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A Minor Project Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics & Communication Submitted to
RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDHYALAYA BHOPAL (M.P.) Submitted By
Under the supervision of Prof.
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
Technocrats Institute of Technology, Bhopal Technocrats Institute of Technology, Bhopal
Electronics and Communication Engineering
This is to certify that the work embodies in this Minor Project entitled “Fire Alarm” being submitted by “Varun Shrivastava” (0111EC091113) in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of “Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics & Communication” to Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal (M.P.) during the academic year 2012 is a record of bonafide piece of work, carried out by him under my supervision and guidance in the “Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering”, Technocrats Institute of Technology, Bhopal.
Approved and supervised by
Prof. Vikas Gupta HOD (ECE) TIT,Bhopal
Prof. Roop Singh Guide Asst. Prof. (ECE) TIT,Bhopal
Technocrats Institute of Technology, Bhopal
Electronics and Communication Engineering
This is to certify that the project entitled “Fire Alarm” being submitted by 1 Varun Shrivastava 2 Swapnil Khaparde 3 Vikash Kumar 4 Vikram Jyoti Das 5 Sheetal Garg
In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of “Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics & Communication” to Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal (M.P.) during the academic year 2012 is a record of bonafide piece of work, carried out /developed in the institute itself. This is the original work and has not been carried at side the institute and not purchase readymade from other agencies. Students Name 1 Varun Shrivastava 2 Swapnil Khaparde 3 Vikash Kumar 4 Vikram Jyoti Das 5 Sheetal Garg
Above facts verified :
Roll Nos. 0111ec091113 0111ec091109 0111ec091114 0111ec091116
Sign Prof Ashish Singh Project Incharge
Sign Prof Roop Singh Guide (ECE)
Professor.0111EC091113 CONTENTS . No. Saxena. I would also like to acknowledge Dr. Brother without their grace this work was merely a dream. Bhopal.Indeed it is a matter of great felicity and privilege for me to take an opportunity to work under the guidance of Prof. Asst. Director TIT. C. for his highly supportive attitude. Date: 22/04/2012 Varun Shrivastava Enroll. TIT. Electronics & Communication Engineering. Shrivastava. S.L. C. TIT. Place: TIT. who helped me in one or other way during the course of my study. Roop Singh. TIT. Vikas Gupta who were kind enough to share the precious time as well as for the keen interest and continuous support extended.G. I acknowledge my gratitude and regards to Prof. I am thankful to all the faculty members of Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Bhopal who constantly supported and encouraged at every step of dissertation. And finally all glory to my Parents. Director P. Bhopal for his great cooperation and support. Bhopal. I would like to express my thanks to Dr. Bhopal. Courses.
1 Circuit block diagram 2.6 PCB Layout 3.3 etching process 3.Bibliography ABSTRACT .5 soldering 3.Programming/ component description 3.2 Circuit diagram 2.1 conclusion 4.3 Component description 11-30 CHAPTER 3.1 Printed circuit board 3.7 Testing and Verification 31-60 CHAPTER 4.2 Application 61-65 CHAPTER 5.2 Layout design 3.1 Principle of working 1-10 CHAPTER 2-Construction and working of project 2.4 component assembly 3.ABSTRACT List of Figure List of Table i iii v CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTION 1.Result and conclusion 4.
The circuit also has an 8 ohms. in the fire alarm. 1 watt speaker for the notification of the fire. Here‟s a Fire Alarm that informs you regarding any fire accident in its vicinity. It has an IC NE555. There is also a thermistor which acts as a sensor. . wired as an astable multivibrator oscillating in audio frequency band.
Timer IC NE555 (IC1) is wired as an astable multivibrator oscillating in audio frequency band. The higher the value of capacitor C1. When thermistor TH1 becomes hot. . which drives the loudspeaker (LS1) to generate sound. The output of IC1 is connected to npn transistor T3.CHAPTER -1 Principle of Working In this fire alarm circuit. Capacitor C1 charges up to the positive voltage and increases the „on‟ time of alarm. which reduces to a few ohms as the temperature increases beyond 100°C. the resistance of the thermistor (TH1) is approximately 10 kilo-ohms. and vice versa. a thermistor works as the heat sensor. the higher the forward voltage applied to the base of transistor T1 (BC548). it provides a low-resistance path to extend positive voltage to the base of transistor T1 via diode D1 and resistor R2. At normal temperature. When temperature increases. its resistance decreases. The circuit uses readily available components and can be easily constructed on any general-purpose PCB. The frequency of IC1 depends on the values of resistors R5 and R6 and capacitor C2. Switching transistors T1 and T2 drive multivibrator NE555 (IC1).
