NCLAS SE

RPREAACH
REEACHAND

AN ALY'I14N

'

N

OF

COM B A T
OFFICE W

INTiLU~

OF THE AC OF

REPRODUCED BY 2201ST ENGR.

s

PEIEPTNa. SLC TBOOK

.'

Pr'epared

By

OFFICE of A, C*-' S": GoOF

4Autt1945
~ ~Tv,

loon

R!

SHEET

FCSi'INDEX

SECOTION 1 Terr.in

TITLE
Cli~ate

PAGE

2 3

1 3
6

4 5 6

Iactcs fa .brays
watterways

8
17

Airfields
A,

Enemy Air Facilities in the

D. AircrafIt i'epa ,r & Uainten~'nce Facilities,
C.
D.

PEIPING Area.

21

Japanese Air Service Units..
Site Future

7 9
10 11 12

13
14
15

Japanese Strength in PEIPING Area, Forces in the PEIPING Area. $Chinese (Conmmunist & Puppet). Defenses. I1ilitnxy Supply & Storage. Electrical.nee ns of C omnicaion. Electric Power. Indu~stry.
rater Supply. Food. Supply Procurement.

Airfields $

23 24

26
27 29 30 32

,,x16
Y.

17
l

3 People & Government (Including List of Governmnent Officicls). Health & Sanxitation. 40 Personalities. A. Milit"ary Cocr acnders0 I3. M:iscellaneous Japanese & Puppet Officiva. C. Officials of the Japal.est Embassy in PEIPING. D.Personlities- White List.

-&

34

37

41

NOTE :

See next page for INDEX TO P LANS FOIDEi1.

INDEX

TO

PUNS

E

PLAN No. PLAN No. PLAN No. No. PLAN
No.

Ve orwc ys. i ihway Installattions Wi'ithil 50 Miles
R POC ls

Of

PEIPING.

in

PEIPmI

AroG

T D NTSI T - PUKOT Evai1roacl. City. i.oasisc. irtosa is -- PE PI G ncl Vicinityr. A/A Defense Chart.

PLAN No. PLAN Nlo.

Is

III1Im5

-"Elm

SECTION 1

T { AN 2T
PEIPING lies at the W stern edge of n.. irret'ularly-shapecl plain oz tondinr2 roughly thirty ruiles to the East," twenty mi.les'to the North and South of the City, Encircling this area to the Test,, Northwest: North and Northeast are irregula rly dissected foothills which give place in turn to rugged rmout ins. The surface of this p ledn is gencrally 4~at and featureless,, btt it is fairly well drained by a rnufbor of broad, slovw streams. 1.inor features are the conical grave mounds Which vivo the land a her mocky appearance near vi-lagce (those rnge f roi three f oot to as much as fifteen foot in' hci ,ht) , and dikes which have been built a .ong the edges of rivers, most of which in this. area are in the habit of silting up their channels and periodically escazping to flood the countryside.

The soil in this plain is chiefly silt loan, rac~ter into sandy locur. 1Trlativly large &zdly areas will o found asociat~d vith r jor' stream beds. This soil is well closed with fine dust Which is conatrnntly beigspSprea d by winds from the boss country f ether Vast* The rosultant m asutrc is very sticky and slippery when wet, but dries quickly afteir rains; so well, in fact, that the region is notorious I'r' its dust. The occurrence of windy weather will produce a"ls siOr "~ of sufficient densityr to obscure the sue and fir:it ground Visibility to a rr ttor of yards. Such storms may last from one to three
ay s

The dratiner e pattern of the area is irregula r, with the; direction of stream. flow trending toward the Southeast(Gulf of CHIMLI). Streams are widely spaced;' their channels are sha low, branching, and algc~ci atc-y a t the level of the' surroundi.ng plain. Larger $treaiis have broad, low, natural leveesji, which will be locally surrounded by earth dikes Live to fifteen feet high. As might be expected in a scn ii-arid region, there is great seasonal variation in stream' flow; in fact, c.ll but the larg;or streams nay be termed' intermttent. They nrew com~ronly dry fr~m late f all to early senio~r. During la te swiner, on the other hand, the r will be well-.fi-lod, Often causing brief floocb in the surrounding plains.

Natural

soil covoi is exceedingly scanty~, and

forestation is

almost entirely absent. However, the soil in the plains is almost entirely under cultivation; staple crops being kaolin, corn, sorg~hum s (which brow high enoughw up to 15 feet_ to provide concealment), wheat, millet, soybeans and peanuts. A four trees may be found in villa es and graveyards; some snal orchards will occur ini the sandy areas. The plain is f avorao eto miitary mnovemenzt all year except during the rainy season, when movement across country i a practically impossible. At this time heavy traffic will be chnneolized intothe very few gravelledi roads which join only the la:rge cities in the area. Secondary roads~

t't

.'

Terra in characetoris cs of the foothills which bow'er theN China Plain are typically thosce0of a sei.rid region vth modozato Viewed over'-aJ.la the slopes are0 Lgradients and sparse ;round cover. gentle; but they are deeply out by strap-wllod gnlics whose avrad may depth approaches tweoty feet. Well-established roads and .tr.ls be deeply entrenched, as the soil tends to be &ot'"and loose. vnl eys nay be filled with loss ( a very fine ind-deposited silt loan.)
Dra inage is generally good as the

soil

is porous and1 the

favor subsurface ren-off. The ground-titer widely spaced and - ntoriittont in flow,

level is

low.

Stro'e s are

gradients

Cultivation is sirijiar to that on the plain, whore the slopes permit. , Terracing is genora1ly resorted to in order to af12 ow farming. This area contains only scattered villages and tomns and very few roads except at the edg;e of the reg;ion. Within the region the courwse of' roads is largely dotermined by the terrain. The seae not.workc oftrails and cart tracks obtains here as in tihe plains; in generol, those, and other ro'utes are rougher' and narrower than in the plains. Fxeopt during the rain y season,, this region offers ±'air to good terrain for oper t Ins."

military

t~~z~

SECTION 2

I

CLTh, ATE LfT"0ON AN-D TOOGRLPHY.
PE~IPING lies on-tho flat al uviaL plai of of' the Gulf of ',OH,", an armi of' the YES"LOI7 Sea.

North

the PEI Ris'er' flows, is locitced in relation to the ancient road leading frorm T1ENTSIDT, on the seacoast, to KAIJGAN which lies beyond the KHINGAN .ountains, which flank the plain to the North andi b!est, PEIPING lies cbos-. to the pass wvhiclafJ.e ads through the These ntiountains r ,s : to elevations 4bovee 4,000 f ; less than 50 miles to the T'est, but do not reach -iuficient height to protect the city fromt the cold Northwest winds of wintr.

The city,

Chicna

90 miales Nest through which

c,

,,ountins.

?LP 'SENTATIVE CLI2L.TIC STATION. Observations ta ken at the mteteorologiLcal station at PEIPI G (11624 141 feet) over a period of th . to' seventy years are used a s the basis of this eU~imatic stuid. In gene ;l,. the longer roeords are;£for precipitation and tempowrt'4ro, wi.le thee' records for elomzits siCgnif'iccnt~to fLyinhg operations are loss than ten 7rears as a rle. Cilings

39 55) (elevation

less than 1,000 feet and visibilities of less, than 114miles are ostinatod f romn occurrenices of phonome~na l!ikely to affect the vortical arnd horizonta yisuel range. Dayss wit'ih§ wet soil represent twice the num.ber of' day on

which 10

illinbters (0O39' inch) or more of' rain gere received,

G?flETi. CLI A'rIC G407DITI(IM3.

Air 1btsssr
PEIPIN7G lies in on arear do inated by, the Great Asiatic monsoon pressure system which tiens that,,-in winter, 'the air transport is frot the colder land to the warmer sea bnd,, in sumor, the reverse circulation from colder' sea to waretr land, Thus cold dry continent al air masses predointe , in .winter with clear shies, strong winds, and little or no precipitation, while in sunirnter, warm hui~d ocea ia air masses prevail wi~tl cloudy skies end moderate precipitation. Temerature., liean temperatures rangeo fromt a low of' 23 in J7anuary to 77 in July. Sub-freezing temperatures are the rule fromi Decemiber through February and may bo expected front October into April.- Temperatures below OFare not common, although the lowest on record for Januazyfiss0.30, and Februcary shows en absolute minimum of'".40 for a 34 year period. The mean daily teit.perature remains below ffeoeLng from lat8 November to mid-flarch or after. I ean rnxixv~n temperatures are above 2O0 only during the three suxrmer months and boelo-vTroeozing ox] in J,nuta'y, although close to this figure in Decemtber a d Febi ua r, The extreme high temper-. ature recorded in 34 roars was 107 iii June. July is the only month with en extreme aboVe 1000.
0

0

minim mx

rcipittio"

SECRE T ianfcL.l of 26 inches, over 20 inches chart. Of' the total avery ge annual 'p itation during the winter of it f l in the three ste~er mtoths , (December through February) is scarcely .orel~an a trace and this generally foils in the' form2 of' a light snow-, February reporting a moan of 3 cdays of snow month,, An average of one light snowv may be e.-,ected in all n'ontchs from November through M.arch., Extremlely' heavy rainfall may occur during' the stujnmr. A mnc ,un of more then 11 inches has been recorded for each' of the months from Juno through Septermber with an absolute rye ' :urn of 3 , 5 inches in July. On thc other hand, every month of the year doept the throe surner months occasionally record no rain. Rains- of more than one inch in 24 hours are uWciovn from October through April, but as much as 6.5 inches have been recorded in July. Periods of precipitation lasting mhore ile then two days are confined generally to the wiarer months of the year, rmany ~' periods of a week of rain are virtually unkloin excpt in JulyAs as 23 days of rain have been regarded in Septenber, but, as a r'ule, the days ~ of rain do not exceed' 1 in 3 except in July when about 1 in every 2 cdays ar reported as rain days. Thundrstoxrrs are urilov n during the winter months, they occur from May through Septemaber. Greetost incidence is from June through Auust when 4 to 5 storms' a month may be expected.'
Sbut

C~r~

Cloudiness.
Considerable variation in cloud amount may be expected throughout the year in monsoonal climnates. Ltoan sky cover varies from 2/10 in Docoraboz to 5/10 in July. The spring and surmer seasons are cloudier than fall and winter.. Overcast dlays (mean sky cover less than 2/10) are most frequent from late autumna through curly spring with 13 to '19 clear days a month from October through 11rch. Clear cays roach a minimum of 3 to 5 days a month from. Juno to LAugut. Ceilings bes~ 1,000 feet are cstimeatedl to occur on 3 to 4 clays froi.i June through Auust but on not more than)I d.y a m~onth during the rn aindez' of the year,

A rather uneven distribution of fog occurreonce is incA. catedi by the 7 years of record available. No fog was recorded for the months of Mtay
~n ci Greatand October. Incidence is app arcitly least from M11cy through July cay of for, a month nay, ost fromr Ntovember' through January', At least e d be expected in August, Septbember, January. : isibi 'tics are based on estixt~a from the occurrence of' other phenomena. On the basis of these figures, the surner months, September and November sho.w the most favor. les able visibilitios vwith no vist.bilities below l III * Visibilities over 6 iles con be expected on 23 to 30 days a month from July through September. Relstriction of visual range is ostimaatoct to be greatest in. winter,, and 1 to 2 clays ca month have visibilities below 1l stiles. Winds. Winds are Northerly at PEIPING throughout the years H-ovevr, , Northerly wrinds (NN, N, NE) are most prevalent during the. colder pert of' the year then they are flowing out of the high pressure area over Siberia. In sumo er, 12% of the obserations show winds fronsca, Southerly direction (SE, S, S17), particularly in the afternoon. Wind velocities average higher irC winter; the percentag~e of calm s is 35 in suienr and only 22 in winter. Winds of gale force (more than 32 ra p..h.,) are experienced occ asiond7ly from October through April and occur in three percent of .the observations in December. Gales are rare or nonexistent in sumer. C-ojprab~le U. S. Station. The clma to of BALI IZ, 1,MJyYLAND, is comparable to that of PEIPIING. The January neon tomperature a't !ThJT10IE is igher (360) than at PEIPING

TIORE during~ the winter July m:etn temiper tore is c in ?EIIPING and 7e in .BJTIMJ10RE _]Extremes at PEIP=ING ra~n o froz --1+ to 107 ; at B L~l0i~E the ra.nge is fromu-7° to 1070. Rdn Cc 1 is higher at BALTr LORE with 42 inches annuwlly (Auust r .xinuia) than at PEIPING with 26 ino s and a~

July. ni:au.

a

,.

