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Additional Mathematics
Formula that are within the syllabus and which need to be learnt.
The remainder theorem
Given the polynomial f(x), then remainder when f(x) is divided by (x – a) is f(a).
The factor theorem
If the remainder when f(x) is divided by (x – a) is 0, then (x – a) is a factor of f(x) and x = a is a root
of the equation f(x) = 0
Solution of quadratic equations
By formula and completing the square
2
2
For the quadratic equation 0
4
2
ax bx c
b b ac
x
a
+ + =
÷ ± ÷
=
Binomial expansion
This is on the formula sheet available in the examination in the form shown in the box:
When n is a positive integer
1 2  2
( ) ... ...
1 2
n n n r n n r n
n n n
a b a a b a b a b b
r
+ = + + + + + +
     
  
\ . \ . \ .
where
( )
n
r
n n!
r r! n r !
C
÷
 
= =

\ .
Also be aware that
n n
r n r
n n
C C
r n r
÷
   
= = =
 
÷
\ . \ .
Coordinate Geometry
Straight line
Know the forms of the straight line, including
1 1
1 1
2 1 2 1
( )
y mx c
y y m x x
y y x x
y y x x
= +
÷ = ÷
÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷
1 2
1 2
Condition for parallel lines:
Condition for perpendicular lines: 1
m m
m m
=
× = ÷
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
1 1 2 2
Distance between two points ( , ), ( , )
Midpoint of two points ( , ), ( , ) ,
2 2
x y x y x x y y
x x y y
x y x y
= ÷ + ÷
+ +  
=

\ .
© MEI Additional Mathematics Formulae Updated Feb 2009 Page 2
The Circle
( ) ( )
2 2
2
has centre ( , ) and radius . x a y b r a b r ÷ + ÷ =
Trigonometry
In a rightangled triangle:
opposite adjacent opposite
sin , cos , tan
hypotenuse hypotenuse adjacent
u u u = = =
2 2
Identities:
sin
tan =
cos
sin cos 1
u
u
u
u u + =
2 2 2
Sin rule:
Sin Sin Sin
Cos rule:
cos
2
a b c
A B C
b c a
A
bc
= =
+ ÷
=
Note that
2 2 2
2 cos a b c bc A = + ÷ is on the formula sheet available in the examination.
Calculus
1
d
d
d
Stationary points occur when 0
d
Area under curve between and is d
n n
b
a
y
y ax nax
x
y
x
x a x b y x
÷
= ¬ =
=
= =
}
Kinematics
Constant acceleration formulae
( )
2
2 2
1
2
2
2
s ut at
u v
s t
v u at
v u as
= +
+
=
= +
= +
cos . tan hypotenuse hypotenuse adjacent Identities: sin cos 2 sin cos 2 1 tan = Sin rule: a b c SinA SinB SinC Cos rule: b2 c2 a 2 2bc 2 Note that a b2 c 2 2bc cos A is on the formula sheet available in the examination. cos A Calculus y ax n dy nax n 1 dx dy 0 dx b Stationary points occur when Area under curve between x a and x b is y dx a Kinematics Constant acceleration formulae 1 s ut at 2 2 u v t s 2 v u at v 2 u 2 2as © MEI Additional Mathematics Formulae Updated Feb 2009 Page 2 . b) and radius r.The Circle x a y b 2 2 r 2 has centre (a. Trigonometry In a rightangled triangle: opposite adjacent opposite sin .