Since the collector of transistor T1 is connected to the base of transistor T2. LED1 is used to indicate that power to the circuit is switched on. transistor T2 provides positive voltage to reset pin 4 of IC1 (NE555). wrap it up in mica tape. Resistor R4 is used such that IC1 remains inactive in the absence of positive voltage. The circuit works off a 6V-12V regulated power supply. . Diode D1 stops discharging of capacitor C1 when the thermistor connected to the positive supply cools down and provides a high-resistance (10-kilo-ohm) path. To prevent the thermistor from melting. It also stops the conduction of T1.
CHAPTER-2 Circuit Block Diagram .
Circuit Diagram .
it is estimated that 1 billion units are manufactured every year. . The IC was designed by Hans R. It has been claimed that the 555 gets its name from the three 5 kΩ resistors used in typical early implementations. The original name was the SE555 (metal can)/NE555 (plastic DIP) and the part was described as "The IC Time Machine". thanks to its ease of use. The part is still in wide use. As of 2003.Component Description About NE555 Timer The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of timer and multivibrator applications. low price and good stability. Camenzind in 1970 and brought to market in 1971 by Signetics (later acquired by Philips). but Hans Camenzind has stated that the number was arbitrary.
The 555 can operate as a flip-flop. Uses include bouncefree latched switches. Uses include LED and lamp flashers. tone generation. frequency divider. Astable – Free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Applications include timers. pulse position modulation. security alarms. Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger. etc. logic clocks. pulse generation. pulse-width modulation (PWM) etc. touch switches. the 555 functions as a "one-shot". . etc. bouncefree switches. capacitance measurement. if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used.IC NE555 Operating Modes Monostable mode.In this mode. missing pulse detection.
when this input falls below 1/3 VCC. 8 V+. 4 RESET A timing interval may be interrupted by driving this input to GND. may discharge a capacitor between intervals. 7 DIS Open collector output. low level (0 V) 2 TRIG OUT rises. 3 OUT This output is driven to +VCC or GND. . 2/3 VCC). and interval starts. VCC Positive supply voltage is usually between 3 and 15 V.Pin Name Purpose 1 GND Ground. 6 THR The interval ends when the voltage at THR is greater than at CTRL. 5 CTRL "Control" access to the internal voltage divider (by default.
IC NE555 in Astable Multivibrator Mode .Fig 1.
that the relationship between resistance and temperature is linear. = change in resistance = change in temperature = first-order temperature coefficient of resistance . Thermistors differ from resistance temperature detectors (RTD) in that the material used in a thermistor is generally a ceramic or polymer. while RTDs use pure metals. then: Where. Thermistors are widely used as inrush current limiters. typically −90 °C to 130 °C. self-resetting overcurrent protectors.Thermistor A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with temperature. more so than in standard resistors. temperature sensors. RTDs are useful over larger temperature ranges. The temperature response is also different. and self-regulating heating elements. The word is aportmanteau of thermal and resistor. as a first-order approximation. Basic Operation of Thermistor Assuming. while thermistors typically achieve a higher precision within a limited temperature range.
and the device is called a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor. and the device is called a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor. depending on the sign of . the resistance decreases with increasing temperature. If is positive. or posistor. Thermistor symbol . so that their resistance remains nearly constant over a wide temperature range. Resistors that are not thermistors are designed to have a as close to zero as possible. the resistance increases with increasing temperature.Thermistors can be classified into two types. If is negative.
particularly for higher sound pressure level or maximum accuracy. and a tweeter. a mid-range. To adequately reproduce a wide range of frequencies. via a flexible suspension that constrains a coil of fine wire to move axially through a cylindrical magnetic gap. or frame. a three-way system employs a woofer. or cone.ABOUT LS1 SPEAKER A speaker is an electro acoustic transducer that produces sound in response to an electrical audio signal input. . The most common type of driver uses a light weight diaphragm. A loudspeaker system with n separate frequency bands is described as "n-way speakers": a two-way system will have a woofer and a tweeter. most loudspeaker systems employ more than one driver. connected to a rigid basket.