SECTION 3

SEE

PL UT

In the Northeast Section of China, roads are fairly plentiful,, but goodl roads nearx PEIPING arc feow. For exomplo, just. prior to thc Japanese' invasion there werc only 16 miles of surfaced road in all HOPEHi Province~

to btild. These roads can easily be m int tined throughout most of the year, but they are very dusty *hon dry, and hard to keep up during the heavy rains of July and Augus t o

surfacingj

PEIPING itself lies in a fai.rly materials are not EAvsays easy

-ell-drained
to

plain where, although find, dirt roads are sirmple

To tho South and East, the plain soon beqco aos quite flc 't and poorly drained. The ground-water level is high, floods are con. ons and road m.aintenance is extremely difficult.
Most, then, of the b'ads in this area are unsurf aced, and
can be

travelled

only in dry

weather.

Infor'mation on specific routes and indivicbiaal conditions of these roads, is spa rse and often contradictory (a summary of the best of it appears in PIA It is reported, howrz~vr, that during their occtrwation of the PEIPING Area, the Jap'so ir roved the follo-wring roads unt:i1 they nybe all-weather rnotorable;

N3.)

1. PEIPING - TI ITSINv Hi hway. The Japanese are xgpor red not only to have widened this road, but to heave laid concrete down one side in a strip about 16 feet wide. 2. Highway paralleling the PINGULN Railroad from PEI PING
to C~HI!GYUiiN (PILOTING -- 115 29--35

52).1

to

3.

Road from PEIPING South to

P:AHSIKN (116 25--39

07).

AN (116 15«39 27), then Southea4

4. Road from K 0PEIT IEN (115 51-~39 20) (on the PEIPING -- PAOTING Road) Southeast and then East through PAHSIEN to TIENTSIN'.

5. Road from TUNGSEN (116 40-39 50) (on the PEIPING -- TIENTSIN Higihwoy) on East through SLiNHO (117 05-39.59) to TAN1GSHA\N (115 11-3 9 38).
6.
40 06).

Short road from SANHO (117 05-39 59) North to PINGYKU (117

09--

Not shown on PL N 3 are Road Bridges,
PE~IPING

Most important of these in and near'

are:
1.

A 17-span, masonry,

deck arch

bridge at PEIPING.

2. The 11--spun,1 masonry, deck arch T. CO POLO Brid e, built in 1159, crossing~ the YJGTIN River Wfest of PEIPING at (116 12-39 50).

ij j x
3.The
Northwest of
$-sp42nl,

PEIPING at

reinforced concrete, deck (116 00-.40 25) on the PEIPING

a~rch
-

tHestern Hills Bri re~, YYACH tUAN Roa~d.

4.

on the PEIP'ING

The one-span bridec built in 600 AD. - PAO TING (CHINGYUII) R~oa.

at

CHOHSIEN (116 00x-39 30)

rw

SEC RE T

SECTION

4

RAILWAYS SEE PLANS 2 , 4

PEIPING is of- prima importance as a rail center, being a t ermiinus for four major railroads linkingW2 ANCHUIA, NORTH CHINA, CENTRALJ CHINA. These four rail oadcs, the PEIPING Administration of which under the Jqpn ese Army was: in the hands of the 2nd Field Railway Corared, are the PINGHAN, the PEIPING - I1'hKDN, the, PINGSII, and the PEIPING - CHINCHOW.

and

A discussion of these railroads

PEIPING,

and

their fa cilities, in and near

f ollows:

I PEIPINGd-- HMU RAILROAD- This railroad, also 1novmr as the PINGHAIN Railroad, runs for 750 n5.es from PEIPING to HANI(OW. The Northern section- of tho line, near PEIPING, was rapidly overru~n by the Ja~panese in 1937, nd was operated by them after April, 1938, presumably beingdkept in good condition. This section runs through the North China Plain, terrain ,,,hich offers nlo serious engineering difficulties. There are standar'd gauge double tracks from PEI PING to CHAINGHSINT)J N (12.6 15-. 39 49), 18.3 miles Southwest of PEIPING, and a single stand hrd gauge track from
there on South.

PINGHAN BF INCH LINES NEAR PEIPING A, CH GHSINT I--.FENGT!J Ct off. This was formerly a branch from~ the main ?INGHAN line near CH-ANGHSTTIEN (116 15-39 49) to the yards at FENGTAI, South of PEIING. Photog;raphs of '1Iia y, 1945, showed that the amain line into PEIPING had been dismmantled, and that the branch was the only PINGH~IN route into the PEIPING Area. B3. CHi GHSINTV N--T OLI Branch. An abcndoned or incompleted railroad runs from CHAT GHSINTIEN to Tz OLI (116 .3"-39 4+7). There is no report of' such aline:~s having existed before the Japanese occupation.

LIANOIANG. (116
west to T

C.

of' a reported narirow gauge Fields is unlnoivn.
D.

tOLI

LI flGSILNG- T :LI Branch. 0$-39 44) on the min

PINCNAN

The standard gaige branch from

was operational. at least as

line

late as

line 1.0;2 miles NorthJ .z'y, 1945. The status

running fcrom Tt OLl bn to the
This' is

ANTZU

Coal

LIULIHO--CHOUIJ

OUTDI N Branch.

the PINGHAN Railroad into the AiNTZUJ Co l Fields,* The s ection from LIULIHO (116 02-39 36) on the main line 9.6 miles Northwest to CHOUK TOUTIEN (115 5739 41) was probably in operation in January, 1945" The status& a reported narrow gauge extension beyond CHOUJKt OUTIE2N of' Zt .unknown.

another

branch from

II. PEIPING--MUKDN.I 1 RALROAD. - The section of the PEFPING-MUKDN Railroad between PEIPING and TIENTSIN follows a level course through terrain unbroken by mountains, tunnels, or sharp curves. As is the case tith other railroads in North China, ditches parallel the railroad for defense and Gcoinication between strong points, which strong points

SE CRE III. PEIPING-SUXYtJLN RI' hROAD. This railroad, also 1mowr~ as the PINGSUJI Railzoa d, connects PEIPING with PAOT t OU (110 03..40 36)s 500 miles to the Wst on the .SLOW~ River, The railroad enters hilly country soon after leaving PEIPING. Within the first 50 r:iles it hea Ls Northwest, traversing sonie severe grades Ctnd passing thoug several tunnels~ It is a single track railroad, standard C uge.

E

SPLNGSUI MRINCH LINESNEA

P

NG

A. The PINOSIJI Railroad has a branch line from PEIPING to 1 SUA1'CI{ENG (115 29..44 28a). Runin ; first , est and then North, this route enables trains to bypass tho steep grades of Ns UKOU Pass on the main line. It is a single track, standard gauge road; However, this branch is at present not operational throughout its length.

7 -ines West

Fromt this branch, another branch goes to the JIENT0UKOU Coal
of the YOTTGTIN Rijver.

This railroad leaves PEIPING 7 IV. PEIPING-CHIIICHOU LAILRO0AD. UNGHSIEN, and in general ;oing Northto the East, swinging North at r"T east through IKUPEIKOU (11'1 10-40 42) to C1IINCHOW7 (121 06-41 06) on the PEIPING-MU 121 1RI i lroacl. This is a single track,,-standard gauge railroad. V. -PIING3LT R.1<?AD. - This railroad extends along the North and East sides of the old walled citer, joining the Northwest railroad yards ith the dEast Terminal Station: Along this line are located 5 small stations, one at each gate of the city, Tcshengnien, Antiunenan, Tung chinon, Chihuaeannd Tungp eizien. (These stations are apart from the main stations discussed under "Yards and' Stations,, PEIPING area,"i below) . STATIONS (PEIPI.NG AND YARDS

!0"')

East PRdSta^tion and'Terrainal Yard, outside S waill of old city x 260=, available to the r INGiAJN, PEIFlING- .01 EN, .rEIPINGRajiro ads. Listed on maps as T' UYh-CHCHAN1 and PEI ING-C INaflOIT SUflT : and reported used principally for passenger service.

45501

l.*

I ,

The station yard is 11 tracks wide ,-Aid contains a station bldg passen er platforms, 2 covered; a shop, 4: storage bldgs, a switching tower and 3 misc hie'; s.. The terminal yard is 9 tracks -ride and contains a loce shod, turntable, and 3 whse. All the railroads leave the yard from the E, end. ThoPIiG L N and PEIPING-IfIDEN swring S and 11 to FENGTAI, the PEING-CHINCHOW PAR continues E enda belt line wings N and W around the city to NRT IL Yard, making the East Station available to the PEIPINUG-SUIYtJAN IR,

with 4

2. Car' Storage Yard, at T'UNGOHOU Junction E of East R~R Station and Terminal Yard on the PEIPING-CHINCHOW main line and is believed to be used f or storage of cars to mraake up trains for the East Station. It is 2900.1 E"-C x 500' anfd 24 tracks wide and contains 6 storage bldgs and several..misc bldgs , Aturni ng viyois W of the 5yard. .iles f roml East Station is 5.9 r2 3. YUNGT~TINT.: Yard and S of it on the PINGIJAN & PEIPING-SUJIYAM x 600. and 5 tracks wide with 2 station:;bldgs and Six short spurs serve adjacent storage area which civi lian-type storage bldgs. I2R Station & Teminal f . It is 2800? E-7 R5 a loading platform. contains many small

AV"
S3.*1

4. NWKAN AD Droznc1 Ikeo rns from U2GTN 8tz it~o bflU Thrcl, a distrance coV .9 miles, and%-ngs E through the DI mil
miles t o

dead

end,

Y

.NANYU3A/

sera ise bidgs,

3d06 and 3 tr~acks wvide with AD Yard is 1300i NNE-SSI&f In the A/7' area are two recoivalx platfo=s.ea

and is available to the PINGHiN, PEIFING-- 1UKDEN and PEIPING .S1IYtJAN Rt!. SListed on maps as IISICHOO~IIN, used principlly for freight traffic, 25 i3tacswecd The freight tand assenryadl0A a station bldg, p two freight contains& considerable rcscswd n gryr sheds 6tx15 i loose stores. The ter Tina l yard l9QO = x 12 51 is' at least 7 tracks wide and contains 2 storage bilgs, and 4"misc bicigs. All the railroads lehve the Wo d of the yar'd and' enter I ?PI N'1E. Yard from which they have access to the maion line.

5. West RR Station and Teniainal Yard just ?'r o'ast RR Station and Terminal 'ard outside of th S wall of the city, 35 0!E41 x

125-1

6. HSIPITNh R Yard, 3.9 miles W of West R Station & Terminal Yard, 25001 E-VT x 230! and 8 track wide with several misc bldigs. The PING-.. H"N 1$ originally continued 17 through this station to YUfJ PflNG where it crossed the YUNGTIN\ River. This trackage has been abandoned and a spur now leads S out of the E' end of the y rd, joining the PEIPING-SUflYtJ! \IRR between FENGTI end Northwcst R Yard.
7. Northwt Po Yard is located outside the Off cornier of the old city wall and 4.6 miles N of HSIPI~r1.7N Yard. The yard is 39001 N-S x 1350,! 1hile this is primarily an inbtellh tion of the PEIPING-SU I IIT R, it as.& a bl& a so':t it e,'I '1i cl ING DNIR'S.' Included in' the yardsare passenger, storage & locomotive repair yards. The passenger yard 30001 x 670' and 14 tracks wride is on the W side of the area and contains station bldg with 3, passenger platformxs, two of which are partially covered, 10 storage bldgs & loose stores. The locomotive repai~r yard Facil,1350t x 3001 and 12 tracks. wide is in the center of the area. ities include la-stall roundhouse with turntable, shop.type bldg, coal-. ing station, two wrater towrers, 4 storage bldgs,. coal stockpiles and several misc bldgs.
The storageo Yard, 3450! x 68-01, is on the B side of the area: and is served by- several spurs.. It contains 6. whsos, sawtooth roof bldg;, 10 prob qtrs, numerous sme1ll misc blcigs, loose stores,. £3. KUINGAl N BR Yard, 1.8 miles S of HSIP IEN.L~ Yard, on the PEIPING *SUIYUAN R? Branch to FBHGTAI, 23001 N-S x 3001 and S tracks ide, serving a large industrial & storage area.

