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6.1 Introduction

Other formalization of the concept of eective procedure: computable functions over the natural numbers.

166

6.2 Primitive recursive functions Functions in the set {N k N | k 0}. 1. Basic primitive recursive functions.

1. 0()

k 2. i (n1, . . . , nk )

3. (n)

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2. Function composition.

arguments,

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3. Primitive recursion.

Let g be a function with k arguments and h a function with k + 2 arguments. = g(n) f (n, 0) f (n, m + 1) = h(n, m, f (n, m)) is the function dened from g and h by primitive recursion.

169

all functions that can be obtained from the basic primitive recursive functions by using composition and primitive recursion any number of times.

170

j

Addition function:

1 plus(n1, 0) = 1 (n1) 3 plus(n1, n2 + 1) = (3 (n1, n2, plus(n1, n2)))

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Evaluation of plus(4, 7) : plus(7, 4) = = = = = = = Product function : n0 = 0 n (m + 1) = n + (n m) plus(7, 3 + 1) (plus(7, 3)) ((plus(7, 2))) (((plus(7, 1)))) ((((plus(7, 0))))) ((((7)))) 11

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nn n m = n

}m

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Ackermanns function: Ack(0, m) = m+1 Ack(k + 1, 0) = Ack(k, 1) Ack(k + 1, m + 1) = Ack(k, Ack(k + 1, m))

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Factorial function: 0! = 1 (n + 1)! = (n + 1).n! Predecessor function: pred(0) = 0 pred(m + 1) = m Dierence function: = n n0 n (m + 1) = pred(n m)

175

m

f (n, m) =

i=0

g(n, i)

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6.3 Primitive recursive predicates A predicate P with k arguments is a subset of N k (the elements of N k for which P is true). The characteristic function of a predicate P N k is the function f : N k {0, 1}such that f (n) = 0 si n P 1 si n P

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Boolean predicates : and(g1(n), g2(n)) = g1(n) g2(n) or(g1(n), g2(n)) = sg(g1(n) + g2(n)) not(g1(n)) = 1 g1(n) = predicate : equal(n, m) = 1 (sg(m n) + sg(n m))

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Bounded quantication :

m

p(n, i)

i=0

i mp(n, i) : 1

m i=0

(1 p(n, i)).

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Denition by case :

g1(n) if p1(n)

f (n) =

. . . g (n) if p (n)

f (n) = g1(n) p1(n) + . . . + g (n) p (n). Bounded minimization : i m q(n, i) = the smallest i m such that q(n, i) = 1, 0 if there is no such i i 0 q(n, i) = 0 i m + 1 q(n, i) =

0 if i m + 1 q(n, i) i m q(n, i) if i m q(n, i) m+1 if q(n, m + 1)

and i m q(n, i)

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6.4 Beyond primitive recursive functions Theorem There exist computable functions that are not primitive recursive. A f0 f1 f2 . . . fi . . . 0 f0(0) f1(0) f2(0) . . . fi(0) . . . 1 f0(1) f1(1) f2(1) . . . fi(1) . . . 2 f0(2) f1(2) f2(2) . . . fi(2) . . . ... ... ... ... ... ... j f0(j) f1(j) f2(j) . . . fi(j) . . . ... ... ... ... ... ...

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6.4 The -recursive functions Unbounded minimization : i q(n, i) = the smallest i such that q(n, i) = 1 0 if such an i does not exist

The -recursive functions and predicates are those obtained from the basic primitive recursive functions by :

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-recursive functions and computable functions Numbers and character strings : Lemma There exists an eective representation of numbers by character strings. Lemma There exists an eective representation of character strings by natural numbers. Alphabet of size k. Each symbol of is represented by an integer between 0 and k 1. The representation of a string w = w0 . . . wl is thus:

l

gd(w) =

i=0

kligd(wi)

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gd(aabaaf gj) = 00100569. This encoding is ambiguous : gd(aaabaaf gj) = 000100569 = 00100569 = gd(aabaaf gj) Solution: use an alphabet of size k + 1 and do not encode any symbol by 0.

l

gd(w) =

i=0

(k + 1)ligd(wi).

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From -recursive functions To Turing machines Theorem Every -recursive function is computable by a Turing machine..

2. Composition, primitive recursion and bounded minimization applied to Turing computable functions yield Turing computable functions.

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From Turing machines to -recursive functions Theorem Every Turing computable functions is -recursive. Let M be a Turing machine. One proves that there exists a -recursive function fM such that fM (w) = gd1(f (gd(w))). Useful predicates :

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3.

cong (x, 0) = x cong (x, n) cong (x, n + 1) = next cong (cong (x, n))

4. stop (x) =

1 if x nal 0 if not

5. output (x)

We then have : f (x) = output (cong (init (x), nb of steps (x))) where

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for every input word w for which f is dened, M stops in a conguration in which f (w) is on the tape,

for every input word w for which f is not dened, M does not stop or stops indicating that the function is not dened by writing a special value on the tape.

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A partial function f : N N is -recursive if it can be dened from basic primitive recursive functions by

composition,

primitive recursion,

unbounded minimization.

Unbounded minimization can be applied to unsafe predicates. The function i p(n, i) is undened when there is no i such that p(n, i) = 1. Theorem A partial function is -recursive if and only if it is Turing computable.

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