ABOUT CAPACITORS Capacitors are components that are used to store an electrical charge and are used in timer circuits. Sometimes capacitors are used to smooth a current in a circuit as they can prevent false triggering of other components such as relays.the capacitor charges up. . When power is supplied to a circuit that includes a capacitor . When power is turned off the capacitor discharges its electrical charge slowly. A capacitor may be used with a resistor to produce a timer.
. Where there is high resistance in a circuit the flow of current is small. Resistors are found in almost every electronic circuit. where the resistance is low the flow of current is large. Resistors are used for regulating current and they resist the current flow and the extent to which they do this is measured in ohms (Ω). The composition of the carbon determines how much current can pass through. The most common type of resistor consists of a small ceramic (clay) tube covered partially by a conducting carbon film.ABOUT RESISTORS Resistors determine the flow of current in an electrical circuit.
The common-emitter amplifier is designed so that a small change in voltage (Vin) changes the small current through the base of the transistor. and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. Transistor as an amplifier Amplifier circuit. . and computers. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. . among other things. some transistors are packaged individually. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios. Following its development in the early 1950s the transistor revolutionized the field of electronics. Today. the transistor's current amplification combined with the properties of the circuit mean that small swings in Vin produce large changes in Vout. It is composed of a semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.About Transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and power. common-emitter configuration. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power. calculators. a transistor can amplify a signal.
Holes are still needed on the PCB. Different methods of PCB construction- Conventional A rigid PCB (usually of thickness 1. Surface mount circuitry is generally smaller than conventional. Surface mount is generally more suited to automated assembly than conventional. The best results are usually still achieved using atleast some manual routing . so there is rarely any visible correlation between the circuit diagram and the layout. soldered and clipped. the PCB layout is arranged to be functional. but not where the component leads are attached. PCB layout can be performed manually (using CAD) or in combination with an Autorouter. Conventional circuitry is generally easier to debug and repair than Surface mount.6mm).CHAPTER-3 ABOUT PCB LAYOUT The connections on the PCB should be identical to the circuit diagram. but while the circuit diagram is arranged to be readable. . with wire-leaded components mounted on only one side of the PCB.simply because the design engineer has a far better judgement of how to arrange circuitry. Surface Mount Technology (SMT) or devices (SMD) A PCB with tag-leaded components soldered flush to PCB pads. with all the leads through holes.
. normally with PTH holes connecting circuitry on the two sides together. but some conventional components (such as LEDs) may be mounted on the reverse of a PCB to suit the enclosure design. This can have its disadvantages as the two technologies require different methods of insertion and soldering. Double sided Component Assembly Mounting components on both sides of the PCB.Surface mount & conventional mix In practice. The cost of the laminate reflects the number of layers. Double sided Laminate A bare PCB laminate having tracks on both sides. most boards are a mix of surface mount and conventional components. If a thicker gold plating is required (for instance a quality 50um contact) an electrolytic process is needed. Normally only surface mount circuitry would be mounted on both sides of a PCB. and then removed part way through the PCB manufacturing process. Multi-layer A PCB Laminate may be manufactured with more than two layers of copper tracks by using a sandwich construction. Normally this is limited to pads on the edge of a PCB. The extra layers may be used to route more complicated circuitry. as an electrolytic plating bar must be attached to the pads. Gold plated Certain areas on a PCB may be gold plated for use as contact pads or as a ROHS-compliant board finish. and/or distribute the power supply more effectively. Gold plating normally needs a nickel underplate or the Gold quickly disappears through migration effects into the underlying copper.
lead is not the only substance covered. Phenolic is a cheaper PCB laminate material. but it is the main one. and that would be helped if boards were made to last. Chip On Board (COB) Where the IC die is attached direct to a PCB. cost sensitive applications.g. Daughterboard A circuit board mounted to another circuit board . The chip is then covered with a black blob of epoxy. and bond out wires from the IC connect directly to PCB lands. A technique used mostly with very high volume.such as a plug in card. Flexible PCB A technique used extensively with membrane keyboards. e. combination connector/circuit boards. cameras. Frankly it would also help if people stopped throwing away so much electronics. . Actually.Immersion Silver plating A ROHS-compliant board finish that is a cost effective alternative to Gold ROHS Compliance Simple definition: Getting rid of the Lead in PCBs and components which poisons groundwater when it leaches out of discarded boards put in landfill waste dumps. musical greeting cards. Phenolic PCB As distinct from Fibreglass. and circuit boards to fit in awkward shapes .e.g.
