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Adenoiditis is the inflammation of the adenoid tissue, usually caused by an infection.

Adenoiditis is treated using medication (antibiotics and/orsteroids) or surgical intervention. Adenoiditis may present with cold like symptoms. However, adenoiditis symptoms often persist for ten or more days, and often include pus like discharge from nose. The infection cause is usually viral. However, if the adenoiditis is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed for treatment. A steroidalnasal spray may also be prescribed in order to reduce nasal congestion. Severe or recurring adenoiditis may require surgical removal of the adenoids (adenotonsillectomy).

Adenoids develop from a subepithelial infiltration of lymphocytes after the embryo gets into the 16th week. Adenoids are a part of the Waldeyer ring of lymphoid tissue together with the palatine tonsils and the lingual tonsils. On histology, the tonsils contain 1030 crypts lined by antigen processing stratified squamous epithelium and they have germinal centers as in other lymph tissue. After birth, adenoids begin to enlarge and they keep growing until the individuals are aged 5 to 7 years. It is common that in infants of 18 to 24 months the adenoids are symptomatic, meaning that snoring, nasal airway obstruction and obstructed breathing usually occur during sleep. Over time, adenoids become gradually asymptomatic as when children reach school age, adenoids are expected to begin to shrink and when they reach teenage years, the adenoids should become small enough to not cause any symptoms. The establishment of the upper respiratory tract is initiated at birth. Species of bacteria such as lactobacilli, anaerobic streptococci, actinomycosis, Fusobacterium species, and Nocardia are normally present in children of 6 months old. Normal flora found in the adenoid consists of alpha-hemolytic streptococci and enterococci, Corynebacterium species, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Neisseria species, Haemophilus species, Micrococcus species, and Stomatococcus species. Infection of the adenoids can lead to the development of ear, nose and sinus illnesses.

Adenoids can harbor chronic infections and this way they may contribute to recurrent sinusitis and recurrent or persistent ear disease. The type and amount of pathogenic bacteria seem to vary based on the disease present and the age of the child. Also, enlarged adenoids and tonsils may lead to the obstruction of the breathing patterns in children, causing apnea during sleep. The most common types of bacteria that affect the adenoids and cause infections in both children and adults are Haemophilus influenzae, group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniea. Heamophilus influenza, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumonia are the three most resistant pathogens of otitis and rhinosinisitis in children suffering from these diseases. Adenoidectomies, no matter the size of the adenoids, improve the symptoms of rhinosinusitis and decrease the risks of recurrent or persistent middle ear effusions or infections in children older than 3

years. Also, in pre-menopausal adult women, an adenoidectomy can lead to a short term increase in breast mass. In 1999, a presentation at the American Academy of Pediatrics confirmed this concern by finding that adenoidectomy usually controlled symptoms and infections in children with large adenoids; however, if the adenoid was small and CT scan evidence of chronic sinusitis was present, not as many children improved, leading the authors to believe these children would benefit from initial procedures of adenoidectomy and endoscopic sinus surgery.

Symptoms of adenoiditis can vary depending on what is causing the infection but may include: sore throat stuffy nose swollen glands in the neck ear pain and other ear problems When the nose is stuffy, breathing through it can be a challenge. Other symptoms of adenoiditis related to nasal congestion include: breathing through the mouth speaking with a nasal sound, as if you are speaking with a pinched nose difficulty sleeping snoring or sleep apnea (a condition where you stop breathing for a short amount of time during sleep)