$ . F~r&TA;I RR Yard! 1.1 miles t f the junction of the lines origina ting at the E and, 17 Terminal. It is 11.5 rail miles from East' .R station and terminal yard and 9.9 miles from West R station and terminal yard. The yard is available to the PINGIAN & PEIPING-M':UKDEN P.'s. which pass through entering PEIPING, to the PEIPING-SUIYU±N RR which can continue S from Northwest RIB Yard, end the PEIPJJIG-Ci-IINCHOV R which comes in on the line fromi East IRB Stations and Terminal Yard. The PINGH-IA continues 1,1 from the V4 end of the yardl, on double track, probably as far as CE-ANGHSDNTIN from vwhich. point S the PINGHLNI is single ' r ~k, while the PEI PING-M:UITEN runs S from the 17 end of the yard on double tracks' thou-,i cover of the line indicates that it is not double track "throughout.- The yard is 1.9 riles ENE-VTS=J x 00 and consists of a ma^rshalling yard, freight and passenger yard and repair yard. Also in the area are extensive
rmilitary

supply depots which are served by spurs from the yard.

The freight end "passengei' yard is 31001 x 9501 end 20 tracks wide

The repair yard 200t x 4501 oxnd 4 tracks 'wide is 1 of the freight & pa ssenger yard at the junction of the PINGHAN"IT & PEIPINGI1U IWEN RRts: It contains a locomotive repair shop, three shop..stypo bldgs, turn-table, five storyge.-type bidges, water to er.
,L)

tp

CK:(1STATIONS AND YA^RDS P NH RR WITHIN 50 fILESF OF PEIP ING

10. Ct1ANCHSINTIEN RRI Yard (216 15--39 49) is located miles Si!tyof FPEIPINTG and 6.2 silos NE of LIAN1SIA'NG. The yard .is 34001' NEB-SW x 180 t.n

1843

tracks wide and contcains station bldgj 2 loadingp platforms, s'witching
tower, pedlestria overpass & severol
isc

srlw.1

lcs,

CEANGSINTIEN RI. Shops are located VT of and adjacent" to CHNGHSINf. ~ I?. Yard in an -area 2600' x 2000? and; served by numierous spurs, Facilities include erecting shops locomotive & cr shop., power house, prob foiudry,p machine shop, passenger & freight car shop, two traversing tables, storage ° ~shed, 3 storage bld'gs, -locomotive repair shop, turntable, 5 ac in. blclgs, c 15 o fficial 1 aartors, 24 wiorkers s quarters, water towe;r, storage yard 9001 x 730', 2 cooling stations.
A11.

HSINTfl N

Storage area Spur & Yard leave the lamn tine 0#3 miles I1 of CHMANGRI?. Yard, running VI to 2 storage area s. In the E storage area the spur splits into numerous sidings, while in the other it ter inates in a yard 1400.1 NThI-SE and 6 tracks 'wide. 13. N 1'41.11 MA Station (116 12-39 48), 3.1 miles NE of LIANOSIANG, a loop siding 17501 NE-S I 'with sme^ll station bldg., on

12.

14. LIANGH-SIANG P Yard (116 08-39 44) is located 24.5 miles S of J1 PEIP2.NG. and 35001 NE of the weled town of LIZNGSI NG. The yard is 2200' I-SSt T x 100? and 3 or 4 tracks wide with sre1l station & several maise bicigs. 15. T'OLI Station (116 03-39 47), 10.2 miles NI'! of LILNGSILNG; at this point there' is a junction with the non-operational CHNGHSINTIE ~-T LI Bra nch Line. 16. TAANSHAN Station (11.5 48.-39 53). 26.3 miles NUl of LILNGSIA:'NG, ed to be terminus of branch line.
report..

17. TOUJTIENCHEN Station (116 06-39 41), 30.7 miles SV"T of PEIPING, on a loop siding 2250! NE-S'J with sr. ll station bldg;.

.miles SIT
yard:

18. LIULIHO fRR Yard (116 02-39 36), 11.7 miles 'I of LIANGSI'ANG & 36.2 of PEI 'ING, 2700:1 NE-SITx 4001'arnd 4 or 5 tracks w ide. In main
station bldg, .water tourer, raise~s mll storage bicigs; service area 4001

±t 13C' is Located Nri of N':l end of yard, contains loco shed, turntable,

and misc small bldgs. Also in the yard aroa are story. e yard 1400~ x 250'~ with numerous small whses and loose stores, and 2 smll cool storage yards. From the I end of the yard' a single track spur serves a large unidentified industry 7! of the yard area. The PINGHALN RR? continues &T'from thel 517 end of the ya rd', ihile the LIULII{0-CHOU ' OUTIEN Brach Line swings to the NrI'!. 19. CHOIUI(?UTEN Station (115 57-39 41), 9,6 miles NI'T of LIULIHO. Details uniknow'n. 20. FANGSHANU Station (116 00-39 44), -l3.LC miles NIT of LIULIHOI, is ter inus of reported narrow gauge extension of LIULIH0--CH0LTKT OtTIEN Branch Line.

21.", YUNGLOTS'UN Station (116 0l1-39 32), 41.3 miles SIT of PEIPING, 20001
NNE..-SS'?_

2

tra-ccs 'ide

ith smell sti-. bldg on

SE~ of the UoC1ed town of~ CHOHSI T9~I 2000= bvFr-SSLT and1 3 tracks wide with small station, mis c bldgrs .

ME-S17

23. SUNGINTEN Station (115 55-39 25),; 51.2 miles S\T of and 2 tracks wide with smal station and misc bldg
STAT~IONS

PEIPING,

200

PE

FNG- T IDM,iflI

ND YIDS THIN 50

an''

Kr

Ehi

0PLI

x

1101

21-

5c1

N-S

and

.& on PEPIN- .MUKDENRR~ South of junction with FE1GTAI Yard, 2600!. 5 tracks, smal prob station bldg.

,iesfrori'FNGT"t R114 Yard, 25. TAIISING Station (116 22-39 44), 10.2 station bldg. Small barracks extend':ng N'TSE and not more than 3 tracks, area just E~ of sta , 'on.

26. I EMSHANCHUANG Station, 15.5 miles from FENGTAI Yard, extecding N1TlSE, 3 tracks, several smalbc's

27 *
tracks,

I:NTINQ

Station, 21.0 rues. from FENGTI Yard extendling NAT-SE, 3

compound.

2ON. WIANHUA NOCHAIT Yar'd (116 30--39 36), 27.5 miles from. FENGTLI Yard, extending ITSE, 3 tracks, several spurs, compound. 2?.LANOFLNG Yard, 34e22r.ile s from FENGTI Yard, 28001 x 2301, & at' least 4 tracks, yard, station comp oundd (adjacent village) =C11 area enclosed by wall1; water tower visible, water column roportod.

barracks

1fSE

30. LOFA Station, 43.6 miles from F13NGTAI Ya rd, 2500! x 170! N-SE & prob 3 tracks; station compound a .d adjacent village surrounded by wall. 31. CHANGCEUPMT Station (116 56-39 23), 49-.«9 miles fror.FE GTAI Yard, 2300 ? x 1151 I-SEh an. prob 3 tracks; 'station bldg, several misc bldgs protected on N by wall. S ATI0' AND Y ~fS :EIGSDII l FPEIPING) JTIN5 ? L '~ThSIY " {(Ei

t)T

Yard. OUINGHUAYUA'N Station is 2a,,4 miles N of P ]IPING Northwest wide, with small station, The CHINGHUAYULN " ard is 18001 long, 2 tracks other risc bldgs. 32. 33. CHNGH~tation is 5.6 miles N of pEIPIIITG Northwest PMR Yard. CHONGHO Yarcd is 2000! long, 2 tracks wide, with small station & misc blcl s. SHAH0C1EI Station, l1:9 rules N of PEIPING Northwest RR2 Yard, has yard 18001 long, 2 tracks wide, with srmall station and other mi sc. bldgs.

Rn~

34.

35. CHANGPING Station, 19.5 miles MV of PEIPING Northwest has 18500' yard, small station and other misc bldgs.

Yard, M~W

36. 21.1 mles F of PEIPING, a spur leaves the -main line to gravel or 'sand pits to the N.
of FEIPING Northwest fRB Yard. NAII 7 37. NANKOW jTs 25.6 miles 2550 feet long, 13 tracks wide, has water tower & two loading; Tin Yard* is
pl atf o

12"

ms.-

3 spars leading from Macin

Yard

form

a

storage yard.

f &S {tedWreY d/of* Mi n TtP 1PZT pr3rrlocaP! ounr2' i17 sheds notvehep acobiedmahie ho,

Yard. includes to o ndblcsmthsop;c
+

a possible erect'..ng shop; 2 car shops; a power plant; II, smaller shops; 2 coaling stations: a turntable; 2 whees; and 15 i sc blgs. sIL stora:ge area or S side of Iain Yrd contains 4approx 30 blclg t s Stoxa ru . rrodepot, 2100'. X 330.1, alone N side of 1! Yard, cox )rises a whse, acovered platform, nd apro , 25 sn.11lc lgs.

38.

TUTNGYIJAN. Station is approx 28.~6 rmles NUT of PEIPING fl miles NWT ofPEIPING 1A
for runaway tra~ins.

NV RRfl Yard.
YaTrd, hias

t00085 39. orCHUYANGKUAN Station, approx 32 little no facilities beyond a cutout
40. no 1inov 41.

SANPAO Station,35 m les NW

of PEIPING Ivr RYt Yrd, hasI facilities be ides a cutout for runaway trains.I
CH rINGLUNGGH tIAO Station is 36.8 miles MI of PEPN

U-

Yard.

42. IISIPOTZE StationX, 41.1 loop sidling &misc bldg's .

miles

from PEIPING NWJ RR Yard, has a 2000,

P? Yard, is approx Yards, 43.6 miles NW of PEIPING 10 to 15 -tracks wride * Facilities include classification )card t^ th station bldg and .platform, rep it yard with locomotive shop, w'ater tower, 'turning wye, and isc bldg s.
40002 x

43.

5001 and from

t K NGCHUA.NG

RRP

}Mi

44. HVTALI, 50.7 m~iles 11" of -PEIPING ,t RR~ Yard, has a 170011 long, 3 track siding and a loop siding, as well as numerous coryr:ounds containing
from one to three blcgs . PEAP1NG--S'ACING AND PIP ING STATIONS 111D YAPJDS I''1 OUKOJ DT?.ANCES OF PEIPING

OF

PINGS

fLat, 1ITHI

50

IlS

45. HUBANGTS'UN Station is 8.5

miles

Yard. U Of 'PEIPING NWT 1RT

. 46. PEIESINA N Station is 9.9 riles 71 of PEIPING NWa'y Yard.

47. SHIHCHINGSH IN "(I.--SHIHK IOU) Station is NW'P2I Yard.

pprox 11.4 miles WJ of PEIPING

48.

SA:NCHI-IITIEN Station .is approx 13 ,.8 miles from PEIPING NTT

I'M?

Yard.

49. INTTOUKIOU Station, which ha~ an enginc house, a VTrter
coaling; sta~tion, is 1.6 miles U of 50. 51.

PEIPING

M1 RRf

towecr, and

Yard3.

CH IINGSHUICHEN Station is approx 26 milcs OHIN;GPUK CU

W.of
of

PEIPING NW

RR,? Yard.

Station

is approx 34 miles WI

PE:IPING NW PfR Yard.

PEIPING-CHINCHOY Pd WI7THIN 52. 53. SHUAN3CH'IAO Station is ap -row 9.2

STATIONS

AND YARDS.

50 MILES OF PEIPING miles E of PEIPING.

T'UI\IGHSIEN S Sta^tion is loca.ted 14.3 miles E of PEIPIG. T'NG-SIEN E Station is located 14.8 miles E of PEIPING. BlRIDEE
MIGI

54

I

UKTI5Q-11

OF- PEIFPIG

55. RR Dridoe 15.7 nies S1Y of PEIPING crossing the YUJNGTING Rliver .Vt, reported to be tawo tracks wide and has 15 1007 and one 303 is 1530?t sp4xs with concrete or asonryi piers and abutments. through tus.

S EC R E T

'Wa' ior

56. RR~ Bridge 15.9 miles SIAT of PEIPING is 300' E1.W, reported to be 2 tracks wide and has five 601? deck plate girdler spans with concrete masonry piers and abutiment s
stre2, is un1c x.

57"

4',

IRR Bride 1.7 mules SY of LIAINGSIANG crossing 200.t NNW-SSE) single track prob trestle-type.

an

interni ,ttent

5$4FI~ Bridge 10.5 mles NWY of LIANGSIANNG crossing Lt IULI River.. Detaibs 59.
RE Bridge 2.x5 miles NE of LIULIHO crossing

ww

streum
or

masonry
60.

is

1051 NE-SWi",

an intermittent single-.track, 3 bean--tye spans with concrete

piers and abutments.