. During manufacturing. or some other dielectric materials. and the product application. Depending on the application and product end use. plastic. but power. other standards may also apply. the creepage and clearance requirements of IEC/UL 60950-1 shall take precedence over IPC. ground and high di/dt circuits should be routed by hand. The width of the circuit conductors should be chosen based on maximum temperature rise at the rated current and an acceptable impedance. location of the circuit. the coating. the portions of conductors that are not needed are etched off.ABOUT PCB DESIGN Printed circuit board (PCB) is a component made of one or more layers of insulating material with electrical conductors. leaving printed circuits that connect electronic components. For example. Auto placement may be done for most parts of control circuits. The spacing between the PC traces is determined by peak working voltage. for mains-powered or battery-powered information technology equipment. The insulator is typically made on the base of fiber reinforced resins. ceramics.
"Undercut" occurs when etchant attacks the thin edge of copper under the resist. ammonium persulfate. Small-scale etching requires attention to disposal of used etchant. Adjustment of the nozzle pattern. is immersion etching. The simplest method. and etchant composition gives predictable control of etching rates and high production rates. Overhang can be removed by wire-brushing the board after etching. then copper is electroplated to build up the thickness. Where metallic plating is used as a resist. the process has become commercially obsolete since it is not as fast as spray etching. . it can "overhang" which can cause short-circuits between adjacent traces when closely spaced.ABOUT ETCHING PROCESS Chemical etching is done with ferric chloride. used for small-scale production and often by hobbyists. Splash etching uses a motor-driven paddle to splash boards with etchant. As more copper is consumed from the boards. the etchant becomes saturated and less effective. etchants can be regenerated to restore their activity. Heat and agitation can be applied to the bath to speed the etching rate. In commercial use. flow rate. Careful control of etch time is required to prevent undercut. In spray etching. and plated with tin/lead. The etchant removes copper on all surfaces exposed by the resist. the etchant solution is distributed over the boards by nozzles. The tin/lead becomes the resist leaving the bare copper to be etched away. with some as high as 150 grams of copper per litre of solution. the etching time is long. this can reduce conductor widths and cause open-circuits. additional steps of electroless deposition are done after the holes are drilled. For PTH (plated-through holes). Compared with methods used for mass production. which is corrosive and toxic due to its metal content. temperature. and the dissolved copper recovered and sold. different etchants have different capacities for copper. and recirculated by pumps. air is passed through the etchant bath to agitate the solution and speed up etching. in which the board is submerged in etching solution such as ferric chloride. In bubble etching. or sometimes hydrochloric acid. the boards are screened.
1. If you follow the guidelines below you have a good chance of success.ABOUT SOLDERING TECHNIQUE Soldering is the only permanent way to „fix‟ components to a circuit. 2. This must be done carefully because the film will prevent good soldering of the components to the PCB. Use a soldering iron in good condition. The shape of the tip may vary from one soldering iron to the next but generally they should look clean and not burnt. If it looks in bad condition it will not help you solder a good joint. Inspect the tip to make sure that it is not past good operation. However. soldering requires a lot of practice as it is easy to „destroy‟ many hours preparation and design work by poor soldering. The tracks can be . A PCB eraser is used to remove any film from the tracks.
The circuit is now ready for testing. sometimes they can be repaired using wire but usually a new PCB has to be etched. 4. 3.checked using a magnifying glass. Once they are heated the solder can be applied. The heated soldering iron should then be placed in contact with the track and the component and allowed to heat them up. Having completed soldering the circuit the extended legs on the components need to be trimmed using wire clippers. . with its components in position. The solder should flow through and around the component and the track 5. If there are gaps in the tracks. in the bull clip. This will steady the PCB when you try to use the soldering iron. Place the PCB.
PCB LAYOUT .
and then applied to the speaker. hence the fire alarm has been verified for usage in any kind of surrounding requiring fire detection. Since the fire alarm detected the change in temperature and alarmed the user nearby regarding the danger. The thermistor detected the heat and lowered its resistance. which emits a sound which acts as a notification for the users of the fire.Testing and Verification The Fire alarm has been tested by bringing a flamed matchstick close to the thermistor. The current then amplified by the set of transistors was then applied to the port 4. Then the square wave output of the NE555 timer from the port 3 is amplified by the transistor SLB100B. .
The alarm successfully detects the rise in temperature and creates a sound to notify the people in its vicinity.CHAPTER-4 Conclusion The fire alarm has been verified and can be suitably used in different locations whether domestic or commercial. .