduced lighting levels orthat drivers of certain classes of vehicle may berequired by regulatory sign not to enter the tun-nel.TUNNEL sign 436 should be located on the rightside of the road at a distance from the tunnelentrance as indicated inTable 4-1and with aclear sight distance to the sign. If a prohibition oncertain classes of vehicle entering the tunnelexists, sign 436 should be displayed in combina-tion with the relevant regulatory sign(s). If neces-sary, sign 436 may therefore be placed at agreater distance from the tunnel than given inTable 4-1. On dual carriageway approaches to atunnel, sign 436 may be placed on the right andleft sides of the roadway. Sign 434Sign 435

4-15 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 TUNNEL sign 436 should have a white back-ground, a black icon, and a thick red border. 4.2.24FALLING ROCKS SIGN 437 Sign 437 warns drivers of vehicles that there is arisk that rocks may have fallen into the roadway.The sign 437 symbol may be reversed.FALLING ROCKS sign 437 should be locatedon the right side of the roadway at a distance inadvance of a section of road where the risk of falling rocks exists, as indicated inTable 4-1andwith a clear sight distance to the sign. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 may beattached below sign 437 indicating the distancefor which the hazard can be expected to occur(e.g., For 5 km).FALLING ROCKS sign 437 should have a whitebackground, a black icon, and a thick red border. 4.2.25 SLIPPERY SURFACE SIGN 438 Sign 438 warns drivers of vehicles that there is arisk of a slippery surface on the roadway.SLIPPERY SURFACE sign 438 should be locat-ed on the right side of the roadway at a distancein advance of a section of road where the risk of the slippery surface exists, as indicated inTable4-1and with a clear sight distance to the sign. ASUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 may beattached below sign 438 indicating the distancefor which the hazard can be expected to occur(e.g., For 5 km).SLIPPERY SURFACE sign 438 should have awhite background, a black icon, and a thick redborder. 4.2.26GENERAL WARNING SIGN 450 Sign 450, in combination with an appropriatesupplementary message, warns drivers of a haz-ard of a general nature described by the supple-mentary message.GENERAL WARNING sign 450 should be locat-ed on the right side of the roadway at a distanceas indicated inTable 4-1and with a clear sightdistance to the sign. Sign 450 should only be dis-played in conjunction with a SUPPLEMEN-TARY PLATE sign 589. Permitted messages foruse below sign 450 are as follows: Drifting sand. Uneven road. Sign 436Sign 437Sign 438

ing the position of physical hazards such as cul-verts, bridge structures, large sign supports, traffic island gores, guardrails, etc., to drivers. Insome instances, such as a sharp curve, hazardmarkers may be used to delineate the curve andso draw attention to the severity of the curve. 4.3.1 HAZARD PLATE SIGNS 451AND 452 Signs 451 and 452 warn motorists of the actualposition of physical objects which are placed soclose to the roadway as to represent a hazard orpotential hazard if vehicles should collide withthem.HAZARD PLATE signs 451 and 452 should belocated as close as possible to the physical hazardto identify its position. A number of evenlyspaced HAZARD PLATE signs 451 or 452 mayalso be used to demarcate open ditches, highembankments, and ill-defined curves. SeeTable4-3for guidance on spacing.HAZARD PLATE signs 451 and 452 shouldalways be installed so that the arrow pointstowards the roadway and away from the hazard.Signs 451 and 452 should be mounted so that the 4-16 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Overhead cables (with a height clearance).If the conditions indicated above change or areremoved, the sign should be removed.GENERAL WARNING sign 450 is appropriateto many conditions which occur at roadworkssites or in association with roadworks sites (seealsoChapter 7). The sign may also be appropri-ate for other temporary conditions. In such cir-cumstances the exclusive black symbol on a yel-low background color code used for roadworkssigns should be used. Typical messages used intemporary or roadworks situations are: Sand Surveying. Reduced visibility. Loose stones. Uneven road. Slippery surface. Road ends.

Flood. Construction traffic. Soft shoulder. Surface step (dip).Sign 450 should have a white background, ablack icon, and a thick red border. 4.3 HAZARD MARKER SIGNS The signs in this group have the specific functionto mark an actual hazard adjacent to the roadway.The majority of uses therefore relate to identifySign 450Sign 451 Sign 452 Table 4-3 Spacing on Curves for Signs 451, 452, 454, and 455 Curve Radius(meters)Sign Spacing S(meters) 60 8-15150 15-25300 25600 25

ment of the roadway when these conditions rep-resent hazards or potential hazards.SINGLE CHEVRON signs 454 and 455, whenused independently, should be placed as close aspossible to the hazard that it is intended to mark.SINGLE CHEVRON signs 454 and 455 may bemounted to point to the right and to the left. Thearrows should always point towards the roadway 4-17 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 lower edge is 600 millimeters above ground levelfor the 600 millimeter by 150 millimeter size and1200 millimeters above ground level for the 1200millimeter by 300 millimeter size.Figure 41illustrates a number of typical HAZARD PLATEsign applications. The larger of the two sign sizesshould be used when the posted speed limit is 80kilometers per hour or greater.HAZARD PLATE signs 451 and 452 shouldhave a red background with white diagonalstripes. 4.3.2 SINGLE CHEVRON RIGHT (ORLEFT) SIGN 454 (OR 455) Signs 454 and 455 warn motorists of the actualposition of physical objects or of the actual alignBridge deckAbutment300 12001200 150 600600 Culvert Figure 4-1 Typical Hazard Plate ApplicationsSign 454 Sign 455

4-18 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 passing in front of the sign. The application of signs 454 and 455 is very similar to that of signs451 and 452. In general, signs 451 and 452should be used in a lower speed or less hazardousenvironment than signs 454 and 455.SINGLE CHEVRON signs 454 and 455 mayalso be used in sets whereby the signs are spacedat regular intervals to define a sharp curve (e.g.,on a 180 or 270 loop ramp) or to define theedge of a high embankment or a guard rail at thetop of such an embankment.Figure 4-2illustratesa typical example of such an installation andTable 43gives guidance on the spacing of thesigns. Signs 454 and 455 should be consideredfor use in place of sign 326 to mark island goresif these are on a particularly difficult vertical orhorizontal alignment. In such an applicationsigns 454 and 455 should be mounted side-by-side in the gore but a separator is not necessary.When SINGLE CHEVRON signs 454 and 455are placed at intervals round a sharp curve theyshould be positioned so that one sign lies as closeas possible to the line of extension of the tangentapproaching the curve, and so that the sign liesstraight-ahead for a driver in the near side lane.Other signs should then be positioned forwardsand backwards round the curve so that the curveis fully delineated, approximately from tangent TP455455455455First sign to be placedSee Table 4-3 for spacing SSTP455 454 Figure 4-2 Examples of Applications of Sign 454 and Sign 455

MULTIPLE CHEVRON RIGHT (or LEFT)signs 456 and 457 may be used at a sharp bendwhen the severity of the bend is not likely to beadequately conveyed by advance warning sign412 or 413. The signs should comprise a mini-mum of three chevron modules. If a sharp bend issufficiently long the number of modules may beincreased to a maximum of four. If it is necessaryto sign a longer sharp bend this should be doneusing signs 454 or 455 as illustrated inFigure 4-2. Figure 4-3illustrates the use of signs 456 and457.MULTIPLE CHEVRON RIGHT sign 456 mayalso be used to identify the sharp change of direc-tion required on entering a roundabout. Signpositions are illustrated inFigure 4-3. This appli-cation should only be considered when the viewof the center of the roundabout is restricted due tothe geometry of the approach and entry, or due tothe aesthetic treatment of the roundabout. If thelatter is such that the shape of the roundabout isno longer evident advance warning sign 420 maybe specified.Sign 456 (or 457) should have a white back-ground, red chevrons, and a thin red border. 4.3.4 T-JUNCTION CHEVRON SIGN458 Sign 458 warns drivers of vehicles that the roadthey are traveling on terminates at a T-junction 4-19 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 point to tangent point. It is necessary that, inorder to properly define the curve through bothvertical and horizontal changes, at least threesigns are visible at any time while drivingthrough the curve.SINGLE CHEVRON signs 454 and 455 shouldhave a white background, a red chevron, and athin red border. 4.3.3 MULTIPLE CHEVRON RIGHT(OR LEFT) SIGN 456 (OR 457) Signs 456 and 457 warn motorists of the actualposition of a very sharp bend or change in direction in the roadway. Sign 456Sign 457 456457456 Figure 4-3 Typical Application of Multiple Chevron Signs 456 and 457

assist drivers to use complex roadways moresafely and efficiently.The complex geometric conditions referred toabove often involve merging and/or weavingmaneuvers without stop or give way control.These are driving actions that many drivers finddifficult to undertake and diagrammatic signsactually offer a combination of warning andguidance in such situations.The types of message that may be displayed on adiagrammatic sign can be categorized. The signgroup has therefore been subdivided according tothese categories as follows: Traffic movement is affected by an obstruc-tion. Additional lane and lanes merge signs. Lane use control by regulation.Several of these categories have the potential toprovide many signs. Some of these signs varysignificantly in their sign face message, andtherefore design, while others represent limitedvariations on the themes established by the earli-er alternatives. In the following sections only alimited number of signs are illustrated. Where itis appropriate, design rules are stated for sign-face design.The following characteristics are appropriate toall diagrammatic signs: The basic rectangular shape of the minimallysized sign should have a ratio of height towidth of 4 to 3. Recommended standardbasic sign sizes should be 1200 millimeters(H) x 900 millimeters (W), 1600 millimeters(H) x 1200 millimeters (W) and 2400 mil-limeters (H) x 1800 millimeters (W) forground mounted signs. If used overhead, rec-ommended basic sign sizes should be 2400millimeters (H) x 1800 millimeters (W) and3200 millimeters (H) x 2400 millimeters(W). These dimensions are exclusive of sup-plementary information plates, if applicable. The width of the basic sign may be increasedwhen three or more arrows are to be dis-played, in increments equal to one quarter of the basic width.and in so doing the sign identifies the position of the far side of such a junction.T-JUNCTION CHEVRON sign 458 should belocated on the far side of the T-junction, at 90 tothe direction of approach from the side road, sothat the sign is located at the rear of a sidewalk inan urban area, or at the rear of a shoulder orapproximately two meters from the edge of theroadway, in a rural area. Use of sign 458 shouldbe considered for high speed (60 km/h or more)approaches to T-junctions, particularly whenthere is no street lighting, and where a guide signwould not otherwise be used.T-JUNCTION CHEVRON sign 458 should com-prise a minimum of six chevron modules, threepointing to the right and three to the left.Sign 458 should have a white background, redchevrons, and a thin red border. 4.4 DIAGRAMMATIC SIGNS The signs in this group are essentially for use insituations where the size and shape of triangularadvance warning signs limits the pictorial warn-ing message that can be displayed, and/or theoverall conspicuity of the sign. The situationsthat tend to be indicated on diagrammatic signsare commonly ones that occur on higher speedroads. The diagrammatic nature of the messagegiven by these signs means that they often depictthe geometric arrangements of the lanes and/orthe whole roadway.Geometric design of roadways should result indrivers having sufficient

time and space to nego-tiate even complex arrangements safely and with-out undue doubt or confusion. In reality, due tothe need to satisfy many geometric requirementswithin a limited space and under traffic flow con-ditions that may be nearing capacity, complexroad conditions do occur. While the availabilityof diagrammatic signs should not be seen as anexcuse for creating complex geometric designs of roadways, the signs may offer some options to 4-20 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Sign 458

4-21 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 The sign face message should depict onlyone situation requiring an action on the partof the drivers to whom the sign applies. An obstruction commonly means a physi-cal obstacle such as a concrete barrier or a W-section guardrail but also includes perceivedobstructions to vehicle movement. Forexample, the obstruction may be an intro-duced median island or a lane-drop situationwith a sufficient run-off and recovery areaprovided. In this case, the obstruction isillustrated on the sign by a solid red block. Arrows pointing in the direction of travelshould point upwards on the sign and be thefull height of the sign, with specified clear-ances, whereas arrows depicting opposingtraffic flows should point downwards on thesign and be of a reduced length (shorter byapproximately the length of two arrow heads). If a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 isrequired with a diagrammatic sign it shouldbe a separate plate mounted below the signfor ground-mounted signs.Diagrammatic signs are particularly appropriateto the temporary detours common during majorroadworks (seeChapters 7 and 8). Their use is,however, also appropriate in certain situationsthat can be considered as permanent even thoughthey may be scheduled for medium- to long-termimprovement. Since many diagrammatic signsonly have a temporary application they are notillustrated in this chapter. As a result, the signsthat are illustrated do not have sequential num-bers; the remaining signs are illustrated inChapter 7.The normal warrants for overhead signs can beused to decide whether a diagrammatic signshould be used in an overhead position.Diagrammatic signs may be displayed in associ-ation with overhead direction signs. 4.4.1 TRAFFIC MOVEMENTAFFECTED BY OBSTRUCTIONSIGNS As has been noted above, an obstruction in thecontext in which signs in this group are to beused may be real or perceived. Situations thatmay warrant the use of a diagrammatic signdepicting a traffic movement affected by anobstruction include: A lane drop on a multilane, high-speed road-way. The temporary deviation of traffic through amedian island, around a structure, or similarobstacle. The passage of traffic alongside a physicalbarrier that either reduces normal lane widthor normal lateral clearances. Such a physicalbarrier may be an upstanding concrete barri-er, a row of cones

or delineators separatingtraffic streams, or similarly, cones or delin-eators protecting a limited excavation area. The passage of two-way traffic around anobstruction such as the beginning of a medi-an island. 4.4.1.1 LANE DROP SIGNS 465 (FROMTHE RIGHT) AND 466 (FROMTHE LEFT) Signs 465 and 466 warn motorists that a lanedrop lies ahead for a right-side lane drop or a leftside lane drop, respectively.LANE DROP signs 465 and 466 should be con-sidered for use in traffic situations that are eitherknown to have substandard geometry that cannotbe rectified in the short-term or that have, forwhatever reason, not been sufficiently improvedby the provision of normal advance warningsigns.LANE DROP signs 465 and 466 may be provid-ed in advance of the point at which the lane isdropped. An appropriate SUPPLEMENTARYPLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to thelane drop mounted below the sign should be pro-vided. At the start of the lane drop taper signs 465and 466 should be provided without such a sup-plementary plate.LANE DROP signs 465 and 466 should have awhite background and a thin red border. The iconshould be black and red, with the arrows repre-senting traffic movement in black and theobstructions in red.

4-22 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 4.4.1.2 BEGINNING/END OF MEDIANSIGNS 472 AND 473 Signs 472 and 473 warn motorists that the road-way ahead has a median starting or ending andthat this may, in the case of sign 472, represent asignificant hazard in the roadway going in theone direction, or that, in the case of sign 473, traf-fic streams become two way beyond the end of the median island, which in turn may be a poten-tially hazardous condition.BEGINNING/END OF MEDIAN signs 472 and473 should have a white background and a thinred border. The icon should be black and red,with the arrows representing traffic movement inblack and the obstructions in red. 4.4.2 ADDITIONAL LANE ANDLANES MERGE SIGNS This group of signs is used to indicate to driversthat the roadway beyond the sign increases inwidth by one lane, that an additional stream of traffic is entering the roadway, or that traffic maybe merging, which may result in some weavingaction. As no decrease in speed is implicitlyrequired for the roadway conditions these signswarn of, there are no specified minimum or max-imum advance positioning guidelines. TheEngineer should use professional judgement inpositioning these signs, taking into account allrelevant conditions and variables. Sign 472Sign 473Sign 466Sign 465

4-23 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 4.4.2.1 ADDITIONAL LANE SIGNS 480AND 481 Signs 480 and 481 warn motorists on a section of road that an additional continuous lane will be addedahead, at the distance indicated below the sign.The principal value of these signs is to reassuredrivers, when in heavy traffic, that overtakingopportunities will occur ahead due to the addi-tional lane. Such a sign need only be placed 500meters to one kilometer in advance of the start of the additional lane. The sign type is appropriatefor freeways and rural roads.ADDITIONAL LANE signs 480 and 481 shouldhave a white background, a black icon, and a thinred border. 4.4.2.2 JOINING LANE SIGNS 482 OR 483 Signs 482 and 483 warn drivers of vehicles thatan extra lane carrying joining traffic comes intothe roadway from the right (or left) and that merg-ing and weaving maneuvers can be expected.Sign 482 should preferably be positioned so thatdrivers on the main carriageway and drivers onthe entering lane can both see the sign. If this isnot possible both signs 482 and 483 may be usedto warn drivers. Because road configurationsrequiring use of this sign vary widely, there is norecommended minimum or maximum placementdistance. Good engineering judgement should beexercised in locating the signs.JOINING LANES signs 482 and 483 shouldhave a white background, a black icon, and a thinred border. Sign 480Sign 481Sign 482Sign 483

4.4.2.3 LANES MERGE SIGNS 490 AND492 Sign 490 warns of the merging of two lanes. Theuse of this sign may be appropriate at atgradejunctions to emphasize the need for drivers toundertake merging actions or maneuvers. As suchthe sign only shows the two lanes involved in themerging action.Sign 492 warns of the merging of two lanes on ahigh-speed free-flow roadway. Such roadwaysare commonly freeways or freeway ramps wherethere is little or no tolerance for traffic slow-down or back-up from the point of merge. It istherefore recommended that the signs indicate alllanes at the point of merge. The signs should beerected close to the gore of the merge area onfreeways, or on both sides of the roadway at at-grade junctions. Where possible they should bevisible to drivers in both approaching trafficstreams. Advance signs may also be used, partic-ularly on freeways, and these should include aSUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589.Signs 490 and 492 should have a white back-ground, a black icon, and a thin red border. 4.4.3 LANE USE CONTROL BYREGULATION The signs in this group indicate that one or moreindividual lanes in the roadway ahead are subjectto some form of special regulatory control. Thepurpose of such control is to improve the opera-tional efficiency of the roadway concerned. Themost common application of this control is a pro-hibition of heavy vehicle or truck traffic on oneor more lanes. Another possible application is atunusually configured intersections where turningrestrictions are imposed on one or more of thebasic lanes. Because of the regulatory message itis a requirement that such signs indicate all laneson the roadway. These diagrammatic signs, ineffect, provide a background for some type of regulatory sign. The examples given inSection4.4.3should be considered as typical. Once aregulatory sign has been superimposed on thediagrammatic background the overall sign takeson a regulatory function. 4.4.3.1 LANE USE CONTROL TRUCKS AND BUSSES SIGNS484 AND 485 In Abu Dhabi Emirate, trucks are allowed to useonly the right-most lane on any road, exceptwhen preparing to make a left turn. Sign 484 andsign 485 impose this prohibition on the use of lanes by trucks and as such the signs warnmotorists of the special regulatory circumstancesexisting on those lanes. The lane prohibition alsoapplies to busses, with two exceptions:1. On roads having four or more lanes, bussesare allowed to use the second lane.2. On roads having two or three lanes, bussesare allowed to leave the right-most lane toovertake other vehicles, but must then returnto the right lane. 4-24 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Sign 490Sign 492

4-25 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 The signs should be spaced at approximatelyfive-kilometer intervals.LANE USE CONTROL TRUCKS ANDBUSSES signs 484 and 485 should have a whitebackground and a thin red border. The iconshould be black with the prohibitory symbol (cir-cle and diagonal slash) in red. 4.4.3.2 LANE USE CONTROL DIRECTIONAL RESTRICTIONSIGN 486 Sign 486 imposes a mandatory restriction of movement LANE USE CONTROL DIRECTIONAL RESTRICTION on one of the basicthrough lanes of a roadway. In the exampleshown it warns motorists that the leftmost of thebasic through lanes becomes, by regulation, anexclusive left turn lane at the intersection.Drivers wishing to continue straight ahead mustleave that lane prior to the intersection, otherwisethey will be required to make a left turn.The LANE USE CONTROL DIRECTIONALRESTRICTION series of signs supplement pave-ment markings and provide advance notice of alane use control condition ahead. These signs arenot intended for routine use at all standard sig-nalized intersections where geometry clearlyindicates intended turning lanes. Rather, its useshould be restricted to unusual intersection con-figurations where one of the basic roadway lanesunexpectedly becomes an exclusive turn lane. Alikely usage of this sign will be at a T-junction onthe through leg containing the left turn, when thegeometry is such that one of the basic roadwaylanes becomes an exclusive left turn lane. Its useon other legs of the T-junction will not ordinarilybe required.LANE USE CONTROL DIRECTIONALRESTRICTION sign 486 should have a whitebackground and a thin red border. The iconshould be black with the regulatory symbol inblue. 4.5 HIGH VEHICLE WARNINGSIGN 495 Sign 495 is typically located in advance of gantryor cantilever signs and points high vehicles to ashort, low-grade detour that does not pass under-neath the horizontal arm of the sign but insteadaround the signs support column. Sign 484Sign 485Sign 486

4-26 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 HIGH VEHICLE WARNING sign 495 should belocated on the right side of the roadway at a dis-tance in advance of the gantry or cantilever struc-ture as indicated inTable 4-1.If deemed appropriate by the engineer, sign 495may have flashing yellow caution lights placed atits top.Sign 490 should have a red background, a whiteborder, and the text should be white. Sign 495

5-1 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 5 GUIDE SIGNS 5.1 PRINCIPLES OFDIRECTIONAL GUIDANCE The objective of the Abu Dhabi Guide Sign sys-tem is to provide guidance to visitors to and residents of Abu Dhabi. To accomplish this objec-tive, guide signing must do the following: Enable drivers to find their way to far moredestinations than could possibly be signed. Avoid confusing drivers with too much infor-mation. Present drivers with predictable information. Present drivers with advance notice so thatdirectional changes can be safely made.It is the aim of the following described guide-sign system to accomplish these objectives. 5.1.1 METHOD OF PROVIDINGGUIDANCE The guide-signing system must be able to pro-vide a driver with two basic pieces of information: The current location of the driver within theroadway system, and When facing a choice of several possibledirections of travel, which one should betaken to reach the desired destination.Driving is a complex process requiring a driver toobserve, comprehend, analyze and act upon awide variety of visual input. It is critical thatguide signs present information to the driver in apredictable, clear and simple manner. This infor-mation must be presented far enough in advanceof the point of potential action to permit the driv-er to determine what action is required and thenallow him to safely and orderly execute anydirectional changes that may be necessary.The guide sign system for Abu Dhabi is basedupon a framework of fundamental principles,summarized as follows: Use of route numbers as the primary methodof guidance on numbered routes. Use of street names as the primary method of identification and guidance on non-num-bered routes and as a secondary means of guidance on numbered routes. Strict criteria for destinations displayed foreach route as an orientation guide for roadusers.

Strict criteria for additional destinations to bedisplayed on supplemental guide signs, sepa-rate from the primary guide signs. Color coding of signing. Consistency in the application of signing. 5.1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF GUIDESIGNS Guide signing can be divided into signs that aremost applicable for at-grade junctions (intersections and roundabouts) and those that are appli-cable for grade-separated, free-flow interchanges.At-grade junctions, whether intersections orroundabouts, generally have three choices of direction: ongoing, left, and right. These move-ments, especially the turns, are made at slowspeed and usually under traffic signal control.Since at-grade junctions are, or should be, rela-tively uniform and deliberate in operation, guidesigning will consist of simple ADVANCESTACK signs, advising motorists of availabledirections of travel at the junction ahead, allow-ing sufficient advance notice for driver orienta-tion and appropriate action. CHEVRON DIREC-TION signs, located in the vicinity of the turningarea, identify the point of turning action and pro-vide motorists with confirmation of their intend-ed movement. In addition, a STREET NAMEsign is provided at each junction as a secondarysource of driver orientation and guidance.Grade-separated junctions present a much differ-ent set of circumstances to motorists. Grade-sep-arated junctions are generally located on high-volume and/or high-speed roadways and aredesigned to handle traffic in a free-flow opera-tional mode. It is thus important that motorists beadvised clearly and well in advance of theirintended point of departure. This will allow

5-2 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 ample opportunity to make one or more lanechanges to be properly positioned to execute afullspeed exit from the roadway. Inadequateand/or unclear directions may contribute to driv-er indecision; speed reduction or stopping; andabrupt, last-minute maneuvers, all of which willbe extremely dangerous under high-speed, high-volume conditions.Thus, a different type of signing is required forgrade-separated interchanges. This consists of one or more ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTIONsigns, up to 2000 meters in advance of the exitpoint. These signs advise motorists of destina-tions reached from the next exit, appropriate laneposition to access that exit, and distance to exitpoint. These ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTIONsigns are generally repeated at intervals as theexit approaches. When the exit point is reached(also known as the theoretical gore or paintednose) the motorist is advised by an EXITDIRECTION sign that this is the point of depar-ture. The physical nose is also marked by aGORE EXIT sign to further reinforce the actionof exiting the mainline.Separate and apart from the above described pri-mary guide signing will be a system of supple-mental destination signing. Supplemental desti-nations are local facilities or attractions that areprimarily of interest to visitors to Abu Dhabi. Toavoid overloading and overcomplicating the pri-mary guide sign system, these supplemental des-tinations are signed separately. Supplementalsigning may be used for both at grade and grade-separated junctions. 5.1.3 ROUTE NUMBERING SYSTEM At the heart of Abu Dhabi guide signing is theroute numbering system. Route numbers allow themotorist to develop a simple series of directions tofollow while traveling from one part of the greaterAbu Dhabi urban area to another. Route numberswill be prominently and predictably displayed onthe guide signs, making driver orientation anddirection clear and unconfusing.Two routing classifications have been estab-lished, as shown inFigure 5-1. Emirate or ERoutes are the major roadways in Abu DhabiEmirate that provide through travel betweenmajor cities and/or other emirates. EmirateRoutes are designated at present with a two-digitnumber (exception: bypass routes have a three-digit designator, the first digit being the sequen-tial number assigned to the bypass and the lasttwo digits being the primary route beingbypassed, e.g., the first bypass to Emirate Route22 would be numbered 122). Routes 88 and 99are reserved for possible future Emirate Routes.Odd-numbered Emirate Routes run generally inan east-west direction, and even number routes ina north-south direction.The second level of primary routes are the pri-mary arterials (with some secondary arterials)within the Abu Dhabi urban area. These routesprovide access from one community in the AbuDhabi urban area to another.Abu Dhabi or AD Routes are designated with atwo-digit number, from 10 to 99. Even numberroutes run generally parallel to the coast line, andodd numbered routes run generally perpendicularto the coast line. Routes in the nineties are locatedalong the coast line and along the Dubai Emirateborder, descending in order moving inland andtowards Abu Dhabi Emirate respectively.Although not absolutely necessary that it beadhered to in the future, an initial attempt wasmade to keep routes in as sequential an order aspossible. Some route numbers in the sequencehave been skipped to allow the future allocationof these numbers to new routes in a near sequen-tial order. 5.1.4 PRIMARY DESTINATIONS

The Road Department categorizes destinationseligible for use on primary guide signs into threetypes:1. Control destinations for Emirate Routes.2. Control destinations for non-Emirate Routes.3. Other local destinations for non-EmirateRoutes.In transliterating Arabic destination names toEnglish, the article al should be transliteratedwithout regard to the Arabic sun and moon let-

5-3 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 THIS PAGE RESERVED FOR FIGURE5-1, ROUTE NUMBERING SYSTEM

Port Zayed, and the control destination for thewestern terminus of Al Corniche Road is Al RasAl Akhdhar/Breakwater. Likewise, the controldestinations for Matar Road are Dubai/Al Ainand the Corniche.The Department does not specify an approvedlist of control destinations for nonEmirateRoutes. Consultants are expected to exercisegood engineering judgement in selecting controldestinations for use on these guide signs andthese destinations are subject to the approval of the Department. 5.1.4.3 OTHER LOCAL DESTINATIONSFOR NON-EMIRATE ROUTES In addition to the control destinations describedinSection 5.1.4.2, other local destinations arealso eligible for use on non-Emirate Route guidesigns. To qualify for use on guide signs, thesedestinations should be either locations frequent-ed by the public or major landmarks that willassist in orientation. Eligible destinationsinclude towns or neighborhoods (e.g., Musaffah,Al Khalidiya), public medical facilities (e.g., AlJazeera Hospital), government offices frequent-ed by the public (e.g., Immigration, TrafficPolice), major mosques and religious sites (e.g.,Eid prayer grounds), selected military installa-tions (e.g., Officers Club, GHQ), major streets(e.g., Musaffah Road, Al Corniche Road) andwell-known or publicly popular locations (e.g.,major malls, colleges and universities, petrole-um refineries). 5-4 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 ters. Unless it has been common practice tospell a destinations name otherwise and signsalready exist using that spelling, the Englishspelling should follow the Arabic spelling, notthe Arabic pronunciation (e.g., Sas Al Nakhl, AlShahama). 5.1.4.1 CONTROL DESTINATIONS FOREMIRATE ROUTES Control destinations are associated with eachEmirate Route. The purpose of control destina-tions is to provide orientation with respect todirection of travel along that numbered route.The control destinations for the Emirate Routesare the cities shown inTable 5-1. These controlcities are intended to function for long-distancetravelers, advising them of the major city reachedby following that route in that direction of travel.In the case of selected routes, an intermediatedestination of Abu Dhabi is given for travel inone direction. The control city of Abu Dhabishould be used until the Abu Dhabi urban area isreached, at which time the control city for allonward signing should be the end destinationahead. 5.1.4.2 CONTROL DESTINATIONS FORNON-EMIRATE ROUTES For major Abu Dhabi roadways that are notEmirate Routes, control destinations are to be alogical, well-known terminus of the route orroadway. For example, the control destination forthe eastern terminus of the Al Corniche Road is Table 5-1 Emirate Routes Control DestinationsRouteNumber End Destination(South or West)IntermediateDestinationEndDestination(North or East) E10 Abu Dhabi Sas Al Nakhl, Khalifa City, AbuDhabi International AirportAl Shahama E11 Al Sila, Saudi Arabia, Qatar

Jebel Dhanna, Al Ruwais, AlMarfa, Tarif, Liwa Oasis, Abu AlAbyadh, Musaffah, Al Mafraq, BaniYas, Khalifa Bin Zayed City,Mohammed Bin Zayed City, AbuDhabi, Abu Dhabi InternationalAirport, Ghantoot, Al Shahama, AlSamhah, Seih Shoaib, Jebel Ali DubaiE22 Abu Dhabi Musaffah, Al Mafraq, Bani Yas, AlWathba, Fiya, Al Khatim, AlKhazna Al Ain, Oman

However, some site-specific locations mayrequire more than one similar destination. In thiscase, the name will be retained until trailblazingcan be used without creating confusion as towhich destination is which. Such cases must besubmitted to Department for approval prior toimplementation. 5.1.6 COLOR CODING The use of a specific sign background color codeserves as an aid to motorists in searching out andrecognizing the type of guide sign they are look-ing for. Color coding will also aid in distinguish-ing the type of route the motorist is currently onor looking to go onto.Three colors are used for the background color of guide signs; blue, green, and brown. The use of the colors are described inTable 5-3(see Chapter7 for instructions on roadworks guide signs).A special case in the color coding occurs within asignalized intersection or a roundabout when anEmirate Route and an Abu Dhabi Route intersectone another. Advance guide signs on the EmirateRoute will have a blue background color andadvance guide signs on the Abu Dhabi Route willhave a green background color. However,CHEVRON DIRECTION signs 515 will belocated in or near the junction, to guide motoristsin making turns onto their intended route. Sincesome junctions include both an Emirate Routeand an Abu Dhabi Route, the color coding forCHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515 should bethat each of these signs will be the color of thetype of route that it provides direction to. That is,signs giving direction onto an Emirate Routeshould have a blue background, and those givingdirection to an Abu Dhabi Route should have agreen background.A similar type of color coding anomaly occurs atentrance and exit ramps leading from an EmirateRoute to an Abu Dhabi Route and visa-versa. Thecolor coding rule in this case should be that aramp should assume the route classification of the route to which the ramp is leading. Thus,signs positioned well downstream on a ramp, thatare intended to be read only by motorists on theramp should have the background color of theThe Department does not specify an approvedlist of this type of destination. Consultants areexpected to exercise good engineering judgementin selecting local destinations for use on guidesigns and these destinations are subject to theapproval of the Department. 5.1.5 SUPPLEMENTALDESTINATIONS Certain facilities or attractions have been deter-mined as being qualified to receive separate signing, supplemental to the primary guide signs. Thepurpose of the supplemental signing is to provideassistance to motorists, unfamiliar with AbuDhabi, in finding their way from a numberedroute to the facility being sought. This signing isprovided primarily for the benefit of tourists, butmay be found to be useful at times for Abu Dhabiresidents.Table 5-2lists the destinations that are approvedby the Abu Dhabi Municipality for supplementalsigning destinations are those which warrant sup-plemental signing beginning at the point of departure from the nearest Emirate Route andsigning all necessary turns on the most directrouting from that departure point to the appropri-ate access point of the destination being signed.The nearest numbered route to numbered routeturns to reach the supplemental locations willalso be signed.Supplemental signs placed on a numbered routeshould have both the symbol and the identifyingname of the destination being signed. Subsequentsupplemental signing from the numbered route tothe destination should be provided by supple-mental trailblazer signs displaying only the picto-rial symbol without the identifying place name. 5-5 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Version 0.1 Table 5-2 Locations Eligible for Supplemental DestinationSigning Major hotels and convention centersMajor clubsPublic beachesCultural FoundationHeritage/Bedouin VillageZayed Sports CityGulf International Exhibition Center Traditional markets (souqs) Note: Locations are in no order of relevance.

route the ramp leads to. If in an unusual situationa ramp leads to a split with one direction of thesplit being an Emirate Route and the other direc-tion of the split being an Abu Dhabi Route, theguide sign background color for that ramp shouldbe blue. 5.1.7 INFORMATION TO BEDISPLAYED ON SIGNS It is important that each type of guide sign con-sistently display all necessary eligible information, but not display any additional or extraneousinformation. Strict criteria have been established,as indicated inTable 5-4, concerning what infor-mation may or may not be shown on each type of guide sign.The Abu Dhabi guide sign system is intended toprovide motorists with directions for travelingalong a particular numbered route (be it anEmirate Route or an Abu Dhabi Route) andadvising turns from that route onto another num-bered route (an Emirate Route or an Abu DhabiRoute). Generally, guide signs will not be usedon unnumbered routes nor for advising turnsfrom a numbered route onto an unnumberedstreet. Street name signs installed under the AbuDhabi street and plot numbering system willidentify those streets with a street name sign(whether that street name is a word name or anumber name).The primary piece of information to be includedon guide signs is the route number. Motoristsunfamiliar with Abu Dhabi will consult a route orstreet map to determine what numbered routes to 5-6 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 use to get from their current location to theirintended destination. Therefore, route numbersmust be displayed clearly and prominently onevery primary guide sign. Large, distinctivelyshaped and colored route emblems with largeyellow colored English numerals provide a high-ly conspicuous and legible route identification.The creation of a new route and associated con-trol destinations should be referred to the AbuDhabi Municipality Road Department for reviewand approval. In this case a formal amendment tothis manual should be issued so that all othersigning associated with that route will be consis-tent. By strict adherence to route numbers andcontrol destinations, motorists will see a consis-tent display of destinations when turning ontoand following the guide signs on that route. Theywill not be left to guess at what destinationsmight appear on subsequent signs. This is animportant principle of guide signing. That is,once a destination appears on a guide sign, itmust be repeated on each subsequent guide signuntil the destination is reached. Thus, the need forstrict control of the number of destinations andthe consistent use of these destinations on allsigns.On rare occasions, it may be desirable to providea guide sign to direct motorists from a numberedroute to an unnumbered route. In this situation,street names or numbers can substitute for routenumbers. Such cases should be reviewed with theAbu Dhabi Municipality Road Department inconsideration of the following: Table 5-3 Guide Sign Background Color CodingBlue All primary guide signs of all types that are located on Emirates Routes shall have a blue background color with whitelegend. Emirate Route emblems, shall always have a blue background color regardless of the background color of thesign on which they are located. Green

All primary guide signs of all types that are located on Abu Dhabi Routes shall have a green background color withwhite legend. Abu Dhabi Route emblems shall always have a green background color regardless of the backgroundcolor of the sign on which they are located. Brown Supplemental signs, which provide guidance to approved supplemental destinations, shall have a brown backgroundwith a white legend. Supplemental signs shall always have a brown background regardless of whether they are locatedon an Emirate Route, Abu Dhabi Route or a local street. They will also commonly display a symbolic representation of the destination as a black symbol on a white square background. Once a supplemental destination is reached, further subordinate signs pertaining to that destination shall also have a brown background. White For use with Text Sign 588. High Vehicle Exit Sign 586, and Supplementary Plate 589.