SNEW,

RR Bridge 0.8 riles NE of LIULIHO crossing LIUILI Riive~r is 7~5 single track, 12 beam or dlock plate Cirdler spans with concrete or masonry piers and abutments. A/A towers at each end of the bride.

RR Bridge 0:$ miles from LIUJLO crossing tributary of LIULI River, is 170?1MA-SE, single track with 4 beams, concrete or rmasonry pier' and abutments . 62.
River is NE--SW, single tra~ck with 6 bears-type spans, masonry piers and abutments.

61.

185t

RR Bridge 0.7 miles SW of LIUJLIHO crossing tributary of LItJII concrete or

63. ER Bridge 3.5 miles SW of LIULIHO0 and crossing tributary of tha. CHUMAU River is 110.~ NNE-SST4, single track with 3 be m-type spans and concrete or ric onry piers
and

abutments.

64. RR Bridge, 3.7 i les &Y of LIULII{0 and crossing intermittent bed of CEUMAU River is 3001t NNE-SSW , single track with lO..bcamz type spans and concrete or masonry piers and abutments,
65. RR Bridge 4.8 miles SW of LIUTJIEO and crossing CEUIPIA River is 900t NNE-W, single track with 15 prob deck plate girder spans and concrete or masonry piers and abutments.
PEIPING-flUKDEN R BRIDGES IHN JOThES OF PIPN

66.
spans.

Bridge 44.5 miles from FENGTI, 3601 x 201' MT'-SE, reportedly 6 girder

67. Bridge 45.21 riles from FENGTI, 210' x 15.1 girder spans. 68. Bridge 46.5 miles from FENGTAI, 1501. x girder spans. 69.
spans ; nay now only

MI--SE,

reportedly 7 reportedly 6

181NM-SE,

Bridge 47.1 miles from FEN'GTA1I, 1501 x 18:.. be an ermbankment .

reportedly 6 girder

BRIDGES Vr\1UI .flD ( or PEIPINGUIUAN RR jUTHIN 50 IMIItES 0OF PEIPING

70. Bridge 11.2 miles approx 8 beam spans.

NY! of

PEIP~ING NW R1R Yard is 260 feet long with

71. Bridge 12.4 miles N! of PEIPING NWI RR Yard is 4E0t long i&th numerous beam. spans. 72, Bridge 20.9 miles NCI of PEIPNG is 130.r long, prob trestle--type.

SE CR~E T

74.

Bridge approx 26.2 miles M."T of' PEIPING NV

RR?

Yard is

231,~

long.,

R 50 rmiles 1 T of' PEIPING NWIV Yards is 5001~ long 75. Bridge with 5 beami spa~ns, concrete or masonry piers. There are 4 secondary supports between each of' the piers.
HCEN
BB

approx

PE

OF PINs

ITHIN 50 1 JSOF _I

Briclgeiocated 12.4 miles IV of' PEIPING NW Im Yard is reported to have '3 spans, plate girder construction with concrete piers,

76.

VI Bridge 14.5 rules Wf of' PEIPING N RR Yard is reported to have 8 spans, deck truss, and concrete piers (this bridge crossed the. YUNGTING fRiver).
77.
2'
-BRIDGES-

PEANG

HINCHOX' h

WITHIN

50I

FS OF PEIPING

plate

78.

Bridge 2.21. i).es E of' PEIPING is reported to have 3 spans, deckc pirder construction with concrete piers.

miles B of' PEVlING is reported to have 3 spans, Bridge deck plate girder construction, concrete piers.

79.

14,6

TU LSEI WITHIN 50 M:ILES OF PEIPING PEIPNG-SUIYJN +I

NoSUx)

HR.

1.200-foot tunnel approx 31.7 miles M,, of' PEIPING I! hR SE of 0IUYNGKUAN Station 0-39)o

Ya-rd,

and 0.3 miles

of' 340-foot tunnel approx 35.3 miles NWVPEIPING NIT hM. Yard, and 1.5 miles SB of' CH tINGLUNGCHI IAO Station (1#41). VJUKEITOU tunnel, 150't long, approx 35.5 miles I ?' of PEIPING NtW HR Yard, and 1.3 miles SE of: CH INGLUNGCH' IAO Station (141). SHINFOSZE tunnel, 460' long, tpr ox 36.1 rmiiles NU! of' PEIPING NU hIRR Yard, and 0.7 miles SE of: CH'INGLUNGOH'IAO Station (#41). PATLLING tunnel 3580 feet 3Ang, approx 39.1 rmiles Nil of PEIPING NV Yard, Inc? 2 miles SE of HISIPOTIStatiefl (#42).

R

There are no tunnels on the PINGI{AN RR and the PFILING-UhKDN RR, and none reported on the P IPING-GHINCI-i0'J Pt. REPAIR.FACILITIES PEIPING NV! Rh Yard (See "Stations and Yards, PEIPING Area," //7)." P1 !GTAI RR Yard (See "Stations and Yards, PEIPING Area," #9) CH 'A"NGH-SINTEN RH Shops (See "Stations and Yards, P INGHLI hR" #11).* NPINK0V! RH Yard (See "Stations and Yards, PEIPD!G-SUIYU ,N I", #37). K'ANGCHUANG I?. Yard (See "Stations and Yards, PEIPING- UIY~J!N RR #43). ROLLING STOCK Between May and August of' 1945, photos showed PEIPING proper to have an avrro of' 32 locomiotives and 615 cars. Up till Ia rch 1.945, the PINGI-ILN Railroad (the mest' important of' those entering PEIPING) had approxc 50 locomotives and froma 1,000 to 1,200 car's

To recent s

o1

is avri..ablc. Before 1937, bet Coen PIPITG canid the MA.uCNtJTPIAN border, there 251. locomotives and 5,345 cars.

stock on the PEIPING.I AUDN

lo ad'

,,re

Also in 1937, the PXNGSUI R~ailroad had 138 1occzotivos and l,682 cars. However, it is believed that this number has subtnantiolly decreased lurng the war, dlue to the transfer of rolling stock to other raiiroacds.

(

s

%

'

S E C RI E T

rr

rSECTION5
(PEIPING-'.IENTSIN

AREA)

The PEI (HAT) River system corosed of 5 principal. rivers joining near TIENTSIN and discha~rging into the YELLM Sea~ through a comon estuac~ry known under tv different nHanes. At its mouth near TIMT the ostu ' xy is know~n as the NAN River, and its hea~d nea~r TIENTSIN as the HAT River.

is

att

The rivers forming the system are:
No. 2, 3* PET

No. No. No. No.

4 YUNGTING
5 TACHtING 6 Hsi 7 YU or YUJN HO (Grand Canal)

The section of the PET River between TIENTSIN andt TUNGHSIEN is also known as the TA Rivcr. The PEI River is the most important of the group. It forms a pa~rt of the through-routo from the L -IER YANGT2 via' the Gra~nd Cna~l to PEIPING) and it is the only river in North China a~ccessible to se~goig vessels. 2,. Detail description of the rivers inclosocd in this system a~re a~s follows: ~.PET River.

(2)*

(1) The PET River rises in the mountgins of SHANSI Province a~nd flows par tly through mountin gorges and partly through the North China. Plain. (2) River is navigable for 145 k_.. (3) Depth of river varies frar.6 n.. or more. (4) Velocity is 2 to 3 knots, (5) PEI River ncavigable for snail boats from TIENTSIN to' TUNGHSE. (6) Towing required diring low water on pa~rt of distanice. (7) M.ost itilportazit of small rivexm for naigjtion. b. YUNGTING River.

(4)

(1) Headwa~ters of river is in mzoufij.ns South of the PET River, (2) River is navigable for 160 kn.. by junks. (3) Depth of river varies from .4 m. or more. (4) Towing is required for parts of the'-dista.nce. (5) Velocity of 3 knots or more.
c.
t TACI =ING River

(5)

(1) Very snail river which is only navigable too shall.ow in periods of low water. (2)° Towring probably reqired. (3) Navigable for short cdistance. a. lSTII or (6)

by

juniks.

Probably

a~gR

T

(3) P robasble depth of 0.4 n.
e.

(4) Navigable from TIENTSIN to $HIWCHIACHTJANG.
HAI IVER (3)

(1) This river is formed by the junction of four sr .l rivers
of this system. (2) N~vigble for 69 k (3) 2.4 m. is riiirum dapth. (4) Velocity of ,21nots. (5) Harbor viilha.ndcle smafll coa staff
f.

F

shipping.
to

~EPING. Canal connecting ?PEI Piver at YULIANIG Can 1.

T.?UNGHSIEI-

long. (1) 19 (2) Navi,-nble by boats of .6 m. (3) Locks are required on this canal. (4) Toiving is required in places; (5) Vclocity very sravll1 in Orn CL. ~.Conditions of Njrviition on tho PEI (HAl) Raver, Section

10_.

FroraTo
TWouth (T.I U. TINTSIN

Aprox distance 1i, d Conditions of Nay. Nav'rab.e foxr sa. 69 g-oing- vessels of a draft of ;bout

4"a
TIENTSIN T WUNGUSIEN 115 Navigable for j'unks of a 0.6 ra. draft,

Navin able Tributaries of the PEIX(

)

7vor.

lt'o,

Nnro

tNa4viration

Rearks

4.
6

YUNGTING

Nevig;able by junks forA
Na virable byv junks. N-avigable by junks f or about 300 la-. to SHD{CHIACHtJANG. Na vigabic by junks to Oonflovir S '; of TIENTSIN
&ji

5TACH tXNG

HSI (TZE) YU or' YUN HO

a

TIENj

7

(Gran Cnal)
IN

LXCHING.
avigable for junks to TAOK tO1LL Tributary of the i cl GOanc1.

2.

i..

LUAN River (1)
(1) The LUL~N River rises in the rountnins no'x the CHAHJ1P-JHOIJ pr'o rincicrl bounclar- an^.c disha ryes"Into the gulf of PO Hl 60 On of CHPINT . lUQTAO. Its dr Xae basin has ani 3T area of i06.,000 3 qQ 1te. (2) Navigable for' 300 kip,.. (3) M.inim1um depth from .3 m. or more. (4) Navigable from. raQuth of river to CH'ENG$. (5~Only open for naviagatin' for & months of the yoar; 1.1ay and June best tamie for na vig-on,
"Mona'

i

4

-i

S

E

C R

E

T

(6) Boats

must be

towed

up the river.

LIy

;IV

(2.) The Grcnul CanaJ.. extends fronVHANGHSIEN on theCHI3INT!LNG River to TIE ITSIN oni the HATI River, a dlistance of ,about 1,650 km., and crossces in its course the YANGTZE and the HIJANG Rivers. (2) Navigable from TIFTSIN to LINCHtING. Next 110 km-. S is igable at present tiie.. Plans are in progress to rike this section usable aG Ein. (3) Naviagable by juniks rm ci small launches.I (4) I.Iiin'aun depth is 1.3 n. (5) Capacity of boats is apprexiriately 20 tons. (6) Large number of locks in this canal. b. WET Riter (S)

(1) Short

River which flows into C Canl. Navigable from Gr~nc1 Can*l to TAOQKOU (2) (3) M.Uiinun depth of ,4 rt.: Conditions of Navigation on the
Section

Grand

Cnal (1933) .
?*pro7

FronTo H EN HIJNG..,.._.,. C~t CSEN (YLNGTE River)

stance

Conditions

of Navigation

450

Boat traf'fic is heaviest
in this section. Storm

launches & junks used.
C1ENCHIANG

H1A=YI

207stemi
use

launches & junks

this'section. Water depth .=-4.9n. in wet season, 1.3 ra.0 dry in season.

{UIYIN

HUANG River

395

(11~52-938
Channel)

Navigation is difficult owinrj to silting mz cd breaches in dikes. Reported non--navigable..

HIJANG

(1852-1938
Chc.nnel) LINCH LING

River

.LI.NC}{t

ING

110

TIENTSIN

488

Navigable for steama launches ' nd junks.

4a.N&fto
4v"

.L Bar
nat

t6,n;co of HAT River.
entrance to

TAKUM
Due

Hl River requires drecdging to rmintain

inwxl

depth of 2.5 r.

