Additional Mathematics
Formula that are within the syllabus and which need to be learnt.
The remainder theorem
Given the polynomial f(x), then remainder when f(x) is divided by (x a) is f(a).
The factor theorem
If the remainder when f(x) is divided by (x a) is 0, then (x a) is a factor of f(x) and x = a is a root
of the equation f(x) = 0
Solution of quadratic equations
By formula and completing the square
2
2
For the quadratic equation 0
4
2
ax bx c
b b ac
x
a
+ + =
=
Binomial expansion
This is on the formula sheet available in the examination in the form shown in the box:
When n is a positive integer
1 2  2
( ) ... ...
1 2
n n n r n n r n
n n n
a b a a b a b a b b
r
+ = + + + + + +
     
  
\ . \ . \ .
where
( )
n
r
n n!
r r! n r !
C
 
= =

\ .
Also be aware that
n n
r n r
n n
C C
r n r
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
Coordinate Geometry
Straight line
Know the forms of the straight line, including
1 1
1 1
2 1 2 1
( )
y mx c
y y m x x
y y x x
y y x x
= +
=
=
1 2
1 2
Condition for parallel lines:
Condition for perpendicular lines: 1
m m
m m
=
=
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
1 1 2 2
Distance between two points ( , ), ( , )
Midpoint of two points ( , ), ( , ) ,
2 2
x y x y x x y y
x x y y
x y x y
= +
+ +  
=

\ .
MEI Additional Mathematics Formulae Updated Feb 2009 Page 2
The Circle
( ) ( )
2 2
2
has centre ( , ) and radius . x a y b r a b r + =
Trigonometry
In a rightangled triangle:
opposite adjacent opposite
sin , cos , tan
hypotenuse hypotenuse adjacent
u u u = = =
2 2
Identities:
sin
tan =
cos
sin cos 1
u
u
u
u u + =
2 2 2
Sin rule:
Sin Sin Sin
Cos rule:
cos
2
a b c
A B C
b c a
A
bc
= =
+
=
Note that
2 2 2
2 cos a b c bc A = + is on the formula sheet available in the examination.
Calculus
1
d
d
d
Stationary points occur when 0
d
Area under curve between and is d
n n
b
a
y
y ax nax
x
y
x
x a x b y x
= =
=
= =
}
Kinematics
Constant acceleration formulae
( )
2
2 2
1
2
2
2
s ut at
u v
s t
v u at
v u as
= +
+
=
= +
= +