stituencies to add other destinations to the guidesigns. Such destinations may be significant andof interest in their own right, but the temptationto give in to such pressure must be resisted.Experience elsewhere has demonstrated that onceadditional destinations begin to appear on guidesigns, it sets a precedent that makes refusal of further destinations nearly impossible.Table 5-5,though not all inclusive, provides an indication of the types of places not warranting display onguide signs within the roadway right of way.Guide signs for the types of places listed inTable5-5can only be implemented with the priorapproval of Abu Dhabi Municipality RoadDepartment. 5.1.9 TRAILBLAZING SIGNING The use of distinctive and recognizable symbolsplaced along a route to guide and reassure motor-ists that they are taking the correct roadways toreach a specific destination is called trailblazing. Is it necessary to provide a guide sign otherthan a street-name sign to identify the inter-secting roadway? If so, does the importance of the intersectingroadway warrant providing it with a routenumber and control destination(s)? If not, then the guide sign series should dis-play the name of the street or other approvedname as the destination and omit the routenumber and emblem.Such instances should be extremely rare and lim-ited mainly to cases on rural, high speed, highorder facilities (freeways) where advance signingis necessary. 5.1.8 DESTINATIONS NOT ELIGIBLEFOR DISPLAY ON GUIDESIGNS Sections 5.1.4 and 5.1.5list control destinationsand supplemental destinations eligible for displayon primary and supplemental signs. There alwaysexists the desire and pressure from outside con5-7 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Table 5-4 Information Eligible for Display on Guide Signs Sign Type Directional Arrow Downward Lane Arrow Route Number Emblem Control Destination City Center Symbol Airport Symbol Distance to Exit Lane Drop Panel Supplemental Symbols Supplemental Destinations Street Name ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511 4 0 3 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 1ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign 512 4 0 3 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 1ADVANCE MAP sign 513

4 0 3 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 1ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 0CHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515 4 0 4 4 2 2 0 0 2 2 1ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 0 4 4 4 2 2 4 2 0 0 1EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 4 0 4 4 2 2 0 2 0 0 1ONGOING DIRECTION sign 553 0 4 4 4 2 2 0 1 0 0 0GORE EXIT signs 554, 555, 556 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign 557 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 0Key:xx 0 = Not Eligible Ever 1 = Not Eligible Ordinarily2 = Eligible Where Applicable3 = Use on Emirate Routes Only4 = Mandatory in All Cases

5-8 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 To be effective, trailblazing must be restricted tolimited destinations and/or to a limited extent.The Abu Dhabi guide sign system has five typesof trailblazing signing: Abu Dhabi International Airport. City center (central business district) Numbered routes.- Emirate Routes.- Abu Dhabi Routes. Supplemental LocationsA detailed explanation of the Abu Dhabi trail-blazing requirements is contained inSection 5.4. 5.2 GENERAL STANDARDSFOR GUIDE SIGNS 5.2.1 LANGUAGE AND LETTERINGSTYLES Most signs in the guide sign class display theirmessage in the form of arrows, symbols, and/ortext. Guide sign text may include any of thefollowing messages: A destination name (control, supplemental,or local). A street name. A place name (Emirate, city, town, or com-munity). A route number (only within a route numberemblem). A distance to an exit. A distance to a destination.All destination names, street names, place names,and distances should appear on guide signs inboth Arabic and English.The style of lettering used should be Abu DhabiMunicipality standard Arabic and English fonts.Each individual letter or number within thesefonts is positioned on a background tile. The useof these tiles automatically provides the correctspacing between letters and vertical spacingbetween rows of text. 5.2.2 AMOUNT OF LEGEND

A significant factor in the design of guide signs,and in particular direction signs, is the amount of information to be provided. This factor is signif-icant because: Drivers must have enough time to read thegiven information, and The amount of information given dictates theultimate size of the sign needed to display it.In terms of all the other actions drivers have totake in order to navigate their vehicles safelythrough the street network, the amount of timeavailable to read guide sign messages is com-monly very limited.The more information that is required to be pro-vided on guide signs the larger they have to bemade. This in turn makes it more difficult to posi-tion the signs so that drivers can see them in timeto read them and react to the information safely.In order to design a safe, efficient and cost-effec-tive guide sign system it is therefore desirable tominimize the amount of information on signs: To reduce reading times, and To reduce the size of signs.For the guide sign system to be effective theinformation provided must be adequate for thenavigational needs of the majority of drivers. It isdifficult to predict the information needs of alldrivers, particularly when it is not known whatinformation drivers have when they start their Table 5-5 Places Not Eligible for Display on Guide SignsBusinesses Television and radio stations, motels, minor shopping centers, private businesses, petrol stations Medical Private hospitals and clinics, mental hospitals, research facilities, nursing homes Military Bases or detachments, armories, arsenals Recreational Minor sports clubs and facilities, private and semipublic clubs (with the exception of public Municipalfacilities and other than those specified in table 5-2) Schools Elementary, secondary, vocational, trade, professional

5-9 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 journeys. In order to best cater for these needs asystem of well known control destinations hasbeen evolved and the most important routes havebeen allocated numbers (seeSection 5.1).The objective in numbering routes is to simplifythe transfer of information and reduce the amountof information that needs to be transferred inorder to achieve effective navigation.Information is also displayed in a consistent man-ner on direction signs so that the time requiredfor the information search process is minimized.Symbols are also used to reduce the amount of text needed to describe certain destinations suchas the city center and the airport and therebyreduce search time, reading times and recogni-tion time. Symbols are particularly used with thisobjective on supplemental destination signs.The majority of information used in the naviga-tion process appears as legend on direction signs.There are two main categories of direction sign,namely those used for at-grade junctions andthose used for grade-separated junctions.Navigational information is given for a standardat-grade junction on stack type advance directionsigns. These signs have a stack for each directionthrough the junction. The stacks may be arrangedvertically, one above the other, for ground mount-ed signs and horizontally side-by-side for over-head signs. The standard amount of legend to bedisplayed in each stack is limited to: One arrow. One route number emblem. One control destination name in both Arabicand English. One intermediate destination name in bothArabic and English.The same amount of information given on eachstack that relates to a turning movement is repeat-ed at the exits from the junction on chevron signs.The direction signs used for grade-separatedjunctions are mounted in an overhead position.Since the turning movement from each road nor-mally involves a high-speed exit, the navigationinformation is given on two basic types of direc-tion signs: EXIT DIRECTION signs (advance exit signsand exit signs). ONGOING DIRECTION signs.The standard amount of legend to be displayedon EXIT DIRECTION signs is limited to: One arrow for each exit lane.

A route number emblem of the route to whichthe exit leads (two may be displayed whenthe junction occurs at a point where the leftand right turns are onto differently numberedroutes). The name of one control destination to theright and one to the left (each destination inboth Arabic and English).The ONGOING DIRECTION signs display thefollowing standard amount of information: One arrow per ongoing lane. The route number emblem of the ongoingroute. The name of the control destination for theroute. One intermediate destination name in Arabicand English.From time to time these limitations on theamount of legend may seem unreasonable.Pressure to ignore the limits should be resistedbecause information, once displayed, must becarried through subsequent junctions until thedestination in question is reached. This meansthat the effect of an extra destination name israrely limited to one junction but in fact spreadsto several. If additional destinations are introduced in several places the likelihood is that theywill accumulate at common points in the network resulting in unmanageable amounts of legend.However, site-specific conditions may require adeparture from these parameters and guidelines.Such variations can only be implemented withthe prior approval of Abu Dhabi MunicipalityRoad Department. 5.2.3 SIZE OF LETTERING Before drivers can read the legend on a guidesign they first have to see the sign. This function

5-10 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 of the effectiveness of the visibility of trafficsigns generally is referred to as their conspicuity.Conspicuity, and therefore the likelihood of detection of a guide sign is affected by: The size, shape, and color of the sign. The brightness of the sign. The contrast between the sign and its envi-ronment. The location of the sign in relation to the lineof sight of the driver. The time a driver needs, and actually hasavailable, to search for the sign in terms of road geometry, vehicle speed, traffic vol-umes, the presence of other signs, and othercompeting visual stimuli. The angle of the drivers line of sight to thesign.Once a sign has been detected its long rangeattributes allow for its identification and functionrecognition. The brightness of a sign is termedits luminance. Guide signs need to have adequateluminance both by day and by night. Night-timeluminance is improved by the use of retroreflec-tive materials. Retroreflective materials have theproperty of redirecting a large percentage of theincident light back towards the light source (Anonretroreflective surface will reflect the light inall directions). Therefore a guide sign surfacedwith retroreflective material is capable of redi-recting most of the light from vehicle headlightsback towards the vehicle. The further a sign isoffset, either horizontally or vertically from thepath of a vehicle, the greater are the entrance andobservation angles. Retroreflective materials aremore effective at small entrance and observationangles (although new materials are improvingthis characteristic). This means that the sign leg-end needs to be legible at small observationangles which, in turn, means at some distancefrom the sign. This requirement affects the size of lettering and symbols used for the legend. It alsomeans that there is a closer point, still some dis-tance from the sign, after which it is consideredthat the observation angle is too great and legi-bility is no longer effective. These sign charac-teristics affect the time for which the sign may beobserved, and therefore for which it may be read-able, within the time between when the letteringbecomes legible and when the observation anglebecomes too great. This time can be extended byusing a larger letter size which makes the letterslegible earlier while maintaining the same cut-off to the reading time when the observation anglelimit is reached.The legibility of the lettering (and symbols) usedon guide signs and particularly direction signs isaffected by the following factors:

The sign mounting position, i.e., groundmounted or overhead. The sign mounting height. The letter style, spacing, size, and strokewidth. The legibility factor (0.6 meters of legibilitydistance per millimeter of lowercase x letterheight). The visual acuity of drivers. The drivers workload and surrounding dis-tractions that compete for his attention. The approach speed of traffic. The amount of information displayed on thesign. The luminance (daytime) and retroreflectivi-ty (night-time) contrast ratio between thesign legend and sign background. The ambient light levels (particularly streetand advertising lighting).Legibility can be defined simply as the ability toread a text message or accurately determine theform of a symbolic message. In this respect, forthe long-range legibility required by drivers, themost critical element must be the smallest orthinnest element. This critical design element canbe one or all of the following: Letter font style. Letter stroke width. Letter and line spacing. Fine details of a symbol.If all other factors are constant, as a general rule,increasing the size of the critical element willincrease the legibility distance of the sign mes-sage.Typically the finest or most critical element forguide sign lettering is the stroke width. There areseveral letter styles which have been designedwith characteristics required for use on a direc-tion sign. These characteristics are:

5-11 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Consistent letter design. Improved legibility over more creativestyles. Widely recognized at an international level. Greater surface area and therefore targetvalue. Usable with higher grades of retroreflectivematerial with minimal risk of overglow orbleeding.The Arabic and English letter styles specified inthis manual maximize the above characteristics.The following are the more important dimension-al characteristics of lettering based on the x, orlowercase, English letter height: Lowercase letter height = 1.0x Stroke width = 0.2x Uppercase letter height = 1.4x English text background tile height = 2.0x Aleph height of equivalent Arabic text = 1.4x Arabic text background tile height = 2.8xFor a given letter style and letter height a driverwith a normal visual acuity of 1 (visual acuity isa measure of a drivers ability to focus on fineobjects) will be able to read the letters at a spe-cific distance. This distance is known as the leg-ibility distance. For the purpose of determiningthe letter sizes recommended inTable 5-6, a leg-ibility index of 0.6 meters of legibility distanceper millimeter of lowercase x letter height hasbeen adopted for English and Arabic letters andcharacters. This means that English letters 100millimeters high and Arabic letters based on analeph 140 millimeters high can be read by thenormal driver from 60 meters. Legibility dis-tances are conventionally quoted in relation tothe lowercase or x height of letter becausethese constitute the majority of letters used ondirection signs. These parameters are subject toongoing research but the values accepted areconsistent with those used in many other coun-tries. However, it should be noted that some driv-ers may

have poor visual acuity and that the leg-ibility index at night can be lower than 0.6m/mm. Under these circumstances lower legibil-ity distances will result.Another factor that affects the legibility of letterson direction and other guide signs is the lumi-nance contrast between the lettering and the signbackground. This contrast is expressed as a ratioof light-to-dark color luminance and is appropri-ate during both day and night. Ideally the contrastratio should be between the ratios of 5 to 1 and 10to 1. For symbolic signs with bold symbols theratio may be as low as 4 to 1 and still be effective.Ratios higher than 10 to 1 run the risk of creatingan overglow or bleeding effect from retrore-flective materials at night, particularly if thebackground color is light and the letter color isdark. Overglow results in the letter stroke widthof a dark letter being diminished by the glarefrom the bright color background. This in turnmay affect the letter legibility. High ambient lightlevels common under street lighting will reducethis effect significantly and it is less problematic Table 5-6 Recommended x Height for Guide Signs (millimeters) Posted Speed 100 km/h 80 km/h 60km/h 40 km/h Primary Guide Sign Overhead 300 250 200 200Ground Mounted 250 200 150 100 Supplemental Sign Stack 250 150 100 100Symbol Only 250 150 125 100 Gore Exit Sign 250 200 200 N/A Chevron Sign (see Note) At Roundabout 125 100 100 75At Intersection 125 125 100 100 Route Marker 250 150 150 150 General Information Sign 150 150 100 100Note: The above sizes apply for Abu Dhabi Routes only. Chevron signs placed on EmiratesRoutes should be increased in size by 20%.

5-12 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 S15Reading Time/DistanceReading Time/Distance Detail 5-2-1: Side Mounted Signx=0.463 V(0.32 N-0.21) D+6.22 sh 7 x=0.463 V(0.32 N-0.21) D+13.57 h-14.25Detail 5-2-2: Overhead Mounted Sign Where:x = minimum x height required for legibility, in millimeters.V = posted speed or 85th percentile speed of roadway, in km/h.N = total units of information on a sign or sign grouping measured as follows:words up to 8 letters = 1 unit each wordwords more than 8 letters = 2 units each wordindividual arrow = 0.25 units each arrowmap type arrow = 1 unitemblem, symbol, or distance = 0.5 units each itemD = distraction factor between 1.0 for rural/low volume roads and 1.5 for urban/high volume roads.s = lateral distance from center of furthest driving lane to center of side mounted sign, in meters.h = vertical distance from pavement level to center of overhead mounted sign, in meters.Figure 5-2 Principles Of Legibility

5-13 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 when vehicle headlights are commonly used inthe low beam position (as under street lighting).Taking into consideration all the factors givenabove, including the standardization of the amountof destination display referred to inSection 5.2.2,a range of standard letter sizes has been derived forvarious guide sign applications. These sizes arelisted inTable 5-6and should be adhered to. If theamount of information to be displayed on a signface is increased or it is necessary, due to excep-tional geometric conditions, that the sign must belegible from a greater distance, consideration mustbe given to the need to use a larger-than-standardletter size and approval obtained from the AbuDhabi Municipality Road Department.Figure 5-2summarizes, in equation form, the principles fordetermining required letter height based on legi-bility and reading time criteria. 5.2.4 SIGN BORDERS All guide signs should be provided with a con-trasting border around the perimeter of the signwith the exception that when an exclusive exit-only white panel is placed at the bottom of anoverhead exit direction sign no border is requiredon the white panel. The border color should bethe same as the color used for place name letter-ing on the sign.Sign borders should have the following dimen-sional characteristics where x is the height of the lowercase lettering used for the sign: Width = 0.25x. Corner radius = 1.0x (to the outer edge of theborder).An internal dividing border should be used toseparate the stacks of a stack type direction sign.This border should have the same width as theoutside sign border but should not be providedwith radii where it joins the outside border. 5.2.5 INTERNAL SPACING The sign face layout of all guide signs shouldadhere to the internal spacings listed below andillustrated in a typical example inFigure 5-3:A. Side space between border and right or leftline of justification = 0.5xB. Minimum lateral space between a route num-ber emblem and an arrow = 1.0xC. Minimum lateral space between text and aType 5 or Type 8 arrow = 1.0xD. Minimum lateral space between text and asymbol or emblem = 0.5xE. Vertical space between the top border andnearest legend = 0.5xF. Vertical space between the bottom borderand nearest legend = 0.5xG. Vertical space between an upper row of leg-end and a lower row of legend on a horizon-tal stack type sign = 0.5xThe vertical space between Arabic and Englishtext, or between two rows of Arabic or two rowsof English text, is dictated by the letter and num-ber tiles and no additional internal spacing isrequired.The horizontal spacing between letters or num-bers is also controlled by the letter and numbertiles which include the provision of a blank tile0.5x wide for use between consecutive words ina line. 5.2.6 ARROWS The following basic types of arrows are used onguide signs:

Chevron arrow. Stack-type arrow. Overhead arrows. Map-type arrow.The individual types of arrow are detailed below.All arrows have been allocated a Type numberincluding left and right applications. The arrowsshould appear in white unless noted otherwise.The standard applications of arrows Type 1 toType 8 are illustrated inFigure 54. 5.2.6.1 CHEVRON ARROW TYPES 1AND 2 Chevron Arrows Types 1 and 2 are used onCHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515 to indicate

ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign 512, andADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514 to indicate the direction in which drivers must turn atthe junction ahead in order to reach the destination named in the stack in which the arrow islocated.However, certain site specific conditions mayrequire a departure from these parameters andguidelines. Such variations may only be implemented with the prior approval of Abu DhabiMunicipality Road Department. 5.2.6.4 STACK SIGN ARROW TYPE 6 Stack Sign Arrow Type 6 should only be usedpointing to the left. The arrow is used onADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514 to indi-cate that drivers must execute a U-turn at the nextopportunity in order to reach the destinationnamed in the stack. In such an instance driversare likely to see a further sign 514 shortly afterthe U-turn indicating a right turn into a side road.the action point for a left or right turn at an at-grade junction. 5.2.6.2 STACK SIGN ARROW TYPE 3 Stack Sign Arrow Type 3 should only be usedpointing straight upwards. The arrow is used onADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511and ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign 512 toindicate that drivers must travel straight-onthrough the junction ahead to reach the destina-tion named in the stack. When used on sign 512 aType 3 arrow should only be used in the top stack.However, certain site-specific conditions mayrequire a departure from these parameters andguidelines. Such variations may only be imple-mented with the prior approval of Abu DhabiMunicipality Road Department. 5.2.6.3 STACK SIGN ARROW TYPES 4AND 5 Stack Sign Arrows Types 4 and 5 may be used onADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511, 5-14 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 0.25x0.25x======5.8x4.0x5.8x 4.0x0.25x0.25x5.8x 4.0x3.5x x x3.0x 3.5x0.25x4.0x2.8x2.0x2.0x2.0x2.8x2.8x==0.5x0.5x 0.5x0.5x 0.5x 0.5x0.5x0.5xR=1.0xArrowType 5ArrowType 4ArrowType 3ArabicEnglishArabicEnglishArabicEnglishRouteMarker RouteMarker RouteMarker Figure 5-3 Typical Guidesign Internal Spacing Elements

5-15 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Type 1Type 3Type 4Type 3Type 4Type 5Type 5Type 7Type 7Type 9Type 8Type 7Type 8 Type 8 Type 8 Type 8 Type 8Type 7 Type 7 Type 7 Type 7Type 2Chevron Direction SignsType 3Type 5 Type 4Type 5Type 6 Type 4Stack Direction Signs and Trailblazer SignsAdvance Exit Direction SignsExit Direction SignsOverhead On-Going Direction SignsMap Direction SignType 8Type 8Gore Exit SignsSupplemental Exit SignNote : Type 8 arrow may be right or left pointing to suit application conditions. Figure 5-4 Arrow-Type Applications

5-16 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Type 7Type 1 Type 2Type 3Type 4Type 5Type 6

5-17 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 5.2.6.5 DOWNWARD POINTINGARROW TYPE 7 Downward Pointing Arrow Type 7 should onlybe used on an overhead direction sign at the bottom of the sign pointing straight downwards. Thearrow is used on ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTIONsign 551 and ONGOING DIRECTION sign 553to indicate that drivers may use the lane overwhich the arrow is centered to reach the destina-tion, or one of the destinations, named in the signabove the arrow.When signs 553 and 551 are mounted next toeach other there should be one Type 7 arrow cen-tered over each lane. If one lane is a shared exitlane and ongoing lane the arrow over the laneshould appear on the ADVANCE EXIT DIREC-TION sign 551. If one or more of the lanes indi-cated on sign 551 is an exclusive exit lane (inother words the lane is dropped from the ongoingpath) the Type 7 arrow should appear in black ona white background panel at the bottom of thesign together with the word ONLY in Arabicand English. 5.2.6.6 UPWARD POINTING ARROWTYPE 8 Upward Pointing Arrow Type 8 may be used on aground mounted or overhead exit direction sign.The arrow should be located on the right side of ground mounted signs and at the bottom of over-head signs. The arrow is used on an overheadEXIT DIRECTION sign 552 to indicate to driv-ers that use of the lane or lanes over which thearrow is located will allow them to leave thegrade-separated route by means of a high speedexit to reach the destination, or one of the desti-nations, named on the sign above the arrow.If one or more of the lanes indicated on sign 552is an exclusive exit lane the Type 8 arrow shouldappear in black on a white background panel atthe bottom of the sign together with the wordONLY in Arabic and English.The Type 8 arrow is also used on ground mount-ed GORE EXIT signs 554, 555 and 556 to indi-cate to drivers the action point for the high speedexit.The Type 8 arrow may also be used on groundmounted SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign 557 on afreeway to indicate that the high speed exit ashort distance ahead may be used to reach thesupplemental destination named on the sign.Left hand exits from a through route are to beavoided. However, where such do occur, the Type8 arrow should be inclined towards the left andmoved to the left side of ground mounted signs. 5.2.6.7 MAP ARROW TYPE 9 Map Arrow Type 9 should only be used pointingstraight upwards so that the entry path to the dia-gram is located at the bottom of the sign. Thearrow may only be used on ADVANCE MAPsign 513 to indicate to drivers that the roundaboutjunction ahead has more than four exit roadwaysand/or is of an irregular shape. Type 8Type 9

5-18 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Map Arrow Type 9 should be custom designed tosuit the geometric configuration of the junction itdescribes. 5.2.7 ROUTE NUMBER EMBLEMS There are two types of numbered routes, namely: Emirate Routes which may extend from oneemirate to another or may connect towns andcities within an emirate, and Abu Dhabi Routes, which lie primarily with-in the Abu Dhabi urban area and/or providesignificant access to Emirate Routes.The different routes are identified on the relevantdirection and route marker signs by exclusiveroute number emblems. The number of the routeis indicated within the emblem so that the routeidentification is located at the top of the emblemin English and Arabic and the route numberlocated below these letters in English numeralsonly. The overall sizes of the emblems are 4 xhigh by 3 x wide. 5.2.7.1 EMIRATE ROUTE EMBLEM The Emirate Route emblem should appear on allADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK signs 511,ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK signs 512,ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs 551, EXITDIRECTION signs 552, ONGOING DIREC-TION signs 553, CHEVRON DIRECTION signs515, EMIRATE ROUTE MARKER signs 501,and EMIRATE ROUTE TRAILBLAZER signs505, which indicate an approved control destina-tion on an Emirate Route. The emblem shouldalways have a blue background within a whiteframe and the route identification letters and theroute number should be yellow.The emblem should always be to the left of thedestination name except on ADVANCE HORI-ZONTAL STACK sign 511 when the emblemshould share the top row of the sign with theappropriate stack-sign arrow (seeSections 5.5and 5.6for examples of typical guide signs show-ing route number emblems).However, certain site specific conditions mayrequire a departure from these parameters andguidelines. Such variations may only be implemented with the prior approval of Abu DhabiMunicipality Road Department.The Emirate Route Emblem should have a whitebackground, a blue icon, and yellow text. 5.2.7.2 ABU DHABI ROUTE EMBLEM The Abu Dhabi Route emblem should appear onall ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK signs511, ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK signs 512,ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs 551,EXIT DIRECTION signs 552, ONGOINGDIRECTION signs 553, CHEVRON DIRECTION signs 515, ABU DHABI ROUTE MARK-ER signs 502 and ABU DHABI ROUTETRAILBLAZER signs 506, which indicate anapproved control destination on an Abu DhabiRoute. The emblem should always have a greenbackground within a white frame and the routeidentification letters and the route numbershould be yellow.The emblem should always be to the left of thedestination name except on ADVANCE HORI-ZONTAL STACK sign 511 when the emblemshould share the top row of the sign with theappropriate stack-sign arrow.Certain site-specific conditions may require adeparture from these parameters and

guidelines.Such variations may only be implemented withthe prior approval of Abu Dhabi MunicipalityRoad Department.

5-19 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 5.2.8 SUPPLEMENTALDESTINATION SIGN SYMBOLS Supplemental destination signs may be used topresent additional guidance information to drivers as and when this may be warranted (seeSection 5.1). As a result, supplemental destina-tion signs are only used occasionally. The infor-mation displayed therefore does not relate toapproved orientational control destinationswhich appear on normal direction signs.The most common application of supplementaldestination signs is to display information relatedto tourist destinations. SeeTable 5-2for a list of locations eligible for supplemental destinationsigning.The symbols approved for use on supplementaldestination signs are illustrated inFigure 5-5. Thesymbol should appear on the left side of the signand should be followed by the destinations fullname in Arabic and English irrespective of thedirection indicated by the arrow. Thus if a specif-ic beach is to be identified it should be displayedin the form:symbol Al Raha BeachThe symbol should be provided in black on asquare white background. Some approved sup-plemental destinations do not have a correspon-ding symbol and should be signed using onlyArabic and English text.Approval for the signing of any five-star hotelmust be obtained from Abu Dhabi MunicipalityRoad Department prior to implementation.Any new supplemental symbols that may bedesigned from time to time should embody theprinciples described inSection 5.2.3. The use of thin critical elements and fine detail should beavoided as this will not assist long range recognition of the symbol. 5.3 ROUTE MARKER SIGNS 5.3.1 USE OF ROUTE MARKER A route marker sign is a confirmatory guide signthat provides reassurance to motorists that theyare on their intended route (or conversely toadvise them that they have taken a wrong turn andare not on the route that they planned to be on).Under the Abu Dhabi guide signing system theongoing routes at all intersections will be signedwith the route number as part of the primaryadvance guide signing. This is true for at-gradejunctions (signalized intersections and round-abouts) and for grade-separated interchanges.Thus, every time a motorist traveling on a routeapproaches a junction, he will receive confirma-tion of the route he is on.As such, route marker signs are not required to beused after every junction, but only when the dis-tance between junctions is considerable. On ruralroads where junctions with numbered routes areinfrequent, a route marker should be erected if the distance between primary guide signs con-taining the emblem of the ongoing route arespaced more than two kilometers apart. In such acase a route marker should be erected approxi-mately two kilometers after the junction, andevery 10 kilometers thereafter, up to a point notless than two kilometers before the next primaryguide sign that contains the emblem of the ongo-ing route.On urban roadways where there is more turningtraffic at major junctions as well as more enteringtraffic from minor roads between major junc-tions, a more frequent spacing of route markers isdesirable. On urban roads a route marker should THIS SPACE RESERVEDFOR ABU DHABIEMIRATE ROUTE SIGN

5.3.2 EMIRATE ROUTE MARKERSIGN 501 EMIRATE ROUTE MARKER sign 501 shouldbe the Emirate Route emblem as described inSection 5.2.7.1, mounted alone. The sign shouldbe 3.0 x wide by 4.0 x high and with an xheight as given inSection 5.2.3. 5.3.3 ABU DHABI ROUTE MARKERSIGN 502 ABU DHABI ROUTE MARKER sign 502should be the Abu Dhabi Route emblem asdescribed inSection 5.2.7.2, mounted alone. Thebe erected if the distance between primary guidesigns containing the emblem of the through routeare located more than two kilometers apart. Insuch a case a route marker should be erectedapproximately 500 meters after the junction, andevery two kilometers thereafter, up to a point notless than one kilometer from the next primaryguide sign that contains the emblem of thethrough route.Figure 5-6illustrates both of the above princi-ples. 5-20 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Golf CourseThemeParkCampingSiteCamping/CaravanSiteHorseRacingBeachParkGarden/Park/Picnic SiteFort/MuseumCamelRacingMarinaYouthHostelTouristInformationZoo Figure 5-5 Approved Supplemental Destination Symbols

5-21 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Detail 5-6-1: Rural Route Marker PlacementMore than 5kmMore than 2km2km2km minRepeat every 10km500m1km minRepeat every 2kmDetail 5-6-2: Urban Route Marker PlacementPrimary Guide Sign Containing Route Emblem Of Through RouteRoute Marker Signs 501 or 502 Figure 5-6 Use of Route Marker Signs

5-22 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 sign should be 3.0 x wide by 4.0 x high andwith an x height as given inSection 5.2.3. 5.4 TRAILBLAZING SIGNS 5.4.1 USE OF TRAILBLAZING Trailblazing is used to provide a localized sup-plement to the control destination based guidesign system. The concept of trailblazing can beapplied to a specific destination or type of destination and it may even be applied to direct driv-ers towards a route. The concept involves provid-ing strategically located compact supplementalstack type trailblazing signs to indicate to driversthe direction to be taken in order to reach one of the following specific types of destination: Airport. City center. An Emirate Route (by number). An Abu Dhabi Route (by number). A supplemental (tourist or service) destina-tion. A freeway. A parking area.While all of these destinations may appear on pri-mary or supplemental direction signs there areoccasions when it may be necessary to indicatethe direction to such a type of destination whenthe use of normal direction signs is not appropri-ate, or impossible due to space limitations.Trailblazing signs display only a stack typearrow, one of Types 3, 4, 5 or 6 together with asymbol. (When geometric conditions require, anupward pointing slanted arrow may be used. AType 3 arrow placed at 45 degrees is suitable forthis purpose.) The signs should be located inadvance of an intersection, roundabout or recog-nized U-turning lane. They will normally be usedto indicate a turn but, in the event that driversmay be confused, for whatever reason, about thecorrect direction to take, an ongoing indicationmay be given, when appropriate, using a Type 3arrow. The signs should preferably not be used inaddition to normal direction signs at a junctionalthough in one or two specific instances thismay be acceptable.Once a trailblazing sign has been used, furthertrailblazing signs must be provided at all decisionpoints until the destination indicated has beenreached, or until the message concerned becomespart of the information displayed by the normalcontrol-destination-based guide-sign system.There are

specific circumstances for each of thetypes of trailblazer identified above in terms of which an appropriate trailblazing sign may beused. These circumstances are detailed in the fol-lowing sections.The trailblazer signs that follow should haveblue, green, or white background color appropri-ate for the type of route which they are located. Sign 501 THIS SPACERESERVED FORSIGN 502 Sign 502

5-23 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 5.4.2 AIRPORT TRAILBLAZER SIGN503 AIRPORT TRAILBLAZING sign 503 is likelyto be the most widely used trailblazer sign. Thesign may be used to direct drivers from areascommonly frequented by visitors to Abu Dhabitowards the airport. The sign should be used in asimilar manner to ADVANCE SUPPLEMEN-TAL sign 514 (seeSection 5.5.5). Sign 503 maybe used on an Emirate Route, an Abu DhabiRoute, or a lesser unnumbered route. It thereforemay be used with or without normal control des-tination direction signs, unless such a directionsign already has the Airport as a trailblaze sym-bol. Once sign 503 has been used it should con-tinue to be provided at all decision points unlessthe symbol appears on a direction sign.The AIRPORT TRAILBLAZER sign should belocated in a side-mounted position on the rightside of the roadway, up to 160 meters from thejunction, with due regard to the position of anyother direction signs and any minor road intersections. When the sign is for a left turn move-ment from a divided roadway it may be beneficial to locate the sign on the median island, par-ticularly if a U-turn movement is called for. TheAirport symbol should be positioned on sign 503so that it points in the same direction as thearrow used on the sign.The Airport symbol may also be used as a trail-blazing component on primary direction signs.See each specific sign for use locations. 5.4.3 CITY CENTER TRAILBLAZERSIGN 504 CITY CENTER TRAILBLAZER sign 504 maybe used within the general environs of the AbuDhabi city center, i.e., at a local level, to directdrivers towards what is considered to be the pop-ular core of the business area. As such, the signmay only be displayed after the city center mes-sage has appeared as a control destination ondirection signs.Sign 504 should be located in a side mountedposition on the right side of the pavement, up to160 meters from the junction, with due regard tothe position of any other direction signs and anyother minor side road intersections. 5.4.4 EMIRATE ROUTETRAILBLAZER SIGN 505 EMIRATE ROUTE TRAILBLAZER sign 505may be used to direct drivers towards an EmirateRoute when direction signs are not otherwise inuse or appropriate. Since Emirate Routes havelimited points of access it may occasionally benecessary to assist drivers in finding a route orstreet which intersects with the Emirate Route.Sign 505 should therefore only be used at a locallevel to assist drivers in finding their wayupwards in the street network. Once used the signshould be repeated at decision points until suchtime as the appropriate Emirate Route emblemappears on a normal Advance Direction sign withthe appropriate control destinations. It may alsobe beneficial to use sign 505 on a route which isparallel to an Emirate Route.The sign should be located in a side-mountedposition on the right side of the roadway, up to Sign 503Sign 504

5-24 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 160 meters from the junction, with due regard tothe position of any other direction signs and anyminor side road intersections.The Emirate Route Emblem displayed on sign505 should include the specific number of theEmirate Route being trailblazed. 5.4.5 ABU DHABI ROUTETRAILBLAZER SIGN 506 ABU DHABI ROUTE TRAILBLAZER sign 506may be used to direct drivers towards a numberedAbu Dhabi Route when direction signs are nototherwise in use or appropriate. Sign 506 shouldtherefore only be used at a local level within acommunity to assist drivers in finding their wayupwards in the street network. However, there aresome instances where exceptions to this rule canbe permitted. The most notable exception wouldbe on the approach to a minor junction with anunnumbered route where the driver merelyrequires a confirmation that the Abu Dhabi Routecontinues in a straight ahead direction. The use of sign 506 may be particularly appropriate within acommunity when there is some facility of impor-tance which tends to attract visitors from outsidethe community.The sign should be located in a side-mountedposition on the right side of the street, up to 160meters from the junction, with due regard to theposition of any other direction signs and anyminor side road intersections. The route emblemdisplayed on the sign should include the specificnumber of the Abu Dhabi Route being trailblazed. 5.4.6 SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATIONTRAILBLAZER SIGN 507 A SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATION TRAIL-BLAZER sign 507 may be used to carry on abasic supplemental destination message whichhas already appeared on an ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514. Once a supplementalmessage has been given by sign 514, in the formof an approved supplemental symbol plus the pri-mary name of the facility (Section 5.5.5), subsequent signs at decision points up to the final turnto the facility should be trailblazer sign 507.The signs should be located in a side-mountedposition on the right side of the roadway, up to160 meters from the junction, with due regard tothe position of any other direction signs and anyminor side road intersections. When the sign is fora left turn movement from a divided roadway itmay be beneficial to locate the sign on the medi-an island, particularly if a U-turn is called for. Inthis latter case a Type 6 arrow should be used.The symbol or symbols (maximum of two) dis-played on the sign should only be approved sup-plementary destination symbols (seeFigure 5-5)which have appeared on one or more precedingADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL signs 514. Inother words, additional supplemental symbolsshould not be introduced using sign 507 withoutprior appearance on sign 514. Sign 505 RESERVED FORSIGN 506 Sign 506Sign 507

5-25 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 5.4.7 FREEWAY TRAILBLAZER SIGN508 A FREEWAY TRAILBLAZER sign 508 may beused as a general trailblazer sign indicating adirection which may be taken in order to intersectand join a freeway. Sign 508 may be used as analternative to EMIRATE ROUTE TRAILBLAZ-ER sign 505 when the use of the latter sign mightcause confusion with other Emirate RouteEmblems on other guide signs. The use of sign508 is appropriate at a local level or on AbuDhabi Routes, particularly in an area close to afreeway and when the route or street concernedruns more or less parallel to the freeway.The signs should be located in a side-mountedposition on the right side of the roadway, up to160 meters from the junction, with due regard tothe position of any other direction signs and anyminor side road intersections. When the sign is fora left-turn movement from a divided roadway itmay be beneficial to locate the sign on the medi-an island, particularly if a U-turn is called for.The sign should comprise the appropriate Type 3,4, or 5 arrow together with the Freeway symbolin black on a white square background in a simi-lar manner to signs 503, 504, and 507. When a U-turn is required a Type 6 arrow should be used. 5.4.8 PARKING TRAILBLAZER SIGN509 PARKING TRAILBLAZER sign 509 may beused locally to direct drivers towards a designat-ed parking area or car park. 5.5 AT-GRADE JUNCTIONSIGNS 5.5.1 TYPES OF AT-GRADEJUNCTION SIGNS The following types of guide sign may be speci-fied for use in advance of, at, or within atgradejunctions: ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign(overhead mounted), or ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK SIGN(ground mounted), or ADVANCE MAP sign. ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign. CHEVRON DIRECTION sign. STREET NAME sign.All approaches to junctions between two Emirateor Abu Dhabi routes should be provided witheach of the above sign types with the exceptionof the ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign,which is optional. Details of the signs, theirfunctions, applications, locations, and the infor-mation that may be displayed are given in the fol-lowing

sections.However, certain site-specific conditions mayrequire a departure from the parameters andguidelines specified in the following sections.Such variations can only be implemented withthe prior approval of Abu Dhabi MunicipalityRoad Department. Sign 508Sign 509

5.5.2.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION Only the following items are eligible for displayon ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK signs: Direction arrow. Route number emblem. Control destination/intermediate destination. City center symbol. Airport Symbol.The items and their placement are describedbelow.Information relevant for changing direction to theleft, going straight ahead, or changing directionto the right should be displayed in three separatestacks, arranged horizontally from left to right,for a crossroad or roundabout and in two separatestacks for a T-junction. The left-turn stack shouldalways be leftmost and the right-turn stack therightmost. Direction Arrow.Hooked Type 4 or 5 arrows facing in theappropriate direction should be displayed inthe left and right turn stacks. An upwardpointing Type 3 arrow should be placed inthe ongoing movement stack.Vertical placement:- At the top of the sign.Horizontal placement: 5-26 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 5.5.2 ADVANCE HORIZONTALSTACK SIGN 511 5.5.2.1 FUNCTION To indicate the routes and control destina-tions at the end of each route and intermedi-ate destinations, where applicable, that canbe reached by turning left or right, or contin-uing ahead. To assist drivers in selecting the most appro-priate lanes for the maneuvers they wish tomake at the junction ahead. 5.5.2.2 APPLICATION As overhead signs on routes with traffic volumesand/or number of lanes warranting overheadadvance signs as specified inSection 2.2.4and asfollows: In advance of signalized at-grade intersec-tions.