River,

b;

to

the c.-trene silt ing

conditions that

prevail on the HAT

especially during floods,, control efforts have beon racie to control the silt entering the HLT IRivor through the tributary strear.1s. Following irproveraents were carri dcout in 1932 to prevent the corplete closingr :of the stream for navigation dlue to silting: (1l) OHUCI'TT EN Regulator (lovable Dr) andtio (across PEI River)* Locks

-19-

vowas

iI

t?!

(2) New Channel (Spillwgy) with a sluice. Outlet sluice, (3)

:+

(4) Diversion

axd

Escape Channel.

co

The HAT River' is continually under improvement anid straightening due

to its winding

course.

re qu~ite iar e, considering the small size of boats capable of using the waterway for navigation. Local cormmnerce is probably the rein user:: of the waterways. No information available of the cap acity of this waterway system. PEIPDNG is not on tcny large river, but
River by

5. Quantity of supplies carried over the waterways

a

short canal.

The

PEI

it

is connected to the PEI (HAT)

River vises in the

mountains of SHANSI

Province and fl.ows partly through Mount ain Gorges and partly through the North China Plain. The river averages 45 in, wide between T WNG{SXEN and TtINTSIN. River subject to flooding at high water.
J

long, connects the PEI River at T!.UNGHIEN with PEIPING.. Navigable b fflat-bottomed boat off 0.6 draft. Locks are required in this canal. Small t onnage' is probably handled on the upper--.section, of river dlue to difficulty of river traffic. River is less thin 0.4 in. deep at times so boats have to be dragged over shallov7r sections.

tUJJZNG Cnal,

19ka.

i

s

f+

F

g*

°

$i

n

t

y

y

_rtr

n

R'mrml

--

20.

3t

'

Q SECTION 1
A.

ENL~Y AIR FACILITIES IN

THE,~

PEIPING AREA.

1.

LANTIENCHING (PEIPING)

(11.6

16--39 57)

Classification:
Facilities:

Airdlrome.

Runwoy Nc.S, 32001 x 2101, hard surface probably concrete.. fuwayNE-SW's, 300011 x'1501 hard surface probably concrete. Ru or N7.SE, 3000 x 150't hard surface, probably concrete, Toxiways (unpaved) lead to 19 aircraft revetments dispersed around the field. ' 5 large harmers (3 others were destroyed), 5 shop and repair~ blc rhs, whses, fuel & orniunition storage, large barracks area.

"4

2.

NAflYUIJN (PEIPING) Classification:

(116 24-39 47). Airdromae.

Facilities:

500! , cacrcrete surf ace. Runway NVT-SE, 34301 x 660 t, concrete surf ace. Runway E4..T; 41501 x 2001, graded and rolled.
Runway E-WT, 24501 x Runway E--W; 2650 x 1 3510'.graded and

Runway N-4; 6550? x 6301; graded and rolled. Runway E-.W; 3700?. x 475', sod surface. Runway N'-S; 3200?1 x 600..1; sod surface' Runwac* N-S, 38001 x 6001, sod surf ace. Dispersal.' in 51 borbor & 17 fighter revetments around th1 hangars, 12 shops, 33 storage buildings; 16 rovetted fed1 storage buildings, 220 barracks in S areas, storage revetments. 3. TUNGI'SIEM (PEIPING) (116 39-39 55) Classification: Airfield.' Facilities: Runway NNE-SSO, 5300? x 680, graded and rolled surface. 28~ aircraft revetments aoeon;taxiways from field. 5 smll servicing buildings.

rolled.'

4. COOSIEN (115 58'39 28) .
Classification: Airfield. F ilities : Runway NNE--SSWf, 6700! x 14501!, under construction. 30 aircraft revetments in 2 ar'eas served by taxistrips. Barracks area of 20 buildings.

Be.

AIRCRAF1' REAIR AND M1AINTENANCE FACILITIES IN PEIPING

AREA,

The principal~ aircraft repair and r aintenance centers in the PEIPING area are located at L INTIENCHANG and NMNYUAIN Airdroiles. Relatively few facilities are located at other fields in this area.

At LLANTIENCHPNG airdrome (116 16 39 57) the repair and maintenance facilities are contained in some' 5 hangars and 13' shop buildings which are located adjacent to the airdrome. A concrete serv~ing apron served by concrete taxist "ripslceading from the rain runways, is located in front of the servicing area. Quarters and storage buildings are avail~able nearby.
The NANYUAN Airdrome contains a comparatively J rge servicing area on the North side of the field. Available here are some 11 hangar type buildings rang from 175=: x 460"1 to 160.~ x 130!. and 2 large shop type buildings and several srna1r shop buildings.:, Storage warehouses and open storage revetments are located on the field or nearby, A very large numiber of barreJks buildir~gs dn barracks co n 1Yf4/1\mponAre ava'1i ab1lo -ne .Zthis field

"

C.

JAPAN~ESEh AIR SERVICE UNITS LOCAED IN GENERAL PEIPING AREA:
1..Third

ArSeo

o~d(Airfield Ui)

a. Code number 98~63. Last reported in general. PEIPING Area December, 1944. c. This unit is a headquarters organization supervising' the work carried out by the airfield battalions' and corpanics in the area. They are responsible for ground mainten,-'ncoy supply and aclniistrative, service for tactical units within the area.

b

No information is available on the subordinate units of the H-q.

2*- 15th

Field Air Rep air Dept~ (Repair Unit).

a. Code number 9885. b.Last reported at Nt'flYtIAN August, 1944. c. This unit with subordi~nate branches are equip1ped1 to make extenfsive repairs on aircraft, being responsible for4th, and sometimes 3rd echelon maintenance. Also handles repla cemaent aircraft and aircraft supplies.

3. 14 Air Signal Regiment.
a~Code Last C, This Eq within an Air
b.

number unknjown. reported ii t general. PEII'PING Area July,, 1944.& unit responsible for corirunications between all. Air Force Division's areas both wire and radio.

4.

51st GroundAir Radio Unit,
@,Code

ground

to aircraft in flight.

b: c.

number 17316. La~st reported in general. PEIPING Area Sept., 1944. This unit is respo~nsible for radio comraunication fromt the

5. 105th Independent Air Training Brigade.
number 2389.' La~st reported at NANYtJAN Sept., 1944. . This unit is an ac~nnistrative organiza tion which directs the operations of subordinate air training units. No information is available on subordinate units of this organization. a.

Code

b:

D.

SITE~ FOR FUTURE AIRFIELDS. Although practical~ly no informa~tion is available on specific airfield

sites that coul~d be developed in the PEIPING Area., a brief study of aerial photography and groundl reports on the general Urea show several areas

favorable to the development dof air facilities. ITthin a radius of 12 miles of the city of PEIPING, the ground surface is t leel and cut only by drainage ditches and levees along irrigation canals. Scattered vil '. ages and groves of trees cover the genera l area and a certain number of these would have to be removed in order to develop practically any proposed site.. Outside the 12 mile radius the area generally N~rth and tWest of the city is hilly and unsuitable for airfield sites, The area South and. East of the city is a continuation of the level plain on which the city is located. Nm.roux sites are probably ava)lable between PEIPING and TUNGHSIN (116 39-.39 55) to the East andcl PEIPING annd CIOISIEN (115 5839 28) to the South, -22.
(Po
SR 4 ' k

iu A'Sni

SECTION7
JLPLNESE ST~GTH

IN PEjIPING1

i~h

ESTfl.tA'E

OF

JAPANESE STflNGTH: Unit

1~7

f ugm it

194.5 Strength

North

China. Area

Army

500

E:lements 63rd Division ?*

5,000

3rd Inddpend'V Gi~xrd Unit
Non- division11 troops

4y,800
2,000 s7500 TOTAL

Air.. Gro'und Troops

*63rd

Division has possibly movecd into ,MANCHURIA. See Section on "P ersonc ities" Lfor n rtes of i iit in the PEIPING Aron,

NOTE:

ry cornders, etc.,

--'23-,
via a

1

to

rgt

sue.,

aSCTI0N 8 CHINESE FORCES IN THE PIIGM Chinese forces in the area of PEIPING include Conmiunists and Puppets, of which there are 3 kinds of formations with a bearing on any military situation that may develop.' No Central Government troops were in the region as of 16 August 1945.

C01.1-JNIST

FORCES.

Contunist troops of theSl NSI-CHAHAR-HOPEI 1' . aso aro. disposed around PEIPING representing elements of the Central HOP~EI Mlilitary Sub-Region, HOPEI-C1{AHARiMilitary Sub-Region, and the HOPEX"JEHOL-LIAONING Itilit ary Sub'.Region.. It is believed that rnprox mately 4, 500 regulars organized as regiments andic detachments (with regimental status) and 4, 500 county guerrillas, also f airly classedl as regulars could be deployed to occupy thd city within 48.72 hours. It is further believed that an aditional 10,000 reggula r3 could be brought in support within 6 days tines, It-is further estimated that 30-.40,000 militia-mon of the People-.=s Armete Slf Defense Corps could be mustered along the con unication lines leacing

into

PEIPING.

CHINESE PUPPET FORCE~S.
1,

North China

Pacification A. r.

The only Chinese puppets in the area w~ho mtist be considered se,.ously are the units of the North China Pacification Army under the North China Political Affairs Commission in PEIPING. This army is constituted in Group Armies which now comprisc 2 or"3 regiments each. Regimlental strenth is generally c stima ted at 1, 500. Their equipment in so far as light infantry weapons are concerned is fair. a. The 7th Group Army with 3 Regiments (18th, 19th and 23rd) has-headquartes at YUNGCHING (116 30-39 19) and is disposed in .ANTZE (116 44-.39 24), (116 18-39 27) and PA (116 24-39 07) counties (Hsien) South of PEIPING. Strength, 4,500.

MUAN

b. The 2nd Group Army is in the triangle form~ed by ?A0TI; YUT)EN, and NINGEO in Northeast HOPEI with a nominal strength of 4,000.

co
able strength of

4,500.

l10th Group Army is at YUTIJN (117 45--39 53) with a prob-

It is stated forces under Gen, Tu Hsi-"wu..
2.

d.'

that

PEIPING City is now~ guarded by Puppet

Peace Preservation

Tros

Every county in HOPEI was garrisoned by 6--9 comipa nies -of Peace Pros ervationrtroops under the Puppet Provincial Government and the county magistrates. They are unstable,, poorly-equipped, and ineffective in

cormbat,

Probable

strength in the area:

10,000.

probably in the last eight months, from rJNCRUIIA to Northeast HOPEI..
Exact

dispositions

are

nknown.

Probable strength

2,0

mf

litia of.' the 00 to 00r ae9,0mi PEIPING or on. itsstaei Cost 8t RouteArray in the vicinity of al,roaChes with, an a dditiomlJ 10,000 Regulars that can be brought in support within 6 days.:
There

disposed near PEIPING and

are 5.,000

--66-j~' North China Pacification

e8o000

Army

Troops

9,000 whoccould be moved in support.

20, 000M nchurianZuppets are within. one week t s march of PEIPING.
ESTXUIATE.

.

25 AUGUST 1945.

It ppears probable that the Communists will attempt to occulpy the ,city' of PEIPING and that the Pacification Army Puppets will, wherever possible, attempt to hold their positions awaiting Central Goveriment support. The County Pea.ce Preservation Corps will probably desert and otherwise refuse action,
T+ -3 ' T 2t
.

*~LTN1

Wfith the end of'the war, COP0 forces i .ediately began operations with the objective of seizing PEIPING, and to date they have ttk1en towns in. the outlying areas of the city, with the occupation of the airfield South of the city reported. In 1iew of the fact that relatively Affective puppets' have been reinstated by the K.IlT, the outcome of fighting is undeterminable.. to note that at the. time tko fitreperpations were It3Wi bea,: -hhCCP had relatively small regular forces in the area. Stroang possibility is that reinforcements will arrive fro'a .strong 'CCI' areas to the Southwest and provide the means for CC? occupation. Significant, on the other hand, is the J1Danese warning to that they intend to maintain order and warn CC? to cease attacks on cities. Japanese strength in PEIPING s more than enough to hold the, city. It is generally accepted now that the occupy -PEIPING..

MNN

COP

will makle

an ali-.out

effort to

Ito

SECTION 9 DEFENSES

Ground defenses in the PEIPING Area are divided into two groups, based on their primary purpose. The first type those dlefenses designed primarily for defense - ;,inst air attack. These are cor~osedl of anti-aircraft guns of typos heavier than 75 ram. and automatic weapons and anti-aircraft achine gun~s.. These a.nti..aircraft defenses are grouped around the air facilities and the principal rail and industrialI targets in the vicinity of PEIPING. A very few air' defenses are located in the city proper, these consisting chiefly of anti-aircraft machine guns, searchlights and AR? treonches. (See Plan 7),

Lre

as dlef ense

The second group of dofenses are those designed primaarily

against ground

attack.