In advance of signalized or unsignalizedroundabouts. 5.5.2.3 LOCATION Overhead on gantries (placed centrally overthe roadway). Up to 250 meters in advance of the intersec-tion or roundabout. With due regard to the position of any minorside road intersection. Not less than 175 meters after the previousjunction of numbered routes. Sign 511

5-27 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 - Left turn and ongoing movement: left jus-tified in stack.- Right turn: right justified in stack. Route Number Emblem.One route number emblem should be dis-played for each direction of travel for whicha route number has been allocated.Vertical placement:- At the top of the sign.Horizontal placement:- Left turn and ongoing movement: rightjustified in stack.- Right turn: left justified in stack. Control destination.One control destination and one intermediatedestination should be displayed for eachdirection of travel for which a route numberhas been allocated. If one of the turningmovements does not have a route numberand control destination, the street name ornumber should be substituted for the controldestination.Vertical placement:- At the bottom of the sign, with Arabic leg-end above the English.Horizontal placement:- All stacks:Arabic text in the bottom row is right jus-tified on the route number emblem or Type5 arrow in the top row, and English text inthe bottom row is left justified on theTypes 3 or 4 arrows or route numberemblem in the top row.If a city center symbol is used it should beconsidered as an integral part of the rele-vant line of text. City center symbol.The symbol will be used only with a routethat has Abu Dhabi city center as a controldestination.Vertical placement:- Centered in each stack.Horizontal placement:- Right justified in stack. Airport symbol.The symbol will be used only on a route thatis trailblazed to the airport.Placement:- Centered between the direction arrow androute number emblem in the top row. 5.5.3 ADVANCE VERTICAL STACKSIGN 512 5.5.3.1 FUNCTION To indicate the routes and control destina-tions at the end of each route that can bereached by turning left or right, or continuingahead. To assist drivers in selecting the most appro-priate lanes for the maneuvers they wish tomake at the junction ahead. 5.5.3.2 APPLICATION As side-mounted signs on routes with traffic vol-umes and/or a number of lanes that do not warrant overhead advance signs as specified inSection 2.2.4and as follows:

In advance of signalized at-grade intersec-tions. In advance of signalized or unsignalizedroundabouts.

5-28 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 5.5.3.3 LOCATION Ground mounted on the right side of theroadway. Up to 250 meters in advance of the intersec-tion or roundabout. With due regard to the position of any minorside-road intersection. Not less than 175 meters after the previousjunction of numbered routes. 5.5.3.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION Only the following items are eligible for displayon ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK signs: Direction arrow. Route number emblem. Control destination/intermediate destination. City center symbol. Airport Symbol.The items and their placement are describedbelow.Information relevant for going straight ahead orchanging direction to the left or to the rightshould be displayed in three separate stacks,arranged vertically, from top to bottom, for acrossroad or roundabout, and in two separatestacks for a T-junction. The straight-ahead stack should always be uppermost and the right turnstack the lowermost. Direction arrow.An upward pointing Type 3 arrow should beplaced in the ongoing movement stack.Hooked type 4 or 5 arrows facing in theappropriate direction should be displayed inthe left and right turn stacks.Vertical placement:- Centered in each stack.Horizontal placement:Ongoing and left turn: left justified in eachstack.- Right turn: right justified in stack. Route number emblem.One route number emblem should be dis-played for each direction of travel for whicha route number has been allocated.Vertical placement:- Centered in each

stack.Horizontal placement:- Ongoing and left turn: left justified onType 3 or Type 4 arrows (seeFigure 5-3).- Right turn: left justified with route numberemblem(s) in other stack(s) above. Control destination.One control destination and one intermediatedestination where applicable should be dis-played for each direction of travel for whicha route number has been allocated. If one of the turning movements does not have a routenumber and control destination, the streetname or number should be substituted for thecontrol destination. Sign 512

5-29 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Vertical placement:- Centered in the stack with the Arabic leg-end above the English.Horizontal placement:- All stacks:Arabic text is right justified on right turnType 5 arrow. If the sign does not require aright turn stack, as at a T-junction from theleft, the Arabic text should be justified onthe right edge of the sign. The English textis left justified on the route numberemblems. City center symbol.- The symbol will only be used with a routethat has Abu Dhabi City Center as a con-trol destination.Vertical placement:- Centered in each stack.Horizontal placement:Ongoing and left turn: right justified instack.- Right turn: Right justified on Type 5 arrow. Airport symbol.The symbol will be used only on a route thatis trailblazed to the airport.Placement:- Centered between the direction arrow androute number emblem in the top row. 5.5.4 ADVANCE MAP SIGN 513 5.5.4.1 FUNCTION To indicate the routes and control destina-tions at the end of each route that can bereached by turning left or right or by contin-uing ahead. To assist drivers in selecting the most appro-priate lanes for the maneuvers they wish tomake at the junction ahead. 5.5.4.2 APPLICATION As ground-mounted signs in advance of junctionswith nonstandard or irregular geometry such as aroundabout that is enlarged into a noncircularshape and/or has more than four exit roadways.This type of sign should only be used in excep-tional circumstances and will require a signifi-cant side space to accommodate its size. 5.5.4.3 LOCATION Ground mounted on the right side of theroadway. Up to 250 meters in advance of the round-about (or other junction; see section 5.5.4.4). With due regard to the position of any minorside road intersection. Not less than 175 meters after the previousjunction of numbered routes.

5.5.4.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION The following items only are eligible for displayon ADVANCE MAP signs: Map direction arrow. Route number emblem. Control destination/intermediate destination. City center symbol. Sign 513

5-30 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 The items and their placement are describedbelow.Information relevant to changing direction orgoing straight ahead should be displayed in linewith the pointed arrow legs of the map Type 9arrow representing an exit path from the junction. Map direction arrow.The map direction arrow Type 9 should rep-resent the shape of the complex junction asclosely as is practical with one pointed arrowleg for each exit path from the junction,EXCLUDING the reverse path to the direc-tion of entry to the junction. (Although theexample illustrated shows a form of round-about other shapes of map direction arrowmay be considered. In such a case the signdesign should be customized to the specificmap direction arrow shape following thegeneral principles stated for the example.)Vertical placement:- At the bottom of the sign.Horizontal placement:- In the middle of the sign between the rightand left destinations. Route number emblem.One route number emblem should be dis-played for each direction of travel for whicha route number has been allocated.Vertical placement:- Ongoing movement: above and to the leftof the relevant arrow leg(s) and centeredvertically on the Arabic and English text(see also Control Destination).- Left- and right-turn movements: centeredon the left and right turn arrow legs.Horizontal placement:- Ongoing movement: to the left of the con-trol destination name.- Left-turn movement: justified on the leftside of the sign.- Right-turn movement: left justified on theright turn arrow leg. Control destination.One control destination and one intermediatedestination where applicable should be dis-played for each direction of travel for whicha route number has been allocated. If one of the turning movements does not have a routenumber and control destination, the streetname or number should be substituted for thecontrol destination. If the control destinationsin one direction are more than two destina-tions (e.g., A1 Sila, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, ascan be found inTable 5-1), the sign shoulddisplay only two of those control destinationsalong with an intermediate destination for amaximum of three destinations.Vertical placement:Ongoing movement: above the relevantarrow legs with Arabic text over Englishtext.- Left- and right-turn movement: centeredon the left and right turn arrow legs respec-tively with Arabic text over English text.Horizontal placement:- Ongoing movement: the block comprisingthe route number emblem and the Arabicand English text should be centered overthe relevant arrow leg. If there should bemore than one ongoing exit path from thejunction the relevant blocks comprisingthe route number emblem and English andArabic text should be moved off-center onthe arrow legs until sufficient space existsbetween the two blocks that their proximi-ty will not be confusing.- Left- and right-turn movements: left justi-fied on the route number emblem (seebelow).- All movements: the English text should beleft justified on the route number emblemand the Arabic text right justified on theright hand end of the English text,UNLESS the Arabic text is longer than the

5-31 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 English text in which case both Arabic andEnglish text should be left justified on theroute number emblem. City center symbol.The symbol will only be used with a routethat has Abu Dhabi City Center as a controldestination.Placement:- To the right of the destination name andcentered vertically on the Arabic andEnglish legends. Airport symbol.The symbol should not be used ordinarily onthis sign. Separate trailblaze signing shouldbe used. 5.5.5 ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTALSIGN 514 5.5.5.1 FUNCTION To indicate approved supplemental destina-tions either in addition to standard advancedirection signs, or on their own at junctionsthat do not warrant standard advance direc-tion signs. To assist drivers who are unfamiliar with AbuDhabi in finding their way from a numberedroute to the non-control supplemental desti-nation being sought. 5.5.5.2 APPLICATION As ground-mounted signs on routes in closeproximity to the facility indicated on the sign asfollows: In advance of signalized or unsignalized at-grade intersections. In advance of signalized or unsignalizedroundabouts. In advance of a U-turn. 5.5.5.3 LOCATION Ground-mounted on the right side of theroadway UNLESS the sign is for a left turnor U-turn movement and the median island iswide enough to safely accommodate the sign,in which case the sign may be located on theleft side of the roadway in a one-way road-way or dual carriageway.

Up to 160 meters in advance of the intersec-tion or roundabout between sign 511 (or 512or 513) and the junction, or up to 160 metersin advance of the U-turn . With due regard to the provision of anyminor side road intersection. 5.5.5.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION The following items only are eligible for displayon Advance Supplemental signs: Direction arrow. Approved supplemental sign symbol (seeSection 5.2.8). Approved supplemental destination (pri-mary or identifying name only).The items and their placement are describedbelow.Information will commonly be displayed in sin-gle left or right turn stack signs. Since the func-tion of the sign does not include orientation, onlythe directions to approved supplemental destina-tions are signed. If more than one stack isrequired the stack order should be the same as foran ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign 512. Direction Arrow.Hooked type 4, 5, or 6 arrows facing in theappropriate direction should be displayed inthe appropriate stack (an ongoing Type 3arrow may be used for an ongoing indicationin exceptional circumstances where confu-sion may otherwise occur). Sign 514

5-32 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Vertical placement:- Centered in each stack.Horizontal placement:- Left turn and U-turn: left justified in stack.- Right turn: right justified in stack. Approved supplemental sign symbol.The approved symbol (seeFigure 5-5)should be used with the primary or identify-ing name for the facility. If more than onefacility of the same type exists in one direc-tion up to two names may be used with onesymbol (see Approved SupplementalDestination below). Two different symbols,for two different types of supplemental desti-nation, may be displayed with their appropri-ate primary names in one stack.Vertical placement:- One symbol: centered in the stack - Two symbols: aligned one above the other,centered in the stack so that the spacesbetween borders and symbols, andbetween symbols, are equal.Horizontal placement:- Left turn and U-turn: left justified on Type4 and Type 6 arrows.- Right turn: left justified on edge of sign,UNLESS both left and right turn stacks arerequired, in which case both left and rightstack symbols should be left justified onthe Type 4 arrow in the left turn stack. Approved supplemental destination.The full destination name should be used forall supplemental destinations, along with anapproved supplementary symbol, where it isapplicable. When two facilities of the sametype occur in one direction, two names maybe used with one symbol. If two differenttypes of facility occur in one direction, twosymbols may be provided within one stack sothat one is above the other (see ApprovedSupplemental Sign Symbol, above).Vertical placement:- One destination: centered in the stack withthe Arabic text above the English text.Two destinations of the same type: cen-tered in the stack with the two Arabicnames above the two English names.- Two destinations of different types: eachdestination centered on the appropriatesupplemental symbol with the Arabic textabove the English text for each destination.Horizontal placement:- Left turn and U-turn: Arabic text right jus-tified on the right edge of the sign. Englishtext left justified on the SupplementalSymbol.- Right turn: Arabic text right justified onthe Type 5 arrow. English text left justifiedon the supplemental symbol. 5.5.6 CHEVRON DIRECTION SIGN515 5.5.6.1 FUNCTION To indicate the route number and control des-tination at the end of a route, at the point of turn onto the route (the action point). To indicate the point of turn towards a sup-plemental destination. To indicate the point of turn towards a localdestination. 5.5.6.2 APPLICATION

As ground-mounted signs as follows: For all exit paths from signalized or unsignal-ized roundabouts. For the left and right turn exit paths from asignalized intersection. For supplemental or local exit paths at minorjunctions. 5.5.6.3 LOCATION Ground mounted on the right side of theroadway for all right turn movements.

5-33 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Ground mounted on the far left side of a sig-nalized intersection for left turn movements. Ground mounted on the right side of theroadway for left turn movements without aturning lane and/or for minor intersectingroads. Within the gore area of right turning sliproads. 5.5.6.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION The following items only are eligible for displayon CHEVRON DIRECTION signs: Direction arrow. Route number emblem. Control destination/intermediate destination. Supplemental symbol and destination. City center symbol. Airport symbol. Local destination.The items and their placement are describedbelow.Information relevant for changing direction to theright or left should be displayed singly in indi-vidual CHEVRON DIRECTION signs. Direction arrow.Chevron Type 1 or 2 arrows facing in theappropriate direction should be displayed inleft and right turn signs.Vertical placement:- Centered on the sign.Horizontal placement:- Right turn: right justified on the sign.- Left turn: left justified on the sign. Route number emblem.One route number emblem should be dis-played when a route number has been allo-cated.Vertical placement:- Centered on the sign.Horizontal placement:- Right turn: left justified on the left edge of the sign.- Left turn: left justified on the Type 1arrow.

Control destination. Sign 515

5-34 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 One control destination and one intermediatedestination where applicable should be dis-played on any CHEVRON DIRECTIONsign displaying a route number symbol.Vertical placement:Centered on the sign with the Arabic textabove the English text.Horizontal placement:- Right turn: Arabic text is right justified onright turn Type 2 arrow and on the rightedge of the sign for left turn signs. TheEnglish text is left justified on the routenumber emblem. Supplemental symbol and destination.Same as for route number emblem and con-trol destination (see above). City center symbol.The symbol will only be used with a routethat has Abu Dhabi City Center as a controldestination.Placement:- To the right of the destination name andcentered vertically on the Arabic andEnglish legends. Airport symbol.The symbol may be added to the primarysign or used in a separate CHEVRONDIRECTION sign to trailblaze a turn to theAirport. When used as a second CHEVRONmounted on the same post, both CHEVRONDIRECTION signs should be the same size.Placement:- To the left of the route number.- Centered in the sign when used separately. Local destination.One local destination, street name or number,or parking symbol may be displayed if a turn-ing movement does not have a route numberor control destination. Signing of local desti-nations such as these should be coordinatedwith and approved by the Department.Vertical placement:- Centered on the sign with the Arabic textabove the English text.Horizontal placement:- Right turn: Arabic text is right justified onright turn Type 2 arrow and on the rightedge of the sign for left turn signs. TheEnglish text is left justified on the routenumber emblem. 5.6 GRADE-SEPARATEDJUNCTION SIGNS 5.6.1 TYPES OF GRADE-SEPARATED JUNCTION SIGNS The following types of guide signs may be spec-ified for use on the free-flowing roadway of agrade-separated junction whether this is on anEmirate Route or an Abu Dhabi Route: ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign. EXIT DIRECTION sign. ONGOING DIRECTION sign.

GORE EXIT sign. SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign.A grade-separated junction may occur betweentwo routes which have one of the following char-acteristics: Both routes have full access control and allelements of the junction are free flowing andgrade separated. Such a junction betweentwo such freeways does not give access to theat-grade street network and is termed a sys-tems interchange. One route is a freeway with full access con-trol and the other is essentially an at-graderoad (although it may have occasional grade-separated junctions) with only limited access

5-35 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 control. Such a junction is termed anaccess interchange allowing connectionbetween the atgrade street network and afreeway, and vice versa. Both routes are essentially at-grade routeswith limited access control but have selectedgradeseparated junctions to improve junc-tion capacity.The at-grade portion of any of the latter two junc-tion types, including any off-and-on ramps from-and-to the freeway, should be signed using con-ventional at-grade direction signs as detailed inSection 5.5. However, site-specific roadwaygeometry may, at times, require the at grade road-way to be signed using the following sign typesto indicate lane assignment. Such variations canonly be implemented with the prior approval of the Department.All free-flowing roadways approaching a grade-separated interchange up to and including the exitramp gore area should be provided with at leastone of each of the above sign types with theexception of the SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT signwhich is optional. 5.6.2 ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTIONSIGN 551 5.6.2.1 FUNCTION To provide advance indication of destina-tions served by an exit ramp at the inter-change or grade-separated intersectionahead. To indicate the lane or lanes that should befollowed to reach the exit ramp. 5.6.2.2 APPLICATION AND LOCATION Overhead on gantries or cantilever supports inadvance of single-lane and multiple-lane exitramps, each with or without lane drops at aninterchange or grade-separated intersection. On carriageways of freeways/expressways inadvance of exit ramps connecting with otherfreeways/expressways (systems inter-changes), with arterial roads, or streets(access interchanges) to provide the follow-ing sequence of signs:- Extra forward ADVANCE EXIT DIREC-TION sign 551 for interchanges with otherfreeways/expressways, at 2,000 meters inadvance of the theoretical gore (optionalsign, recommended for systems inter-changes). Recommended range: 1,800meters to 2,300 meters.- Forward ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTIONsign 551 for all freeway/expressway exits,at 1000 meters in advance of the theoretical gore (mandatory). Recommendedrange: 900 meters to 1,200 meters.- ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551for all freeway exits 500 meters in advanceof the theoretical gore (optional).Recommended range: 400 meters to 600meters.

On carriageways of arterial roads, approach-ing exit ramps to other roads at grade-sepa-rated intersections, to provide the followingsequence of signs:- ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551:(optional but recommended for postedspeeds less than 80 km/hour, mandatoryfor posted speeds of 80 km/hour or higher)At 500 meters in advance of the exit nose.Permissible range: 250 meters to 600meters, provided that the sign 551 is atleast 200 meters from the EXIT DIRECTION sign 552. Figure 5-7shows layouts for typical applica-tions of ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign551. The ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTIONsign must extend over the exit lanes.Downward pointing arrows indicate the lanesto be followed. For a single-lane exit, the sign must displaythe destination information for the route it isleading onto. If the single-lane exit servesboth directions of the crossing road the con-trol destination for each direction should bedisplayed. When each direction has a differ-ent route number, the sign should display theroute numbers for both directions. If a two-lane exit serves both directions onthe crossing road, destination information forboth directions should be displayed. When a two-lane exit ramp separates intotwo roadways for different directions within

5-36 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Detail 5-7-1Single Lane Exit: No Lane Drop,Airport DestinationDetail 5-7-2Single Lane Exit: No Lane Drop, Airport Destination,City Center DestinationDetail 5-7-3Single Lane Exit: With Lane DropDetail 5-7-5Two Lane Exit: With Two Lanes Dropped, One Route Number Detail 57-6Two Lane Exit: With One Lane Drop, Ramp Split, Two Exit NumbersDetail 5-7-4Two Lane Exit: With One Lane Drop, Two Exit Numbers Figure 5-7 Advance Direction Sign 551

5-37 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 500 meters after the exit gore, then two sep-arate signs should be used, one for each lane.The left-hand sign must display the destina-tion information for the left-hand branchroad. The righthand sign must display thedestination information for the right-handbranch. When a grade-separated junction is providedon an Abu Dhabi Route an ADVANCE EXITDIRECTION sign 551 should be used fol-lowing the same basic principles as describedabove. When a lane on the approaching carriagewayends and becomes the exit ramp (a lanedrop), a white panel with the message EXITshould be displayed at the bottom of the signover the lane or lanes that are dropped.InFigure 5-7, Detail 4, the left hand lane has adownward pointing arrow indicating the lane tobe used for the exit. However, there is no whitelane drop panel indicating EXIT for this lane. Theabsence of the lane drop EXIT panel means thatthe lane is a shared lane serving the ongoing des-tination as well as the exit destinations. The lanein fact forms part of the mainline carriageway.The fact that a two-lane off-ramp is required indi-cates that a high volume of traffic will be exiting.The shared lane will need to carry a significantproportion of the exit ramp traffic. The capacityof a two-lane exit ramp is dependent on the num-ber of through vehicles that remain in the sharedlane. The fewer through vehicles, the higher thecapacity of the exit ramp. Strangers who do notknow that they can stay in an optional lane toreach ongoing destinations may move out of theshared lane into a lane indicated for ongoing des-tinations. However, most regular users of theinterchange will know that it is not mandatory forthem to move out of the shared lane. The regularusers will make up the greatest proportion of users. 5.6.2.3 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION All information relating to routes and destina-tions displayed on a subsequent EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 should be displayed on the pre-ceding ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign(s)551. No destinations or routes that are additionalto those displayed on the EXIT DIRECTIONsign should be displayed on the ADVANCEEXIT DESTINATION sign(s).The layout examples for EXIT DIRECTION signsshown inFigure 5-8(seeSection 5.6.3) corre- spond to the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTIONsigns shown inFigure 5-7. They illustrate thematching of messages on the ADVANCE EXITDIRECTION signs and EXIT DIRECTION signs.The following items only, are eligible for displayon ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs 551: Downward pointing arrow Type 7. Route number emblem. Control destination/intermediate destination.

City center symbol. Airport symbol. Distance to exit. Lane-drop EXIT panel.The policy on the display of each of these itemsand their placement on the sign are describedbelow and illustrated inFigure 5-7. Downward pointing arrow.One downward pointing Type 7 arrow shouldbe displayed for a single lane exit and twoType 7 arrows should be displayed for a two-lane exit, as shown inFigure 5-7.If no lane drop occurs at the exit, the arrowsshould be white.If one or more lanes are dropped at the exit,the arrows indicating the lanes to be droppedshould be black (see lane-drop panel).Vertical placement:- The arrows should be placed at the bottomof the sign.Horizontal placement:- Each arrow should be placed over the cen-terline of the lane to which it refers with atolerance to the left or right of up to 300millimeters. Route number emblem.

5-38 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Only the route number emblem of the routeor routes accessed directly from the exit rampshould be displayed. One route number onlyshould be displayed if the route reacheddirectly has the same route number on bothsides of the interchange. If the route reacheddirectly has different route numbers on eachside of the interchange, and both can bereached from the exit ramp, then both routenumbers should be displayed.Vertical placement:- Each emblem should be located centrallyon the lines of legend for the Arabic andEnglish destination names associated withthe route number.Horizontal placement:- For single-lane exit ramps, the route num-ber emblem(s) should be placed at the leftof the sign. For two-lane exit ramps, theemblems should be placed adjacent to thedestination names on their left side. Thecombined emblem and destination namemessage should be centered between theborders. If more than two destinations arenecessary, it may be more effective toplace the route number emblem centrallywith Arabic text to the right, and Englishtext to the left. Control destination.A maximum of one control destination andone intermediate destination, where applica-ble, is permitted for each direction (left orright) on ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTIONsign 551. The upper destination name shouldbe the control or intermediate destination forthe route reached directly from the off-rampin the direction to the left of the off ramp.The lower destination name should be thecontrol or intermediate destination for theroute reached directly from the off ramp inthe direction to the right of the off ramp. Thesigns displayed to drivers travelling on theopposite approach to the interchange willhave the vertical order of the specific desti-nation names reversed.)If the route reached from the exit ramp pro-vides for travel only to the right or only to theleft, then only one control or intermediatedestination should be displayed for the route.If the road reached from the ramp has differ-ent route numbers on either side of the rampjunction, the appropriate control or intermedi-ate destination for each route for the directionof travel available from the exit ramp shouldbe displayed adjacent to the appropriate routenumber emblem so that the left turn informa-tion is placed above the right turn information.If the use of intermediate destinations pres-ents difficulties, such as the sign becomes toolarge or the amount of information displayedon the sign exceeds the amount that can becomfortably absorbed by the driver (see5.2), then, in the interests of public safety, theintermediate destinations should be omittedfrom the sign.Vertical placement:- The Arabic legends should always be dis-played above the English legends. Whentwo destinations are related to one routenumber, the Arabic right-turn destinationname should be immediately below theArabic left turn destination name. The twoEnglish legends should be similarly dis-played, one immediately below the other,and both below the Arabic legends.- When two route numbers with one desti-nation each are displayed, the route num-ber emblem and associated destination legend for the destination to the left at the exitramp, should be above the route numberemblem and legend for the destination tothe right at the exit ramp.Horizontal placement:The control destination and intermediate des-tination, where applicable, should be dis-played adjacent and to the right of the associ-ated route number emblem, as shown inFigure 5-7.

5-39 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 - English legend should be left justified andadjacent to the right edge of the route num-ber emblem.- Arabic legend should be right justified.The position of the right justification lineshould be the furthest right of the follow-ing: The longest English word. The longest Arabic word, with its leftend adjacent to the route numberemblem.When two route numbers are used, thesame right justification for the Arabic des-tinations should be used for both routenumbers. Airport symbol.The airport symbol may be displayed if theroute served by the ramp has the airport as atrailblaze destination.When used the symbol should be located tothe left of the route number emblem.The aircraft symbol should be oriented in thedirection in which traffic must travel to reachthe airport. For the ongoing direction the air-craft symbol must point upwards. City center symbol.Vertical placement:- Centered in each stack.Horizontal placement:- Right justified in each stack. Distance to exit.The distance to the exit should be displayedin English and Arabic numerals as shown inFigure 5-7. When the ADVANCE EXITDIRECTION sign has been located withinthe permissible ranges of distances from theexit, specified under Application, above,the nominal distances 500 meters, 1,000meters, 2,000 meters should be displayed. If the location falls outside the recommendedrange, the actual distance to the nearest 100meters should be displayed. For distancesless than 400 meters the actual distance maybe rounded to the nearest 50 meters.When two or more successive exits occur atan interchange, the signs should indicate thedifferent distances. If the advance sign islocated within the recommended range, thenominal distance should be used for the firstexit. The second and subsequent exits shouldindicate a distance equal to the nominal dis-tance used for the first exit plus the distancesfrom the first exit to the subsequent exits. Alldistances should be rounded up to the next100 meters.Vertical placement:Centered approximately on the downwardpointing arrow(s).Horizontal placement:- On the left side of the sign to the left of thefurthest left downward pointing arrow. White lane-drop EXIT panel.If a lane on a mainline carriageway will bedropped at an exit ramp, a white EXIT panelshould be displayed.The Arabic and English word EXIT shouldbe displayed adjacent to and to the right of asingle arrow, with the Arabic above theEnglish, both centered approximately verti-cally in the panel. When two lanes aredropped at the exit, the EXIT panel extendsfor the full width of the sign. In such a casethe word EXIT in Arabic and English may bedisplayed centrally between the two down-ward pointing arrows.The panel is placed at the bottom of the signand covers the space occupied by the relevantdownward pointing arrow(s), which shouldbe black. The white panel extends over thelane or lanes to be dropped, from the edge of the sign to a point above the lane line remotefrom the edge of the sign. White sign borders

5-40 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 adjacent to the panel should be incorporatedinto the panel. 5.6.3 EXIT DIRECTION SIGN 552 5.6.3.1 FUNCTION To indicate the location of the exit ramp at aninterchange or grade-separated intersection. To indicate by an arrow configuration thedirection of the exit. To repeat the destination information that hasbeen shown on the preceding advance exitdirection signs 551 and thereby reassure thedriver of the destination(s) served. 5.6.3.2 APPLICATION At single-lane and multiple-lane exit ramps,each with or without lane drops, at inter-changes or grade-separated intersections. On carriageways of freeways, at exit ramps,connecting with other freeways (systemsinterchanges) or with arterial roads or streets(access interchanges). On carriageways of grade-separated arterialroads at exit ramps to other roads. Figure 5-8shows layouts for typical applica-tions of EXIT DIRECTION signs 552. TheEXIT DIRECTION sign must extend overthe exit lanes. Upward pointing arrowsshould be slanted (normally to the right) toemphasize the change of alignment. For a single-lane exit, the sign must displaythe destination information for the route it isleading onto. If the single-lane exit servesboth directions of the intersecting crossroad,and each direction has a different route num-ber, the sign should display the route numberemblems for both directions. If a two-lane exit serves both directions on theintersecting crossroad, destination informa-tion for both directions should be displayed. When a two-lane exit ramp separates into tworoadways for different directions within 500meters after the exit gore, then two separatesigns should be used, one for each lane. Theleft-hand sign

must display the destinationinformation for the left-hand branch road.The right-hand sign must display the destina-tion information for the right-hand branch. When a grade-separated junction is providedon an Abu Dhabi Route an EXIT DIREC-TION sign 552 should follow the same basicprinciples as described above. When a lane on the approaching carriagewayends and becomes the exit ramp (a lanedrop), a white panel with the message EXITshould be displayed at the bottom of the signover the lane or lanes that are dropped. 5.6.3.3 LOCATION At the theoretical gore, up to 50 meters afterthe theoretical gore, or up to 100 meters inadvance of the theoretical gore provided thatthe exit lane or lanes have been developed tofull lane width. The sign should be mounted overhead theexit lane or lanes, on gantries or cantileversupports. 5.6.3.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION All information relating to routes and destina-tions displayed on the preceding ADVANCEEXIT DIRECTION signs 551 should be dis-played on the subsequent EXIT DIRECTIONsigns 552. No destinations or routes that are addi-tional to those displayed on the ADVANCEEXIT DIRECTION signs should be displayed onthe EXIT DIRECTION signs.The layout examples for EXIT DIRECTIONsigns shown inFigure 5-8correspond to theADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs shown inFigure 5-7. They illustrate the matching of mes-sages on the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTIONsigns and EXIT DIRECTION signs.Only the following items are eligible for displayon EXIT DIRECTION signs 552: Upward pointing arrow Type 8 (inclined inthe direction of the exit ramp). Route number emblem. Control destination/intermediate destination. City center symbol. Airport symbol. Lane drop EXIT panel.

5-41 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Detail 5-8-1Single Lane Exit: No Lane Drop,Airport DestinationDetail 5-8-2Single Lane Exit: No Lane Drop, Airport Destination,City Center DestinationDetail 5-8-3Single Lane Exit: With Lane DropDetail 5-8-5Two Lane Exit: With Two Lanes Dropped, One Route Number Detail 58-6Two Lane Exit: With One Lane Drop, Ramp Split, Two Exit NumbersDetail 5-8-4Two Lane Exit: With One Lane Drop, Two Exit Numbers Figure 5-8 Exit Direction Sign 552

5-42 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 The policy on the display of each of these itemsand their placement on the sign is describedbelow and illustrated inFigure 5-8. Upward pointing arrow.One upward pointing arrow Type 8 should bedisplayed for a single lane exit, and two Type8 arrows should be displayed for a two-laneexit, as shown inFigure 5-8. The arrowsshould be slanted to represent the direction of the exit ramp (normally at 45 to the right of vertical).If no lane drop occurs at the exit, the arrowsshould be white.The number of lanes at the exit is determinedby the mainline lanes from which it is possi-ble to directly exit the mainline, not the num-ber of lanes on the off ramp that develop afterthe theoretical gore.If one or more lanes are dropped at the exit,the arrows indicating the lanes to be droppedshould be black.Vertical placement:- The arrows should be placed at the bottomof the sign.Horizontal placement:- Each arrow should be placed over the cen-terline of the lane to which it refers with atolerance to the left or right of up to 300millimeters. Route number emblem.Only the route number emblem of the routeor routes accessed directly from the exit rampshould be displayed. One route number onlyshould be displayed if the route reacheddirectly has the same route number on bothsides of the interchange. If the route reacheddirectly has different route numbers on eachside of the interchange, and both can bereached from the exit ramp, then both routenumbers should be displayed.Vertical placement:Each emblem should be located centrallyon the lines of legend for the Arabic andEnglish destination names associated withthe route number.Horizontal placement:- For single-lane exit ramps, the route num-ber emblem(s) should be placed at the leftside of the sign, as shown inFigure 5-8.For two-lane exit ramps, the emblemsshould be placed adjacent to the destina-tion names on their left side. The com-bined emblem and destination name mes-sage should be centered between the bor-ders. If more than two destinations arenecessary, it may be more effective toplace the route number emblem centrallywith Arabic text to the right and Englishtext to the left. Control destinationA maximum of one control destination andone intermediate destination, where applica-ble, is permitted for each cardinal directionon EXIT DIRECTION sign 552. The upperdestination name should be the control orintermediate destination for the route reacheddirectly from the off ramp in the direction tothe left of the off ramp. The lower destinationname should be the control/intermediate des-tination for the route reached directly fromthe off ramp in the direction to the right of the off ramp.If the route reached from the exit ramp pro-vides for travel only to the right or only to theleft, then only one control or intermediatedestination should be displayed for the route.If the road reached from the ramp has differ-ent route numbers on either side of the rampjunction, the appropriate control or intermediate destination for each route for the directionof travel available from the exit ramp shouldbe displayed adjacent to the appropriate routenumber emblem so that the left turn informa-tion is placed above the right turn information.

5-43 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 If the use of intermediate destinations pres-ents difficulties, such as the sign becomes toolarge, or the amount of information displayedon the sign exceeds the amount that can becomfortably absorbed by the driver (seeSection 5.2), then, in the interests of publicsafety, the intermediate destinations shouldbe omitted.Vertical placement:- Where Arabic legends and English legendsare stacked vertically, the Arabic legendsshould always be displayed above theEnglish legends.- When two destinations are related to oneroute number, the Arabic right turn destination name should be immediately belowthe Arabic left turn destination name. Thetwo English legends should be similarlydisplayed, one immediately below theother, and both below the Arabic legends.- When two route numbers with one desti-nation each are displayed, the route num-ber emblem and associated destination leg-ends for the destination to the left at theexit ramp should be above the route num-ber emblem and legend for the destinationto the right at the exit ramp.Horizontal placement:- The control destination and intermediatedestination, where applicable, should bedisplayed adjacent to the associated routenumber emblem, to the right of it, asshown inFigure 5-8.- English legend should be left justified andadjacent to the right edge of the route num-ber emblem.- Arabic legend should be right justified. Theposition of the right justification line shouldbe the furthest right of the following: The longest English word. The longest Arabic word, with its leftend adjacent to the route numberemblem.- When two route numbers are used, thesame right justification for the Arabic des-tinations should be used for both routenumbers. Airport symbol.The airport symbol may be displayed if theroute served by the ramp has the airport as atrailblaze destination.When used the symbol should be located tothe left of the route number emblem.The aircraft symbol should be oriented in thedirection in which traffic must travel to reachthe airport. When the arrow(s) on EXITDIRECTION signs are slanted at 45towards the exit ramp, the aircraft should beslanted at 45 in the same direction, diago-nally in its white background panel. City center symbol.Vertical placement:- Centered in each stack.Horizontal placement:- Right justified in each stack. Lane-drop EXIT panel.If a lane on a mainline carriageway will bedropped at an exit ramp, a white EXIT panelshould be displayed.The panel is placed at the bottom of the signand covers the space occupied by the relevantupward pointing arrow(s), which should beblack. The white panel extends over the laneor lanes to be dropped, from the edge of thesign to a point above the lane line remotefrom the edge of the sign. White sign bordersadjacent to the panel should be incorporatedinto the panel.The English and Arabic word EXIT shouldbe displayed adjacent to and on the right sideof a single arrow, with the Arabic above theEnglish both approximately centered verti-cally on the panel. When two lanes aredropped at the exit the EXIT panel extends

5-44 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 for the full width of the sign. In such a casethe word EXIT in Arabic and English may bedisplayed centrally between the two upwardpointing arrows. 5.6.4 ONGOING DIRECTION SIGN553 5.6.4.1 FUNCTION To provide information about the control destina-tion that will ultimately be reached by remainingon the mainline carriageway, using the throughlanes at a point where there is an exit from themainline carriageway at an interchange or grade-separated intersection. 5.6.4.2 APPLICATION Used on mainline carriageways in conjunc-tion with overhead ADVANCE EXITDIRECTION signs 551 and overhead EXITDIRECTION signs 552, at interchanges andgrade-separated intersections. At simple interchanges it is mandatory tohave at least one ONGOING DIRECTIONsign 553. For complicated interchanges,where a high volume of lane changing will benecessary, at least two ONGOING DIREC-TION signs 553 should be applied. 5.6.4.3 LOCATION Overhead on gantries. When only one ONGOING DIRECTIONsign 553 is applied, the preferred location isadjacent to the ADVANCE EXIT DIREC-TION sign 551, when used, at 500 metersfrom the theoretical gore. The next and mostcommon, most effective location is adjacentto the Forward ADVANCE EXIT DIREC-TION sign 551 at 1000 meters from the the-oretical gore. For more complicated or high volume inter-changes, at least two ONGOING DIREC-TION signs 553 should be used. One of theseshould be at the theoretical gore, adjacent tothe EXIT DIRECTION sign 552. This isneeded to ensure that drivers can make a finaldecision about continuing straight on, or exit-ing. The other sign should be applied adja-cent to the forward ADVANCE EXITDIRECTION sign 551, at 1000 meters aheadof the theoretical gore. If the available dis-tance ahead of the exit is too short to place asign at 1,000 meters in advance, the ONGO-ING DIRECTION sign 553 should be placedadjacent to the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 at 500 meters or more inadvance of the exit. For interchanges on arterial routes at leastone ONGOING DIRECTION sign 553should be applied. The preferred location isadjacent to the ADVANCE EXIT DIREC-TION sign 551.

5.6.4.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION The sign should be positioned over the ongoinglanes and be of sufficient width to display downward pointing arrows over the centers of allongoing lanes except optional exit lanes.The following items are eligible for display: Downward pointing arrow type 7. Route number emblem. Control destination/intermediate destination. Airport symbol.The description of these items and their positionson the sign are given below and illustrated inFigure 5-9. Downward pointing arrow.One downward pointing arrow Type 7 shouldbe displayed over the center of each laneavailable for through traffic, and which is notdesignated as a shared lane for exiting traffic(the shared lanes will have an ADVANCEEXIT DIRECTION sign 551 or an EXITDIRECTION sign 552 over them).Placement:- The arrows should be located at the bottomof the sign, as shown inFigure 5-9.Horizontally, the arrows should be locatedover the center of the lanes concerned,with a tolerance to the left or right of up to300 millimeters.

5-45 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Forward Advance Exit Direction Sign 551,OR Advance Exit Direction Sign 551,OR Exit Direction Sign 552Detail 5-9-1:Three Ongoing Lanes: Airport Trailblazer IndicatedDetail 5-92:Two Ongoing LanesDetail 5-9-3:Three Ongoing LanesForward Advance Exit Direction Sign 551,OR Advance Exit Direction Sign 551,OR Exit Direction Sign 552Forward Advance Exit Direction Sign 551,OR Advance Exit Direction Sign 551,OR Exit Direction Sign 552 Figure 5-9 Ongoing Direction Sign 553

5-46 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Route number emblem.Only the route number emblem of the ongo-ing route should be displayed.Vertical placement:- The route number emblem should be locat-ed centrally to the lines of legend for theArabic and English destination name asso-ciated with the route number, as shown onFigure 5-9.Horizontal placement:- The route number emblem should appearon the left side of the control destinationlegend, and adjacent to it. The combinedmessage, consisting of the route numberemblem and the control destination shouldbe centered on the sign, as shown inFigure5-9. When intermediate destinations areused in addition to the control destination,it is a more effective use of the availablesign area to place the route numberemblem centrally with Arabic text to theright and English text to the left as indicat-ed inFigure 5-9. Control destination.The only destination name eligible for dis-play is the control destination and one inter-mediate destination, where applicable, desig-nated for the route, in the direction applyingto the subject carriageway. The control desti-nations for all routes are specified inSection5.1.4(seeTable 5-1). Where an intermediate control destinationhas been designated, it should be displayedon signs 553 from the beginning of the route,until that destination has been reached. Fromthat point on, the next appropriate intermedi-ate destination for the route should be dis-played along with the control destination.In the case of some Emirate Routes, the intermediate destination is Abu Dhabi. That desti-nation should be used until the boundary of the municipal area of Abu Dhabi is reached.Additional intermediate destinations may attimes be required. Such additions may onlybe implemented with the prior approval of the Department.A trailblazing airport symbol may also bedisplayed on sign 553.Vertical placement:- The Arabic legend should be displayedabove the English legend.- Where multiple destinations are used, theArabic legend should be displayed in astack on the right hand side of the sign, andthe English legend should be displayed ina stack on the left hand side of the sign.Horizontal placement:- The control destination should be dis-played adjacent to the associated routenumber emblem and to the right of it.- English legend should be left justified andadjacent to the right edge of the route num-ber emblem.- Arabic legend should be right justified onthe right end of the English legend unlessthe Arabic legend is longer in which case itshould be left justified on the route numberemblem.- Where multiple destinations are used, theArabic legend should be displayed in astack right justified, to the right of the cen-trally located route number emblem. TheEnglish legend should be displayed in astack, left justified, to the left of the cen-trally located route number emblem.The combined message, consisting of airportsymbol (if eligible for the route), route num-ber emblem, and control destination shouldbe centralized on the sign, as shown inFigure5-9. Airport symbol.The airport symbol should be displayed onlyif the route has the airport as a control desti-nation, or if it is designated for trailblazing inSection 5.4.2.

5-47 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 The symbol should be placed to the left of theroute number emblem, and vertically cen-tered on it.The aircraft symbol should be oriented in thedirection in which traffic must travel to reachthe airport. For the ongoing direction the air-craft must point upward. 5.6.5 GORE EXIT SIGNS 554 AND556 5.6.5.1 FUNCTION To indicate the physical nose of the exit rampfrom the main roadway. To indicate the physical nose of a split in aramp. 5.6.5.2 APPLICATION AND LOCATION At the exit ramps from freeways and arterialroads at interchanges and gradeseparatedintersections. Where ramps diverge to form two branches. Figure 5-10, Detail 1shows the application atthe exit ramp from an Emirate Route. Figure 5-10, Detail 2shows the sign wherean exit ramp from an Emirate Route splitsinto two branches. 5.6.5.3 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION The following items are eligible for display: Upward pointing arrow Type 8. EXIT message.The items eligible for display, and their positionson the signs are described below and illustratedinFigure 5-10. Upward pointing arrow or arrows.For exit ramps from the mainline carriage-ways of Emirate Routes and Abu DhabiRoutes, one Type 8 arrow should be dis-played on GORE EXIT sign 554. It should beslanted upwards at an angle of 45 to indicatethe direction of the exit ramp as shown inFigure 5-10, Detail 1.For gores where a ramp splits into twobranches, two upward pointing Type 8 arrowsshould be used on GORE EXIT sign 556.They should be inclined at 45 to the left andright of vertical, as shown inFigure 5-10,Detail 2.

EXIT message.The English word EXIT with its Arabictranslation above should be centered at thetop of the sign. SIGN 554 SIGN 556 Detail 5-10-1Gore Exit Sign for Emirate RouteDetail 5-10-2Gore Exit Sign for Two Branch Exit Ramp Figure 5-10 Gore Exit Signs 554 and 556

5-48 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 5.6.6 SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT SIGN557 5.6.6.1 FUNCTION To provide exit information for supplementaldestinations (commonly for tourists) not eligiblefor inclusion on the main direction signs. 5.6.6.2 APPLICATION For exits from freeways or expressways at inter-changes or grade-separated intersections. 5.6.6.3 LOCATION Normally ground mounted as a stack typesign on the right hand side. May be erectedoverhead on a cantilever if necessary due tospace restrictions or visibility restrictions. At the beginning of the taper for the deceler-ation lane, or in the case of a lane drop 200meters to 250 meters in advance of the theo-retical gore. On freeways the sign should be at least 200meters after the ADVANCE EXIT DIREC-TION sign 551 that is located 500 meters inadvance of the theoretical gore.If the sign is mounted overhead on a cantilever itshould be at least 250 meters in advance of theEXIT DIRECTION sign 552. The locationshould be thoroughly checked to prevent an over-head SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign 557 fromobscuring the visibility of the EXIT DIREC-TION sign 552. This checking should includeplotting the sign on a plan of the horizontal align-ment and on a longitudinal section of the verticalalignment. 5.6.6.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION The following items are eligible for display: Upward pointing arrow Type 8. Approved supplemental sign symbol. Approved supplemental destination (Pri-mary or identifying name only).The information eligible for display and its posi-tion on the sign is described below and illustrat-ed inFigure 5-11. Upward pointing arrow.The upward pointing Type 8 arrow should bedisplayed on the right side of the sign for aright hand exit ramp. The arrow should bepointing upward, slanted at an angle of 45oto the right of vertical. It should be centeredvertically on the sign.

Approved supplemental symbol and destina-tion.A maximum of two supplemental destina-tions should be displayed on any SUPPLE-MENTAL EXIT sign 557. More destinationswill significantly increase driver workloadby providing too much visual information toread and comprehend in the short time avail-able before exiting onto the exit ramp.Only approved symbols illustrated inFigure5-5and approved destinations designated inSection 5.1.5are eligible for display. If morethan two destinations are eligible for display,the Department should decide which two aremost important, and only those two should bedisplayed. Figure 5-11 Supplemental Exit Sign 557

5-49 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Placement:The destinations are displayed as shown inFigure 5-11. The symbol should be displayedon the left side of the sign, with the Arabicand English destination names adjacent to iton the right side. For each destination:- English legend should be left justified andadjacent to the right edge of the associatedsymbol.- Arabic legend should be right justified.The position of the right justification lineshould be the furthest right of the follow-ing: The longest English word. The longest Arabic word, with its leftend adjacent to the associated symbol.When two supplemental destinations are dis-played, the destination to the left of the exitramp should be above the destination to theright. If both are in the same direction thecloser destination should be at the top. 5.7 GENERAL INFORMATIONSIGNS The signs classified in this group provide addi-tional information to drivers to assist them withtheir navigational task or to provide supplemen-tary information with respect to regulatory orwarning signs. Neither of the signs in this groupshould include an arrow or other directional mes-sage. 5.7.1 DISTANCE SIGN 585 5.7.1.1 FUNCTION To inform drivers, entering or leaving a city ortown, of significant destinations and the corresponding travel distances to them. 5.7.1.2 APPLICATION To be used on Emirate Routes only. 5.7.1.3 LOCATION On the carriageways leading away from AbuDhabi, 500 meters beyond the city boundaryand approximately every 20 kilometersthereafter. On the carriageways leading to Abu Dhabi,500 meters before the city boundary andapproximately every 20 kilometers preced-ing. Ground mounted on the right-hand side of the carriageway. A minimum of 500 meters from any otherguide sign, preferably near the midpointbetween interchange junctions. 5.7.1.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION DISTANCE sign 585 may display up to a maxi-mum of three cities or towns. The names of thecities and the distances to them should be dis-played in Arabic and in English. The Arabicnames of the cities or towns should be displayedat the top of the sign and the English

names at thebottom of the sign.The top line of each language group should iden-tify the next significant destination along theroute and show the distance to it.The bottom line in a language group should indi-cate the name of a control city that has nationalsignificance for travelers using the route. Thismay also be interpreted as a significant citydefining the end of the route. Sign 585

5-50 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 If there is a city of commercial or tourist impor-tance between these two destinations, its namemay be displayed on the middle line of a lan-guage group.The only exception to the above guidelines andparameters is when DISTANCE sign 585 is usedon route number E11. Being the primary routethat connects Abu Dhabi with Dubai and theother Northern and Eastern Emirates, it is there-fore permissible to show all the necessaryEmirates.Distances to destinations in Arabic should belocated on the left of the sign, and should be rightjustified. Distances should be displayed in kilo-meters (integers). Arabic destinations should beright justified, based on the longest Arabic orEnglish word being positioned a controlling spaceto the right of the longest distance displayed.English destinations should be left justified, onthe left of the sign.Distances in English should be displayed on theright side, right justified. A controlling distanceshould be provided between the longest English orArabic word and the longest distance displayed.The sign width will be dictated by the longestEnglish word plus longest distance or the longestArabic word plus longest distance.The color of this sign should be blue backgroundwith white legend.In cases where DISTANCE sign 585 andROUTE MARKER sign 501 appear in approxi-mately the same location, consideration may begiven to displaying both signs together. 5.7.2 HIGH VEHICLE EXIT SIGN 586 5.7.2.1 FUNCTION To inform drivers of high vehicles that they arerequired to exit the roadway at the next turn off. 5.7.2.2 APPLICATION HIGH VEHICLE EXIT sign 586 may be used onEmirate Routes or any other appropriate localstreet. 5.7.2.3 LOCATION The sign should be located in a side-mountedposition on both sides of the roadway, up to 160meters from the junction, with due regard to theposition of any other direction signs and anyminor side road intersections. 5.7.3 TEXT SIGN 588 5.7.3.1 FUNCTION To identify for drivers the boundary of a sub-urb/community or to identify the name of abridge, tunnel, or other physical feature. To convey a textual message of regulation,warning, or information that cannot otherwisebe conveyed with conventional signs or witha SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589. 5.7.3.2 APPLICATION. TEXT sign 588 may be used on Emirate Routesor any other appropriate local street. Sign 588Sign 586

5-51 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 5.7.3.3 LOCATION Ground mounted on the right side of theroadway at the boundary of the suburb orcommunity or within 50 meters of suchboundary, within the suburb. At a point within the vicinity of the featurebeing identified whereby the feature identi-fied is obvious. As per applicable requirements for locatingregulatory, warning, or guide signs. 5.7.3.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION Information eligible for display on TEXT sign 588is a limited text message in Arabic and English.The legend should be displayed with the Arabiclegend above the English legend. The sign shouldbe sized from the longer text component. Whenthis is the Arabic legend, the English legendshould be left justified on the end of the Arabicname. When the English legend is the longercomponent, the Arabic legend should be rightjustified on the end of the English legend.This sign has a white background with a black border and legend. When used for roadworks, thebackground color is yellow. 5.7.4 SUPPLEMENTARY PLATESIGN 589 5.7.4.1 FUNCTION To provide information which supplements themessage given on a regulatory, warning, or roadworks traffic sign without materially altering themeaning of the sign it supplements. 5.7.4.2 APPLICATION To be used as appropriate with regulatory, warn-ing, or roadworks traffic signs as variouslydescribed in Chapters 3, 4, and 7 respectively. 5.7.4.3 LOCATION Always directly below the primary sign that it issupplementing. It may take the form of a separate sign plate affixed separately, but to the samepost as the primary sign, or it may be incorporat-ed into an enlargement of the primary sign sub-strate material. 5.7.4.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 displays,in Arabic over English, only information whichfalls into one of the following categories: A text message comprised of one or twowords only, such as School.

An advisory speed at which the hazard fore-warned by the primary sign can be negotiat-ed, such as 50km/h on a roadway whichotherwise has a higher speed limit. The distance from the location of the sign tothe point where the condition it describesexists, such as 200 m. The distance, beginning at the location of thesign, over which the message of the signapplies, such as For 3 km. An easily recognized iconic symbol, such asthat used to depict no trucks. Sign 589

Note that this sign combination is to be mountedon a red pole. 5.7.6 GENERAL SERVICE SIGN 591 5.7.6.1 FUNCTION To inform motorists of the availability of upcom-ing services. 5.7.6.2 APPLICATION GENERAL SERVICE sign 591 informsmotorists of services available either adjacent tothe roadway or at a nearby, upcoming exit fromthe roadway. Only services that fulfill the needsof the road user should be shown on general serv-ice signs.Services eligible for this sign include: Petrol station. Mechanic. Restaurant. Hotel. Refreshments. 5-52 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 The SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign should bethe same width as the primary sign which it sup-plements. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE signshould always have a black border and legend. Itshould have a white background when used withRegulatory or Warning signs, and a yellow back-ground when used with Roadworks signs. 5.7.5 FIRE HYDRANTSUPPLEMENTARY PLATESIGN 590 5.7.5.1 FUNCTION To provide information on the location and iden-tification number of a fire hydrant. 5.7.5.2 APPLICATION To be used with NO STOPPING sign 370 to pre-vent vehicles from stopping on roads or othercurbside areas adjacent to fire hydrants. Detailsof signing and pavement marking for areas nearfire hydrants are described in Chapter 8. 5.7.5.3 LOCATION Mounted below NO STOPPING sign 370, asshown inFigure 5-12. 5.7.5.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

Sign 590 displays the following information, byline:1. Fire Hydrant in Arabic.2. The zone, sector number, and hydrant num-ber in Arabic.3. The letters F. H. for fire hydrant followedby the zone, sector number, and hydrantnumber in English.As Abu Dhabi Civil Defence is responsible forassigning numbers to fire hydrants, these signsshould be prepared in coordination with thatagency.Sign 590 should have a red background with awhite legend. F. H. W. 14/1 NO. . . Figure 5-12 Sign 590 with No Stopping Sign 370

5-53 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Public telephone. Hospital (with a physician on duty 24 hours aday). First aid station (open 24 hours a day). Major shopping center. Mosque. 5.7.6.3 LOCATION On the approach to the exit to general services, aGENERAL SERVICE sign 591 should be placed2 kilometers and/or 4 kilometers in advance of the exit. An additional sign should be placedwithin one-half kilometer of the exit.General service signing should only be providedat locations where the road user can return to theroadway and continue in the same direction of travel. GENERAL SERVICE sign 591 is general-ly not appropriate at major interchanges and inurban areas. 5.7.6.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION Icons should be placed in rows of three across thesign. No more than six services should be signedon an individual sign. If more than six servicesare available at an upcoming exit, two GENER-AL SERVICE sign 591 should be erected at anappropriate interval.GENERAL SERVICE sign 591 should have ablue background and a white border. Within theblue background, iconic symbols representingspecific services should be black (except for thefirst aid station symbol, which is a red crescent)on a white background as shown inFigure 5-13.As a general rule, the iconic symbols shown inFigure 5-13should be used only on GeneralService Sign 591. However, it is permissible touse a single icon as shown inFigure 5-13on atypical guide sign if the engineer deems it wouldprove useful to drivers.A supplemental plate should indicate the distanceto the exit. Within one-half kilometer of the exit,the supplemental plate should not indicate a dis-tance but have an action message such as NEXTRIGHT or SECOND RIGHT. If, from the lastsign indicating general services before the exit,the distance to the next point where services areavailable is greater than 16 kilometers, an addi-tional supplemental plate, NEXT SERVICES XXKM, may be added to the sign. NEXT EXIT Sign 591 (typical)

5-54 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 5.8 MUNICIPALITY PARKINGSTRUCTURE SIGNS Municipality parking structures have customguide signs unique to those structures.Municipality parking structure signs are to beused at all municipality parking structures butshould not be used for other parking applications. 5.8.1 MUNICIPALITY PARKINGSTRUCTURE TRAILBLAZERSIGN 595 A MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURETRAILBLAZER sign 595 should be used as atrailblazer sign indicating a direction to be takenin order to enter an Abu Dhabi Municipalityparking structure.The signs should be located in a side-mountedposition on the right side of the main roadway atthe entrance of the road or ramp leading to theparking structure. Sign placement should be donewith due regard to the position of any other direc-tion signs and any minor side road intersections.MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURETRAILBLAZER sign 595 should include theparking structure number on its face.The face of sign 595 is identical to that of sign596. However, sign 595 is supplemented with aONE WAY sign 306 mounted on the pole belowit, pointing the direction of the car park entrance.Furthermore, sign 595 is an aluminum sign paneland is not internally illuminated, as is sign 596. 5.8.2 MUNICIPALITY PARKINGSTRUCTURE ENTRANCEBANNER SIGN 596 A MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTUREENTRANCE BANNER sign 596 should be located on the outside and above the vehicular-accessopening to the parking structure. MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE Figure 5-13 General Services Iconic Symbols

5-55 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 BANNER sign 596 should be centered over theopening or adjacent openings.Openings to parking structures may be entranceonly, exit only, or a combination of entrance andexit. MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTUREENTRANCE BANNER sign 596 is used uni-formly in all three of these configurations.MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTUREENTRANCE BANNER sign 596 should be inter-nally illuminated for night-time visibility andshould include the parking structure number onits face. 5.8.3 MUNICIPALITY PARKINGSTRUCTURE ENTRANCE SIGN597 A MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTUREENTRANCE sign 597 should be located outsideand above the opening allowing entry to the park-ing structure. MUNICIPALITY PARKINGSTRUCTURE ENTRANCE sign 597 should belocated as follows: If the opening accommodates only oneentrance lane, the sign should be centeredabove the entrance lane, below MUNICI-PALITY PARKING STRUCTURE EN-TRANCE BANNER sign 596. If the opening accommodates two entrancelanes, one MUNICIPALITY PARKINGSTRUCTURE ENTRANCE sign 597 shouldbe centered between and above the two lanesand below MUNICIPALITY PARKINGSTRUCTURE ENTRANCE BANNER sign596. If the opening accommodates three or moreentrance lanes, one MUNICIPALITY PARK-ING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE sign 597should be centered above each entrance laneand below MUNICIPALITY PARKINGSTRUCTURE ENTRANCE BANNER sign596.The preceding guidance is applicable whether theopening to the parking structure provides forentrance and exit or for entrance only.Sign 597 should be internally illuminated fornight-time visibility. 5.8.4 MUNICIPALITY PARKINGSTRUCTURE EXIT SIGN 598 A MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTUREEXIT sign 598 should be located outside andabove the opening allowing exit from the parkingstructure. MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCSign 597Sign 595 and Sign 596

5-56 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 TURE EXIT sign 598 should be located as fol-lows: If the opening accommodates only one exitlane, the sign should be centered above thelane. If the opening accommodates two exit lanes,one MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUC-TURE EXIT sign 598 should be centeredbetween and above the two lanes. If the opening accommodates three or moreexit lanes, one MUNICIPALITY PARKINGSTRUCTURE EXIT sign 598 should be cen-tered above each lane.Where an exit lane(s) is colocated with anentrance lane(s) at a single opening, MUNICI-PALITY PARKING STRUCTURE EXIT sign598 should be positioned below MUNICIPALI-TY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCEBANNER sign 596 at the same level as theentrance lanes MUNICIPALITY PARKINGSTRUCTURE ENTRANCE sign 597.Sign 598 should be internally illuminated fornight-time visibility.MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTUREEXIT sign 598 is also used above exit doors onthe interior of parking structures. In this applica-tion, sign 598 should be located and positioned inthe same way that it would be on the exterior,except that it is mounted on the interior wall. 5.9 PEDESTRIANUNDERPASS SIGN 599 PEDESTRIAN UNDERPASS Sign 599 guidespedestrians to the locations of entrances to pedestrian underpasses. Sign 599 should be locatedwithin 5 meters of the entrance to a pedestrianunderpass and in a position to maximize its visi-bility for pedestrians from all angles. If one endof a pedestrian underpass has more than a singlepoint of entrance, and those points are locatedmore than 15 meters apart, a separate sign 599may be installed for each point of entrance. Inthis case, the signs should be located as close aspossible to the point of entrance.The sign should be pole-mounted. It has a bluebackground with a white border and legend. Sign 599Sign 598

6-1 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 6 PAVEMENT MARKINGS 6.1 GENERAL Pavement markings are defined as markings orother devices applied to, embedded in, orattached to a pavement surface. Pavement mark-ings must function day and night as well as underadverse weather conditions. While pavementmarkings are an important and integral elementin the design of a traffic control scheme, careshould be taken not to overuse pavement mark-ings. Due to their nature and location, pavementmarkings are subject to continual and rapid dete-rioration and wear from roadway traffic. Toretain the conspicuousness and function of pave-ment markings, their maintenance and replace-ment is, by necessity, an ongoing and continualprocess with significant cost implications. Thus,pavement marking requirements should be con-sidered early in the planning and design of a proj-ect. 6.1.1 FUNCTION Like traffic signs, pavement markings may beclassified with respect to the primary functionthat they serve: Regulatory. Warning. Guidance.Regulatory pavement markings advise motoristsof actions they should or should not take.Disregard for a regulatory pavement markingrepresents an offense. For example, crossing of asolid no-passing line is illegal and offendingdrivers would be subject to citation.Warning pavement markings advise motorists of the existence of hazardous or potentially haz-ardous conditions. A dividing line that separatestwo-way traffic warns motorists of the potentialhazard of a head-on collision with oncomingvehicles if that line is crossed. It is not necessar-ily a violation to cross that line when turning orpassing another vehicle, but the motorist iswarned to maintain caution.Guidance pavement markings help motorists tounderstand the path that the roadway designerintends for their vehicle to follow. An example of such is a guide line that may be used to mark outthe travel path through an intersection for vehic-ular turns that are unusual and otherwise difficultto understand.It is important for designers to understand thefunctional significance of the pavement markingsso that their application will be consistent for theuse intended. The use of various classes andtypes of marking in combination with each otherand other traffic control devices is illustrated col-lectively in the figures inChapter 8. 6.1.2 MARKING TYPES Pavement markings can further be classified intothree basic types: Transverse lines.

Longitudinal lines. Symbols.Transverse lines and markings are those that areplaced at right angles or are significantly nonpar-allel to the longitudinal axis of the roadway. Ingeneral, the purpose of a transverse marking is toprovide a sense of limit across the normal, unim-peded forward movement of a vehicle. A give-way line is an example of a transverse pavementmarking. The give-way line crosses the forwardpath of a vehicle to advise a driver to stop or beprepared to stop his forward progress in case thesituation dictates such action. Because transverselines must be viewed obliquely from anapproaching vehicle, their widths must be sub-stantial to facilitate their detection.Longitudinal lines run generally parallel to thelongitudinal axis of the line of vehicular travel ona roadway. In general, the purpose of a longitudi-nal line is to convey a continual message to thedriver of a moving vehicle over an extendedlength of roadway. A lane line is an example of alongitudinal line. It provides a continual messageto a driver demarcating the separation of twostreams of traffic moving in the same direction.Carelessly crossing a lane line puts one in jeop-

6-2 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 ardy of a sideswipe collision with vehicles in theadjacent traffic stream.Longitudinal lines can be characterized as fol-lows: Broken lines are permissive in character andmay be crossed by a vehicle with due cau-tion. Solid lines are restrictive in nature andshould not be crossed except in case of anemergency. Solid double lines convey the same messageas a single solid line, but with a greaterdegree of emphasis and conspicuousnessnecessitated by a particularly critical situa-tion. A double line solid on one side and broken onthe other conveys a message of restriction of movement across it from the solid-line sideand a permission of movement across it fromthe broken-line side. Double lines consist of two lines equal inwidth and separated by a gap equal to thewidth of the line. Discontinuities in longitudinal lines, whethersolid or broken, indicate by their absencelocations where turns, merges, or divergesare expected to occur.Symbolic markings convey a roadwayorientedmessage to a motorist using a single or groupedset of discrete markings to represent the condi-tion present. A turn arrow is an example of a sym-bol marking, advising motorists by its presencewithin a lane, the direction of travel that shouldbe taken from that lane. In the context of thismanual, diagonal lines such as a chevron or hatchmarking are considered symbolic since they con-vey the same message symbolically to motoristsas would be given by chevron and/or hazardmarker signs. Worded markings, while not gener-ally recommended, are classified as symbolmarkings. 6.1.3 COLOR Painted pavement markings should be eitherwhite or yellow. Raised pavement markersshould convey to motorists the same color mes-sage as the painted markings they replace or supplement. An exception to this rule is that the back side of a reflectorized marker may be red, suchthat the red color is only visible by motoristsapproaching those markers from an incorrectdirection.In general, the color of a marking should have thefollowing connotations: Transverse Markings.- White should be used for regulatory mark-ings.- Yellow should be used for all other mark-ings.

Longitudinal Markings.- Yellow is used for the longitudinal linesthat mark the left edge of all divided roadsand for both edges of one-wayroads.Yellow is also used to divide trafficflowing in opposite directions on rural,high-speed roads.- White is used for the longitudinal lines thatmark the right edge of all roads and todelineate lanes flowing in the same direc-tion. White is also used to divide oppositetraffic directions on two-way, undivided,single-lange roads in low-speed, urban set-tings.Table 6-1describes the various road typesand the correct longitudinal-line applications. Symbols.- White should be used for all symbol mark-ings. 6.1.4 CONFIGURATION All broken longitudinal lines have been config-ured to fit within an eight-meter module. Whenmore than one longitudinal line is used within agiven cross-section of roadway, the modules of each line should be situated such that they aligntransversely with each other across the roadway.Intermittent solid lines should begin and end tobe compatible with the broken line module (seeTable 6-3).

6-3 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 6.1.5 IMPLEMENTATION OF THISPAVEMENT-MARKINGGUIDANCE The pavement marking configurations indicatedin the following sections are intended for use innewly constructed roadway projects. In suchareas, the pavement marking configurations andlocations should be followed as prescribed in thismanual. However, when pavement markings onexisting roadways are in need of upgrade ormaintenance, engineering judgment should beexercised in applying the requirements containedherein. The following guidelines should be con-sidered in such cases: When existing pavement markings are eitheridentical to or will be completely covered bynew markings as required by this manual, thenew markings should be reinstalled overexisting markings. When existing markings are in excess of what is required by this manual (such asadditional lane arrows), the existing mark-ings may be retained but not maintained,being allowed to gradually fade from thepavement providing that their presence willnot create confusion. When existing markings are of a differentconfiguration than those required by thismanual the most appropriate of the followingactions should be taken:- If the existing marking is well worn andwould be relatively inconspicuous in com-parison to the new pavement markings,then the new pavement markings may beapplied without regard to the existingmarkings (care should be taken in consid-ering the relative conspicuousnessbetween the new and old markings at alater point in time when the new markingshave been in service and begin to loosesome of their original conspicuousness).This does not apply to raised pavementmarkers.- If practical to do so, existing conflictingmarkings should be completely removedfrom the pavement surface.- If the roadway section is scheduled forfuture resurfacing, but such is far enoughin the future that intermediate pavementmarking maintenance is necessary, thenthe existing markings may be retained andmaintained even though they do not fullycomply with this manual. 6.2 REGULATORY MARKINGS Regulatory pavement markings dictate actionthat must be taken by a driver when the markingsare encountered. Actions contrary to these mark-ings constitute a traffic violation subject toenforcement. Regulatory markings exist in trans-verse, longitudinal, and symbol types of pave-ment markings. Table 6-1 Colors of Longitudinal Pavement MarkingsRoad ConfigurationLeft Edgeof TravelRoadwayRight Edgeof TravelRoadwayLane-Dividing Lines 1 one-way (single or multilane) yellow yellow 1

white (if multilane)2 two-way, undivided, single lanein each directionyellow white3 two-way, undivided, multilanein each directionyellow white a. white (same direction)b. solid double yellowbetween directions4 two-way, divided, multilane ineach directionyellow white whiteNotes: 1 The Department recognizes that the MUTCD and other authorities specify a white rightedge of pavement marking in such roadway configurations, but in these cases prefers theuse of yellow.

6-4 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 6.2.1 STOP LINE MARKING 601 Marking 601 imposes a mandatory requirementthat a driver come to a full and complete stopimmediately behind that line and is always usedin conjunction with a STOP sign 301 or a redtraffic signal. In the event that the STOP sign ismissing or a traffic signal is unlighted due to tem-porary malfunction, the STOP LINE alone hasthe full significance of STOP sign 301. STOPLINE marking 601 should not be crossed withoutstopping except in the case of a green traffic sig-nal or when directed by a Traffic Police officer. Itis thus of critical importance that if a STOP signor traffic signal is intentionally removed fromservice that the associated STOP LINE beremoved from the pavement as well.STOP LINE marking 601 should be a continuoussolid white line transverse and completely acrossthe full width of the traveled portion of the road-way that is controlled by a STOP sign or trafficsignal. The standard width of STOP LINE mark-ing 601 should be 300 millimeters. On high-speed rural roads where added conspicuousnessis desired its width may be increased to 500 mil-limeters. Marking 601 should be positioned onthe roadway at the location best suited for safestopping and a clear view of conflicting trafficconsistent with the fact that the provision of aSTOP control implies limited visibility. The pre-ferred position is one meter from the near edge of the intersecting roadway. However, the STOPLINE may be located within a range of 500 mil-limeters up to 10 meters from this edge to takeaccount of specific aspects of the intersectingroadway. For example, a larger setback may beneeded to accommodate turning vehicles whenone or both of the intersecting roadways are nar-row or the intersection is skewed. It should bepositioned not less than one meter in advance of PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603 whensuch is located at a signalized road junction andpreferably not less than three meters in advanceof a signalized midblock PEDESTRIANCROSSING (seeFigures 6-1 and 6-2 and Section8.2). 6.2.2 GIVE WAY LINE MARKING 602 Marking 602 imposes a mandatory requirementthat a driver should, when in conflict, stop at thepoint marked by the line and yield right of way tovehicular and/or pedestrian traffic crossing hisintended path. Marking 602 should always beused in conjunction with GIVE WAY sign 302 9 m9 m9 mminLLLNo Passing Line 611See Table 6-3for L valuesStop Line 601No Passing Line 611Dividing Line 652 Figure 6-1 Use of No Passing Line 611 at Junction

6-5 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 NO PASSING LINE 611Detail 6-2-1: STOP LINE marking 601NO PASSING LINE 611Detail 6-2-2: GIVE WAY LINE marking 602NO PASSING LINE 611GIVE WAYLINE 6023000min500500250 minDetail 6-2-3: PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 60360003000preferredmin1000 preferred500 min300(500)1000 preferred500 min300(500) Figure 6-2 Transverse Regulatory Pavement Markings (see also Figure 6-3 and Figure 6-4)

6-6 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 and GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303. Inthe event that a GIVE WAY or GIVE WAY TOPEDESTRIANS sign is missing, the GIVE WAYLINE alone has the full significance of the GIVEWAY signs 302 or 303.GIVE WAY LINE marking 602 should be a bro-ken white line transverse and completely acrossthe full width of the traveled portion of theapproach roadway that is controlled by a GIVEWAY sign 302 or GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRI-ANS sign 303. The standard width of a GIVEWAY LINE is 300 millimeters. On high-speedrural roads where higher conspicuousness isdesired, its width may be increased to 500 mil-limeters. The configuration of the GIVE WAYLINE should be a repeated pattern of 600 mil-limeters of line separated by 300 millimeters of gap.Marking 602 should be positioned on the road-way at the location best suited such that, if onapproach to a junction the driver sees that thisway is not clear of opposing traffic, he may stopat the GIVE WAY LINE and have a clear view of approaching crossroad traffic. It should be locat-ed not less than one meter (500 millimetersabsolute minimum) from the nearest edge of theintersecting roadway. When used in conjunctionwith a PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603,the GIVE WAY LINE should be located inadvance a distance of 3 meters minimum and 6meters preferred (seeFigures 6-1 and 6-2 andSection 8.2). 6.2.3 PEDESTRIAN CROSSINGMARKING 603 Marking 603 when used at a location not con-trolled by traffic signals imposes a mandatoryrequirement that a driver must yield right of wayto pedestrians crossing the roadway carrying thesame meaning as the GIVE WAY TO PEDES-TRIANS sign 303 whether that sign is present ornot. Regardless of its location, within marking603 pedestrians always have right of way overvehicles and vehicles must yield to pedestrianswithin the crossing. When used at a signal con-trolled crossing, marking 603 warns drivers of apedestrian crossing location with the likely pres-ence of pedestrians near the road and invokes arequirement that the driver exercise a high degreeof care and caution in the vicinity.PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603 shouldbe a broken white line transverse and completelyacross the full width of the roadway and shoulders. The configuration of the line should be 500millimeters line and 500 millimeters gap. Thegap orientation should be aligned parallel withthe direction of vehicular travel at the crossing.The minimum width of line, measured perpendi-cular to the axis of pedestrian travel, should be 3meters. This width may be increased if large vol-umes of pedestrians are present. A width basis of 0.5 meters for every 100 pedestrians per hourmay be used (seeFigures 6-2, 8-4, and 8-7).The use of PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking603 should be carefully considered. An engineer-ing study should be made for their use away fromsignal-controlled intersections. PEDESTRIANCROSSING marking 603 may only be installedwith the approval of the Department. 6.2.4 NO PASSING LINE MARKING611 When used in place of or on the right side of marking 611, DIVIDING LINE marking 652imposes a mandatory requirement that driversshould not cross or drive on the left-hand side of such marking (with the exception of left turns toor from private direct access to a property). It isused to demarcate sections of two-way roadwayswhere an extreme hazard could result if vehiclesare permitted to even temporarily use an oncom-ing traffic lane.NO PASSING LINE marking 611 should be alongitudinal solid yellow line, running continu-ously on or near the

centerline of the roadway. Itshould be 100 millimeters wide for posted speedsbelow 50 km/h and 150 millimeters wide forposted speeds above 50 km/h. It should be usedto delineate unsafe passing situations in areaswhere the barrier sight distances are restricted toless than the distances shown inTable 6-2. Insuch uses, marking 611 should be placed on theright side of DIVIDING LINE marking 652 forthe entire length of roadway that substandard bar-rier sight distances exist. NO PASSING LINE

6-7 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 marking 611 should also be used for purposes of traffic control in advance of any controlled junc-tion (signal, stop, give way or pedestrian) on atwo-way roadway. It should replace DIVIDINGLINE marking 652 starting at the distance giveninTable 6-3as measured from the STOP LINEmarking 601, GIVE WAY LINE marking 602, orthe near edge of intersecting roadway. Marking611 should continue towards the junction untilintersecting those lines, other painted or curbedisland, or the nearest edge of the intersectingroadway. 6.2.5 CHANNELIZING LINEMARKING 612 When used in place of LANE LINE marking 654,marking 612 imposes a mandatory requirementthat drivers not cross that marking from eitherside. Marking 612 should only be used betweenstreams of traffic traveling in the same direction. Itis used to channelize one-way traffic within a lanein areas where lane changes would be hazardousdue to roadway configuration.CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612 should bea longitudinal solid white line running continu-ously on the line dividing two lanes of travel inthe same direction. It should be 100 millimeterswide for posted speeds below 50 km/h and 150millimeters wide for posted speeds above 50km/h. It should be used in any situation wherethere is a significant safety or functional benefitthat can be achieved if drivers are required toremain in their current lane over some distance.Such situations would occur in advance of trafficsignals or roundabouts. Exclusive turn lanes andfreeway or other free-flow ramps where one ormore lanes are dropped from the main roadwaywill have application for marking 612. In suchcases a 200-millimeter line width should be used.When used in advance of a signalized junction or Table 6-2 Use of No Passing Line 611 on CurvesOperating Speed(km/h)Minimum Barrier Sight Distance(meters) 40 12060 17580 250100 320NOTES:1. Barrier sight distance is defined as the distance that a driver with an eye height of 1.1meters can view a 1.1-meter high object in the oncoming lane. NO PASSING LINEmarking 611 should be used on horizontal or vertical curves to mark sections of two wayroads where the actual barrier sight distance on a roadway is less than the minimumrequired.2. Barrier sight distances are different than passing sight distances used in roadway design.Adequate passing sight distance defines the capability to safely begin and complete apassing maneuver. The barrier sight distance is representative of the distance necessaryto abort a passing maneuver.3. Engineering judgment must be applied in using a NO PASSING LINE. Longer lines thanthose resulting from application of the above minimums may be justified. When twosections of NO PASSING LINE are separated by less than the minimum barrier sightdistance, for the appropriate operating speed, the two lines should be extended andjoined. Table 6-3 Use of No Passing Line 611 and Channelizing Line 612 at JunctionsOperating Speed(km/h)Minimum Length (L)(meters)

30 940 1860 2780 36100 54NOTES:1. See Figures 6-1, 6-2, 6-3, and Chapter 8.2. Values of L shown are minimum. Greater values may be justified based on engineeringjudgement. Increases should be made in multiples of 9 meters.