In the PEIPING Area this type

of defense was designed for protection against guerrilla attacks rather than attack by lar'ge armies. These defenses consisted of trenches,. parall~el to railroads leacli ig out of the city with il bxslocated at intervals along the line. Each rail bridge is usually protected by a pillbox or strong point which corined both ground defenses and anti-.aircraft defenses,. No elaborate trenches or eazYth work defenses have been reported in the PEIPING Area froma either ground or aerial reconnaissance sources,

-26-

2
.S^w

~ j;
er i

t
V

~SECTION 10

AIITAiY.$PIA AND

STOiAGE

2LPpplyy
There are no actual figures available concerning the capacity of storage or supplies in the PEIPING Area. The following summary of railroad facilities, rolling stock, in the railroad yards will give an indication of the supplies being moved. Railroad equipment observed by aerial photograph on 25 January 1945 in PEIPING was:
Pas sezge r Box Flat Hopper Unidentified 158 515 20 191

4

-

134
1018 or are (plus 48 locomotives) area are:

Total
Normal supplies that pasS through,

stored in, this

1.

Ammunition Rations

P.O.L.
Coal and Coke Iron and Iron Ore Vehicles Lumber .Cotton 7oo) Storage and supply of military goods are extremely important in the PEIPING Area due to the junction of four large railroads in the vicinity. Storage For storage areas in the PEIPING Area, see PLAN low correspond with those shown. on PLAN 6 . 9, Storage 5000' x 18502 6 ; numbers given be-

7 storage bldgs av. 110' x 30', 63 storage bldgs av. 45' x 25' dispersed in groups 4 to 6 along l3ldgs served by network of roads bases 6f hills.

vwith single RR spur entering area. 47. Storage 1800' x 280' Storage 2900' x 1400' 25 storage-type bldgs ranging 530' x 50' to 75' x 43', 4 qtrs av. 100' x 30', several small misc, , Listed on old map as a gr bldgs. 4 neighboring areas containing 3 whses 385' x 60', 3 vwhses av 230' x 351, several smaller bldgs, area of coal storage, large quantity of loose stores. Area served by 6 RR spurs. 2 box cars present 25 Jan 1945. 2 whses 225' x 55', 4 storage bldgs ranging 200' x 45' to 150' x 40', numerous small misc. bldgs, large quantity of loose stores; served by several spurs from adjacent RR yard 10 box cars present 25 Jan 1945. 27 storage-type bldgs ranging 370' x 60' to 75' x 60', several small misc bldgs. 3 whses ave. 450' x 65', 5 storage bldgs ranging 220' x 60' to 65' x 60', 3 barracks-type bldgs av. 160' x 30', several small misc. bldgs. 2 small compounds containing 4 whse-type bldgs ranging 350' x 55' to 185' x 55', 9 storage bldgs av. 140 x 751, several small misc bldgs.

53.

58.

Storage 3500' x 600'

70.

Storage 850' x 520' Storage 10501 x850'

82.

86.

Storage
1500' x 6001

:

Pl.

~r., ~i
ii?5 ,

~""~l71

::TI~
108. Depot & fuel storage 2500'x 2000'

"'c

MOM
113.' DC20%~la~~ Storage

walled compound containing 13 whses 2651 x 65', 10 misc. bldgs ranging 170' x 40' to 60' x 40', large quantity of loose stores; smaller walled compound with 10 earth-embonked bldgs 90' x 80' prob. with reinforced. concrete roofs each divided into 4 compartments believed to be for storage of Area served by 8 RR spurs.
-

ii~L~

1700' x 4001

4 whses 230' x 90', small misc. bldgs. 3 whses storage-type 370'

18 vwhses

av.

1501

X30'7 several

C002,~yo~c~ 117. Depot ZOOD~
.ar 1~BEB

& bar-

x 150', 40 whses 380' x 451, 60 whses and bldgs ranging 4851 x 60', many small scat,

racks 7000' x 4000'.

tered misc bldgs, dispersed truck revetments and storage slots, loose stores, Area served by several R
spursr with 2 covered receiving platforms 1400' 8 box and 2 hopper cars present 25 Jan 1945. long;

125.

Barracks & Depot 3600' x 3000'

9 whses and storage-typo bldgs ranging 235' x 65' to 120' x 40', 2 prob. radio towers aligned NNE-SSW and 150' apart. Largo area of loose stores in N part of
area served by 7 or 8 branches of RR spur, 2 receiving platforms 570' long. RR storage yard 1450' x 185' and 6 tracks wide in S part of area.

128.

Storage
6000' x 3000'

76 storage bldgs av. 45' x 15' dispersed in
along bases of hills by network of roads camouflaged receiving

draws and

in groups of 4 to 6, area served and single-track RR spur with 2 platforms 500' long.

1319

Barracks &
storage x 2300; 3800'

16 shop and storage bldgs ranging 220' x 60' to 110' x 40', heat unit 215' x 45', 12 misc. bldgs av. 951 x Area served 301, area 1400' x 900' with loose stores. by several RR spurs from PING-AI'TN and CHANGHISINTIEN TUOLI RR Lines. 25 dispersed and revetted storage bldgs 45' x 30', 6 storage bldgs 130' x 60', 12 storage bldgs av. 60' x 30', earth covered storage mound 80' x 25', 10 storage revetments av. 100' x 3' dug into slopes, 8 barracks

10.

Ammo depot
4200' x 3000'

and qtrs reaging 230'

x 55' to 125'

x 30'.'

by single track RR spur dividing into two tracks area with receiving platform 500" long between.

Area served within
Area

surrounded by trench and wall with guardposts.
41. Aiuno Storage 1200' x 700' walled compound containing 7 storage bldgs ranging 215'

x 60' to 120' x 45',
3 of these rovetted, ported by ground age area.

27 storage bldgs av 80'

60's

several small misc. bldgs. Resources to be an important ammo stor-

.2$.
Y&1~i

I
T ! y' ' f

-

,

!l4

a

aiW ;e~

tit,

SECTION

II. ELECTRICAL MEANS OF COMIMtThICATION

1.

GENERAL+"

ina all parts of Occupied China,. Communications during the War were controlled by Japanese military authorities, and were used primarily for military purposes. Radio in all forms underwent considerable development, as compared with other forms of communications.., Telegraph and telephone services were open to public use in and between a limited number of important centers. All submarine cable services in China were under Japanese control. 2. TELPHONE

Telephone communications in Occupied China were maintained by the Japanese, who indeed installed some new long-distance and local systems. Trunk connections existed between certain key cities, although through service was not always

available,

as different

lines entering a

city were not necessarily connected.
various hsien

PEIPING, like other cities nearby.

important centers,

was connected with the

3.

RADI-TELEGRAPH
of Japaneso

Radio-telegraph, however, was a highly important means communication. Radio-telegraph stations in PEIPING wore: XKN3, with a frequency of 4300 ko. XKB, with a frequency of 10,570 kc. XKC, with a frequency of 12,500 kc,.

4.

IADIO

(VOICE)
(voice) in Occupied China consisted of Japanese-

Radio broadcasting

censored programs,

news, and propaganda.

Short-wave reception was prohibited

except for military and administrative use, and the Japanese sought to limit private radio sets to 3 or 4 tube mdium-wavo typos. Recognizing the value of radio for propaganda purposes, the Japanose subsidized manufacture, so that

small medium-wave sets could be sold for as little
tion known to have been operated by the Japanese with a frequency of 640 kc. 5. TRANSMITTERS The locations in

as $I2.

The only voice staXGAP,

PEIPING was station

and appearances of PEIPING transmitters,

radio-telegraph or

voice, follow:

(See Plan

6

):

masts of PEIPING (not on mosaic) - 6 stick Radio station 9 miles East by 1170 feet with approximately 700 feet high arranged in a rectangle 2000 feet the long dimension north-south with a mast at each corner and one in the middle of each of the two longer sides but placed approximately 150 feet in toward the center; centrally located transmitter building. There are other smaller towers just west of this area. Installation number 93 - Three pylon towers arranged in. a triangle 360 two 360 feet east4-west, and 525 feet northeast-southwest, feot north-south, of the towers constructed on the city wall. This installation is located in the area of the former American Legation. Buildings in the area include the

multi-storied marine barracks (260' from 230t x 55' to 110'' x 45t.
Installation number 125 -

x 451)$ and five other buildings ranging

In this
--

radio towers aligned north-northeast
Installation as the Italian number 62 Legation. Single

barracks and depot area are 2 probable south-southwest and 150 feet apart. tower in the area listed on

pylong-type

map

Installation number 123 - A walled compound containing a radio installaNoticetion (propably a high frequency homing or direction finding device). able are three buildings 30' x 25f spaced 250 feet apart in a north-south line,

each with a2low adjacent towecr; a probable power u small miscella~eous buildings. ~2 t3
s4V*

_

ures

ulig

niji

~

II

M

RTE T

SECTION

.b

L.,

The following table lints power plants in the PEIPING Area :

Operating AgcncsrC Ching~ Hua University Chinese Government Hua Shen Electric
Liht

TLnstalled wacity

Plant Site '. & Layout

Type of ,.. Current used
v.,s

267 ,ill xiir tura
Load 124.

Ching Hua Uiver--- c. c, 2.12 00 sity in PEIP'ING. 50 cycles. Militairy equipment

355
20,035 Mlanixa load 10,000
7C' 35

Corp.

a-c, 5,200 v.'.

or

3,300 v., 3
,..

phase.
1 w c

Chinese Governmaent'

PEIPING. PEIPING Electric Light Co. PEIPING Street Car Corp.
700

PEIPING Legation Quarter.

a".c, 220 v. te.-a-c5,+250 sV. 50 cycles.

3,100
U zd&~in

2,200. PEKING Chinese Electric "35,00 Light and Power Co., Ltd.;

load

LUNGESIEN near PEIPING.

Address:

Chain-.Mon

Brick bui ldlinrv itlaauM,'3,000 v., reinforced concrete or 5,250 v., 3 foundations (boUil-. phase 50 cycles.
er house

Hsichung Kong, PEIPING.

-and tur-

bine house) at Hie Yueh near Shihch'ng'-shai
on the PEIPING to 1ET GUKOtI

Railway, nor PEIPING.
PINGHAN

Railroad

Shop of the P INGHN Irailroad in PEIPLING.
20

d-C, 110/220 v.

PING~HAN Raibvay Electric Acinistration Bureau. Pi itting Office of Finance Ministry.

PEIPING

714

Printing office of th~e Chinese govt:~ in PEIPING. PEIPING

cl-c, 220v.

Ta Sung Li Electric ' Company. PEIPING Union Meict.1 Colleu'e & Hospital

(Rockefeller

675

Foundation).
"r

Grounds of PEIPING d..c,220/ll0 v. Union Med. Coll. & Hosp. '(Rockefeller Found,) ,PEIPING. -30-.

P0WE1P. PLANTS in PEIPING (Cont? ) . Operating

1111 _
w
a

A

ency

Installed Cc'pa.ity 20 M1'1ximun 340

P1, nt Site
Vie

Layou~t

Tyne of " Current Used.

Ministry of MIvilitary Afairs

load

Army wool factory in PEIPING. YENCIIING University Grounds in PEIPING.

cl-c,

220 v

cl-c, 3210/
220 v.

;:All p1^nts are stem~i type; except PEIPING Electric Light Co., which is coal2I gas.

41
_

t f

y

L

I

p

m

Industry in have been so used
factories

the Peiping area is argey
to

ligt

indst o r
of arms or military supplies

Such shops as could be acapted

the production

by the Japanese., Even these are mostly small, scattered, and barely deserving of' the term "industry" 1 . A list of principal shops or
follows:

1.

North China Factory of the Borth China Expeditionry Army. The factory is

(an arsenal) and

located on the east side of the Yunghokung St.

about 1500 meters long and 40 meters wide. It is divided into 6 shops:for manufacturing guns, light machine guns, rifles, grenade throwers, a foundry and a carpenter shop. The factory also makes gas bombs. Over 1000 workis ers are employed.

2.

Puppet

Wlelfare

Office

Repair Sho

yangmen al, to

It is located on tihe id site of the Nanimentsag inside the Ch' ogate and is about 200 square meters in area. This is really an arsencontrary to the Chinese name, and has 300 machines. Its output from Feb. Sept. 1942 was 200 light machine guns, 60 heavy machine guns, ;0 small can-

non and 8000 rifles.