6-8 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 a roundabout, marking 612 should be applied forthe same limits of minimum length as NO PASS-ING LINE marking 611 as given inTable 6-3(seeFigures 6-3 and 8-2 to 8-7). 6.2.6 EDGE LINE MARKING 613 Marking 613 imposes a mandatory requirementthat drivers not cross that marking for purposesof driving or parking on the opposite side exceptin the case of an emergency. Marking 613 shouldbe used to define the edge of pavement whensuch is not safe or convenient to define by use of a raised curb or barrier. It should also be used toseparate a traveled lane from a paved shoulderthat must remain accessible in case of emergency,but that must not be otherwise used for driving orparking.EDGE LINE marking 613 should be a longitudi-nal solid white or yellow (depending on roadwayconfiguration) line running continuously alongthe right side of the outermost traffic lane of aroadway and a longitudinal solid yellow line run-ning continuously along the left side of the inner-most traffic lane of a divided (or one-way) road-way.Table 61provides detailed guidance foredge line colors. EDGE LINE marking 613should be 150 millimeters wide for posted speedsless than 70 km/h and 200 millimeters wide forposted speeds more than 70 km/h. Since crossingof marking 613 is not permitted, care must betaken to provide discontinuities at points whereaccess is intended. If continuous access to alength of roadside area is intended, then marking613 should not be used. In such instances whenedge delineation is still desired, PARKINGENVELOPE LINE marking 620 should be used.In addition to a regulatory function EDGE LINEmarking 613 performs other important safetyfunctions: Provides continuous demarcation of the edgeof the traveled way, reducing the tendency of drivers to drift off the road, especially at nightand/or under adverse weather conditions. Provides an indication of turn or exit pointsfrom the main road at points of discontinuityin the line. Where not otherwise prohibited, providesguidance to pedestrians and bicyclists.Specially developed types of EDGE LINE mark-ing 613 which are designed to produce an audibleand/or vibratory effect when driven over may bespecified. Such an application may be warrantedif a problem occurs on a long section of rural roadwith drivers losing attention or becoming drowsyand drifting towards the edge of roadway (seealsoSection 6.3.1). 6.2.7 LANE DIRECTION ARROWMARKINGS 614 TO 619(INCLUDING STRAIGHT, RIGHTTURN, LEFT TURN,STRAIGHT/RIGHT,STRAIGHT/LEFT, ANDRIGHT/LEFT) Markings 614, 615, and 616 impose a mandatoryrequirement that drivers must travel only in thedirection indicated by the arrow if they are in thelane marked by the arrow. Drivers not wishing totravel in the direction indicated by the arrowmust move to an adjacent lane if not otherwiseprohibited from doing so. Markings 614, 615,and 616 indicate a single, mandated direction of travel for a lane.Markings 617, 618, and 619 impose a mandatoryrequirement that drivers must travel only in oneof the two directions indicated by the arrow fromthe lane in which

the arrow is marked. Driversnot wishing to travel in one of the directions mustmove into an adjacent lane if not otherwise pro-hibited from doing so.When any of the markings 614 to 619 are locatedadjacent to a CHANNELIZATION line marking612 drivers must stay in their lane and continuein the direction, or one of the directions, indicat-ed by the arrow.RIGHT TURN ARROW marking 615 and LEFTTURN ARROW marking 616 should be used tomark lanes that are exclusively turn lanes at sig-nalized intersections. Markings 615 or 616should not be used to mark exit lanes at grade-separated junctions (although they may be usedat the terminal junctions of such exits).

6-9 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Detail 6-3-1: NO PASSING LINE marking 611 (variations shown)Detail 6-3-2: CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612Detail 6-3-3: EDGE LINE marking 613 (line is sometimes white; see Table 6-1 for guidance) Detail 6-3-4: PARKING ENVELOPE LINE marking 620Detail 6-3-5: PARKING LINE marking 6211005001000100100 10001000 Direction of Travel100 (150)150(200)100 (150)100 (150)100 (150)DIVIDING LINE marking 652100(150)(200)100 (150)100 (150)100 (150)Figure 6-3 Longitudinal Regulatory Pavement Markings (see also Figures 6-2 and 6-4)

6-10 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 The above are offered as guidelines and are notintended to preclude the use of good engineeringjudgment. For example, advance arrows shouldnot be used if they may cause confusion due to anentering side road. Other arrow arrangements canbe used in a given situation if needed for clarity.However, overuse of arrows is generally indica-tive of confusing geometry that will unlikely beclarified by additional lane arrows. Arrow mark-ings should not be used on freeways or similarfree flowing roadways where overhead signs andlongitudinal lines should provide sufficient delin-eation.STRAIGHT/RIGHT (or LEFT) ARROW mark-ing 617 (or 618) should not be used to indicatethe point where turning lanes are added to thebasic through lanes of a roadway. They alsoshould not be used to indicate direct turningpoints from a mainline lane onto a side road atmid-block locations.Regulatory pavement arrow markings are illus-trated inFigure 6-4. Examples of the use of LANE DIRECTION ARROWS 614 to 619 areillustrated inFigures 8-2 to 8-7. 6.2.8 PARKING ENVELOPE LINEMARKING 620 Marking 620 imposes a mandatory requirementthat drivers parking their vehicles within amarked area park such that no part of their vehi-cle encroaches upon the pavement area outside aparking envelope so marked. A driver who parkssuch that any part of his vehicle overhangs mark-ing 620 should be considered improperly parked.PARKING ENVELOPE LINE marking 620should be a longitudinal broken white line 100millimeters wide. The configuration of thePARKING ENVELOPE LINE should be arepeated pattern of one meter of line separated bya one-meter gap. It should be located at the edgeof pavement adjacent to areas where parking ispermitted, but should not be used if the physicalspace available for parking is less than 2.2 meterswide (seeFigures 6-3 and 8-1 to 8-3).PARKING ENVELOPE LINE marking 620 isintended for use in areas of low-density parkingAll LANE DIRECTION ARROW markingsshould be white in color. All LANE DIRECTIONARROW markings should be centered trans-versely within the lane to which they apply suchthat the transverse extremities of the marking areequidistant from the lane edge on each side.All lanes at the approach to a signalized intersec-tion should have one arrow (one of markings 614,615, 616, 617, 618, or 619) positioned in eachlane in line with one another transversely. Thisprimary row of arrows should be located as closeto the junction as possible while still giving aclear indication of all adjacent lanes with respectto one another. In any case, the row of arrowsshould be positioned so as to be entirely withinthe limit of the CHANNELIZING LINE marking612. Additional LANE DIRECTION ARROWmarkings should be positioned in advance of thisrow of markings in accordance with the follow-ing guidelines: For additional exclusive turn lane(s) createdat a junction:- At the point where the lane(s) are firstdeveloped to their full width (but not clos-er than 25 meters clear of the primaryarrow).- At one intermediate point providing theclear spacing between arrows is not lessthan 25 meters.

For basic lanes that are not exclusivelystraight-ahead only lanes:- At 25 meters clear and at 55 meters clearin advance of the primary arrows, or- In line transversely with additional exclu-sive turn-lane arrows. For straight-ahead-only basic lanes approach-ing a standard signalized intersection:- No additional STRAIGHT ARROW mark-ing 614.When LEFT TURN ARROW marking 616 isused to mark a midblock left-turn or U-turn lane,STRAIGHT ARROW marking 614 should not beused on the mainline.

6-11 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 300 mm 300 mmDetail 6-4-1:Straight Arrow614Right Turn Arrow615Left Turn Arrow616Detail 6-4-2:300 mmStraight/Right Arrow617Straight/Left Arrow618300 mmLeft/Right Arrow619 Figure 6-4 Typical Regulatory Arrow Pavement Markings (see also Figure 6-2 and 6-3)

6-12 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 where the delineation of individual parkingspaces is not considered necessary. A secondarybenefit of the PARKING ENVELOPE LINE is toserve the function of EDGE LINE marking 613,by delineating the edge of pavement, but withoutthe prohibition of crossing that line for purposeof parking. The most common usage of thePARKING ENVELOPE LINE will be the mark-ing of on-street parking areas in residential com-munities and other such locales where parkingspaces are not in short supply and as such a moreregimented parking arrangement is not warrant-ed. 6.2.9 PARKING SPACE LINEMARKING 621 Marking 621 imposes a mandatory requirementthat drivers parking their vehicles within amarked parking space park such that their vehicleis wholly within the lines defining the limits of the parking space. A driver who parks such thatany part of his vehicle is on, over, or beyondmarking 621 (or an imaginary line connecting theends of a series of marking 621 lines) should beconsidered improperly parked.PARKING SPACE LINE marking 621 should bea solid white line 100 millimeters in width. Itshould extend from the curb line (if a curb ispresent) and end at the edge of the designatedparking bay. For parallel parking space delin-eation the end of the PARKING SPACE LINEshould have a 500-millimeter long L-shape forend-marking of a parallel parking bay, and a 1000millimeter long T-shape for intermediate lines.Perpendicular and angled parking space mark-ings generally do not require end shapes since theends of the more closely spaced PARKINGSPACE LINES should clearly delineate the park-ing bay limits.PARKING SPACE LINE marking 621 should beused to mark individual parking spaces in areaswhere parking space availability is at a premiumand the definition of parking spaces will give anorderly and more efficient usage of area availablefor parking. The PARKING SPACE LINE shouldalways be used to mark parking spaces that aresubject to payment for usage. These provisionsapply irrespective of the material used to surfacethe parking area to be marked.A PARKING SPACE LINE marking 621 mayalso be used to designate zones within lay-bys oralong curblines that are designated as stoppingareas for certain classes of vehicles. 6.3 WARNING MARKINGS Warning pavement markings advise motorists of the existence of hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions. These markings do not carry amandatory requirement for specific action.However, these markings do convey a messageof warning and a willful disregard of those warn-ings may constitute a violation when drivers failto maintain adequate and safe control of theirvehicle. Warning markings exist in transverse,longitudinal, and symbol types of pavementmarkings. VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691and TEXT SYMBOL marking 695 also havewarning functions. SeeSections 6.6.3 and 6.8.2,respectively, for discussion of those markings.Warning markings are illustrated inFigures 6-5to 6-7and their application is further illustratedin the various figures inChapter 8. 6.3.1 RUMBLE STRIPS MARKING650 Marking 650 may be used to advise motoriststhrough visibility, sound, and vibration of the presence of a critical regulatory or warning devicewhen this marking is located within a traveled way.When marking 650 is used within a shoulder orother road side area they provide a warning

to driv-ers that they are drifting off of the traveled roadway.RUMBLE STRIPS marking 650 should be posi-tioned transversely to the direction of vehicletravel. When used within the traveled roadway,they should be formed of or topped with yellowthermoplastic material (for purposes of conspicu-ousness and to distinguish them from a STOPLINE marking 601) built up at least 5 millime-ters, but no more than 15 millimeters, above theroadway surface. The width, spacing, and num-ber of RUMBLE STRIPS used in a single instal-lation may vary to suit conditions as determinedappropriate by an engineering study. As a guide-

6-13 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Direction of Travel==== 20003800 for 60 km/h5200 for 80 km/h8000 for 100 km/h300 NO PASSINGLINE 611 100(150)3000 6000202870117020 Detail 6-5-1:RUMBLE STRIPS marking 650Detail 6-5-2:SPEED HUMP marking 651Detail 65-3: DIVIDING LINE marking 652Detail 6-5-5: LANE ENDS ARROW 656 3000 6000 Detail 6-5-4: LANE LINE marking 654 100(150)(200) Figure 6-5 Warning Pavement Markings

6-14 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 CHEVRON DIMENSIONSOperating Speed(km/h)W(millimeters)S(meters)t(millimeters)40608010020030050010001.01.52.55.01501 50200200tt4545Direction of TravelWTheoreticalNosePhysicalNose 150150 Detail 6-6-1: CHEVRON marking 657 Detail 6-6-2: HATCH marking 658EDGE LINE marking 613 or CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612EDGE LINE marking 613 or NO PASSING LINE marking 611Detail 6-6-3EDGE LINEMarking 613 Figure 6-6 Combined Regulatory and Warning Pavement Markings as Painted Islands

6-15 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 30m 40m 25m35m20m25m14m 16m 10m60m275m245m 205m 180m145m125m100m 86m 70m60m120km/hDSY 100km/h 80km/h60km/h40km/h 30km/hJunction or other transverse hazard Y Y/4 Y/4Y/4Y/4300mm(typ)DS 110 9070 503030 2520 7.506.255.003.502.50Y 1410 Y/4 Design speed110km/h(DS) DS 90km/hDS 70km/hDS 50km/hDS 30km/hFigure 6-7 Guideline for Using Rumble Strip Marking 650 for Speed Reduction

6-16 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 line, a basic rumble strip configuration is recom-mended to consist of five transverse yellowmarkings 300 millimeters wide spaced such thatat prevailing traffic speeds all five markings willbe traversed during an approximately one-secondperiod. They should be positioned within the firstone-third of the clear visibility distance to thesign of which they forewarn (seeFigure 6-5).RUMBLE STRIPS should not be used within atraveled way unless, after all other means of stan-dard traffic control devices have been evaluated,the Department agrees that their use is the onlyreasonable solution to an identified problem.Their use as such will generally not be permittedon new construction, but rather as a retrofit to aparticular problem area.Sets of RUMBLE STRIPS markings 650, asdescribed above, may be specified in order toreinforce the need for drivers to significantlyreduce their speed. Such circumstances will com-monly occur on high speed and/or downhillapproaches to STOP or GIVE WAY control con-ditions. A typical requirement might involve aneed to reduce speed from around 120 km/h tothe order of 30 km/h a short distance from thepoint of control or a change of direction. Theprinciple to be used provides for a series of setsof five transverse markings spaced so that eachset will be traversed during an approximatelyone-second period at progressively decreasingspeeds. Each set of markings should in turn beseparated from the last and/or next set by a dis-tance without markings that will be transversedduring a period of 1 to 2 seconds. The configu-ration and number of sets of five markingsrequired for a specific site will be dictated by theapproach speed and the speed reduction required.Figure 6-7illustrates a sequence of sets of RUM-BLE STRIPS marking 650 spaced according tothese principles. The number of sets and the over-all installation can be determined from the figure.Alternative designs for rumble strips must beapproved by Department.The disadvantages of RUMBLE STRIPS withina traveled way are as follows: Their effect on small, lightweight vehiclessuch as motorcycles may be pronounced andundesirable. When used in built-up areas, residences andbusinesses may find the constant noise andvibration to be disturbing and a source of irri-tation. Most motorists do not need rumble strips tobe made aware of the situation being warned.However, all motorists are affected by driv-ing over them.A more acceptable usage of RUMBLE STRIPSmarking 650 will be for use outside of traveledways. In such instances, drivers remaining with-in the traveled way are not affected by them, butrather they affect only those drivers who are trav-eling (illegally and/or accidentally) in areaswhere they should not be. One particular usefulapplication is on shoulders of freeways or otherroadways, especially in long, straight stretches of rural roads. On such roadways drivers maybecome bored or sleepy and slowly drift into ashoulder area. The presence of RUMBLESTRIPS in the shoulder may assist a driver inregaining attention before completely leaving theroadway (seeSection 6.2.6). 6.3.2 SPEED HUMP MARKING 651

Marking 651 should be used to warn motorists of the presence of a speed hump in the roadway.(The application, geometric design, and construc-tion of speed humps is subject to engineeringevaluation and selective usage.)SPEED HUMP marking 651 should be a brokenyellow line transverse and completely across thefull width of the roadway and shoulders. Theconfiguration of the line should be 500 millime-ters line and 500 millimeters gap. The gap orien-tation should be aligned parallel with the direc-tion of vehicular travel. The minimum width of line, measured perpendicular to the axis of thespeed hump should be two meters. The lineshould be positioned such that the whole of theline is visible to approaching traffic and not hid-den on the far side of the speed hump. When usedon two-way roadways where the hump is visiblefrom both directions of approach, the line may bewidened to provide a minimum of two meters of visible line from each approach direction (seeFigure 6-5).

6-17 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 NO PASSING LINE marking 611 and/or CHAN-NELIZING LINE marking 612 should be usedon each approach to the speed hump for anappropriate distance as given inTable 6-3. 6.3.3 DIVIDING LINE MARKING 652 Marking 652 should be used to warn motoriststhat vehicles traveling on the other side of theline are traveling in the opposite direction.Motorists may cross marking 652 to pass anothervehicle, but only when it is safe to do so.DIVIDING LINE marking 652 should be a longi-tudinal broken yellow line running continuouslyon or near the centerline of the roadway. Its con-figuration should be a repeated pattern of 3 metersof line followed by 6 meters of gap. It should be100millimeters wide for posted speeds below 50km/h and 150-millimeters wide for posted speedsabove 50 km/h. A DIVIDING LINE should beused on all two-way roadways with a travel widthof 5.5 meters or more. It may be used continuous-ly or intermittently on roads of lesser widths whenan engineering assessment determines that such isbeneficial for reason of safety.DIVIDING LINE markings 652 should bereplaced or supplemented with a regulatory NOPASSING LINE marking 611 in circumstanceswhere warranted (see Sections 6.2.4 and 6.3.2)when crossing the DIVIDING LINE from one orboth sides is not permitted. Neither a DIVIDINGLINE nor a NO PASSING LINE should be usedwithin an intersection of two public roads wheretraffic is permitted to turn across an opposingdirection of travel (seeFigure 8-1). 6.3.4 LANE LINE MARKING 654 Marking 654 should be used to warn motorists of the presence of two or more traffic lanes travel-ing on a roadway in the same direction. Motoristsmay cross marking 654 to change lanes, but onlywhen it is safe to do so.LANE LINE marking 654 should be a longitudi-nal broken white line running continuously on aline separating two lanes of travel in the samedirection. Its configuration should be a repeatedpattern of 3 meters of line followed by 6 metersof gap. It should be 100 millimeters wide forposted speeds below 70 km/h and 150 millime-ters wide for posted speeds above 70 km/h. ALANE LINE should be used on one-way travelways more than 6.0 meters in width. A LANELINE should not be used (or should be discontin-ued in a tapered section) to mark a lane that willbe less than 2.7 meters in width (seeFigures 6-5and 8-2 to 816).LANE LINE marking 654 should be replacedwith a regulatory CHANNELIZING LINE mark-ing 612 in circumstances where warranted (seeSections 6.2.5 and 6.3.2) in areas where changinglanes is not permitted.Neither a LANE LINE nor a CHANNELIZINGLINE should be used within a junction. Whenguidance within a junction is required, GUIDELINE marking 680 should be used (seeSection6.4.1). 6.3.5 LANE END ARROW MARKING656 Marking 656 should be used to warn motoriststhat a lane on a multilane roadway is endingahead and that they should move out of that lanein the direction indicated at the earliest opportu-nity that it is safe to do so.LANE END ARROW marking 656 should con-sist of a white straight arrow oriented at a 20degree rotation to the longitudinal axis of thelane. The arrow should be centered in the lanesuch that its extremities are equidistant from thelane edge on each side (seeFigures 6-5 and 8-7).LANE END ARROW marking 656 is to be usedwhen a long-running lane on a multilane roadwayends. It should also be used at the end of a paral-lel-lane-type

entrance ramp. It is not intended foruse on a tapered entrance ramp. The LANE ENDARROW should be repeated in a series of two orpreferably three markings. The last of the arrowsin the series should be positioned at the end of thelane just prior to the point where the lane beginsto decrease in width. The spacing between eachLANE END ARROW should be as given inTable 6-4.

6-18 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 6.3.6 CHEVRON MARKING 657 Marking 657 should be used to provide warningto motorists of a divergence of traffic lanes traveling in the same direction.CHEVRON marking 657 should consist of diag-onal white lines arranged in a chevron pattern asdepicted inFigure 6-6. The CHEVRON shouldpoint towards the oncoming traffic such that thesloping legs of the CHEVRON are seen to splitthe diverging streams of traffic, pushing themaway from one another. Marking 657 should berepeated within a gore area beginning at the the-oretical nose (painted nose) of an exit or diver-gence point and cease at the physical nose.CHEVRON marking 657 should not be usedwithin the gore area of converging streams of traffic.CHEVRON marking 657 should only be used inareas not intended for travel or parking andshould always be separated from a travel area byan EDGE LINE marking 613 or a CHANNELIZ-ING LINE marking 612. 6.3.7 HATCH MARKING 658 Marking 658 should be used to provide warningto motorists to stay clear of a physical danger thatis present adjacent to their travel lane.HATCH marking 658 should consist of repeateddiagonal white lines situated as depicted inFigure 6-6. The dimensions and layout require-ments for the HATCH marking should be similarto those shown for the CHEVRON marking 657as shown inFigure 6-6. The HATCH markingsshould be oriented such that if they were raisedbarriers, they would deflect traffic back into thelane from which they came. A common usage of HATCH markings is in a median or gore area thatseparates traffic that is moving in opposite direc-tions of travel. Such would be the case where atwo way roadway becomes divided and vice-versa. HATCH markings may be used to mark theshoulders of particularly dangerous curves, laneends, or roadside obstructions. However, thesesituations should be thoroughly evaluated by anengineering study and HATCH markings usedonly if it is determined that a significant hazardexists and that HATCH markings may signifi-cantly contribute to the delineation and warningof the hazardous or unusual conditions. In suchconditions consideration should be given to theuse of RUMBLE STRIPS marking 650. The rou-tine usage of HATCH markings should be avoid-ed.HATCH marking 658 should only be used inareas not intended for travel or parking andshould always be separated from a travel area bya NO PASSING LINE marking 611 or EDGELINE marking 613. 6.4 GUIDANCE MARKINGS Guidance pavement markings provide help tomotorists in understanding the path that they areintended to follow where the way may not be oth-erwise evident. Guidance pavement markings donot carry a mandatory requirement nor convey anexplicit message of warning. Only longitudinalbroken lines and TEXT SYMBOL marking 695(seeSection 6.8.2) are used for guidance mark-ings. Guidance markings are illustrated inFigure6-8. 6.4.1 GUIDE LINE MARKING 680 Marking 680 may be used within a junction(intersection or roundabout) to provide guidanceto road users.Except in the case of roundabouts,usage of this marking is optional and should onlybe considered in instances of nonstandard or con-fusing geometry, including sheer junction size.GUIDE LINE marking 680 should be a longitu-dinal broken white line that follows one or

bothedges of the most efficient path (from the stand-points of safety and/or capacity) that a vehicleshould follow through an intersection. Its config-uration may vary to suit conditions but a recom-mended configuration is a repeated pattern of 500millimeters of line followed by 1500 millimeters Table 6-4 Lane End Arrows SpacingOperating Speed(km/h)Spacing(meters) 40608010024324048

6-19 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 of gap. A GUIDE LINE should be 100 millime-ters wide.The primary usage of GUIDE LINE marking 680will be: To provide turning guidance, particularly forleft-turning traffic, at wide intersections orwhere the intersecting roadways meet at anangle significantly different than 90 degreesand particularly when there is more than oneturning lane. To provide alignment guidance across a wideor complex junction when there is a shift inthe through-alignment across the junction, To mark circulation lanes within a round-about. In such instances a GUIDE LINEshould be used within the shadow of theroadway median islands (seeFigures 8-5, 8-6, and 8-8).The use of a GUIDE LINE within an intersectionshould be considered only in exceptional circum-stances. Because a GUIDE LINE will almostalways cross the path of one or more intersectinglanes of traffic, particular attention must be givento the appearance of the line(s) when viewed bydrivers other than those whom they are intendedto guide. Care must be taken to avoid the risk of the line(s) creating a confusing pattern that maymislead other drivers. 6.4.2 CONTINUITY LINE MARKING681 Marking 681 may be used to provide guidancefor through traffic at discontinuities in the pavement-edge delineation. Its use is optional andshould only be considered in instances where acurving roadway geometry and/or a long break inthe continuity of the edge of pavement delineation may be confusing or misleading to a driv-er.CONTINUITY LINE marking 681 should be alongitudinal broken white line that follows theedge of the through-lane of traffic across an exitramp, a slip road exit, or an intersection. Its con-figuration should be a repeated pattern of 1 meterof line followed by 3 meters of gap. It should be150-millimeters wide for posted speeds below 70km/h and 200-millimeters wide for posted speedsabove 70 km/h. As a general rule a CONTINU-ITY LINE marking should not be extendedacross an entrance ramp on a freeway or a sliproad entrance. In such cases the convergence of the entering roadway edge line should provide aclear indication of the forward alignment of themainline (seeFigure 8-16). 6.5 RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS(RPM) Raised pavement markers may be used to supple-ment or replace painted line pavement markingsto provide increased visibility and better delinDirection of TravelDetail 6-8-1: GUIDE LINE marking 680Detail 6-8-2: CONTINUITY LINE marking 681 100150(200)50015001000 3000 Figure 6-8 Guidance Pavement Markings

6-20 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 eation. They are also effective at discouragingunnecessary lane changes. Examples of the use of raised pavement markers are illustrated inFigure6-9. 6.5.1 GENERAL There are two basic classifications of raisedpavement markers: Retroreflective (R). Nonretroreflective (N).Retroreflective markers house a colored lens of retroreflective material that is designed to redi-rect a substantial portion of vehicular head light-ing back at a driver for improved nighttime long-range visibility.Nonretroreflective markers do not exhibitretroreflective properties but do, under daylightor lighted conditions (street lights or headlights)display a white or yellow body color the same aspainted lines.Retroreflective markers are used to supplementwhite or yellow painted lines or nonretroreflec-tive markers.Nonretroreflective markers are used to replacewhite or yellow painted marking. Where roadwaylighting is not to a high standard, nonretroreflec-tive pavement markings should be supplementedby retroreflective pavement markings.In Abu Dhabi, lane lines and channelizing lineson main, divided thoroughfares are typicallymarked with a combination of retroreflective andnonretroreflective raised pavement markers. Ontwo-way secondary and sector roads, channeliz-ing lines and no passing lines should be markedwith paint. Nonretroreflective and reflectiveraised pavement markers may also be used inmost other pavement marking applications whendeemed appropriate by the designer and with theapproval of the Department.The following conditions may warrant the use of raised pavement markers: Areas regularly subjected to fog, dust, orblowing sand resulting in reduced visibility. Areas of heavy traffic volumes that rapidlydeteriorate painted markings and that are dis-ruptive to regularly maintain. Isolated areas that have low geometric-road-way-design standards for the traffic condi-tions prevailing and that are not scheduled inthe near term for improvement. Isolated areas with documented high inci-dence of collision and/or low levels of lanediscipline by drivers, particularly in curvedor complex roadway geometry conditions. Long-term roadworks sites.

Freeways (all markings on freeways shouldbe supplemented by R markings). Unlighted rural roadways. Within nonweaving sections of roundabouts.Under one or more of the following conditionsraised pavement markers are generally not rec-ommended for use: Low operating speeds. Across the entrance and exit points of free-way ramps and other intersecting connec-tions to major roadways. On roadways scheduled for resurfacing with-in three years. 6.5.2 RETROREFLECTIVE RPMMARKING R When a standard pavement marking number isfollowed by the letter R it means that the markingbe supplemented by the use of retroreflectiveRPM (e.g., LANE LINE marking 654 R).The following describe the use of RPM R in var-ious pavement marking applications: An RPM R should normally be used at 18-meter intervals (2 times the 9-meter markingmodule). Shorter spacing may be justified incertain instances. For broken lines, the RPM R should beplaced in line with the standard pavementmarkings, centered in the appropriate gaparea of the line. When an RPM R is used to supplement asolid line it should be placed 100-millimeters

6-21 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Detail 6-9-1: CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612R Detail 6-9-2: CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612NDetail 6-9-3: CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612N/RDetail 6-9-4: EDGE LINE marking 613R (line is sometimes white; see Table 61 for guidance)Detail 6-9-5: LANE LINE marking 654R Detail 6-9-6: LANE LINE marking 654N/R 3000 3000 3000 30003000 3000600018000 180001800018000 3000 3000 Direction of TravelWhite/Red RPM RYellow/Red RPM RWhite RPM N Figure 6-9 Use of Raised Pavement Markers (RPMs)

6-22 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 clear of and on the traffic side of the line(such as EDGE LINE marking 613 R). When traffic utilizes the line on both sides(such as a NO PASSING LINE marking 611R or CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612R) an RPM R may be placed on each side of the line. Alternatively, an RPM R may beplaced within the line. However, this willrequire masking the line at the RPM locationwhen the line is painted and each time it isrepainted, to prevent the RPM R from beingobscured by paint. When RPM N are used for a dashed line,RPM R should be placed as they would withpaint. Where RPM N are used in a solid line, anRPM R should be used in place of an RPM Nat the appropriate interval. When RPM R are used on more than one lon-gitudinal line on a roadway, they should besituated such that all RPM R are alignedtransversely across the roadway.Only three colors of RPM R should be used: White (or clear) markers should be used inconjunction with all white-colored pavementmarkings as viewed by approaching drivers. Yellow markers should be used in conjunc-tion with all yellow-colored pavement mark-ings as viewed by approaching drivers. Whenused with a line having meaning to traffic inopposing directions, such as a DIVIDINGLINE marking 652 R, the RPM R should bebidirectional. Red color should only be used on the back side of markers on one-way or divided road-ways. This color should be viewable only todrivers entering or driving in the wrongdirection on such a roadway. The red color of an RPM R should never be visible to legallyoperating traffic. 6.5.3 NONRETROREFLECTIVE RPMMARKING N When a standard pavement marking number isfollowed by the letter N it means that the paintedmarking should be replaced by nonretroreflectiveRPM (e.g., LANE LINE marking 654 N). Whenretroreflective markers are used to supplementnonretroreflective markers then both the R and Nletter designation should be used (e.g., LANELINE marking 654 R/N).The RPM N should be used to replace and simu-late the painted part of a line. For broken linetypes, one RPM N should be placed at the pointwhere the painted segment would begin and oneRPM N should be placed at the point where thepainted segment would end. Other RPM Nshould then be spaced equidistant between thesesuch that the center-to-center spacing does notexceed one meter. For a

solid line the RPM Nshould be spaced at one-meter intervals.Only two colors of RPM N should be used: White markers should be used to replacewhite-colored painted markings. Yellow markers should be used to replaceyellow-colored painted markings. 6.6 CURB PAINTING The application of paint to the top and face of acurb may be undertaken when authorized ordirected by the Department. The painting of acurb can provide increased visibility and betterdelineation than concrete-colored curbs. Curbpainting may also be used to supplement orreplace the use of NO PARKING signs. Becausecurb painting involves the use of paint near thepavement surface, and because its use and appli-cations are similar to pavement markings, curbpainting is considered to be pavement markingswithin the context of this manual. 6.6.1 GENERAL Under certain circumstances the painting of curbfaces can play a significant role in regulating traf-fic with respect to parking and in warning trafficof the presence of a raised curb. To retain the con-spicuousness and function of a painted curb,maintenance is an ongoing and continual processcarrying with it a significant cost implication. 6.6.2 NO PARKING MARKING 690 Marking 690 is used to advise motorists of spe-cific areas along a curbline where parking is pro-

6-23 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 hibited. The use of marking 690 imposes amandatory requirement on a motorist that he notpark his vehicle adjacent to a curbline so painted.NO PARKING marking 690 should consist of painting the top and front face of a curb withalternating sections of black- and yellowcoloredpaint. The pattern and lengths of the sectionsshould be the same as described for VISIBILITYPAINTING marking 691. Painting of the curbshould extend from the point where the parkingrestriction begins and should be a continuous,solid marking to the point where the parkingrestriction ends.Marking 690 may be used to supplement NOPARKING signs 377, 378, and 379 when such isrequired for additional emphasis of a no-parkingarea, or when geometry is such that the extent of the no-parking area is not clearly delineated bythe use of signs only. Marking 690 may also beused alone to delineate no-parking areas. Suchapplications will be most likely in cases whereno-parking areas are broken and interspersedamong areas where parking is permitted. In suchcases it may be difficult or impractical to regulateby signing and the use of curb painting may bemore appropriate.It is not the intent of the Department that all curbsin Abu Dhabi where parking is prohibited bepainted with NO PARKING marking 690 (norsigned with NO PARKING signs 377, 378, and379). In areas where parking is clearly not per-mitted and motorists are complying with suchrestrictions, then no further parking prohibitionmeasures in the form of signs or curb painting isnecessary.In locations where the engineer may wish to useNO PARKING marking 690 but no curbs are pres-ent, an EDGE LINE marking 613 should be usedand will have the same effect as marking 690. 6.6.3 VISIBILITY PAINTINGMARKING 691 Marking 691 is used to improve the visibility of raised curbs and to warn motorists of the presence of those curbs. The use of marking 691 hasno regulatory function and neither permits norprohibits the parking of vehicles adjacent tocurbs so marked.VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691 shouldconsist of painting the top and front face of a curbwith alternating sections of black- and white-col-ored paint. The length of a black section and thelength of a white section should be equal to eachother. When precast curbs are used, each section(or every two sections in the case of short curbsections) may be painted with alternating colorssuch that the length of each color will be in therange of 500 millimeters to 900 millimeters tomatch individual curbs. When short curbs areused around curves the adjacent length of mark-ing should be retained. Because of the strobo-scopic effect of viewing alternating painting froma moving vehicle, curbs or barriers with anexposed front face higher than 400 millimetersshould not receive marking 691 over a significantlength of roadway. Where such high curbs or bar-riers are used, VISIBILITY PAINTING marking691 should be limited only to discrete areaswhere added visibility is required.The primary benefit of VISIBILITY PAINTINGmarking 691 is the delineation of curbs in turningareas such as intersections, roundabouts, and traf-fic separator islands. The use of marking 691 onlong stretches of straight curb on well-lightedroadways is of limited benefit from a traffic-safe-ty standpoint. While such sections may receiveVISIBILITY PAINTING, its use should beweighed against the initial and long-term costs of doing so. 6.7 OBJECT MARKERS 6.7.1 OBJECT MARKER DESIGN

Object markers are used to mark obstructionswithin or adjacent to the roadway. When used,these markers should consist of an arrangementof one or more of the following designs: Type 1 Type 2 Type 3Type 1 markers consist of an all-yellow reflectivediamond panel 450 mm in size. A variant of this

6-24 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 marker type incorporates nine yellow reflectorunits in the panel. Each reflector unit should havea dimension of approximately 75 mm mountedsymmetrically on a 450-mm diamond-shapedyellow panel. Type 1 markers may be larger if conditions warrant (seeFigure 6-10, Detail 1).Type 2 is a striped vertical rectangle approxi-mately 300 mm by 900 mm in size with alternat-ing black and reflectorized yellow stripes slopingdownward at an angle of 45 toward the side of the obstruction on which traffic is to pass. Theminimum width of the yellow stripe should be 75mm. Type 2 object markers with stripes that beginat the upper right side and slope downward to thelower left side are to be designated as rightobject markers (seeFigure 6-10, Detail 2).Type 3 markers indicate the end of a roadway.When it is determined that markers should beplaced at the end of a roadway where there is noalternative vehicular path, a marker consisting of nine red reflectors, each with a minimum dimen-sion of approximately 75 mm, mounted symmet-rically on a 450-mm red diamond panel; or a 450-mm diamond reflectorized red panel should beused. More than one marker or a larger markermay be used at the end of the roadway whereconditions warrant. The minimum mountingheight of this marker should be 1.20 m.Appropriate advance warning signs should beused (seeFigure 6-10, Detail 3). 6.7.2 OBJECTS IN THE ROADWAY Obstructions within the roadway should bemarked with a Type 1 or Type 2 object marker.For additional emphasis, a large surface such as abridge pier may be painted with diagonal stripes,300 mm or more in width, similar in design to theType 2 object marker. The alternating black andreflectorized yellow stripes should be slopeddown at an angle of 45 toward the side of theobstruction that traffic is to pass. The minimummounting height should be 1.20 m.Appropriate signs directing traffic to one or bothsides of the obstruction may be used in lieu of theobject marker. In addition to markings on the faceof an obstruction in the roadway, warning of approach to the obstruction should be given byappropriate pavement markings.Where the vertical clearance of an overheadstructure exceeds the maximum legal height of avehicle by less than 0.3 m, the clearance to thenearest 0.1 m on a regulatory sign should beclearly marked on the structure as well as on theadvanced warning sign. 6.7.3 OBJECTS ADJACENT TO THEROADWAY Objects not actually in the roadway may be soclose to the edge of the road that a marker isrequired. These include guardrail ends, underpasspiers, bridge abutments, handrails, and culvertheadwalls. In some cases, a physical object maynot be involved, but other roadside conditionssuch as narrow shoulder drop-offs, gores, smallislands, and abrupt changes in the roadway align-ment may make it undesirable for a driver toleave the roadway. Type 2 object markers areintended for use at such locations. The insideedge of the marker should be in line with theinner edge of the obstruction.Standard warning signs should also be used whereapplicable. Typical applications of markers forroadside obstructions are shown inFigure 611. 6.8 TEXT PAVEMENTMARKINGS Text pavement markings may be used to supple-ment other pavement markings or signs onlywhen specifically authorized or directed by theDepartment.

6.8.1 GENERAL The use of text pavement markings should bestrictly limited to situations where no otheroption to present or reinforce the required mes-sage to drivers is available. No specific applica-tions for such markings are anticipated. The pro-vision of such markings in this manual should notbe taken as an encouragement for their use.Rather, they are described herein to provide astandard should there be a requirement for suchin an isolated instance.

6-25 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 6.8.2 TEXT SYMBOL MARKINGS 695 Markings 695 may be used to provide specificlocalized amplification of existing regulatory,warning, or guide road signs or pavement mark-ings.TEXT SYMBOL markings 695 should be AbuDhabi Municipality standard Arabic and Englishfonts.English text messages should use only upper caseletters and, if appropriate, numbers. Stencils fortext messages should be prepared based on 400-millimeter x height letters on their tile back-grounds which are then distorted by stretchingfive times in the vertical direction while main-taining an unaltered width. The nominal height of the resultant Arabic aleph and the English uppercase letters should be 2800 millimeters. A TEXTSYMBOL message should be limited in length sothat it can be centered between parallel longitudi-nal pavement markings, or such a marking and acurbline, with a minimum clearance on each sideof 150 millimeters. When both Arabic andEnglish messages are required the English shouldbe placed above the Arabic (such that approach-ing drivers will see the Arabic message first). Theseparation between the Arabic and English text Detail 6-10-1: Type 1450 mm by 450 mm450 mm by 450 mm 130mm130mm90mm 75-mm yellowreflectorsYellow reflectivebackground 900 mm170 mm140 mm70 mm300 mm45 Detail 6-10-2: Type 2Detail 6-10-3: Type 3 130mm130mm90mm 450 mm by 450 mm75-mm redreflectorsRedbackgroundLeft object marker Right object marker Detail 6-10-1: Type 1450 mm by 450 mm450 mm by 450 mm 130mm130mm90mm 75-mm yellowreflectorsYellow reflectivebackground450 mm by 450 mm450 mm by 450 mm 130mm130mm90mm130mm130mm90mm130mm130mm90mm 75-mm yellowreflectors75-mm yellowreflectorsYellow reflectivebackgroundYellow reflectivebackground 900 mm170 mm140 mm70 mm300 mm45 Detail 6-10-2: Type 2 900 mm170 mm140 mm70 mm300 mm45 Detail 6-10-2: Type 2Detail 6-10-3: Type 3 130mm130mm90mm 450 mm by 450 mm75-mm redreflectorsRedbackgroundDetail 6-10-3: Type 3 130mm130mm90mm130mm130mm 90mm130mm130mm 90mm

450 mm by 450 mm75-mm redreflectors75-mm redreflectorsRedbackgroundLeft object marker Right object marker Figure 6-10 Object Markers

6-26 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Note:Delineators should be placed at aconstant distance from the roadwayedge except that, when anobstruction exists near thepavement edge, the line of delineators makes a smoothtransition to the inside of theobstruction.Edge of roadway0.6 m to 2.0 moutside roadwayedge or face of curbTypical spacing60 m to 160 m0.6 m to 2.0 m outsideshoulder edgeEdge of shoulder GuardrailDelineators mounted above or immediately behind guardrail. Thesedelineators are not at a constantdistance from roadway edgebecause of the bridge rail.Type 2 objectmarker Bridge rail or obstructionNote:Delineators should be placed at aconstant distance from the roadwayedge except that, when anobstruction exists near thepavement edge, the line of delineators makes a smoothtransition to the inside of theobstruction.0.6 m to 2.0 moutside roadwayedge or face of curbTypical spacing60 m to 160 m0.6 m to 2.0 m outsideshoulder edgeEdge of shoulder GuardrailDelineators mounted above or immediately behind guardrail. Thesedelineators are not at a constantdistance from roadway edgebecause of the bridge rail.Type 2 objectmarker Bridge rail or obstruction Figure 6-11 Typical Delineator Installation

6-27 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 will be achieved by stacking the distorted respec-tive tiles. 6.9 DELINEATION 6.9.1 DELINEATORS Road delineators are light-retroreflective devicesmounted in series at the side of the roadway toindicate the roadway alignment. Delineators areeffective aids for night driving and considered asguidance devices rather than warning devices.Delineators may be used on long, continuous sec-tions of highway or through short stretches wherethere are changes in horizontal alignment, partic-ularly where the alignment might be confusing orat pavement-width transitions. An importantadvantage of delineators in certain areas is thatthey remain visible when the roadway is wet. 6.9.2 DESIGN Delineators should consist of reflector units capa-ble of clearly reflecting light under normalatmospheric conditions from a distance of 300meters when illuminated by the upper beam of standard automobile lights. Reflective elementsfor delineators should have a minimum area of approximately 100 cm. Double delineators con-sist of two reflector units, one mounted above theother. Elongated reflective units of appropriatesize may be used in place of the two reflectors. 6.9.3 CURB MARKINGS FORDELINEATION Reflectorized, continuous yellow paint should beplaced on the curbs of intersection islands located in the line of traffic flow where the curb servesto channel traffic to the right or to the left of theisland. Reflectorized, continuous white paintshould be used when traffic may pass on eitherside of the divisional island.Where the curbs of the islands become parallel tothe direction of traffic flow it is not necessary tomark the curbs unless a study indicates the needfor this type of delineation. Where these curbs aremarked, the colors should conform to the generalprinciples of pavement markings.Curbs at openings in a continuous median islandneed not be marked unless individual study indi-cates the need for this type of marking. 6.9.4 DELINEATOR APPLICATION Delineation is intended to be a guide to the vehi-cle operator as to the alignment of the highway.Whatever is needed to provide that guidance in aclear and simple way should be installed.The color of delineators should, in all cases, con-form to the yellow or white color of edge lines.Single delineators should be provided on theright side of expressway roadways and on at leastone side of interchange ramps. These delineatorsmay be provided on other classes of roads. Singledelineators may be provided on the left side of roadways and should be provided on the outsideof bends on interchange ramps.Where median crossovers are provided for offi-cial or emergency use on divided highways andthese crossovers are to be marked, a double-yel-low delineator should be placed on the left side of the through roadway on the far side of thecrossover for each roadway.Red delineators may be used on the reverse sideof any delineator whenever it would be viewedby a motorist traveling in the wrong direction onthat particular ramp or roadway.Delineators of the appropriate color may be usedto indicate the narrowing of a pavement. Thedelineators should be used adjacent to the laneaffected for the full length of the

convergenceand should be so placed and spaced to show thewidth reduction. Delineation is not necessary forthe traffic moving in the direction of a widerpavement or on the side of the roadway where thealignment is not affected by the convergence. Ona highway with continuous delineation on eitheror both side, delineators should be carriedthrough the transition and a closer spacing maybe warranted.Delineation is optional on sections of roadwaybetween interchanges where fixed-source light-ing is in operation.

6-28 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 6.9.5 DELINEATOR PLACEMENTAND SPACING Delineators, if used, should be mounted on suit-able supports so the top of the reflecting head isapproximately 1.20 m above the near roadwayedge. Delineators should be placed not less than1.0 m or more than 2.0 m outside the outer edgeof the shoulder, or if appropriate, in the line of theguardrail. Delineators may be mounted on theguardrail at a height less than 1.2 m.Delineators should be placed at a constant dis-tance from the edge of the roadway. However,where a guardrail or other obstruction intrudesinto the space between the pavement edge andthe extension of the line of delineators, the delin-eators should be in line with or inside the inner-most edge of the obstruction. Typical delineatorinstallations are shown inFigure 611.Normally, delineators should be spaced 60 m to160 m. When normal uniform spacing is interrupted by driveways, crossroads, or similar inter-ruptions, delineators falling within such areasmay be moved in either direction, a distance notexceeding one-quarter of the normal spacing.Delineators still falling within such areas shouldbe eliminated. On expressways, a normal delin-eator spacing is 100 m.Double or vertically elongated delineators shouldbe installed at 30-meter intervals along accelera-tion and deceleration lanes.Spacing should be adjusted on approaches andthroughout horizontal bends so that several delin-eators are always visible to the driver.Table 6-5shows suggested maximum spacing for delin-eators at bends. 6.10 BARRICADES ANDCHANNELIZING DEVICES 6.10.1BARRICADES Red-and-white barricades are to warn and alertdrivers of the terminus of a road, street, or highway in other than construction or maintenanceareas. The stripes on the barricades should bereflectorized white and reflectorized red. Thesedevices may be used to mark any of the following type locations:1. Roadway ends in a dead end or cul-de-sacwith no outlet.2 A ramp or lane closed for operational pur-poses.3. The permanent or semipermanent closure ortermination of a roadway.A typical barricade is illustrated inFigure 6-12. 6.10.2CHANNELIZING DEVICES Traffic cones and tubular markers are sometimesused outside of construction and maintenanceareas for general traffic control purposes. Suchuses include adding emphasis to channelizinglines or islands.These devices should be a minimum of 450 mmin height and made of materials to withstandimpact without damage to the devices or vehi-cles. Large-size devices should be used wherevermore conspicuous guidance is needed.The color of cones and tube markers outside con-struction and maintenance areas should be thesame as the pavement marking these devices aresupplementing or substituting. These markers Table 6-5 Suggested Maximum Spacing for Highway Delineators on Bends Radius of Bend (R)(meters)Spacing on Bend (S)(meters)15304560759012015018021024027030067.5910.51213.516.519.52122.52425.527Sp acing for radii not shown may beinterpolated from the table. The minimumspacing should be 6

meters. The spacing of the first delineator on a tangent adjacent to abend should be 2S, the second, 3S, and thethird 6S, but not to exceed 100 meters.

6-29 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Figure 6-12 Barricades and Channelizing Devices 1100 mm200150200150200450 mm minimum150 mm75 mm75 mm75 mm100 mm BarricadeTubular Marker Traffic Cone 1100 mm2001502001502001100 mm200150200150200150200450 mm minimum150 mm75 mm75 mm75 mm100 mm450 mm minimum150 mm75 mm75 mm75 mm100 mm BarricadeTubular Marker Traffic Cone

6-30 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 should be kept clean and bright for maximum tar-get value. For nighttime use, the markers shouldbe reflectorized.Two typical channelizing devices (a tube and acone) are illustrated inFigure 6-12. 6.11 CURB PAINTING ANDPAVEMENT MARKINGFOR FIRE HYDRANTS 6.11.1 CURB PAINTING FOR FIREHYDRANTS ALONGROADWAYS MARKING 695 Along roadways, curb painting is used in con-junction with NO STOPPING sign 370 and FIREHYDRANT SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE 590 toreinforce to motorists the prohibition againststopping in front of a fire hydrant.In front of fire hydrants, curbstones should bepainted red for a length of 12 meters, six metersto either side of the fire hydrant and the firehydrant combination sign.Curb painting for fire hydrants along roadways isillustrated inFigure 6-13. 6.11.2 CURB PAINTING AND PAVE-MENT MARKING FOR FIREHYDRANTS ADJACENT TOPARKING SPACES Where a fire hydrant is located adjacent to aparking space, curb painting and pavement mark-ing is used in conjunction with NO STOPPINGsign 370 and FIRE HYDRANT SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE 590 to reinforce to motorists theprohibition against parking in that space.Curbstones should be painted red (marking 695)for the width (for perpendicular and diagonalparking) or length (for parallel parking) of theparking space. In addition, the parking spaceshould be closed with a 100-millimeter-wideline across its entrance. Diagonal hatch markings,100 millimeters wide, should run at one-meterintervals throughout the space.Figure 614illustrates curb painting and pave-ment markings for perpendicular, diagonal, andparallel parking spaces adjacent to fire hydrants.Note that parking spaces need not be arranged tobe centered on a fire hydrant and that the hydrantmay be located anywhere within the curbedwidth or depth of the space. The parking spaceproviding the best street visibility and access tothe fire hydrant should be marked for no stop-ping. The fire-hydrant sign combination, howev-er, should be placed in the center of the curbedwidth or length of the prohibited parking space.

F. H. W. 14/1 NO. . . 12000 mmStandard curb paintingStandard curb paintingCurb painted red 6-31 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Figure 6-13 Curb Painting for Fire Hydrants Along Roadways Marking 695

6-32 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 100 mm100 mm1000 mm (typical)100 mm45 (typical)Sign 590 withNO STOPPING sign 370Curbstone painted redfor one parking space onlyFire hydrant100 mm100 mm100 mmSign 590 withNO STOPPING sign 370Curbstone painted redfor one parking space only45(typical)Fire hydrantSign 590 withNO STOPPING sign 370100 mm100 mm100 mm1000 mm (typical)Curbstone painted redfor one parking space only45 (typical)90(typical)Standard curb painting Figure 6-14 Curb Painting and Pavement Marking for Fire Hydrants Adjacent to Parking Spaces

7-1 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 7 ROADWORKSTRAFFIC CONTROL 7.1 GENERAL Roadworks are defined as any roadway or utilityconstruction, maintenance, or repair worksoccurring within or near a road right of way.Incident areas (traffic accidents, spillage, etc.),police-control points (check points, traffic sur-veys, etc.), and special-event management (majorsports or cultural events) and other short-termdisruptions to normal roadway operations also fitwithin the functional definition of roadworkstraffic control.When approaching a roadworks area, motoristsare faced with an unexpected, unusual, and fre-quently substandard driving situation. As a result,special care must be taken in implementing tem-porary traffic control measures in associationwith roadworks. Because roadworks are relative-ly short-term situations, traffic control in theseareas is often given scant consideration. Anunusual situation with an ill-conceived traffic-control scheme creates a doubly dangerous situa-tion. Such would never be tolerated as part of thepermanent operations nor should it be toleratedas part of the roadworks. 7.1.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES The purpose of roadworks traffic control is toprovide safe and effective work areas and towarn, control, protect, and guide vehicular andpedestrian traffic. To accomplish this, the respectof the driver must be earned by the appropriate,prudent, and consistent use of temporary trafficcontrol devices. While each roadwork area mayhave unique elements, certain fundamental prin-ciples and procedures should be considered. 7.1.1.1 SAFETY Traffic safety in a roadworks traffic control zoneshould be an integral and high-priority element of every roadway construction project from thedesign process until project construction is complete. Similarly, government and utility agenciesmust plan and conduct their maintenance andutility works with the safety of motorists, pedes-trians, and workers foremost in their minds.The same geometric and safety-design principlesthat apply to the design of permanent roadwaysshould also govern the design of temporary traf-fic control situations. Temporary traffic controlsituations must not be allowed to be interpretedas being synonymous with substandard trafficcontrol situations. If anything, the unusual and/ormore restrictive conditions found in roadworksareas can dictate the necessity of even higherstandards of safety. The aim should be to accom-modate traffic in roadworks areas using geomet-ric design considerations and traffic controldevices comparable to those found in a normalpermanent roadway operating at the speed antic-ipated in the roadworks zone. 7.1.1.2 UNIFORMITY The standardization of devices is important forthe purpose of advising motorists of conditionswithin a roadworks traffic control area.The color yellow has been designated as a uniquecolor reserved for use in roadworks areas. Alltraffic control devices within a roadworks areashould have yellow as their background color.Black and/or red border and/or symbols, in com-bination with yellow, should also be predominantwork area colors. The uniform application

of these colors on traffic control devices throughouta roadworks area will provide motorists with avisual indication that they are approaching andnavigating a roadworks area where roadway conditions are not normal and that they should exer-cise additional caution.Another aspect of uniformity is the standardiza-tion of the application of roadworks traffic con-trol devices. Often, traffic control in a roadworksarea is executed using traffic control devices thatare substandard or nonstandard in material,design, or placement. Principles describedthroughout this manual with respect to permanenttraffic signing are uniformly applicable to road-works signing. Only devices described or permit-ted in this manual should be used for roadworkstraffic control and they should be used in a uni-form and standardized manner.

7-2 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 7.1.1.3 FUNCTIONALITY Traffic movements in a roadworks area should beinhibited as little as possible. Traffic control for aroadworks area should be designed acknowledg-ing that motorists will reduce their speed only if they perceive a situation which warrants such.Therefore, reduced speed zones through a roadworks area should be avoided whenever practi-cal, should be used only when dictated by geometric conditions, and should be applied withrealistic speed limits.Lane drops, lane narrowing, sharp curves, orother abrupt or frequent geometric changesshould likewise be avoided. When such areunavoidable, adequate warning, delineation, andchannelization by means of pavement markings,signing, and other devices must be used to effec-tively provide motorists with clear and positiveguidance. These devices must be effective underthe anticipated conditions of traffic volumes, traf-fic speeds, and lighting conditions. In turn, thisrequirement will have an effect on the geometricdesign, which must provide sufficient space forstandard levels of temporary signing.To reduce complex traffic operational conditionsto an acceptable level of simplicity, geometricchanges should occur in individual stages, eachof which requires only one basic driver action,with a stabilization area between each stage. Forexample, the closure of two lanes should be donein two individual transition areas. Likewise, alane closure should not end and a sharp horizon-tal curve begin at the same point, but should beseparated by a suitable stabilization area (seeSection 7.1.2). However in exceptional circum-stances a single taper as shown inFigure 824(Chapter 8)may be used.A particular functional problem in roadworksareas is original pavement markings that conflictwith revised detour geometry. Permanent pave-ment markings that are inconsistent with tempo-rary travel paths and would misguide motoristsshould be removed on all but very short-termoperations. For short-term operations, existingmarkings may be left in place unless so doingcreates a definite hazard. No original pavementmarking should be left in place that may tend tolead drivers straight into a barrier or work area.When inconsistent markings are retained, extraattention must be given to ensure motorists caneasily follow the detour geometry. 7.1.1.4 MAINTENANCE Every work zone should be routinely inspectedunder varying traffic conditions and at differenttimes of day to ensure that the traffic controldevices are maintained so that they are clearlyvisible, properly located, clean and in goodrepair, and are operating safely and effectively.An important part of this inspection process mustinclude the immediate removal or covering of any traffic control device which is no longer rel-evant.This level of control can best be achieved byassigning an authorized site safety officer to eachwork site. The site safety officer at small sitesshould automatically be the gang foreman. At allsites the site safety officer must be accountablefor the original traffic management system andthe maintenance of this system to ensure the safe-ty of the workers, pedestrians, and the motoringpublic.The site safety officer must have the skill andauthority to act to modify traffic control meas-ures or even halt construction in order to ensuretraffic and site safety. The site safety officer mustkeep a record of all accidents occurring at the sitein sufficient detail to permit analysis to improvesite traffic management. 7.1.2 TRAFFIC CONTROL ZONE

When traffic is affected by construction, mainte-nance, or utility operations, traffic control isneeded to safely guide and protect motorists,pedestrians, and workers. Although individualroadwork areas may have unique features, mostroadworks traffic control zones can be brokendown and considered as five distinct areas. Eacharea has a unique and important function as partof a complete roadworks traffic control zone.Figure 7-1illustrates these five parts of a road-works traffic control zone.

7-3 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 ROADWORKZONE TERMINATIONAREAWORKAREASTABILIZATIONAREATRANSITIONAREAADVANC EDWARNINGAREA L L = Length of Taper D = Displacement in metersS = Approach Speed in km/h= Direction of Travel GUIDELINES 0.5L or lessVaries0.5L to L(2L if separating transitions)For S < 70 km/h L=DS/160For S > 70 km/h L=DS/1.6100m to 2km REPRESENTATIVE TAPER LENGTHS S D L(km/h) (meters) (meters) 4060801004.04.04.04.04090200250 Figure 7-1 Roadworks Zone Traffic Control Areas

7-4 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 7.1.2.1 ADVANCE WARNING AREA This area is used to advise motorists that there aretemporary conditions ahead of them that requireparticular care. In some instances, a steppedreduction in the speed will be required within thisarea. These speed reductions should be indicatedat reasonable intervals (200 meters minimum)and occur in 20 kilometers per hour steps untilthe speed for which the traffic control has beendesigned is indicated. It is good practice to repeatthe final speed limit at least once.The length of the advance warning area shouldrelate directly to measured approach speed. Arealistic distance must be allowed for speedreduction. High traffic volumes will be betterhandled if the standard length of this area is gen-erous, since more time is needed to comprehendthe sign messages and react to them under heavytraffic conditions. For posted approach speeds of 100 kilometers per hour and moderately high tohigh traffic volumes, a base length for theadvance warning area of 1000 meters is required.For freeway conditions, especially in rural areas,a length for the advance warning area of 2000meters is preferred. If traffic volumes are lowand/or posted approach speed is 80 kilometersper hour or less, this length may be reduced to600 meters.Urban sites will commonly have limited spacefor advance warning area signs. However, everyattempt should be made to provide adequateadvance signing. High-speed arterials shouldnormally have sufficiently long block lengths toallow advance warning areas in the range of 600to 300 meters. On lesser roads or in busy businessareas, shorter advance warning areas in the rangeof 150 to 75 meters should be used.Consideration should also be given to extendinglane closures and the relevant signing into thepreceding block and onto intersecting roads, asapplicable. 7.1.2.2 TRANSITION AREA This is the area in which drivers are required totake action, such as: Shift position on the roadway without reduc-tion in the number of lanes. Merge two lanes into one (lane drop). Cross the central median (crossover). Enter a detour completely separate from theroad under construction.The transition area must be clearly defined usingappropriate channelizing devices and should con-form to the layout depicted on the guidance signspreceding it. Complex transition situationsshould be broken down into a number of standardtransition situations. No signing for subsequenttransition conditions should be included in a tran-sition area, but rather should occur in the stabi-lization area separating the two transitions.The length of a transition area will depend on theapproach speed of traffic and the amount of alignment shift involved in the transition.Minimum lengths should be determined by thefollowing formula:Minimum lengths should be determined by thefollowing formula:L= DS/160 for S < 70 km/hL= DS/1.6 for S > 70 km/hL= Minimum required length of

transition inmeters.D= Required lateral displacement of vehicles inmeters.S= Approach speed of vehicles to the roadworksarea traffic control zone in kilometers perhour (posted speed limit or 85th percentilespeed whichever is greater).The alignment of the transition area should beeither a straight taper (in the case of a lane drop)or a reverse curve (in the case of an alignmentshift). 7.1.2.3 STABILIZATION AREA The purpose of this area is to allow traffic flow tostabilize after negotiating a transition area beforereaching another change of condition or the work area. If more than one transition area is requiredto achieve the final traffic configuration, the sign-ing for the second or subsequent transitionsshould be located within the intervening stabi-

7-5 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 lization area(s). When the stabilization areaoccurs between a transition area and the work area the stabilization area will also serve as abuffer between the inherently dangerous work area and the transition area where loss of vehicu-lar control is most likely. The buffer space pro-vides a margin of safety for both traffic andworkers. If a driver does not see the advancewarning or fails to negotiate the transition, abuffer space provides room to stop before thework area. It is important that the buffer space befree of equipment, workers, materials, and work-ers' vehicles.When a stabilization area separates two transitionareas, the length of the stabilization area shouldbe double the length of the longer of the two tran-sition areas being separated. When a stabilizationarea separates a transition area from the work area, the length of the stabilization area should benot less than one half the length of the precedingtransition area, and preferably equal to the lengthof the preceding transition area when space per-mits. 7.1.2.4 WORK AREA The work area is that portion of the roadwaywhich contains the work activity and is closed totraffic and set aside for exclusive use by workers,equipment, and construction materials. Work areas may remain in fixed locations or may moveas work progresses. This area must be adequate-ly defined by delineators in complex conditions.Where there is a risk to traffic or workers of vehi-cles entering the work area, temporary barriers of a standard sufficient to prevent this are recom-mended to contain traffic within the designatedroadway. When traffic is relocated well awayfrom the work area little action is required alongits length other than to protect construction vehi-cles and employees. 7.1.2.5 TERMINATION AREA This area involves the return of traffic flow tonormal flow conditions. In simple cases this canbe achieved by a relatively rapid taper of chan-nelizing devices. In this case, the length of thetermination area may be one-half of the comput-ed transition area length or less. In more complexconditions a reverse crossover may be required.This should follow the same principles given fora transition area at the start of a site.End roadworks signs and conventional speedlimit signs restoring the normal speed limit con-ditions should be erected together as soon as pos-sible after the end of the termination area. 7.1.3 DEPLOYING ROADWORKSDEVICES One of the most critical periods during the life of a roadworks operation is the initial deploymentof the roadworks traffic control devices. Thesteps listed below should be followed in thedeployment of traffic control devices at road-works:1. A traffic control plan, with a level of detailappropriate for the complexity of the work involved, should be prepared, approved, andunderstood by all parties responsible for theroadworks on site.2. All necessary traffic control devices andappurtenances identified in the traffic controlplan should be procured and assembled onsite prior to deployment.3. All traffic control devices that can beinstalled without interference with existingtraffic operations should be deployed. Signserected that are not yet applicable, but thatmay be seen by drivers on roadways current-ly in use, should be covered to prevent confusion.4. The deployment of the remaining traffic con-trol devices, which will result in a diversionof traffic from current travel paths, should bedone during hours of low traffic

volumes.For major roadways this may require a late-night deployment.5. Deployment should begin at the upstreamend of the advance warning area withadvance warning signs being uncovered orerected progressively towards the transitionarea. Next, channelizing devices, signs, andother traffic control measures should bedeployed from the start of the transition areaprogressively to the stabilization area,through the work area and on to the end of the termination area. To the maximum extentpossible, workmen and equipment should

7-6 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 remain on the back side (away from the traf-fic) of channelization devices during deploy-ment.6. Conflicting existing signs should be removedor covered.7. Conflicting existing pavement markingsshould be removed and new temporary mark-ings installed (if conditions warrant, "stick down" type temporary markings may berequired until the more permanent temporarymarking can be installed under traffic).8. Following completion of deployment theroadworks zone should be immediatelyinspected by the site safety officer with anymisplaced devices or confusing situation cor-rected. A careful monitoring of the road-works zone by the site safety officer, especially for the first few days of operation, isessential to detect and correct any difficultiesexperienced by drivers at various times of theday or night and under varying traffic condi-tions.The removal of roadworks zone traffic controldevices should occur in generally the reverseorder of deployment, beginning at the termina-tion area and working back through the advancewarning area. Roadworks devices no longerneeded should be removed completely from theroadway and inapplicable roadworks signsremoved or covered. Conflicting temporarypavement markings should be removed from thepermanent roadways. 7.2 TRAFFIC SIGNS 7.2.1 GENERAL Regulatory, warning, and guidance traffic signscomprise a major part of the temporary trafficcontrol devices used at roadworks sites.If a traffic diversion is constructed fully in allrespects to normal geometric standards, normalregulatory, warning, and guidance signs may bespecified for the diversion. However, even insuch circumstances of geometric design it may beconsidered beneficial to use roadworks signs justto make drivers aware that the conditions aretemporary. If any of the geometric or other designparameters are below normal standards withinsuch a diversion, the signs must conform to theexclusive temporary color code reserved forroadworks signing and be positioned as indicatedin this chapter.The following sections do not deal with individ-ual sign types unless the only application of aspecific sign is in a roadworks situation (e.g.,advance warning ROADWORKS sign 7441).The significance of a roadworks version of a nor-mal sign remains the same as indicated inChapters 3, 4 and 5. The signs are, however,illustrated inFigures 7-2 to 7-5in their appropri-ate colors for use at roadworks.For roadworks signs based on a normal, non-roadworks sign, the number "7" is added beforethe normal sign's number to indicate the road-works version of the sign. For example, sign 346prohibits left turns in a normal situation. Its road-works counterpart, sign 7346, prohibits left turnsin a roadworks situation. In this example, onlythe background color of the sign changes. 7.2.2 REGULATORY SIGNS All subclasses of regulatory signs may be used atroadworks sites. 7.2.2.1 CONTROL SIGNS Control signs commonly used at roadworks com-prise: STOP sign 301.

GIVE WAY sign 302. GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303. NO ENTRY sign 304. ONE WAY TRAFFIC signs 305, 306 and307.Any of these signs may be used at roadworks andwhen used should retain their normal colors asspecified for permanent applications. STOP-SLOW SIGN 7308 Sign 7308 is a special variation of STOP sign301. At roadworks sites it can be used to controlalternating one-way streams of traffic through arestricted part of the roadworks site. A pair of

7-7 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 301 302303304 7399 7339 7340 7341 7342 73437346 734773487365305 306 307 73087321 7322 7323 7324 732573297328732773267349 7350 7351 7352 7353 7354Roadworks Control SignsRoadworks Mandatory SignsRoadworks Prohibition Signs344 7371-7373 7374-7376 7377-7379 7380-7382 Roadworks Parking Control SignsRoadworks FreewayControl Sign73557356 Figure 7-2 Regulatory Signs at Roadworks

7-8 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 7407 7408 74097411 7412 7413 7414 7415 741674177418 7419 74207421 742274237424742574277428 74297430 74357401 7402 74037441 7442 7443 74507456745174527454 74557457745874607461 Roadworks Advance Warning Signs (not all signs shown)Roadworks Hazard Marker Signs and Devices 7459 Figure 7-3 Warning Signs at Roadworks

7-9 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 74727465 7466 7467 7468 7469 74707473 7474 7475 7476 7477 7478 7479 7480 7481 7482 74837484 7485 74867490 7491 7492 Roadworks Traffic Movement Affected by Obstruction SignsRoadworks Additional Lane SignsRoadworks Lane Control SignsRoadworks Lane Merge Signs Figure 7-4 Diagrammatic Signs at Roadworks

7-10 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 7501Roadworks Route Marker and Trailblazer Signs7503 750875057515Roadworks Direction SignsChevron Detour Sign7512At-Grade Vertical Stack Sign (single)7512At-Grade Vertical Stack Sign7589Supplemental Plate Figure 7-5 Guide Signs at Roadworks

7-11 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 flagmen may control traffic movement by alter-nately stopping and releasing traffic in opposingdirections using the STOP sign as a hand-held"paddle" on which the reverse side indicates themessage "SLOW" in black on a yellow back-ground.Sign 7308, when displaying the STOP face,requires that a driver of a vehicle should stopsuch vehicle at the point indicated by the flag-men, AND, when displaying the SLOW face,requires that a driver of a vehicle should proceedslowly through the restricted work area untiladvised otherwise by an appropriate road sign. 7.2.2.2 MANDATORY SIGNS All signs in this group may be used at roadworkssites, although TURN RIGHT (or LEFT)AHEAD ONLY sign 7324 (or 7325) and PASSEITHER SIDE sign 7326 are unlikely to be used.When used at roadworks the signs in this groupshould have a black on yellow color code so thatthe arrow and border are black on a yellow back-ground. It should be noted that the black border isset in from the outer edge of the sign to leave athin outer yellow border. 7.2.2.3 PROHIBITORY SIGNS All signs in this group may be used at roadworkssites. The signs retain their red border, and slashwhere appropriate, and black symbols, but thebackground color should be yellow.The use of the roadworks version of NO OVER-TAKING sign 7349 will be particularly relevanton twolane, two-way roads during the periodwhen a new section of road has been surfaced butpavement markings are not yet in place.The following prohibitory sign is not appropriateto a normal or "permanent" application and is tobe used exclusively for roadworks situations: MAXIMUM WIDTH LIMIT SIGN 7356 Sign 7356 requires that drivers of vehiclesexceeding the indicated width should not proceedbeyond the sign.MAXIMUM WIDTH LIMIT sign 7356 shouldbe located 25 to 50 meters in advance of the lim-ited-width structure, preferably on both the rightand left sides of the approach roadway. The widthindicated within the sign should be at least 200millimeters less than the minimum width meas-ured at the structure. The width should beexpressed on the sign to the next lowest one-dec-imal place of a meter. 7.2.2.4 PARKING CONTROL SIGNS Temporary prohibitory NO STOPPING signs7371 to 7376 and NO PARKING signs 7377 to7382 in their various forms may be used at road-works or building construction sites in their tem-porary form using a yellow background. Whensuch roadworks signs are used any conflictingpermanent prohibitory or permissive parking signwhich is in position on the section of road shouldbe covered or temporarily removed. The use of temporary roadworks permissive parking signs isunlikely to be warranted. It is more practical,when necessary, to modify the scope and extentof existing permissive parking signs and to sim-ply reposition these or to provide new signs. Sign 7356Sign 7308

7-12 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 7.2.2.5 FREEWAY CONTROL SIGNS END OF FREEWAY sign 7399 may be used, if required, in a black on yellow form when roadworks on a freeway are such that the freeway canno longer operate to the accepted standards of afreeway.BEGINNING OF FREEWAY sign 398 shouldnot be used in a temporary roadworks form.When a freeway has temporarily been downgrad-ed during roadworks, a normal BEGINNING OFFREEWAY sign 398 should be located beyondthe end of the work area to indicate a return tonormal freeway operation. 7.2.3 WARNING SIGNS All types of warning signs are particularly appro-priate in a roadworks environment, from the mostminor maintenance operation to the constructionof a new road or the rehabilitation of a freeway.The majority of signs covered inChapter 4maybe used in a temporary capacity with a yellowbackground. The most common of these are illus-trated inFigures 7-3 and 7-4.The meaning of the various roadworks signsremains as stated inChapter 4although theirpositional application may vary from that for nor-mal warning signs. A number of signs which areappropriate to use at roadworks only, and there-fore to manufacture in the black on yellow colorcode only, are covered in detail in the followingsections. 7.2.3.1 ADVANCE WARNING SIGNS Virtually all advance warning signs may be usedin a roadworks form. The most likely ones areillustrated inFigure 7-3. The following advancewarning signs are, however, unique to roadworksand not appropriate to a normal or "permanent"application. ROADWORKS SIGN 7441 Sign 7441 warns drivers of vehicles that there areroadworks ahead and that they should prepare to Sign 7399Sign 7441

7-13 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 reduce speed and/or proceed with cautionthrough the work area and its approaches.ROADWORKS sign 7441 is the universal warn-ing sign for all levels of roadworks. It should becarried by every municipal, service agency, orcontractor's gang. Sign 7441 may also be dis-played within a high-visibility background as thefirst advance warning sign in a sequence of road-works signs preceding a major work site ordetour around such a site (i.e., at the start of anadvance warning area). In all situations exceptthe most minor work site, sign 7441 should beused in conjunction with a SUPPLEMENTARYPLATE sign 7589 mounted below the sign dis-playing the distance to the site.On the basis that it is commonly used as the firstsign, or pair of signs, in a sequence of roadworkssigns, sign 7441 should be located at a distancefrom the start of any change in traffic conditionsresulting from roadworks, as indicated inTable7-1. A clear sight distance should be maintainedto the sign whenever possible.When the approach speed to a roadworks site isover 60 km/h, sign 7441 should be placed on boththe right and left side of the carriageway on dual-carriageway roads.At a major roadworks site, ROADWORKS sign7441 may be used more than once in a sequenceof signs within an advance warning area and itmay be used locally to specifically warn of thepresence of workers close to the roadway within Table 7-1 Location of Roadworks Sign 7441Typical RoadworksConditionApproach Speed(85th percentile)(km/h)Required SpeedReduction(km/h) Distance Of (First)Sign 7441 From Start (1) ( meters) 100 or more2040 or more1000 minimum2000 minimum80 20 or more1000 preferred600 minimum1. Lane drop/deviation/major works60 20(2)600 preferred300 minimum2. Maintenance work off roadway10060(3)(3)600-300200-1003. Maintenance work on shoulder 1006020(3)600300300-200100204080010004. Mobile maintenance (withadjustment if work requires asimilar treatment to item 1) (4) 6020406006005. Temporary traffic signal or STOP-SLOW control1006010060600 minimum200-1506. Community environment, localroad narrowing, or servicework40-60 20100 preferred60-30 minimumNOTES:1. The start of the roadworks site means the point where a transition area begins, or if one is notused, where the work area commences.2. If the work situation is within a community the requirements given in item 6 may be considered moreappropriate.3. The driver reaction required is one of caution and a preparedness to slow down if necessary,rather than an immediate speed reduction.4. Mobile maintenance operations require considerable care in the management of approaching traffic.Lane drops or detours may prove essential to safe operation. The advance sign(s) for a mobileoperation should move with the work so that they are never more than 2000 meters in advance of the work.

7-14 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 a roadworks zone. It is recommended that sign7441 also be used at the end of a construction sitewhen traffic is returned to normal conditions, asa courtesy to drivers, with a SUPPLEMENTARYPLATE sign 7589 mounted below the sign dis-playing the message "END" in Arabic and inEnglish.Sign 7441 should be pole mounted for all instal-lations covered byTable 7-1or similar situations,with the exception of very short term or mobilework when the sign may be mounted on a mov-able stand. FLAGMAN AHEAD SIGN 7442 Sign 7442 warns road users that there is a flag-man ahead and they should take note of his signals and be prepared to reduce speed or stop if required to do so.FLAGMAN AHEAD sign 7442 may be used invery short-term situations (e.g., at an accident sitewithin a roadworks zone) or in more permanentconditions where the hazard is particularly severeor for traffic control purposes (seeSection 7.4).A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 7589 indi-cating the distance to the flagman should bemounted below the sign. The sign should belocated on the right side of the roadway at a dis-tance from the flagman as indicated inTable 4-1and with a clear sight distance. Sign 7443 may beused in place of sign 7442 when appropriate. 7.2.3.2 HAZARD MARKER SIGNS In a similar way to the normal applications of hazard marker signs, temporary versions of thesigns should be used extensively in roadworksareas to warn road users of the specific positionof hazardous obstructions. The signs are illustrat-ed inFigure 7-3.HAZARD PLATE signs 7451 and 7452 and SIN-GLE CHEVRON signs 7454 and 7455 may bothbe used in addition to, or in place of, traffic conesto delineate curves and tapers within a roadworkszone. For such an application the signs and theirsupport materials should be manufactured fromplastic or similar deformable materials which aresuitable for the application of retroreflectivematerials (seeSection 7.3.5). 7.2.3.3 DIAGRAMMATIC WARNINGSIGNS This class of warning sign has great potential toassist drivers to negotiate roadworks sites safely.In general they are recommended for use inadvance of the start of a transition area in conjunction with appropriate SUPPLEMENTARYPLATE sign 7589. It is also recommended practice to locate signs on both sides of a roadwayand, in addition, to repeat this treatment approximately 200 meters closer to the transition area. Inthis way drivers are given a pictorial representa-tion of the approaching change in circumstancesup to four times before they actually reach thepoint of change. Sign 7442Sign 7443

7-15 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 Typical of the conditions which occur at road-works sites and which may be depicted on temporary diagrammatic warning signs are: Lane drops or closures (only ONE lane dropper transition area or per sign). Diversions through a median island or onto aservice road or separately constructed detourroad. Pavement narrowing. An indication of additional lanes ahead inorder to reduce the risk of impatient driversovertaking too soon in an unsafe manner. Additional lanes where these may not beexpected and may result in increased trafficfriction. Lane use control by goods vehicles withinroadworks. Lane merging conditions.Signs appropriate to many of these conditions aredescribed inChapter 4. The following signs areadditional examples which are appropriate to useat roadworks. MEDIAN DETOUR SIGNS 7467 TO 7470 Signs 7467 to 7470 warn drivers of vehicles thatthe roadway they are traveling on will detourthrough a median or barrier, executing a reversecurve in the process.MEDIAN DETOUR signs 7467 to 7470 may bewarranted and used under similar conditions tothose stated for signs 465 and 466 inChapter 4.A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 7589 indi-cating the distance to the median detour may bemounted below the sign. REDUCED WIDTH OF ROADWAY SIGNS7474 TO 7478 Signs 7474 to 7478 warn drivers of vehicles thatthe roadway they are traveling on is reduced inwidth over a considerable distance and is bor-dered by a barrier or excavation.REDUCED WIDTH OF ROADWAY signs 7474to 7478 may be warranted and used under similarconditions to those stated for signs 465 and 466inChapter 4.A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 7589 indicating the distance over which the hazard existsmay be mounted below the sign.A representative selection of temporary diagram-matic warning signs is illustrated inFigure 7-4.When a new concept is considered for a sign facedesign, care must be exercised to adhere to thestandard design criteria given inChapter 4.Alternative diagrammatic warning sign facedesigns must be approved by the Departmentprior to implementation.Throughout the text of this section referenceshave been made to the use of SUPPLEMEN-TARY PLATE sign 7589. These signs are purelyinformation signs without a specific regulatory,warning or guidance function. They

should,therefore, not be used on their own. Their func-tion is to clarify the point to which a regulatory orwarning sign applies (distance "to" or distance Sign 7470Sign 7469Sign 7475Sign 7474

7-16 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 "for") or the degree of severity of the hazard(advisory speed) or to give other general information (end).Because regulatory sign messages normallyapply from the point at which the sign is placed,the use of SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign7589 with regulatory signs is relatively infre-quent. It is also a basic principle governing theuse of regulatory signs that they should not nor-mally be used to "warn" of a regulation cominginto force up ahead. While this principle shouldalso apply to roadworks the likelihood that it maybe necessary to apply the principle with discre-tion is greater as a result of roadworks. When theneed to indicate the existence of a regulationahead arises, and this requires some action bydrivers before reaching the point of its applica-tion, it is recommended that a custom-designedsign be used rather than a supplementary plate.This should generally be a map or pictorial signand may include a regulatory sign.In a roadworks environment SUPPLEMEN-TARY PLATE sign 7589 should be used with themajority of warning signs to enhance the clarityof their message for the following reasons: The visual clutter of roadworks sites makes itotherwise difficult to correlate the sign withthe situation ahead of which it is warning. Drivers are commonly subjected to more fre-quent messages affecting the driving task (not only from road signs) that may affecttheir ability to judge conditions accurately. When used on successive signs in a sequenceof signs to give drivers a sense of rate of progress or a "countdown" into the site.SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 7589 is notappropriate with hazard-marker warning signs,only with signs used in advance of a hazard suchas advance warning signs or diagrammatic warn-ing signs placed in advance of the conditions towhich they apply.It is generally recommended that supplementaryplates for use with roadworks signs not be manu-factured in one piece with the relevant sign butare manufactured as separate signs and attachedto the same support as the sign they are supple-menting. This will allow the larger warning signsto be reused many times when they have to berepositioned, simply by changing the supplemen-tary plates. 7.2.4 GUIDE SIGNS Amended guide signs indicating destinationnames are only likely to be required at majorroadworks or where a diversion or detour is inplace as a result of roadworks.In the simplest of cases, where the detour leadswithout any risk of misdirection back onto theoriginal road, CHEVRON DIRECTION sign7515 may be used. These signs should display theword "Detour" in Arabic and English. Sign 7515may be positioned strategically through thedetour, pointing to the right or left as appropriate,as the detour changes direction. It will thereforecommonly supplement roadworks cones, delin-eators, or SINGLE CHEVRON signs 7454 and7455. In such instances, advance signing usingappropriate diagrammatic warning signs, withoutdestination names, is likely to be adequate.When a diversion or detour is such that driversmay be confused as to which direction to take inorder to reach their intended destination, existingdirection signs

should be amended or replaced toconvey the correct messages. Under such circum-stances, when an existing sign still remains cor-rect in part, the alterations should be indicatedeither: By overlaying the altered destination mes-sage with the correct one using a temporaryplate with a yellow background and black let-tering, or By covering the incorrect message and erect-ing a separate additional temporary sign indi-cating the appropriate revised direction inblack legend on a yellow background.If the route is altered to the extent that most or allof the directions on the sign are altered in someway, it is recommended that a new sign be usedin advance of the junction in accordance with thepositioning criteria given inChapter 5. If there isany doubt about the geometric standard of thedetour or if the destinations are substantiallyrearranged, a new sign should be erected with a

7-17 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 yellow background and black letters, arrows, andborders. Otherwise existing direction signs maybe retained. However, the mixed use of typicalguide signs and roadworks guide signs through-out the length of a detour may be confusing ordisorienting for drivers. If a detour is to be inplace for some time or if a detour is long, typicalguide signs should be replaced by roadworksguide signs throughout the length of the detour,regardless of whether the typical guide signsoffer accurate guidance and information.In order to reduce costs of such relatively largetemporary direction signs to more acceptablelimits, the information displayed for temporarydirection may be limited to the display of theroute number shields only on temporary routemarker signs and temporary trailblazer signs (seeFigure 7-5). 7.3 CHANNELIZATIONDEVICES 7.3.1 GENERAL Channelization devices are elements of the totalsystem of traffic control devices used at roadworks sites to provide the safest possible envi-ronment for road users and workers. The functionof channelization devices is to alert road users toalterations in the roadway alignment or widthresulting from construction activities. Their use isparticularly relevant when such changes in align-ment create hazardous or potentially hazardouscircumstances for road users.Channelization devices should be used withintransition areas, stabilization areas, work zonesand termination areas (seeFigure 7-1). Theyshould be placed so as to provide a smooth andgradual change of alignment or width of road-way. They may also be used in small numbers ona very localized basis at small maintenance work sites.The range of channelization devices availableincludes, but is not limited to, pavement mark-ings, cones, drums, barriers, barricades, delin-eators, and other individual illumination devices.All vertically positioned channelization devicesshould be constructed so that in the event thatthey are impacted by a vehicle the damage to thevehicle is limited and the risk of injury to work-ers is minimized.Many of the channelization devices listed aboveare used in multiples at regularly spaced inter-vals. When the construction project is of even afew hours duration the devices are likely to bedisturbed from their original alignment due tobeing struck, due to construction activities, andcommonly as a result of the air displacement of passing vehicles. Under such circumstances theywill quickly cease to perform their intended col-lective function of providing alignment guidance.Sections of channelization devices must thereforebe regularly patrolled and "repaired" either byrepositioning of devices or by replacement if thedevices are no longer capable of achieving theirindividual function.When setting out a medium- to long-term sectionof channelization it is a recommended practicethat the required positions of movable channel-ization devices be marked on the road surfaceusing small paint marks. This will enable devicesto be repositioned or replaced with a minimumeffort and with minimum exposure of workers tothe hazards of passing traffic. This same spotmarking technique may be used for maintenanceoperations, which will go on for several days, butwhich are put in place every morning andremoved every evening. 7.3.2 PAVEMENT MARKINGS Pavement markings comprise two specific typesof channelization device, namely:

Flush markings normally applied in the formof paint or thermoplastic materials, or Raised markings.There are two main factors related to pavementmarking that are relevant to their use withinroadworks sites: The need to maintain, modify, or removeexisting pavement markings during the road-works period, and The need for additional temporary pavementmarkings as part of the channelization treat-

7-18 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 ment required to control the use of a road-works site.The effect of both of these factors is very muchdependent on the duration of the work to beundertaken. Due to the relative difficulty of removing and applying pavement markings, par-ticularly when traffic still occupies the section of road, short-term modification may be costly toachieve. This factor must be born in mind at thetime that roadworks traffic control plans are beingprepared so that the need to remove and applytemporary pavement markings is minimized. 7.3.2.1 PAINTED MARKINGS In terms of color, shape, and dimensions there areno differences between permanent and temporarypavement markings. The enhanced line-to-gapratio of broken line markings may be used toimprove the visual effect of temporary pavementmarkings, particularly when these are used withreduced geometric standards(seeChapter 6fordetails).Painted pavement markings have the limitationthat they may be obliterated or rendered ineffec-tive very easily due to: Heavy traffic volumes. Resurfacing operations on an adjacent sec-tion of road. Wind-born dust and debris. Adverse weather conditions.Insofar as painted markings may be affected,short-term work is likely to be unplanned or reac-tive (e.g., a localized and urgent need to repair aservice or some similar circumstance). In con-trast, medium- to long-term work should involvesome degree of planning for pavement marking.When construction or maintenance work lastingmore than one work shift necessitates modifiedvehicle paths through the work site, day and nightdrive-through checks should be made by thework supervisor or site safety officer to evaluatethe safety and effectiveness of the revised ortemporary pavement markings. This drive-through inspection should occur, if at all possible,before any new section of a detour or a modifiedroadway is opened to traffic. Revisions to road-way alignment involving traffic shifts withinroadworks should not be undertaken if siteresources, in terms of manpower and/or equip-ment, are not available to achieve a safe andeffective result.Irrespective of the duration of the work, suchinspections should take particular note of pave-ment markings which might inadvertently leaddrivers away from the intended path. If a barrieror barricade is placed across any lane line or cen-terline marking in such a way that any lane leadsstraight into the barrier, steps must be takenimmediately to remove this visual hazard. Forshort-term situations the relevant sections of roadmarking should be obliterated by using black,textured, pressure-sensitive tape. This tape can beapplied simply and quickly and can normally beremoved with little difficulty. This action shouldbe taken under appropriate circumstances evenfor work which will only last for four to eighthours. When a lane is temporarily closed to traf-fic the same technique should be adapted so thatthe lane line markings are hidden over the fulllength of the tapering section. The only accept-

able alternative action is to use flagmen to warnand control approaching traffic, but if work is notcompleted by nightfall, attention must be paid tothis hazardous aspect of the existing markings.There is otherwise likely to be little need fortemporary painted markings at short-term work sites of up to 72 hours duration. In such circum-stances adequate delineation can be achievedusing other channelizing devices to indicate mod-ified vehicle paths.Subject to the ease with which paint markingequipment may be used within a detour, longertasks lasting up to two weeks may be marked,when necessary, using similar white pressure-sensitive marking tapes. (Where two-way trafficis in operation, yellow pressure-sensitive mark-ing tapes should be used.) For tasks of this dura-tion it will not normally be necessary to mark orremark edge lines.For planned work that is expected to last morethan two weeks, painted markings on the varioustemporary alignments should be applied usingconventional equipment. Any redundant paintedmarkings must also be removed at this time,

7-19 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 preferably by using high-pressure water blasting.This treatment leaves a minimum of pavementscars and completely removes old markings.Blacking out existing markings or using harsherremoval techniques is not recommended as thesemethods leave residual lines that, under adverselight conditions, can appear as clearly as a paint-ed marking, resulting in significant confusion fordrivers. If removal methods such as sand-blastingare used, care should be taken to avoid leavingthese residual or phantom lines.The planning of medium- to long-term work,which will require regular and significant alter-ations to pavement markings, must take specificaccount of the need to mark, remove, and remark lines on a regular basis over a common section of roadway. Minimizing this aspect of the work should be an integral part of the preparation of the roadworks traffic control plans. The follow-ing factors should be given consideration: The use of short-life paint, which will notrequire much removal effort (e.g., a water-based paint). The use of pressure-sensitive tapes. The use of removable raised pavement mark-ers (seeSection 7.3.2.2).The above factors are also relevant when paintmarkings are temporarily required on intermedi-ate surfacing levels during phases of construc-tion.When a road construction project is complete andready for opening to traffic, all road markingsmust be in place in accordance with the road-marking design and the provisions of Chapter 6before the road is opened. 7.3.2.2 RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS Raised pavement markers used for temporaryapplications have the same functions as perma-nent markers, namely: To supplement other markings. As vehicle positioning guides. As a substitute for other markings.Raised pavement markers may be used as a formof temporary marking to supplement paintedmarkings subject to the same rules regardingcolor and spacing as are given for permanentapplications inChapter 6.Permanent and temporary raised pavement mark-ers may be used to provide an audible warning todrivers that they are straying off the intendedvehicle path. This application may often be war-ranted at roadworks due to the common use of reduced geometric standards. In such circum-stances raised pavement marker spacing shouldbe reduced over short localized distances if appropriate. Permanent and temporary raisedpavement markers may also be used to increasethe visibility of longitudinal pavement markingsand thereby their alignment and the visibility of gore areas when roadways

split.Temporary raised pavement markings may beused to completely replace longitudinal paintmarkings when the latter will be subject to con-siderable wear and it will be difficult to regularlymaintain them. Raised pavement markers used inthis manner can also be very effective in keepingvehicles in their own lanes (raised pavementmarkers should therefore not be used over sec-tions of detour where merging or weaving move-ments are required). When used in this mannerraised pavement markers should be spaced atapproximately one meter centers so that fourraised pavement markers will replace a threemeter paint marking.Temporary raised pavement markers should beapplied to the road surface using an approvednon-hardening adhesive mastic to permit theirremoval for realignment and/or re-use as neces-sary. The approved adhesive must not only per-mit such removal but must also resist movementunder vehicle impact. 7.3.3 CONES Traffic cones are a very visible type of trafficcontrol device used for channelization purposes.They have the capability to be deployed quicklyin emergency situations, a worker can carry sev-eral at a time with ease and they can be stored ina compact manner. When used at close spacingsthey can effectively delineate any type of tempo-rary alignment within a roadworks site.

7-20 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 7.3.3.1 TRAFFIC CONE DEVICE 7459 Traffic device 7459 is a nondirectional devicewhich, by virtue of the number used at closelyspaced centers, warns road users of a short-termrealignment of a lane or roadway. 7.3.3.2 CONE DESIGN PARAMETERS TRAFFIC CONES device 7459 should conformto the following design requirements: They should be conical in shape and manu-factured from a material capable of with-standing many impacts without sustainingdamage and without risk of damage to vehi-cles or injury to workers. They should have a hollow construction andbe capable of being stacked one inside theother to fit into compact spaces. The minimum height for use at minor worksand emergency or accident sites should be450 millimeters. The minimum height for use on arterial roadsand freeways should be 750 millimeters and1000 millimeters respectively. The nominal diameter of the cones at theirbase should be:- 250 millimeters for a height of 450 mil-limeters.- 400 millimeters for a height of 750 mil-limeters.- 500 millimeters for a height of 1000 mil-limeters. The color of all cones should be fluorescentred or red-orange. The base should be sufficiently heavy to bal-last the cone to withstand air buffeting fromvehicles passing at 60 km/h (the base may bedesigned to accept additional ballast such assandbags provided this is designed in such away that it does not create any additionalhazard). Any cone used during the hours of twilight,darkness and/or dawn should be fitted with ayellow sleeve of retroreflective material sothat this sleeve occupies approximately themiddle third of the height of the cone. Thissleeve should have a smooth sealed outer sur-face and should have the same effective colorby day and by night. 7.3.3.3 CONE APPLICATIONS

TRAFFIC CONES control device 7459 shouldbe the primary channelization device used todefine roadway alignment in the form of: Tapers, including lane drops. Sharp curves. Reverse curves, including median cross-overs. Reduced roadway width adjacent to the work site. Traffic islands, including traffic circles. Localized hazard marking particularly atminor work sites.The traffic cones may be placed on one side orboth sides of a roadway.Table 7-2gives the rec-ommended spacing between cones for variousapplications.Cone spacing may be reduced if necessary toimprove visual effectiveness of temporary road-way alignments. Cone spacing should be set at 6meters when the work area is 200 meters or lessin length. Cone spacings in excess of 50 meterswill permit drivers to easily enter a work area andare not recommended. Spacings set in the upperrange may be reduced around curves with aradius in the range of 300 meters to 600 meters.When cones are also intended to provide a visualrestriction or channelization of pedestrian move-ment, 1000millimeter-high cones should be used Device 7459

7-21 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 and placed at two-meter maximum spacing. Suchcones should be physically interconnected byeither a purpose-made, rigid barricade panel orby nylon rope with yellow and red strips of plas-tic warning tape "tiger tape" securely fixedat third points between.Precautions must be taken to ensure that conesremain in their intended position both from a safe-ty and from a site efficiency and effectivenesspoint of view. For long-term installations basesmay be fixed to the road surface with an approvednonhardening removable adhesive. When a moreadjustable installation is required, the base of thecone must be ballasted sufficiently to resist thebuffeting caused by passing vehicles.The target value of cones used in a localizedmanner at roadworks sites may be increased byinserting a red flag in the top of one or morecones. Similarly lighting devices may be locatedon top of selected cones to enhance their con-spicuousness both by day and night.Traffic cones used for channelization purposesmay be supplemented by more directional chan-nelizing devices such as delineators (seeSection7.3.5). 7.3.4 BARRIERS AND BARRICADES Barriers are permanent or temporary devicesplaced on or adjacent to the roadway at haz-ardous locations that are capable of physicallypreventing vehicles from leaving the traveledway or from entering an area closed for road-works or other special operations.Barricades are temporary portable devices usedto demarcate areas that are not open to traffic inthe form of vehicles or pedestrians. Such areascommonly include the stabilization area (orbuffer zone) in advance of a work area or local-ized minor excavations. 7.3.4.1 BARRICADE DEVICE 7460 Traffic device 7460 is a nondirectional barricadewhich warns road users, both pedestrians anddrivers, of a hazard in their path beyond whichthey should not proceed. The device may be usedto demarcate work areas, including footpaths andminor excavations to improve the conspicuous-ness of such areas during construction, mainte-nance, or repair and when it is not necessary tospecifically indicate a direction of movement. 7.3.4.2 BARRIER AND BARRICADEDESIGN PARAMETERS The most commonly used types of barrier are thesteel W-section guardrail and the concrete barrier. Both types may be used for temporary instal-lation during roadworks when safety requirements match those specified for their normal per-manent application. The design parameters for Table 7-2 Recommended Cone SpacingsTemporary ConditionCenter-to-Center Cone Spacing(meters) Transition Area Taper 1 in 10 or less 21 in 20 4 1 in 30 61 in 40 or more 8Transition Area Crossover curve radius under 60 meters 1curve radius over 60 meters 2-4Stabilization or Work Area (assumed to be straight) 6-20Long Straight Work Areas (including maintenance work areas) 20-50Localized Minor Work Area 1-2 Device 7460

7-22 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 temporary installations of these barriers shouldconform to those applicable to a permanentinstallation. Concrete barriers may, however, beused in a "portable" form in the sense that theyare placed on the road surface in a temporaryposition and may be moved about, using theappropriate equipment. When manufactured foruse in this manner, temporary concrete barriersshould be provided with some form of provenconnecting device. This may be as simple as pro-viding recesses near the top and bottom of eachend of a section of barrier to permit the use of coupling plates which will allow the barrier to bebolted together. Heavy vehicular impact withsuch connected portable concrete barriers mayresult in limited movement of one or more barri-ers. If zero deflection under impact is required,the portable barriers must be pinned to the roadsurface on which they are placed, in addition tobeing connected together longitudinally.Barricades may be directional or nondirectional.Directional barricades should comprise a combi-nation of temporary MULTIPLE CHEVRONsigns 7456 and 7457 and KEEP RIGHT (orLEFT) sign 7327 (or 7328). The MULTIPLECHEVRON signs 7456 and 7457 should com-prise a minimum of three chevrons for unidirec-tional barricades and six chevrons (three rightplus three left) for bidirectional barricades.Optionally, one or more KEEP RIGHT (or LEFT)signs 7327 (or 7328) may be mounted on top of aunidirectional barricade for additional directionalvisual impact. The height of the MULTIPLECHEVRON sign should be 400 millimeters forapproach speeds of 60 km/h or less and 600 mil-limeters for higher approach speeds. The barri-cade should be mounted so that the lower edge isat least 1200 millimeters above ground level inorder to be clearly seen above any other channel-ization devices such as traffic cones.BARRICADE control device 7460 should be200-millimeters, 300-millimeters, or 400-mil-limeters high and five modules long, givinglengths of 1000 millimeters, 1500 millimeters or2000 millimeters.The various types of barricades are illustrated inFigure 7-6 and Figure 7-7. SIGN 7327SIGN 7327SIGN 7456SIGN 7457SIGN 7458SIGN 7328 Detail 7-6-3: T-Junction (Road Closed Ahead) Barricade(directional)Mandatory Signs 7321 to 7328 SHALL NOT be used with SIGN 7458Detail 7-6-1: Minimum Barricade, Left(directional)Detail 7-6-2: Enhanced Barricade, Right(directional) Figure 7-6 Examples of Directional Barricade Devices

7-23 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 2.0 meter minimum200 mm to300 mm 150 mm150 mm 45500 mm2 meters minimum2.0 meter minimum200 mm to300 mm200 mm to300 mm 150 mm150 mm150 mm150 mm 45 45500 mm2 meters minimum 2 meters minimum1 meter minimum2 meters maximum 150 mm150 mm 45200 mm to300 mm1.0 meter minimumType of supportvaries 1 meter minimum2 meters maximum 150 mm150 mm150 mm150 mm 45 45200 mm to300 mm200 mm to300 mm1.0 meter minimumType of supportvaries Figure 7-7 Examples of Nondirectional Barricade Devices

7-24 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 7.3.4.3 BARRIER AND BARRICADEAPPLICATIONS The primary temporary application of barriers asdescribed above is to prevent vehicles leaving thetraveled way or from entering the work area.Their use should be determined by engineeringanalysis but is likely to be particularly relevantunder the following circumstances and whenhigh volumes of traffic are present: When a roadway is diverted from its normalpath through a small radius curve (barriersmay be required on one or both sides of theroadway). To replace a wide median when this has to beeliminated to reduce road cross-section widthas part of the roadworks. To separate opposing streams of traffic on aspecially constructed detour roadway. To protect vulnerable roadside featuresagainst the risk of vehicle impact.In the majority of the above situations, a tempo-rary barrier will also act as a channelizationdevice. In order that it can satisfy this function itshould be light in color or conspicuously marked.A barrier may be used in conjunction with otherchannelization devices such as traffic cones ordelineators. When used at a sharp change of direction it is recommended that the alignment of the barrier be made clear by means of SINGLE orMULTIPLE DELINEATOR signs 7454 to 7457mounted on or above the barrier at recommendedintervals (seeSection 7.3.5). Warning lights maybe used (seeSection 7.3.8).The W-section guardrail (or other similar steelguardrails) does not lend itself to frequent reposi-tioning and should therefore only be consideredfor medium- to long-term installation (six weeksor more).The introduction of short sections of temporarybarrier should be avoided if possible. The risk of vehicular impact on the end of an introduced bar-rier should be mitigated by whatever means pos-sible. Temporary guardrail must be provided withthe same standard of end treatment as is specifiedfor permanent installations. Approach ends of portable concrete barriers should be offset fromthe path of approaching traffic by 6 meters ormore and should taper from the edge of the trav-eled way at a rate of 1 in 6 or preferably 1 in 10.If such a treatment is not possible the end of thebarrier must be offset as much as possible and betapered over at least three sections of barrier (6meters) to a height of not more than 200 mil-limeters. The offset end must then be protectedby some informal form of crash cushion suchas sandbags or tires.Barricades should be provided behind all tapersformed by cones or delineators at major road-works sites when the approach speed of traffic is60 km/h or more. For any taper of 100 meters ormore in length, two barricades should be provid-ed at approximately one-quarter and three-quar-ters of the distance along the taper (seeSection8.4). Barriers may be used in a similar way at anyother part of a deviation or detour when a shift intraffic alignment is required and space is avail-able to accommodate the signs.The use of barriers at minor works is not gener-ally warranted unless same specific circumstancesuch as poor sight distance or competition fromadvertising lighting is

making visibility of thework area difficult for drivers. However, it maybe necessary to protect a localized excavationfrom encroachment by vehicles or pedestrians. Inthis case the use of nondirectional BARRICADEdevice 7460 may be appropriate. 7.3.5 DELINEATORS Delineators are channelization devices whichmay be used to delineate a temporary roadwayalignment. It is their function to impart a strongdirectional message, either to the right or to theleft. 7.3.5.1 DELINEATOR SIGNS 7454 AND7455 Signs 7454 and 7455 are temporary versions of hazard marker signs called DELINEATORSwhich, due to their ability to impart a directionalmessage, warn road users of a hazard in their pathon a medium- to long-term realignment of a laneor roadway and indicate the direction of move-ment necessary to avoid the delineated hazard.

7-25 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.1 7.3.5.2 DELINEATOR DESIGNPARAMETERS Temporary DELINEATORS signs 7454 and7455 should conform to the dimensions given forsigns 454 and 455. The minimum size of aDELINEATOR sign is 400 millimeters by 400millimeters. Larger sizes may be used providedsufficient space is available to accommodate thesign. 7.3.5.3 DELINEATOR APPLICATIONS Delineators should be used to demarcate achange in alignment in exactly the same way asSINGLE CHEVRON RIGHT (or LEFT) signs454 (or 455) as described inSection 4.3.2. Theymay be used on their own or to supplement otherchannelization devices such as traffic cones orbarriers that do not give a directional message.The signs should normally be located on the out-side of a sharp curve although they may be usedon both sides of a curve particularly when areverse curve is being signed.When used with traffic cones, delineators shouldbe mounted on separate supports (i.e., notattached to the cones) and at such a height thatthey are clearly visible above the top of thecones. They should be spaced according toTable4-3although in cases of very sharp temporaryalignment it may be beneficial to reduce thesespacings. Care should be taken to ensure that alldelineators are mounted at a common heightabove the road surface so that when seen by driv-ers as a series of signs they indicate changes invertical elevation as well as horizontal alignment.Delineator signs 7454 and 7455 may also be usedabove and behind sections of temporary guardrailused on curving alignments. They should be usedwith portable concrete barriers when these areplaced around curves. In this case the signsshould be attached to the vertical face of the bar-riers, as close to the top as possible, or theyshould be securely mounted on top of the barri-ers.Signs 7454 and 7455 should not be used individ-ually as hazard markers. The temporary versionof HAZARD MARKER signs 7451 or 7452should rather be used for this purpose. 7.3.6 OBJECT MARKERS Object markers may prove useful in a roadworkstraffic control situation. As the use of objectmarkers in a roadworks situation is the same as ina typical application, instructions and guidancefor their use is the same as covered inSection 6.7. 7.3.7 DRUM DEVICE 7461 Drums are cylindrical containers used for chan-nelization or delineation. Drums should have aminimum height of at least 800 mm and a mini-mum diameter of at least 500 mm. The markingson each drum should consist of at least two hori-zontal reflecting yellow and two red bands thatcompletely encircle the drum. Each such bandshould be between 100 mm and 200 mm in widthand if there are nonreflectorized bands betweenthe horizontal red and yellow stripes, they shouldbe a maximum of 50 mm wide. Only plastic Sign 7454 Sign 7455 100-200 mm100-200 mm100-200 mm100-200 mmMay benonreflectiveMinimum totalheight: 800 mmWarning light(optional) Device 7461

Version 0.0, Interim Edition TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL 8-1 8 TYPICALAPPLICATIONS 8.1 GENERAL The purpose of this chapter is to provide graphi-cal representations of how regulatory signs,warning signs, guide signs, pavement markingsand roadworks devices are used in various typicalroadway situations. The figures that make up thischapter are largely graphical and illustrative innature. Specific dimensions for placement of thetraffic control devices are generally not shown soas to discourage manual users from designingfrom Chapter 8 alone. Guidance for the design of various traffic control devices should be obtainedas appropriate from other chapters in this Manualand used with discretion relative to the actual cir-cumstances and configuration being confrontedby the designer.In each of the figures, color representations of each pavement marking and sign are shown toaid the manual user in visualizing the relation-ships of the various elements. For each figure inthis chapter, a cross-referenced section includesnotes with comments, directions, exceptions, orinformation that is pertinent to the situationdepicted by the figure.The configurations and guide signs shown on thefollowing applications are hypothetical and donot necessarily represent actual locations in AbuDhabi. They are intended solely to represent typ-ical signing for a given configuration of roadwayor junction. Signing and pavement marking posi-tionings shown represent preferred locations. Tothe maximum extent possible, signing locationsshould be considered in the geometric design of aroadway with provisions made in the roadsidedesign to accommodate these signs. When sign-ing existing configurations the locations indicat-ed should be followed to the maximum extentpossible, but some variation may be foundunavoidable.In general, the signing shown in the followingapplications are considered minimum (unlesssigns are indicated as being optional). While it isdesirable to minimize the number of signs used,signs in addition to those shown may be warrant-ed and should be included if necessary for thesafety and welfare of the public. 8.2 AT-GRADE JUNCTIONS This section illustrates typical combined applica-tions of the use of regulatory signs, warningsigns, guide signs and pavement markings for at-grade junctions. Where relevant to the situationbeing illustrated traffic signals are also indicated.There is a great deal of scope for variation in geo-metric detail with the majority of applicationsillustrated. This section should not be seen as aguideline for geometric design. Similar but dif-ferently detailed geometric layouts should besigned and marked according to the illustratedprinciples. 8.2.1 ROAD JUNCTIONS INCOMMUNITY AREAS Figure 8-1depicts several representative config-urations of situations found on local access roadswithin a community. The sizes of signs and pave-ment markings are shown in a relative scale andare based on a speed limit of 40 kilometers perhour.NOTES:1. Join adjacent sections of NO PASSINGLINE marking 611 when less than 32 metersapart.2. Break in NO PASSING LINE marking 611 atjunctions should be a minimum of 8 meters,centered on intersecting road centerline.3. Paint all curbs within junctions and on curveswith VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691.The use of VISIBILITY PAINTING marking691, as illustrated, is intended to help identi-fy junctions under limited or adverse lightingconditions. In general, therefore, the

sectionsof marked curbs illustrated should not beconnected unless the unmarked sectionbetween is less than 8 meters in length.4. The use of MULTIPLE CHEVRON signs456, 457 and 458 is optional. These signsshould not be used unless lighting, back-ground, or geometry obscure the presence of a termination or change in direction of the

8-2 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition 690(900x900)690(900x900)690(900x900) 690(900x900) Figure 8-1 Road Junctions in Community Areas

8-3 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition roadway alignment. Ordinarily the change inroadway direction will be evident as a resultof pavement markings otherwise required;curb painting; and/or street lighting.5. SeeChapter 3, Section 3.2.2for determina-tion of use of STOP sign 301 versus GIVEWAY sign 302.6. Recommended setbacks for STOP LINEmarking 601 and GIVE WAY LINE marking602 are typically one meter as shown.Greater setbacks may be required to accom-modate left turning traffic depending onintersection geometry. The absolute mini-mum setback should be 500 millimeters. 8.2.2 ARTERIAL MIDBLOCK U-TURNAND LOCAL ROAD T-JUNCTION Figure 8-2depicts two typical situations on a 6lane dual carriageway. One situation is a midblock U-turn located away from an intersectingroadway and intended solely for the purpose of making U-turns(Figure 8-3depicts a similar sit-uation on a four-lane dual carriageway where amidblock U-turn and left turn are combined). Theother situation is a local road T-junction with anarterial. The junction depicted in this figure isonly provided with radii on the corners. (Figure8-3shows a similar configuration, but with shorttapers to facilitate turning.) The sizing of signsand pavement markings are shown in a relativescale and are based on a speed limit of 60 kilo-meters per hour on the divided road and 40 kilo-meters per hour on the intersecting road.NOTES:1. Advance warning for midblock U-turnsshould be posted and the distance to the pointof U-turn displayed.2. Appropriate ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTALsign 514 may be used only when an approvedsupplemental destination is in the vicinity(seeChapter 5, Section 5.1.5).3. When geometry dictates that long vehiclesare not permitted to make a U-turn, a NOGOODS VEHICLES sign 351 with a QUAL-IFICATION PLATE sign 365 indicating themaximum length of vehicle permitted to U-turn should be used. Sign 351 should belocated at a point as close as possible afterthe turn lane becomes fully developed. If thegeometry is such that any sized vehicle maymake a U-turn, then sign 351 is omitted and,apart from STOP sign 301, no further signingis required.4. SeeChapter 3, Section 3.2.2for determina-tion of use of STOP sign 301 versus GIVEWAY sign 302.5. Paint curbs with VISIBILITY PAINTINGmarking 691 only in relation to the U-turnlane and its opening in the median, and theimmediate vicinity of the side road junction.6. LANE LINE marking 654 should not bemarked within the vehicle swept area at theU-turn.7. Geometric design should clearly indicate theprohibition of opposing traffic entering themedian opening. In situations where geome-try does not clearly make that evident appropriate regulatory signs may be utilized to pro-hibit such entries. 8.2.3 ARTERIAL MIDBLOCK LEFTTURN AT LOCAL ROAD T-JUNCTION Figure 8-3depicts a situation on a four-lane dualcarriageway where left turns through a medianopening from a divided road are permitted ontoan intersecting local road. The sizes of signs andpavement markings are shown in a relative scaleand are based on a speed limit of 60 kilometersper hour on the divided road and 40 kilometersper hour on the intersecting road.Figure 8-2shows similar circumstances for a six-lane dualcarriageway.NOTES:1. ADVANCE WARNING sign 419 for a mid-block left turn should be posted and the dis-tance to the point of left turn displayed.2. Under these circumstances a U-Turn wouldnot normally be permitted due to right turn-ing traffic from the junction opposite.Therefore a NO U-TURN SIGN 348 shouldbe

posted 25 meters in advance of the turningpoint. If however, geometric conditions war-rant a limited U-Turn movement permissiblethen long vehicles will be prohibited from

8-4 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition KEY: Optional Sign*5Note NumberSee Section 8.2.2 476 654 R or 654 N/R620(100) Figure 8-2 Arterial Midblock U-Turn and Local Road T-Junction

8-5 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition Optional SignNote NumberSee Section 8.2.3 365(900)612 or 612 N654 R or 654 N/R 57 620(100) Figure 8-3 Arterial Midblock Left Turn at Local Road T-Junction

8-6 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition making U-Turns at such locations by place-ment of a U-TURN AHEAD sign 419 with aQUALIFICATION PLATE sign 365, depict-ing a goods vehicle with a red diagonal barrunning from the top right hand corner to thebottom left hand corner of the sign, limitingthe restriction to only goods vehicles andbusses etc., over a prescribed length (gener-ally 6 meters).3. A bus layby is shown. Taxi lay-bys shouldbe treated similarly. In general, private vehi-cles are prohibited from stopping in theseexclusive lay-bys in order to keep them freefor use by buses or taxis respectively. Ininstances where it is wished to allow privatevehicles to use a lay-by for drop-offs, the lay-by should be divided into two segmentsusing a PARKING LINE marking 621. Thefirst segment is reserved for buses by postinga BUS STOP sign 392. The following seg-ment is posted with a NO PARKING sign379 which allows any vehicle (private, taxior bus) to stop but not park within the desig-nated area.4. When a U-turn is permitted, EDGE LINEmarking 613 should be set back because of the two-lane carriageway if necessary toallow vehicles to make a U-turn withoutcrossing that line.5. GIVE WAY sign 302 is required in the con-figuration illustrated since the right turn doesnot have a full acceleration taper. In instanceswhere median U-Turns are permitted, then aSTOP sign 301 should be used instead, sincethe junction already has one STOP sign 301(at the median turn). If a full designed accel-eration taper is provided then neither a GIVEWAY sign not STOP sign would be used atthe right turn.6. LANE LINE marking 654 should not bemarked within the U-turn/Left Turn junctionarea.7. Geometric design should clearly indicate theprohibition of opposing traffic entering themedian opening. In situations where geome-try does no clearly make that evident appro-priate regulatory signs may be utilized to pro-hibit such entries. 8.2.4 SERVICE ROADCONNECTIONS TO ANARTERIAL Figure 8-4depicts a number of typical situationsthat are commonly found on service roads adjacent to arterial roadways. The sizes of signs andpavement markings are shown in a relative scaleand are based on a speed limit of 60 kilometersper hour on the main road, 40 kilometers per houron secondary roads, and 25 kilometers per houron service roads (same sizing as 40 kilometersper hour). This figure also illustrates a typicalmid-block signalized pedestrian crossing.NOTES:1. PARKING TIME LIMIT signs 389 and 391are shown to illustrate one possible applica-tion of parking control signs. A variety of other applications is also possible.2. ONE WAY sign 306 is shown in this situationto indicate that the service road is one way inthe direction stipulated, but to not inhibitdrivers from entering the main road with amore or less straight ahead movement.3. NO PARKING marking 690 may be used insituations such as this where vehicles mayhave a tendency to illegally park, but where asign prohibiting parking would be difficult tosite to give a proper indication of intentand/or the restricted areas are small.4. NO ENTRY sign 304 is shown in thisinstance since sight restrictions inhibit visi-bility of a ONE WAY sign 306 from the sideroad.5. PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603 isspecifically used in this situation as an addedsafety precaution because of sight distance.With the building lines near the side road asillustrated, crossing pedestrians would be dif-ficult to see until they are actually in theroad. The use of PEDESTRIAN CROSSINGmarking at other pedestrian crossing pointsmust be considered on a location-by-locationbasis. In general, on service roads wherepedestrians can be in the road at any place forpurposes of accessing parked cars, the installation of painted crossings is generally notwarranted.

8-36 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition positioned to direct approaching traffic topass on the intended side. 8.4.8 TYPICAL TWO-LANE TAPERDETAIL TRANSITION AREA Figure 8-24depicts the closure of two lanes on amultilane roadway by a single taper extendingover the two closed lanes. This practice is notgenerally recommended as it is likely to result ina greater than normal risk of accidents on theapproach to the taper. The practice is also verylikely to result in traffic congestion on theapproach even under moderate flows.In spite of the recommendations above there willbe times when such a taper has to be provided,usually in an emergency. The need for the use of a two-lane taper is likely to stem from a lack of necessary advance length to provide for the pre-ferred two separate tapers with an intermediatestabilization area (seeFigure 8-17 and Chapter 7,Figure 7-1).NOTES:1. Spacing between the KEEP RIGHT signs7327 (or KEEP LEFT signs 7328) should notexceed 50 meters (or the taper length dividedby 4 for long tapers). The minimum signingoption is only appropriate for very shortterm(under 24 hours) or short-term (up to 72hours) installations.2. For length of taper and spacing of cones seeChapter 7, Figure 7-1 and Table 7-2respec-tively.3. Cones should be spaced at taper spacing forthe first 25 to 50 meters of the stabilizationarea. Thereafter spacing may be increased asindicated inChapter 7, Table 7-2.4. On roadways with shoulders the line of conesdelineating the taper should be extended for-ward into the advance warning area to taperout the shoulder.5. Existing pavement markings that conflictwith the configuration of the roadworksshould be removed on long-term works sites. 8.4.9 MINOR-ROAD SINGLE-LANEOPERATION Figure 8-25depicts a short-term roadwork situa-tion where half of a minor, low-volume community road is closed to construct a utility crossing.This detail may be invoked only when traffic vol-umes are extremely light, the intervisibility of conflicting traffic is not obstructed by the construction or other sight obstructions, and theroadway is opened fully to traffic at the end of each work day. If any of these conditions are notmet, a complete closure of the roadway isrequired with a detouring of affected traffic (seeFigure 8-22). Alternatively, traffic may be manu-ally controlled/coordinated by flagmen eachusing a STOP/SLOW sign 7308, or through theuse of temporary traffic signals.When the construction activity it situated near ajunction, the give-way control should remain onthe side road, regardless of which half of the car-riageway is blocked. When the constructionactivity is located well away from a junction thegive-way control should regulate the trafficwhose lane is blocked by construction. 8.5 SCHOOL ZONE Figure 8-26depicts typical applications for aschool zone. School zones should be establishedon all streets where school children enter or exita school or a school compound, on foot, directlyonto the street. Where the side of a school orschool compound does not have a gate or doorleading directly onto the street, no school zoneshould be established on the adjacent street. If agate or door exists but is not used by children onfoot or if the gate or door is buffered from thestreet by a frontage road or closed parking lot, noschool zone should be established.NOTES:1. If warranted, a school zone should be estab-lished for, at a minimum, the entire length of the school compound facing the zone and, ata maximum, up to 150 meters past the schoolboundary

in either direction. The extent towhich a school zone extends beyond theschool boundary up to 150 meters should be

8-37 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition 2453 Figure 8-24 Typical Two-Lane Taper Detail Transition Area

8-38 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition Figure 8-25 Minor-Road Single-Lane Operation

8-39 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition determined by the engineer on site, depend-ing on prevailing approach speeds and visi-bility.2. To warn drivers that they are approaching aschool zone, an advance warning sign,shown as installation A, should be placed 100meters in advance of the school zone.3. The beginning of a school zone should bemarked with installation B. Installation Bincludes a 30-kilometer-per-hour speed-limitsign with a supplemental plate indicatingschool. Both signs are bilingual in Englishand Arabic.4. The beginning of a school zone should alsobe communicated with nonreflective raisedpavement markings. These markings are tobe installed in three rows, staggered, in a0.50-meter width perpendicular to the trafficdirection. If the street is not divided, thepavement markings should extend acrossboth lanes at either end of the school zone. If the street has a median separating trafficdirections, the pavement markings need onlybe placed where traffic will enter the schoolzone. There is no need to place pavementmarkings at the end of a school zone in astreet divided by a median.5. The end of a school zone should be markedby Installation C.6. A school zone should be marked for bothdirections of traffic, even if the street isdivided by a median. If there is a fence in themedian preventing pedestrians from crossingoutside of a crosswalk, the lane of the streetnot adjacent to the school should not bemarked for a school zone.Local traffic and pedestrian conditions mayrequire different applications or solutions formarking school zones. Engineers are expected toexercise their professional judgement on site, inthe spirit of these general guidelines and with thepurpose of protecting school children from trafficconditions. Installation AInstallation CInstallation B End School Zone 100 Meters Start School Zone ABB ACC SCHOOL 465123 Note NumberSee Section 8.5 Figure 8-26 School Zone

Version 0.0, Interim Edition TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL 9-1 9 SIGNALS 9.1 GENERAL 9.1.1 INTRODUCTION A traffic control signal is defined as a power-acti-vated traffic control device by which traffic iswarned or is directed to take some specificaction, such as stop or proceed.The functions of traffic signals are: To organize control conflicting traffic move-ments (including pedestrians and bicycles). To warn of possible danger. To assist tidal flow of traffic.Standards for traffic control signals are importantbecause traffic control signals need to attract theattention of every road user. This includes thoseusers who are older, those who suffer impairedvision but are within legal driving requirements,those who may be fatigued or distracted, andthose who, for whatever reason, are not expectingto encounter a signal at a particular location.Standards for traffic control signals are alsoimportant because signals need to functionautonomously and reliably under a wide range of conditions and must effectively communicatetheir message to drivers in sunlight and in dark-ness, in adverse weather, and in visually complexsurroundings.This chapter contains a number of required andrecommended procedures and techniques relatedto traffic signals in Abu Dhabi. These includemethods of analysis and design, operational pro-cedures, and examples of design and installation. 9.1.2 DEFINITIONS The following technical terms, when used in thischapter, are defined as follows: Accessible pedestrian signal : A device thatcommunicates information about pedestrian tim-ing in nonvisual format such as audible tones,verbal messages, and/or vibrating surfaces. Actuated operation : A type of traffic controlsignal operation in which some or all signal phas-es are operated on the basis of actuation. Actuation : Traffic-demand initiation of a changein or extension of a traffic signal phase throughthe operation of any type of detector. Approach

: All lanes of traffic moving towardsan intersection or a mid-block location from onedirection, including any adjacent parking lane(s). Average day : A day representing traffic volumesnormally and repeatedly found at a location, typ-ically a weekday when volumes are influencedby employment or a weekend when volumes areinfluenced by entertainment or recreation. Backplate : A thin strip of material that extendsoutward from and parallel to a signal face on allsides of a signal housing to provide a backgroundfor improved visibility of the signal indications. Beacon : A highway traffic signal with one ormore signal sections that operates in a flashingmode. Conflict monitor : A device used to detect andrespond to improper or conflicting signal indica-tions and improper operating voltages in a trafficcontroller Controller assembly : A complete electricaldevice mounted in a cabinet for controlling theoperation of a highway traffic signal. Controller unit : That part of a controller assem-bly that is devoted to the selection and timing of the display of signal indications. Crosswalk: a) That part of roadway at an inter-section included within the connections of thelateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway measured from the curbs or in theabsence of curbs, from the edge of the traversableroadway, and in the absence of a sidewalk on oneside of the roadway, the part of a roadway includ-ed within the extension of the lateral lines of thesidewalk at right angles to the centerline. b) anyportion of a roadway at an intersection or else-where distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossingby lines or other markings on the surface.

9-2 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition Cycle : One complete sequence of signal indica-tions. Dark mode : The lack of all signal indications ata signalized location. (The dark mode is mostcommonly associated with power failures, rampmeters, and beacons.) Detector : A sensing device used for determiningthe presence or passage of vehicles or pedestri-ans. Emergency vehicle traffic control signal : Aspecial traffic control signal that assigns theright-of-way to an authorized emergency vehicle. Flasher : A device used to turn highway trafficsignal indications on and off at a repetitive rate of approximately once per second. Full-actuated operation : A type of demand-based traffic control signal operation in which allsignal phases function on the basis of actuation. Highway traffic signal : A power-operated trafficcontrol device by which traffic is warned ordirected to take some specific action. Thesedevices do not include power-operated signs,illuminated pavement markers, barricade warn-ing lights, or steady-burning electric lamps. Intersection : The area embraced within the pro-longation or connection of the lateral curb lines,or if none, the lateral boundary lines of the road-ways of two highways that join one another at, orapproximately at, right angles, or the area withinwhich vehicles traveling on different highwaysthat join at any other angle may come into con-flict. The junction of an alley or driveway with aroadway or highway does not constitute an inter-section. Interval : The part of a signal cycle during whichsignal indications do not change. Interval sequence : The order of appearance of signal indications during successive intervals of asignal cycle. Lane-use control signal : A signal face display-ing signal indications to permit or prohibit theuse of specific lanes of a roadway or to indicatethe impending prohibition of such use. Louver:

A device that can be mounted inside asignal visor to restrict visibility of a signal indi-cation from the side or to limit the visibility of the signal indication to a certain lane or lanes. Major street : The street normally carrying thehigher volume of vehicular traffic. Minor street : The street normally carrying thelower volume of vehicular traffic. Pedestrian change interval : An interval duringwhich the flashing UPRAISED HAND (symbol-izing DON'T WALK) signal indication is dis-played. Pedestrian clearance time : The time providedfor a pedestrian crossing in a crosswalk, afterleaving the curb or shoulder, to travel to the cen-ter of the farthest traveled lane or to a median. Pedestrian signal head : A signal head, whichcontains the symbols WALKING PERSON(symbolizing WALK) and UPRAISED HAND(symbolizing DON'T WALK) that is installed todirect pedestrian traffic at a traffic control signal. Permissive mode : A mode of traffic control sig-nal operation in which, when a CIRCULARGREEN signal indication is displayed, left orright turns may be made after yielding to pedes-trians and/or oncoming traffic. Platoon : A group of vehicles or pedestrians trav-eling together as a group, either voluntarily orinvoluntarily, because of traffic signal controls,geometrics, or other factors. Preemption control : The transfer of normaloperation of a traffic control signal to a specialcontrol mode of operation. Pretimed operation : A type of traffic controlsignal operation in which none of the signalphases function on the basis of actuation. Priority control : A means by which the assign-ment of right-of-way is obtained or modified.

9-3 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition Protected mode : A mode of traffic control signaloperation in which left or right turns may bemade when a left or right GREEN ARROW sig-nal indication is displayed. Pushbutton : A button to activate pedestrian tim-ing. Ramp control signal : A highway traffic signalinstalled to control the flow of traffic onto a free-way at an entrance ramp or at a freeway-to-free-way ramp connection. Red clearance interval : An optional interval thatfollows a yellow change interval and precedesthe next conflicting green interval. Right-of-way (assignment) : The permitting of vehicles and/or pedestrians to proceed in a lawfulmanner in preference to other vehicles or pedes-trians by the display of signal indications. Roadway network : A geographical arrangementof intersecting roadways. Semiactuated operation : A type of traffic con-trol signal operation in which at least one, but notall, signal phases function on the basis of actua-tion. Signal coordination : The establishment of timedrelationships between adjacent traffic control sig-nals. Signal face : The front part of a signal head. Signal head : An assembly of one or more signalfaces together with the associated signal hous-ings. Signal housing : That part of a signal section thatprotects the light source and other required com-ponents. Signal indication : The illumination of a signallens or equivalent device. Signal lens : That part of the signal section thatredirects the light coming directly from the lightsource and its reflector, if any. Signal phase

: The right-of-way, yellow change,and red clearance intervals in a cycle that areassigned to an independent traffic movement orcombination of movements. Signal section : The assembly of a signal hous-ing, signal lens, and light source with necessarycomponents to be used for providing one signalindication. Signal system : Two or more traffic control sig-nals operating in signal coordination. Signal timing : The amount of time allocated forthe display of a signal indication. Signal visor : That part of a signal section thatdirects the signal indication specifically toapproaching traffic and reduces the effect of direct external light entering the signal lens. Signal criteria : A threshold condition that, if found to be satisfied as part of an engineeringstudy, should result in analysis of the traffic con-ditions or factors to determine whether a trafficcontrol signal or the improvement is justified. Speed limit sign beacon : A beacon used to sup-plement a SPEED LIMIT sign. Steady (steady mode) : The continuous illumina-tion of signal indication for the duration of aninterval, signal phase, or consecutive signal phas-es. Stop beacon : A beacon used to supplement aSTOP sign, a DO NOT ENTER sign, or aWRONG WAY sign. Traffic control signal (traffic signal) : Anyhighway traffic signal by which traffic is alter-nately directed to stop and permitted to proceed. Visibility limited signal face or signal sec-tion : A type of signal face or signal sectiondesigned to restrict the visibility of a signal indi-cation from the side, to a certain lane or lanes, orto a certain distance from the stop line. Walk interval : An interval during which theWALKING PERSON (symbolizing WALK) sig-nal indication is displayed. When a verbal mes-

9-50 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition WWWWWWSequence of Signal Indications Using a Pretimed Controller Indicates flashing signal. Figure 9-25 Signal Operating Plan No. 6 Leading Protected/Prohibited Left Turn From One Approach Intersection WithOne-Way Street With Pedestrian Signals

9-51 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition Sequence of Signal Indications Using a Pretimed Controller Figure 9-26 Signal Operating Plan No. 7 Intersection of Two Divided Streets With Service Roads Stop or Signal Control onthe Service Roads Without Pedestrian Signals

9-52 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition WWWW Sequence of Signal Indications Using a Pretimed Controller Indicates flashing signal. Figure 9-27 Signal Operating Plan No. 8 Leading Protected/Prohibited Left Turn From Two Approaches LeadingProtected/Permissive Left Turn From Two Other Approaches Intersection of Two Divided Streets WithLeft-Turn Bays With Pedestrian Signals

9-53 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition Sequence of Signal Indications Using a Pretimed Controller V1V2V3V4V5V6V7V8V9V10V10V11V12V13V14 Figure 9-28 Signal Operating Plan No. 9 T Intersection With a One-Way Service Road Along the Principal Street Without Pedestrian Signals

9-54 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition Indication in All Signal FacesSequence of Signal Indications Using a Pretimed Controller Figure 9-29 Signal Operating Plan No. 10 T Intersection With Left-Turn Bay Continuous Traffic on the Principal Street

9-55 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition V1V6V16P4P3P2P1V15V14V13V12V11V10V9V8 V7 V5D2D4D5D3D13D7D8D6D9D11D10D14D1V4V3V2D12All detectors call and extend their associated phases.Detectors D2 and D3 are callingdetectors only and are disconnectedduring phase 2.Detectors D1, D6, D9, and D12 operatein the nonlocking mode. All other detectors operate in the locking mode. Figure 9-30A Intersection Plan Traffic-Actuated Signal With Pedestrian Signals Figure 9-30B Movements During Each of the Phases

9-65 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition register their presence and call for the right-of-way and will not be unnecessarily delayed. Thiswill require a reduction in the length of the vehi-cle extension timing on that approach. As analternative, the controller can be designed torespond only to the first impulse in each cyclefrom the detector farthest from the intersection.At traffic-actuated signals, detectors are requiredin separate turning lanes to secure the right-of-way for vehicles in those lanes. Turning vehiclescan frequently complete the turn and leave theintersection on the GREEN DISK signal indica-tion. Thus, the right-of-way does not have to betransferred to the turning lanes causing unneces-sary delay to other traffic. Therefore, detectorsand associated equipment for such lanes shouldbe designed to register the need for right-of-wayonly when a vehicle is present in the lane.Detectors should be placed where vehicles trav-eling away from the intersection will not affectthe controller. On narrow two-way roadways thismay require a special type of directional detectorwhich will be actuated only by vehicles goingtoward the intersection. 9.5.11 USE OF SIGNS WITH TRAFFICCONTROL SIGNALS STOP signs should be used with traffic controlsignals except: When the signal indication flashes red at alltimes. When a minor street or driveway with littletraffic enters the intersection or controlledarea. When the signal must be operated for a con-siderable time in the flashing mode. In thatcase, STOP signs may be desirable to supple-ment the flashing red signal indications. When the signal installation is temporarilywithout electrical power, and STOP signsmust be erected on some or all of theapproaches. 9.5.12OPERATION OF TRAFFICCONTROL SIGNALS BY HANDCONTROL A mechanism should be provided to permitauthorized personnel to operate the signal manu-ally to control traffic. This should include therequired switch to transfer from automatic tohand operation, and a push button switch on aone-meter electrical cord for the purpose of changing the signal indications.When a traffic signal is being operated by handcontrol, the lengths of the yellow change inter-vals and red clearance intervals, if used, shouldbe controlled by the signal timing mechanism.Properly timed and maintained traffic control sig-nals are efficient in moving traffic through anintersection. Hand control of a signal in a pro-gressive signal system will interrupt the smoothflow of traffic through the system. The temporaryimprovement in traffic flow at that intersectionwill be offset by a decrease in efficiency for thesystem as a whole. It is recommended that signalsbe manually controlled only for special, tempo-rary events. 9.6 PEDESTRIAN SIGNALINDICATIONS 9.6.1 MEANING OF PEDESTRIANSIGNAL INDICATIONS

Pedestrian signal indications are used to givepedestrians better information for safe crossingthan can be given by the vehicular indicationsalone. These indications consist of the green fig-ure of a walking man, symbolizing permission towalk (WALK) and a representation of a red-col-ored hand, symbolizing prohibition of walking(DON'T WALK) (seeFigure 9-36). Another permissible combinations would be a white figure of a walking man and a red figure of standing man,respectively.The meanings of pedestrian signal indicationsare:

9-66 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition The hand symbol (when steadily illuminated)means pedestrians facing the signal shouldnot enter the roadway. The walking man symbol (when flashing)means pedestrians should not start to crossthe roadway. However, any pedestrian whohas partly completed crossing the roadwayshould proceed to a sidewalk or to a safetyisland. The walking man pedestrian indicationmeans pedestrians may cross the roadwaywithin the crosswalk limits in the direction of the indication. 9.6.2 USE OF PEDESTRIAN SIGNALINDICATIONS Pedestrian signal indications should be installedin conjunction with vehicular traffic control signals under any of the following conditions: When a traffic control signal is installedbecause either the Pedestrian Volume or theSchool Crossing Criterion is met. When it is necessary to give vehicles a signalindication to stop them from crossing thepath of a pedestrian movement. A signalindication is then necessary to tell pedestri-ans when they may walk. When vehicular signal indications are notsufficiently visible to pedestrians, particular-ly on oneway streets or at a T intersection. At officially designed school crossings atintersection signalized under any criterion. At wide intersections where pedestrians mustmake the crossing in stages.Pedestrian signal indications are desirable wher-ever it is necessary to assist pedestrians, particu-larly at complex or large intersections. These sig-nals show the periods of the signal cycle whenpedestrian crossing has the least vehicular inter-ference. Normally, pedestrian indications neednot be placed at intersections where few pedestri-ans cross the major street. 9.6.3 DESIGN OF PEDESTRIANSIGNAL INDICATIONS Pedestrian indications should be adequatelybright and legible to be effective under all normalatmospheric conditions. These indications shouldattract attention and be readable by pedestrians(day and night) at all distances from three metersto the full width of the area to be

crosses.Lenses for pedestrian indications should be roundin shape, displaying either the red hand symbol orthe green walking man symbol. The signal indi-cations should be internally illuminated.When illuminated, the walking man symbolshould be green on a black background.When illuminated, the hand symbol should bered on a black background.When not illuminated, pedestrian indicationsshould not be readily distinguishable by pedestri-ans from the far end of the crosswalk.Symbols at least 150 millimeters high should beused if the distance from the near curb to thepedestrian signal indication is 35 meters or less.Where that distance is more than 35 m, the sym-bols should be at least 225 millimeters in height.When pedestrians are required to cross the streeton two or more stages, optically programmedWalk-Don't Walk pedestrian signal indications orsymbols should be utilized. These indicationsshould be installed so that the pedestrian willview only the indication which applies to him. Figure 9-36 Pedestrian Signal

9-67 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition 9.6.4 LOCATION OF PEDESTRIANSIGNAL INDICATIONS Pedestrian signals should be mounted with thebottom of the housing not less than two metersnor more than three meters above the sidewalk level.For each direction on each crosswalk, pedestrianindications should be in the normal line of visionof pedestrians. The preferred location of thepedestrian signal face is at the end of each cross-walk. The indications should be positioned andadjusted for maximum visibility at the far end of the crosswalk. The pedestrian indication shouldbe located within three meters of the extension of the crosswalk lines.Pedestrian signal heads may be mounted sepa-rately or on the same support as the vehicular sig-nal heads. Vehicular and pedestrian signal headson the same support should be separated by aspace of not less than 150 millimeters when bothsignal heads face in the same direction.Pedestrian signal heads and indications shouldmeet the specifications of the Emirate of AbuDhabi with respect to color, lens transmittance,light distribution, and physical characteristics. 9.6.5 PEDESTRIAN PUSHBUTTONDETECTORS Pedestrian detectors should be installed at anytraffic-actuated signal for any crosswalk havingpedestrian indications except as described inSection 9.6.6.Detectors and indications shouldbe omitted for a crosswalk if it is closed.Pedestrian detectors (usually buttons which mustbe pushed by pedestrians) should be locatedwithin easy reach of pedestrians at each end of each crosswalk where pedestrian actuation isrequired. The position of the pushbutton withrespect to the crosswalk should clearly show it isintended for pedestrians using that crosswalk.Detectors should be mounted on a strong supportat a height of from 1 to 1.2 meters above the side-walk. Small signs should be mounted above or asa part of each detector to explain their purposeand use. Additional pushbutton detectors may beneeded on median islands where a pedestrianmight seek refuge from traffic. 9.6.6 PEDESTRIAN SIGNAL PHASESAND INTERVAL TIMING Pedestrians should be assured of sufficient timeto cross the roadway during the pedestrianchange/clearance period at a signalized intersec-tion where pedestrian indications are used. Somepedestrians, particularly the very young, old, orhandicapped, walk more slowly than other pedes-trians. The length of the pedestrian change/clear-ance interval must be adjusted to accommodatethose differences in walking speed where young,old, handicapped pedestrians frequently cross.Pedestrian pushbutton control of traffic-actuatedsignals gives pedestrians sufficient crossing timeby extending the green time given to vehicles.Even where traffic signals are pretimed it issometimes desirable to provide pedestrian push-buttons. Often pedestrian detectors are installedfor crosswalks across the major street, but notacross the minor street. In those cases, pedestrianactuation extends the minor street vehiculargreen time which will usually reduce the majorstreet green time. Where pedestrian actuation isnot practical, and pedestrians or often present, thevehicular green time should provide at least theminimum crossing time needed by pedestrians.The minimum Walk interval, when the greenwalking man indication is shown, should be notless than the minimum time required to cross thestreet at walking speed. The minimum Walk interval is typically three to seven seconds.Additional time, if needed, should be added tothe clearance period. The Walk indication may beshown for the vehicular green period minus thetime required for the pedestrian change/clearanceindication. However, the length of the

Walk peri-od need not equal the time required for pedestri-ans to walk completely across the street, as theycan complete their crossing during thechange/clearance period. At traffic-actuated sig-nals, the standing man indication should beshown unless there has been a pedestrian actuation.

9-68 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition A pedestrian change/clearance interval shouldalways be provided where pedestrian signal indications are used. This interval should be longenough to allow a pedestrian to walk across theentire roadway or to a median island before vehi-cles crossing his path receive a green indication.The normal walking speed is assumed to be 1.25meters per second.Pedestrian indications should always be dis-played when the traffic signal is operating as astop-and-go device. Pedestrian indicationsshould not be illuminated when the traffic controlsignal is operating as a flashing device. Whenpedestrian pushbuttons are provided, the buttonsshould be operating at any time the pedestrianindications are operating. 9.7 FLASHING BEACONS 9.7.1 HAZARD IDENTIFICATIONBEACONS A hazard identification beacon is a traffic signalgiving a flashing AMBER DISK indication. Ahazard identification beacon may have one ortwo yellow indications. If there are two, the indications should be flashed alternately. The beaconshould be used only to supplement an appropriatewarning or regulatory sign.Typical uses for hazard identification beaconsinclude the following: Warn of obstructions in or immediately adja-cent to the roadway. Call attention to and increase the effective-ness of warning signs. Provide warning for crosswalks, especiallythose not at an intersection. Warn of intersections, particularly whereaccidents have been recorded. Supplement and call attention to regulatorysigns, except for stop, give-way and entry-prohibited signs. If a beacon is needed forthose three signs, it should be red.Hazard identification beacons should be operatedonly during those hours when the hazard or regu-lation exists.The hazard or other condition warranting a haz-ard identification beacon will usually determineits location and the sign used with it.A hazard identification beacon should be supple-mented by a suitable sign when used on anobstruction in the roadway. In addition, the areaof the obstruction should be illuminated.A 300-millimeter lens should be used only with asign larger than the standard size. 9.7.2 SPEED LIMIT SIGN BEACON Speed limit sign beacons are intended for usewhere signs alone have not been effective in controlling speed. The beacons are required withmechanically or electrically changeable speedlimit signs. Too frequent use of the beacons,however, may reduce their effectiveness.A speed limit sign beacon is a signal having oneor two AMBER DISK lens sections. If one lens isused, it should have a visible diameter of not lessthan 200 millimeters. If two lenses are used, thelenses

should have visible diameter of not lessthan 150 millimeters. The two lenses should beilluminated alternately. If the sign is higher thanit is wide, one lens should be at the top of the signand the other at the bottom. If the sign is longerhorizontally than it is high, the lenses may be atthe left and right of the sign. A 300-millimeterlens may be used only with a speed limit signlarger than the standard size.A speed limit sign beacon may be used with astandard speed limit sign which shows anunchanging message. It may also be used withspeed limit sign on which the indicated speedlimit may be changed mechanically, electrically,or by hand.A changeable message speed limit sign beaconmay be controlled by a seven-day programmabletime clock or other reliable means so the beaconoperates only during those hours and days whenthe regulation is in effect.

9-69 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition 9.7.3 INTERSECTION CONTROLBEACON Intersection control beacons have flashingAMBER DISK or RED DISK indications in eachface. These beacons are used at intersections towarn and control one or more directions of trav-el. More than one indication may be needed onsome approaches to provide adequate visibility.Intersection control beacons are used at intersec-tions where traffic control signals are not war-ranted, but accident experience indicates a spe-cial hazard. Only the following combinations of signal indications should be used: Amber indications on one route (normallythe major route) and red on all otherapproaches, or Red on all approaches to the intersection.This is permissible only where an all-waystop is warranted.A STOP sign in the normal, approved locationshould be used with flashing red intersection con-trol beacon. Intersection advance Warning signsare normally used on approaches having a flash-ing yellow beacon. Flashing yellow beaconsshould never face two or more vehicle move-ments which cross or otherwise conflict.Two-hundred millimeter lenses are customarilyused in intersection control beacons. Three-hun-dred millimeter lenses may be used where hightraffic volume or speed necessitate greater visi-bility and effectiveness.If two or more indications are shown to any oneapproach, these indications should be flashedsimultaneously. 9.7.4 STOP SIGN BEACON A stop sign beacon is a signal with one or twoflashing RED DISK indications used with aSTOP sign.The lens of a stop sign beacon should have a vis-ible diameter of not less than 200 millimeters.Where greater effectiveness is needed, two sepa-rate beacon and sing installations may be made.One should be on the right side of the approachand one overhead or on the left of the approach.This will usually be more effective than a beaconwith a 300-millimeter lens. If two lenses are usedwith a STOP sign, the lenses should be placedabove and below the sign, and should be alter-nately illuminated. The standard beacon shouldhave one lens. Two-lens beacons should only beused where accident experience shows single-lens beacons have not been effective. 9.7.5 DESIGN AND OPERATION OFFLASHING BEACONS Flashing beacons usually consist of one or moresections of a traffic control signal head. Except asmodified by this section, the physical and opticalcharacteristics of beacons should comply withthe requirements for traffic control signal heads.The lens in each beacon, except the speed limitsign beacon, should have a visible diameter of not less than 200 millimeters.When illuminated, the indication of the beaconshould be clearly visible as a full disk in thedirection it is aimed. Unless it is physicallyobstructed, the indication should be visible for adistance of at least 400 meters under all normallighting and atmospheric conditions.All beacons should be flashed at a rate of not lessthan 50 nor more than 80 times per minute. Theilluminated period of each flash should not beless than one-half more than two-thirds of thetotal cycle. The mechanism that causes the bea-cons to flash should be equipped with filteringdevices for suppression of

radio frequency elec-trical interference.When a 1,750-lumen lamp is used in a 300-mil-limeter yellow flashing beacon, the indicationmay be excessively bright at night. Therefore,except in urban areas with bright surroundingsand on high speed rural roads, a device should beused to automatically reduce the light output of the beacon at night proportionally as the ambientlight level decreases. The reduction should be tonot more than 50 percent and not less than 30 per-cent of the light output at full rated voltage.

9-70 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL Version 0.0, Interim Edition Flashing beacons, except for intersection controlbeacons, are generally used with signs. If so,these beacons must be separated by 300 to 400millimeters from the nearest edge of the sign (thislimitation does not apply to school-zone speedlimit beacons). If the beacon is too close to thesign, its brilliance will seriously interfere withthe legibility of the sign at night.Flashing beacons should never be mounted onpedestals in the roadway. A flashing beacon maybe placed on a pedestal on a traffic or pedestrianisland, but the support should be of breakawaydesign.The installation for the sign will usually establishthe location, height, and lateral clearance of thecombined sign and beacon. The beacon alone orwith an accompanying sign may be over theroadway. In such cases, the clearance above thepavement should not be less than 5.8 meters normore than 6.5 meters. The sign and flashing bea-con should be in the same vertical plane.

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