3.
is

Shih Ching San Foundry. This is4'3:©c ted in the Shih Ching San (ivits) west of Peiping.
which was established shortly

This
after

the largest

foundry in

North China,

the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937. Its output was 300,,000 tons (metric) of iron per year. A machine shop is attached to it for making machinE used in the foundry and in 'nines. There is also another power plant and
foundry in installations the same area. in the Shih All three of theseo are Ching San Western hills,' the biggest manufacturing and the area is called a

"heavy

industry
Koito

region'" by the Japanese. Foundry.

in

arsenal is

reported in

this

area.

4+,

Hutung,

This is located on the old site of the Haiching Foundry in Fang Chia Yung Kuing St. Its main work is to make mine machinery, electric equipment and to repair arms. In 1942 it contracted to produce 10V,000 shells for grenades and knee mortars. It has 60-70 machines and employs over 200 workers.

Ho

located Jttierest end otte uth of Peiping near the streetcar terminus there. It has over 'lO0 machines andermploys6ovet 100 workers. Since 1943 it has made light machine guns.
/ita.

is

6.

Kubeta Foundry.
Peiping branch. This is another industrial installation in the Shih

Ching Shan area.
manufacturing plant 7.

It

was established in
in North China.

1939 and is

the biggest steel

pipe

Nankceu Railway Shop.
It is located to the east of the Nank'ou
tall chimneys.

xailwr'y

station and can be
is in the south-

recognized

by its

The

locomotive

roundhouse

western part of the station vith a corrugated iron roof and tall There is also a large locomotive repair shop jzere.

smokestaccks.

8.

Ch

ang

Hsin Tien Rail ,<ay Shop.
the Ch' ang d;sin 'ien railway statIn 1943 the Japanese were building s.". t..a n on the we.st side of
'n

It is located at the southwest of ion and has a black, corrugated iron roof. a new power ul nt 10 i south of 4 t.o-railay

~ l; ~i ;5jg

4,~

the~Fling Han railway.

Its completion is as yet not established us aac=.

9. Arsenal.K

'Yung Ho
10. Arsenal.

hung StUreet,

between Larts Termple

I..ALPU

On Hatameni Street, 300 meters sou~th of city wall. Since 1940 the Japanese have begun building axn industrial district in the East Suburb of Peiping. So far, it is reported that the Peiping Tobacco factory arid the Peiping Foundry are in operation. There is another industrial district near Oh 'ling Ho Chen in the northwestern suburb of Peiping. Its main products are wool textiles. The folloiwing table gives the general position of Industries in ri0PEH Province for the year 1934. All recent reports indicate that more industrial capacity has been installed since that time. INDUSTRIES,
USED

NUMBE
EACH

and
HOPEd

PE.

~'T of POWER
(1934.).

BY

ID]

PROVIN'CE

Industries Textile Mining Chemical Others Total

Number

Percent of Poweur. 31%

45%
17% 11

30

7Cf%

Peiping and Tientsin have the main industries of the. area. Mosaic Plan gives the location of many areas which Industries appear to be using. Reference numbers 14, 74, 109, 56, 78, 51, 60 and 4.0 on tiis mosaic are locations of the general industrial areas of Peiping.

6

r)

s

SAY ,{

rf

r.

a.

S

TI014

r~"~34PP

auTER S?3L

1.

General. Studies made for the international relief committee indicate that water

may be obtained generally from bores North of ItPJA(G HO (*ollow River) in plains of ,HSINGT'AI (SHUNTER) (114 30-37 04)-PEIPING Areas.

the

The water emerging from the mountains fans out, forming the underground streams which are later tapped by the wells in the area. Exploratory drilling of wells is required to locate the underground streams.

2.

Peiping
a.

Water Supply.
Until 1908, the entire water supply of Peiping was derived from wells,

and as late as 1935 about 80% of the population was still so supplied. The public waterworks was built in 1908 by German engineers and with German capital. It was later bought by. the Chinese from its German owners and was placed entirely under Chinese rranagement. The Japanese took it over when they occupied Peiping. w~as obtained from the Sung River at Sungchiat'un, 10 miles northeast of the city, Where the minimum flow was sufficient to supply the whole population.

Water

The water was clear except at times of summer floods, when the stream carried a heavy load of silt. Since few villages were located along its banks, the river water was fair from a sanitary point of view3, or rather, it was no 8ad for successful treatment. In order to maintain a fairly uniform water level at the intake during

the low-water stage of winter, a loose-rock dam was built across the river. An intake tunnel 150 a. long with a section of 2.2 m. by 1.4 n. carried water
to a low-lift pumping station on the south bank of the river where one 80 hp. steam pump and one 120 hp. electric pump elevated the water to the settling tanks, of which there three,, each 18 n. in diameter and 4.9 m. deep. A 180-hp. electric pump of 19,500 cu. in. d. capacity was installed as a standby for use in emergencies.

wore

In 1935 the average output from the waterworics plant was only 15, 500

cu, m. d., which the 120--hp. pump normally handled. Consideration was then being given to the construction of three additional settling basins to aid
summer required a settling period of Alum was added to the raw water in summer to caise flocculation and to aid settlennt. in handling the heavy silt load that in

4 to 6 hrs. instead of the 1 hr. normally needed.

control pool by From the sedimentation basins the water flowed to means of which any desired head could be maintained on the filters. There were 10 slow-sand filters, each 29 by 14.6 in., eight of which were normally in use, while two were being cleaned and conditioned. From the filters the water passed to two clear-water basins, each of x400 cu. m. capacity, whence it flowved by gravity to distance of 14,300 in. through two 40

a

cm. steel pipes, on a grade 1 in 2,000 to the Tungchihmon high pressure pumping station, situated just outside the Tartar Wall east o±' the city near its northeast corner. One of the gravity aqueduct lines was installed in 1910 and one in Both were reported to be in good condition in 1930.
At

1925.

the

intake of the Tungchihnien pumps the water was sterilized

with

a2 Solition. of chilori~e

of lime.

Anarllyss

were made bout once~ a wveek.

At this to a 300 hp. distribution The maximum

station there were two Duplex plunger pumps, each connected Corliss Ralre steam engine, which pumped the water to tower tank against pressure of 73 lb. per sqj. in." daily output was 17,500 cu. m.
tank 9.15 m. diem. by 9.15 m, deep mounted

The distribution tower tank, which apparentlyrode on the distributlion system, was a tee

on a steel tower 16 me high ancl incased in concrete or other masonry.

105 '

A 40 to 45 cm. distribution main passed through TUNGCHH EN TL Chieh to the HATA MEEN Ta Chieh with East and West branches of 20 to 35 cm. from whviich secondary mains of 8 to 15 cm. branched off to feed service lines of 5cm.'Or less. In 1935 the total 3 ength of the distribution mains was about 21 km,, mostly of steel pe with cast-iron tees and elbows. The waterworks installed over 400 hydrants at principal street corners from which it sold lvater to carriers.
ecent reports indicate a third supply pipe is being installed from TUNG CHIH MEN to P40-: Pei Hoo Tung b. Local Wells.

About 1935 an attempt was made to improve the water from the sc attered local public wells from which the majority of the population
was still supplied. The wells were artesian but as a rule were not

free flowing. The water rose only to a point within a few feet bf the -surface. The usual method of constructing a well was to dig a pit about 6 feet in diameter and 20 to 30 feet deep to act as a storage basin. The pit was usually lined with brick or stone but was not water-tight, A well was then drilled in the bottom of -the pit. to the underlying gravel Some bores were lined with bamboo at depths ranging from 150 to 200 feet. pipes joined by tin ferrules and some with 4-in. iroti pipe~ The use of iron pipe was increasing because of its longer lio,. As the water rose into the pit, it was drawn by a bucket on hand windlass and cdumped into a trough on the ground whence it was ladled into the containers .and conveyed to the point of consumption.
The'e worn often pr .vi s, Cesspoo,
or

s t ablo

ony

few feet

from
tion

the well.

Needless to say, the water was grossly polluted. To improve ibloh3i r
Then the but in the circusthnces could not be successful.

This1condition was general throughout China.
was tried,

public well at Suchou Hutux was selected for experiment. There were a cesspool and a stable v4 thin feet of it and a latrine within 100 feet. The inside of the well chamber was first plastered with 2 in. of cement m!artar, but the water cid not improve. The chamber was then covered with c. 1concrete slab and a hand pump was installed, which delivered the water to a covered elevated tank having brass- faucets for filling containers. at the time data here were This plx. proved successful, and in obtained, thirteen wells had been so improved at a cost of about 530 (U.S.) - each.

1S936,

There his been constant friction between the guild of water carriers and the watevrvPo ks officials, the former being resentful of the introduction of piped water with its resultant curtailment of the guild s business To further its cause it staged strikes and claimed that the water supplied by the waterworks was polluted. Energetic action on the part of the municipal police
was necessary. A large part of the population still obtains its water supply

from the wells, fl a rtesian Wells in Area Death Aprox G. .!

i

Jpnese 13crrCks ~~ I ,i;la(I~a ~ '~
"3

31,

L

151

-

r

Running Artesian 1-h3..ls in Area

et Depth, th 122=
194:.

Approx G.P. H,

prxGII

CZ Olt:%
}AMW

YLEN{ ING University Del iumn Location PEIPING Union Medicca Col2leg PEIPING Union MociiecJ College HAl CHING YANG HANG

16,000 6,000

350 350 225

m3..

4'

t

r4

i.

f

SECTION 15 FOOD SUPPLY AND PROCU ETI NT

PEIPING is the most populous city in HOPEH Province, containing o and one-half million of the province' s estimated twenty-cight million

2

"e

people.

As everywhere in

C ll, q( 74?f!
)J 4ai1

China, intensive cultivation of all

arable

fy

w~~Y

land is carried out in' order to feed the population; 46 percent of the. area of HOPEN is thus cultivated. Wheat, kaoliang, millet, cotton, tobacco and silk are the principal crops in the province. Meat is too expensive in this area to allow its general use as a food-stuff; cone sequently the supply is very small. Pigs and poultry , which forage for themselves, are available to a small extent. The st pSle diet is of cereal foods. A list of the annual cereal crops in the province follows: Rice Glutinous Rice Wheat Barley

752,000

Piculs
It
it
nt

*

161,000
30, 631,000

4,816-000
25,494,000
33,075;000

Kaoliang
Millet Maize Others
*

nI I, In it

20,517,000 524,000

1 Picul equals 133 1/3 pounds.

These figures are based on the production in 1938. It is estimated that little change in annual production has taken place since that time. HOPE{ ranks very high among the provinces of China in food production. Consequently under normal circumstances, food procurement presents no serious problem. However, since the Japanese occupation, the food situation has been more or less critical. Obviously this is due to the demands of supplying the troops with food. In PEIPING, as in many other areas, the Japanese attempted to enforce a rationing system, but in actuality it amounted to nothing more than an exploitation of food resources for their own benefit.

As a natural result, the troops,
ample food,

and those favored by the military, had

whereas the native population often suffered.

e

6

SECTION 16 PEOPLE

X

GOVER1 LENT

After the enemy occupied PEIPING and TIETSIN, they formed a puppet North China Political Council consisting of eighteen members of which one is chairman. Under this council there were three commissions, internal affairs, general affairs and financial affairs. Then there were five other commissions for pacification, economics, education, agriculture and

labor affairs.

In each of these five commissions, there was a Chinese

Commissioner, a Japanese assistant commissioner, and one advsor, one director and two assistants of which all were Japanese.

The name of provincial government was changed into provincial governor's office for the provinces Hopeh, Shantung and Hueihai~c In each province there was a governor, a Japanese superior advisor, a Japanese director, a Japanese assistant, a Japanese army liaison officer (previous secret service), and two to four Japanese councillors. The actual power
of government was in the hands of the advisor and the diredtor. Under the provincial governor's office there were the five commissions for pr vincial administration, finance, construction, education, and police. The vice-commissioners were all Japanese.

The provinces were each divided into Tao. HOPEN had eight, SHANTUNG had ten, HONAN had three, and SHANSI had four Tao. This organization of the Tao was similar to the special inspectorate of administration system which the Chinese Government originally had. Under each tao comes the various hsien (county) offices (used to be called hsien government). In each hsien office there is a Japanese advisor who has the real power of government, and the people called him the "Supreme hsien-governor". At PEIPING, TIENTSIN, and TSINGTAO are formed the special municipal offices (directly under the control of the North China Political Council). In each municipality are a mayor, a Japanese advisor, a secretary, a councillor, and heads of four departments. There are the bureaus of police, labor, social affairs, finance, education, and hygiene, and the offices

of foreign affairs,

distribution of supplies, propaganda,

and public man-

agement. Also there are asylums, office of special administration districts, marine police bureaus, and the office of news-control, etc. A list of the officials of the ptappet North China Political Council:

Chairman
Members of Standing

Wang Yin-t'ai
1Tang Yin-t'ai, Su Ti-jen,

Committee

Tu Hsi-chun, Wen Yuan-mo, Wang Shih-ching, Ch'en Tsng-shih,
T'ang Yang-tu, Yu Hsi-chieh. Yu Ch'in-ho,

Members

Chao Ch'i, P'an Yu-kuei, Wu Tsanchou, Leng Chia-chi, Chou Tso-jen,
Chang Jen-li, Chang Chung-chih,

Chu Shu-yuan, Chou Ch'uan'-sun.
Commissioner of General Affairs Commissioner of Internal Affairs Commissioner of Financial Affairs

Su Ti-jen Su Ti-jen Wang Shih-ching

Commissioner of Economics Commissioner of Pacification
Commissioner of Agriculture Commissioner of Education
*

Wang Shih-ching Tu Hsi-chan
Ch'en Tseng-shih Wen Yuan-mo

Comissioner of Labor Affairs Also IiHANI~ and SIN$I.
1 -~ I~~-Im. -q

Tar~t

Commander of North China Pacification Army
Local Administration: Province,

Pt Hsi-chun tao, hsien, municipality system. Yung Chen at PAOTING; has 8 tao, 63 hsien.

Governor of HOPEH Governor's office

Govenor of SHANTUNG
Governor's Office Governor of SHANSI Governor's Office Governor of HONAN Governor's Office

Yang Ya-hsun
at CHINAN;, has 20 tao, 105 hsien.

Hang Hsieng at TAIYUAN; has 4 tao, 92 hsien. Shao Wen-kai at KAIFENG; has 3 tao,

52 hsien.

Governor of HUEIHAI
Governor's Office Mayor of PEIPING Mayor of TIENTSIN May6ti of TSXNGTAO Founding of the puppet HaIin MnHui

Hao P'eng-chu
at HAICHOU, has 18 hsien. IHsu Yen-chih Chou Ti-p'ing Yao Tse-pin (New People's Party)

The puppet Hsin M m Hui was founded op December 14, 1937, at PEIPING by the traitor Chang Yen-ch'ing, who became its first president. It had a headquarters under which there were directly controlled offices in the provinces and special: municipalities, 25 tao party offices, 362 hsien party offices, and 14,000 branch offices. According to their statistics, there were 6,154,200-odd members. After the founding of the puppet NANKING Government, Miao Pin, the chief of the directing department of the Hsin Min Hui, went to the south and left the control of this department in the hands of Ando. Other changes in its organization took place. There were formed "Youth Squads", Youth Corps", "Reading Class", "Volunteer Squads", "Old

Men Squads", "Women's Societies". "Surprise Attack Squads", "Pacifying Squads", and "Youth Camps". Wang Yin-tai became its president and Yu
Hsi-chieh, vice-president. The various hsien (county) Hsin Mmnui (the central organ for all traitors) each have a president recommended by the hsien-directing department and appointed by the puppet Central Directing Department. The term of office of theprsiaejdtwas two years, and may be prolonged or shortened by the puppet Central Directing Department. The five chief aims of this Hsin Jin Hui were: a. b. c.

Support the new regime to

carry out the people's will. Cultivate lands to promote the people's welfare. Join the anti-communist line-up.

d.-

Propagate the old oriental virtues of filial
politeness, faithfulness,

piety, brotherhood,

loyalty, trustworthiness,
9.Promote

contribute to

purity, modesty, etc. the realization of an alliance with "our allies" and the peace of mankind.

Although all this propaganda was nothing but ridiculous, still there were those old men and book-worms and some of the educated who were fooled and joined the Hsin Mmin ui. In this Hsin Min Hui, there has always been the so called "Japanese line of officials", who have had actual control over all affairs. NOTE: A well-informed spokesman of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Chinese)

stated on 13 August 1945 that he had been advised that Lt Gem
HSIUNG PIN will be the new mayor of PEIPING.

~ Ii; 4n
:

~ ~1

?<,

~8~~1~111Eh

SECTION 17 HEALTH AND SANITATION
A. SANITATION.
T

LA

In common with the remainder of the countt'y, this area suffers from an almJost total absence of. Sanitary Precautions and Public Health measures. Water supplies, due to the use of sewage for fertilizer, are invariably polluted. Disposal of refuge andL garbage is generally not taken seriously and little 'isdone about it. Some small effort to keep the well water pure has been taken but it is only incidental in the city's water supply. Little efforts have been made to handle sewage disposal except by hauling away by carts. PEIPING has a very old drainage system which was built sometime around 1400 A.D. This system consisted of five drains from north to south and drain into TUNGHUI River. This system has been partially repaired but is of very little value. A new drainage and sewerage system has been proposed but nothing has been done. B. HEALTH. The health of the people is determined by their physical strength and environment. The food situation has been critical for the past several years. Present ration is just sufficient to get by. The more prevalent diseases in PEIPING are Kala-azar, amebic dysentory, scarlet fever, and typhus ppidemic fever. The hospitals in this area are: NAME PEIPING Union Medical College Hospital Municipal Hospital Isolation Hospital Insane Hospital PEIPING Central Hospital Chinese Red Crosc Hospital British Missionary Hospital Hopkins Memorial Hospital Sleeper Davis Hospital Davis Hospital NUBER OF BEDS 400 50 50 150 150 50 50 100 50

iXr

a~\nr~-~ ir B-40...

nkO

SECTION A.

18.

PERSONAL ITIES
-

MILITARY COM MNDERS IN TRIE PEIPING AREA

JAPANESE.

North China Area Army CG: 00S: Asst. 00S:

Maj.

Gen.

SIIIMOMURA, Sadamu (11/44)

Gon. T1LKAHA.SII, Tan (10/44) Maj. Gen. TOKUNAGA, Shikaxiosuko (83/44) 63 Division*

OG:

00S:
66 Inf Brig

Lt. Gn. NOZOE, Masoanori (6/43) Lt. Gl. SATO, Sadaji Maj. Gon.
SAKUXMA,

'34

r

.-

(6/43)

Selichi (10/43) (report transfeorred) Isamu

67 Inf

Brig
Maj. Gon. YANAGI,

(6/43)

(report tranisferred)

CG: 63 Div Eigr Unit 00: 63 Div Spg Unit
Capt. NISHiIZAWTA, Hikoyoshi

(9/43)

Capt. QYAMA, Nobuichi (6/43) Maj. TAJIMA, Gompei.

Co:
63

(6/43)

Div

Fd

Iosp

00:

63 Div Vet Hosp

C0:

1st Lt. HIGASHIGUCHLI, Rikio (6/43)
3 Indeondent

Guard

Thnit

CG: B.

Maj . Gen. KOGA MISCELLANEO0US JAPANESE AND PUPPET OFFICIALS. 1. Foreign Affairs Department. 2.
3,p

Chief':

LI Chi Shan

Garrison Headquarters Gcndar-morie. Commtander: HEJANG Nan Peng Of'ficer in charge of' training: LIU Tsu Shong Military Academy. President: CHIN Huo. Yen. KUAN I lisien Chief': YU TIEN Ti. Japanese Advisor:

4.

Intelligence Department.

Chief':

5. Economic Committee of' PEIPING. I INC.

6. Statistics
7.

Department.

Chief':

YU Hsi.-Ohieh.

Finance Department.

Chief':

CIEN Tsai-.Ping i

-yCouiiy . .e.P
.

,:.
Chief': HSU Tsao-Shih.

ssoaaatioian.

~.Archives.

11& la,.

PEIPING Army Liaison Department.

Major General lACHIDA. ,,

YAI~ffDA.
^; ~

Advisor to PEIPING Municipal Council.

* 5~ha~ s iaay not be present

in

y;b nroI r P2IP'I"G Area.

u

t

S ti

aPr-'f 3h~

+R!

fri~tf .

12.
13.

Vice-Chairman of PEIPING Municipal Council Rationing Councillor of' North China Political Commission.

Association,

MURATA.

14.

Director Economic Round-Table Conference (KOND.AN-KAI.)IKtM AJIwM. Kazuo.

1:f Chairman of the Asia Economic Conference. 5.

FUNAI Kurai.

J16.
17. C.

Chief' Detective,

PEIPING Police.

YANG En-Hua. CILIEN Ping-Han.

Vice-.Chief

Detective, PEIPING Police.

OFFICIALS OF THE JAPANESE EMBASSY IN PEIPING. The following is a list of the Officials of the Japanese Embassy,

PEIPIS

i1. ' 2. 3. 4. 5.

Plenipotentiary Japanese Minister in PEIPING: office on October 3, 1944. I~n charge of General Office & Legal Department : Sub-Manager of General Office : Political Section: NAKPXMORI.

RUSUMiOTO Sanetoka, as sums
Ht ATA

Yo shflcazu.

ITAGAKI.
YONEGAI .

Administrative Section: -' Polioo, NAXAG.AI.

7.

Military Section:

ISHII Miyafusa.

8. Naval. Section:

SATO TAUCHI Hisashi. MURAKAMI.

9. Political Advisor:

10. Investigations Officer: 11. Senior Adjutants : 12. Adjutants :

HORI & TS.AJI{AMOTO.

KTJSOMO & YAMUCH I. OKAMTATSU.

13. Economic Department:

14. Chief Advisor & Advisor to North China Developmlent Ce-operation Company: MIM'.URA Iki. 15. 16. 17. 18. Financial Department: WMEKITA Suchatsu. TAKAZ.AMA. Section: T.ANIGA'JA.

Intelligence Department: Agricultural

&Industrial
TAI

Mines Section:

D.

PERSONALITIES (White List)

1. The American Embassy supplied the following nameos of friendly and reliable contacts to be made in PEIPING: professor at Yonching University. Dr. William Hung -Chinese Dr. J. Leighton S-'rrt - American, President of Yonching' University. Chou Kumn-Cht ing r-General Secretary1 Y.M. C.A. 2-. Missionaries and Religious Leaders. A book entitlod "Los Missions do Chine,t' published in SHANGHAI in 1942, lists the following as the ocolesiastics in the city of PEIPING.

G, Vanhersooko

He. Vorhacron
Jos. Routaboul Phil ippe Ou

R. Fl ement
.:.. AYR:S:+3uAAy t9j

Jean.-Bto

Tu

Mark Tchcang Jean- Gabr. W/ang Jacques Iuysmoxis Thadd'ee©oShu Simon Ly JosephTWag Jos. Van. Don Brandt E. Tehang Ignace King Maur. IKavanagh James Feely Kevin Murnaghan Thomas Rice Vincent Shu Jean.-Bto Jon

Ernest Vincent Simon. Yang Baithasar Sia Foul Tchang Joan- Marje Lchng Vincent Vandorpo Pierre Souen Pierre W/ang Ar..Duvi gne au .Antoino Kwan Emilo Ducarmo Mathieu Ly Mich .Crorley Michel Howard Andrew Kavonagh nri Nauviole Narcisse Gr'goire

ywr,.. ;.; , .;;., xF....,' x: '6u u

, '

k

f
?1?i

,
7y,,.

' sy

TK' '.T 6aE9L1'A '

"' :lS9:I *,N

1

Jacques Ma 11

( Italian

Legation)

P.Allegro. Pierre Frond M.A. Stof'ani 3. General Shang Chen ha~s been appointed as Pacif'ica~tion Commissioner of' the PEIPING - TIENTSIN Area. (he is now supposedly onrouto from the United States . .. 16 August 1945). 4. A well-inf'ormed spokesman of' the Ministry of' Foreign Af'fairs (Chinese) stated on 13 August 1945 that he had been advised that Lt. Gen. HiSIUJNG PIN be the now '. r *6± PEIPING.

f"

will

b

#O95Y7

,.

A^f

I

;t
.L ,+' ft' ei '

ggjj ~v~i
"

i z

III 111111I IV lIIIIVIIVIII 111111 IIVIIIIIII
,; f "'-

889LZ 91900 S69 L £

SN 'HJMOMN3AVI1 lUOd AUVSl1 H3WV3SSHV V ONISWOO

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful