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Homework Assignment #10 — Solutions
Textbook problems: Ch. 12: 12.15, 12.16, 12.19, 12.20
12.15 Consider the Proca equations for a localized steadystate distribution of current that
has’ only a static magnetic moment. This model can be used to study the observ
able eﬀects of a ﬁnite photon mass on the earths magnetic ﬁeld. Note that if the
magnetization is
M(x) the current density can be written as
J = c(
∇×
M).
a) Show that if
M= mf(x), where m is a ﬁxed vector and f(x) is a localized scalar
function, the vector potential is
A(x) = − m×
∇
_
f(x
)
e
−µx−x

x −x

d
3
x
In the static limit, the Proca equation
[∂
λ
∂
λ
+µ
2
]A
µ
=
4π
c
J
µ
takes the form
[∇
2
−µ
2
]A
µ
= −
4π
c
J
µ
This admits a time independent Greens’ function solution
A
µ
(x) =
1
c
_
J
µ
(x
)G(x, x
)d
3
x
where
G(x, x
) =
e
−µx−x

x −x

Taking
J = c(
∇×
M) with
M= mf(x) gives
J = c
∇×( mf(x)) = c
∇f × m = −c m×
∇f
Then
A = − m×
_
∇
f(x
)
e
−µx−x

x −x

d
3
x
Integration by parts (assuming the surface term vanishes since the source is lo
calized) gives
A = m×
_
f(x
)
∇
_
e
−µx−x

x −x

_
d
3
x
= − m×
_
f(x
)
∇
_
e
−µx−x

x −x

_
d
3
x
= − m×
∇
_
f(x
)
e
−µx−x

x −x

d
3
x
where we made use of the fact that
∇
G(x, x
) = −
∇G(x, x
).
b) If the magnetic dipole is a point dipole at the origin [f(x) = δ(x)], show that
the magnetic ﬁeld away from the origin is
B(x) = [3ˆ r(ˆ r · m) − m]
_
1 +µr +
µ
2
r
2
3
_
e
−µr
r
3
−
2
3
µ
2
m
e
−µr
r
For f(x) = δ(x) the resulting vector potential is
A = − m×
∇
_
e
−µr
r
_
= (1 +µr)
e
−µr
r
3
m×r
The magnetic ﬁeld is then
B =
∇×
A =
∇
_
(1 +µr)
e
−µr
r
3
_
×( m×r ) + (1 +µr)
e
−µr
r
3
∇×( m×r )
= −(3 + 3µr +µ
2
r
2
)
e
−µr
r
3
ˆ r ×( m× ˆ r)
+ (1 +µr)
e
−µr
r
3
( m(
∇· r) −( m·
∇)r )
= −(3 + 3µr +µ
2
r
2
)
e
−µr
r
3
( m− ˆ r(ˆ r · m)) + (2 + 2µr)
e
−µr
r
3
m
= (3ˆ r(ˆ r · m) − m)
_
1 +µr +
µ
2
r
2
3
_
e
−µr
r
3
−
2
3
µ
2
m
e
−µr
r
c) The result of part b) shows that at ﬁxed r = R (on the surface of the earth), the
earth’s magnetic ﬁeld will appear as a dipole angular distribution, plus an added
constant magnetic ﬁeld (an apparently external ﬁeld) antiparallel to m. Satellite
and surface observations lead to the conclusion that this “external” ﬁeld is less
than 4 × 10
−3
times the dipole ﬁeld at the magnetic equator. Estimate a lower
limit on µ
−1
in earth radii and an upper limit on the photon mass in grams from
this datum.
At the magnetic equator we have ˆ r · m = 0. Hence
B
dipole
= − m(1 +µR +
µ
2
R
2
3
)
e
−µR
R
3
,
B
external
= − m(
2
3
µ
2
R
2
)
e
−µR
R
3
Setting 
B
dipole
/
B
external
 < 4 ×10
−3
gives
2
3
(µR)
2
< 4 ×10
−3
(1 +µR +
1
3
(µR)
2
)
or µR < 0.08. The lower limit on µ
−1
is then
µ
−1
> 12.5R = 8.0 ×10
9
cm
where we have used the radius of the earth R = 6.38 ×10
8
cm. This corresponds
to an upper limit on the photon mass
m =
µ¯h
c
=
1.05 ×10
−27
erg s
(8.0 ×10
9
cm)(3 ×10
10
cm/s)
= 4.4 ×10
−48
gm
12.16 a) Starting with the Proca Lagrangian density (12.91) and following the same pro
cedure as for the electromagnetic ﬁelds, show that the symmetric stressenergy
momentum tensor for the Proca ﬁelds is
Θ
αβ
=
1
4π
_
g
αγ
F
γλ
F
λβ
+
1
4
g
αβ
F
λν
F
λν
+µ
2
_
A
α
A
β
−
1
2
g
αβ
A
λ
A
λ
__
The Proca Lagrangian density is
L = −
1
16π
F
µν
F
µν
+
1
8π
µ
2
A
µ
A
µ
Since
T
µν
=
∂L
∂∂
µ
A
λ
∂
ν
A
λ
−η
µν
L
we ﬁnd
T
µν
= −
1
4π
F
µλ
∂
ν
A
λ
+
1
16π
η
µν
F
2
−
1
8π
µ
2
η
µν
A
2
where we have used a shorthand notation F
2
≡ F
µν
F
µν
and A
2
≡ A
µ
A
µ
. In
order to convert this canonical stress tensor to the symmetric stress tensor, we
write ∂
ν
A
λ
= F
ν
λ
+∂
λ
A
ν
. Then
T
µν
= −
1
4π
[F
µλ
F
ν
λ
−
1
4
η
µν
F
2
+
1
2
µ
2
η
µν
A
2
] −
1
4π
F
µλ
∂
λ
A
ν
= −
1
4π
[F
µλ
F
ν
λ
−
1
4
η
µν
F
2
+
1
2
µ
2
η
µν
A
2
−(∂
λ
F
µλ
)A
ν
] −
1
4π
∂
λ
(F
µλ
A
ν
)
Using the Proca equation of motion ∂
λ
F
λµ
+µ
2
A
µ
= 0 then gives
T
µν
= Θ
µν
+∂
λ
S
λµν
where
Θ
µν
= −
1
4π
_
F
µλ
F
ν
λ
−
1
4
η
µν
F
2
−µ
2
(A
µ
A
ν
−
1
2
η
µν
A
2
)
¸
(1)
is the symmetric stress tensor and S
λµν
= (1/4π)F
λµ
A
ν
is antisymmetric on the
ﬁrst two indices.
b) For these ﬁelds in interaction with the external source J
β
, as in (12.91), show that
the diﬀerential conservation laws take the same form as for the electromagnetic
ﬁelds, namely
∂
α
Θ
αβ
=
J
λ
F
λβ
c
Taking a 4divergence of the symmetric stress tensor (1) gives
∂
µ
Θ
µν
= −
1
4π
_
∂
µ
F
µλ
F
ν
λ
+F
µλ
∂
µ
F
ν
λ
−
1
2
F
ρλ
∂
ν
F
ρλ
−µ
2
(∂
µ
A
µ
A
ν
+A
µ
∂
µ
A
ν
−A
λ
∂
ν
A
λ
)
¸
= −
1
4π
_
∂
µ
F
µλ
F
ν
λ
+
1
2
F
ρλ
(2∂
ρ
F
νλ
−∂
ν
F
ρλ
) +µ
2
A
λ
(∂
ν
A
λ
−∂
λ
A
ν
)
¸
= −
1
4π
_
(∂
µ
F
µλ
+µ
2
A
λ
)F
ν
λ
+
1
2
F
ρλ
(∂
ρ
F
νλ
+∂
λ
F
ρν
+∂
ν
F
λρ
)
¸
= −
1
c
J
λ
F
ν
λ
=
1
c
J
λ
F
λν
Note that in the second line we have used the fact that ∂
µ
A
µ
= 0, which is
automatic for the Proca equation. To obtain the last line, we used the Bianchi
identity 3∂
[ρ
F
νλ]
= 0 as well as the Proca equation of motion.
c) Show explicitly that the timetime and spacetime components of Θ
αβ
are
Θ
00
=
1
8π
[E
2
+B
2
+µ
2
(A
0
A
0
+
A·
A)]
Θ
i0
=
1
4π
[(
E ×
B)
i
+µ
2
A
i
A
0
]
Given the explicit form of the Maxwell tensor, it is straightforward to show that
F
2
≡ F
µν
F
µν
= −2(E
2
−B
2
), A
2
≡ A
µ
A
µ
= (A
0
)
2
−
A
2
Thus
Θµν = −
1
4π
_
F
µλ
F
ν
λ
+
1
2
η
µν
(E
2
−B
2
) −µ
2
(A
µ
A
ν
−
1
2
η
µν
((A
0
)
2
−
A
2
))
_
The timetime component of this is
Θ
00
= −
1
4π
_
F
0i
F
0
i
+
1
2
(E
2
−B
2
) −µ
2
((A
0
)
2
−
1
2
((A
0
)
2
−
A
2
))
_
= −
1
4π
_
−
1
2
(E
2
+B
2
) −
1
2
µ
2
((A
0
)
2
+
A
2
)
_
=
1
8π
_
E
2
+B
2
+µ
2
((A
0
)
2
+
A
2
)
_
Similarly, the timespace components are
Θ
0i
= −
1
4π
_
F
0
j
F
ij
−µ
2
A
0
A
i
¸
= −
1
4π
_
E
j
(−
ijk
B
k
) −µ
2
A
0
A
i
¸
= −
1
4π
_
−
ijk
E
j
B
k
−µ
2
A
0
A
i
¸
=
1
4π
_
(
E ×
B)
i
+µ
2
A
0
A
i
_
12.19 Sourcefree electromagnetic ﬁelds exist in a localized region of space. Consider the
various conservation laws that are contained in the integral of ∂
α
M
αβγ
= 0 over all
space, where M
αβγ
is deﬁned by (12.117).
a) Show that when β and γ are both space indices conservation of the total ﬁeld
angular momentum follows.
Note that
M
αβγ
= Θ
αβ
x
γ
−Θ
αγ
x
β
Hence
M
0ij
= Θ
0i
x
j
−Θ
0j
x
i
= c(g
i
x
j
−g
j
x
i
) = c
ijk
(g ×x)
k
= −c
ijk
(x ×g )
k
where g is the linear momentum density of the electromagnetic ﬁeld. Since x ×g
is the angular momentum density, integrating M
0ij
over 3space gives the ﬁeld
angular momentum
M
ij
≡
_
M
0ij
d
3
x = −c
ijk
_
(x ×g )
k
d
3
x = −c
ijk
L
k
The conservation law ∂
µ
M
µij
= 0 then corresponds to the conservation of angular
momentum in the electromagnetic ﬁeld.
b) Show that when β = 0 the conservation law is
d
X
dt
=
c
2
P
em
E
em
where
X is the coordinate of the center of mass of the electromagnetic ﬁelds,
deﬁned by
X
_
ud
3
x =
_
xud
3
x
where u is the electromagnetic energy density and E
em
and
P
em
are the total
energy and momentum of the ﬁelds.
In this case, we have
M
0i
≡
_
M
00i
d
3
x =
_
(Θ
00
x
i
−Θ
0i
x
0
) d
3
x
=
_
(ux
i
−cg
i
x
0
) d
3
x =
_
(ux
i
−c
2
tg
i
) d
3
x
Making use of the deﬁnition
_
ux
i
d
3
x = EX
i
where E =
_
ud
3
x is the total ﬁeld
energy, we have simply
M
0i
= EX
i
−c
2
tP
i
where
P =
_
g d
3
x is the (linear) ﬁeld momentum. Since M
0i
is a conserved
charge, its time derivative must vanish. This gives
0 =
d
dt
(E
X) −c
2
d
dt
(t
P) = E
d
X
dt
−c
2
P
(where we used the fact that energy and momentum are conserved, namely
dE/dt = 0 and d
P/dt = 0). The result d
X/dt = c
2
P/E then follows.
12.20 A uniform superconductor with London penetration depth λ
L
ﬁlls the halfspace x > 0.
The vector potential is tangential and for x < 0 is given by
A
y
= (ae
ikx
+be
−ikx
)e
−iωt
Find the vector potential inside the superconductor. Determine expressions for the
electric and magnetic ﬁelds at the surface. Evaluate the surface impedance Z
s
(in
Gaussian units, 4π/c times the ratio of tangential electric ﬁeld to tangential magnetic
ﬁeld). Show that in the appropriate limit your result for Z
s
reduces to that given in
Section 12.9.
The behavior of the vector potential inside the superconductor may be described
by the massive Proca equation
_
∇
2
−
1
c
2
∂
2
∂t
2
−µ
2
_
A = 0
Working with a harmonic time behavior e
−iωt
, the Proca equation may be rewrit
ten as
[∇
2
+ (ω
2
/c
2
−µ
2
)]
A = 0
This has a generic solution of the form
A(x, t) =
A
0
e
i
k·x−iωt
where

k =
_
ω
2
/c
2
−µ
2
= i
_
µ
2
−ω
2
/c
2
The second form of the square root is appropriate for suﬃciently low frequencies.
Since the vector potential outside the superconductor (x < 0) only points in the
ˆ y direction, and since the wave is normally incident (ie only a function of x), it
is natural to expect the solution inside the superconductor to be of the form
A
y
= (αe
−
√
µ
2
−ω
2
/c
2
x
+βe
√
µ
2
−ω
2
/c
2
x
)e
−iωt
for appropriate constants α and β. To avoid an exponentially growing behavior,
we take β = 0. Then it is straightforward to see that matching at x = 0 gives
A
y
(x, t) =
_
(ae
ikx
+be
−ikx
)e
−iωt
x < 0
(a +b)e
−
√
µ
2
−ω
2
/c
2
x
e
−iωt
x > 0
In the absence of a scalar potential, the electric and magnetic ﬁelds are
E(x = 0
+
) = −
1
c
∂
∂t
A
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=0
+
=
iω
c
(a +b)ˆ ye
−iωt
and
B(x = 0
+
) =
∇×
A
¸
¸
¸
x=0
+
= −
_
µ
2
−ω
2
/c
2
(a +b)ˆ ze
−iωt
The surface impedance is given by
Z
s
=
4π
c
E
y
B
z
= −
4πiω
c
2
_
µ
2
−ω
2
/c
2
Setting µ = 1/λ
L
and ω = 2πc/λ ﬁnally yields
Z
s
= −
8π
2
i
c
λ
L
λ
(1 −(2πλ
L
/λ)
2
)
−1/2
This reduces in the long wavelength limit (λ λ
L
) to the expected result
Z
s
= −
8π
2
i
c
λ
L
λ
Hence ˆ Bdipole = −m(1 + µR + µ2 R2 e−µR ) 3 . At the magnetic equator we have r · m = 0.08. x ). Satellite and surface observations lead to the conclusion that this “external” ﬁeld is less than 4 × 10−3 times the dipole ﬁeld at the magnetic equator. 3 R Bexternal = −m( 2 µ2 R2 ) 3 e−µR R3 Setting Bdipole /Bexternal  < 4 × 10−3 gives 2 2 3 (µR) 1 < 4 × 10−3 (1 + µR + 3 (µR)2 ) or µR < 0.5R = 8. b) If the magnetic dipole is a point dipole at the origin [f (x ) = δ(x )]. Estimate a lower limit on µ−1 in earth radii and an upper limit on the photon mass in grams from this datum. show that the magnetic ﬁeld away from the origin is B(x ) = [3ˆ(ˆ · m) − m] 1 + µr + r r µ2 r2 3 e−µr e−µr − 2 µ2 m 3 r3 r For f (x ) = δ(x ) the resulting vector potential is A = −m × The magnetic ﬁeld is then B= ×A= (1 + µr) e−µr r3 × (m × r ) + (1 + µr) e−µr r × (m × r) ˆ ˆ r3 e−µr r3 × (m × r ) e−µr r e−µr = (1 + µr) 3 m × r r = −(3 + 3µr + µ2 r2 ) + (1 + µr) e−µr (m( · r) − (m · )r ) r3 e−µr e−µr = −(3 + 3µr + µ2 r2 ) 3 (m − r(ˆ · m )) + (2 + 2µr) 3 m ˆr r r e−µr µ2 r2 e−µr − 2 µ2 m = (3ˆ(ˆ · m) − m) 1 + µr + r r 3 3 r3 r c) The result of part b) shows that at ﬁxed r = R (on the surface of the earth).0 × 109 cm .where we made use of the fact that G(x. plus an added constant magnetic ﬁeld (an apparently external ﬁeld) antiparallel to m. the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld will appear as a dipole angular distribution. The lower limit on µ−1 is then µ−1 > 12. x ) = − G(x.
we write ∂ ν Aλ = F ν λ + ∂λ Aν .0 × 109 cm)(3 × 1010 cm/s) 12. Θµν = − b) For these ﬁelds in interaction with the external source J β . namely Jλ F λβ ∂α Θαβ = c . This corresponds to an upper limit on the photon mass m= µ¯ h 1.05 × 10−27 erg s = = 4. show that the symmetric stressenergymomentum tensor for the Proca ﬁelds is Θαβ = 1 1 1 g αγ Fγλ F λβ + g αβ Fλν F λν + µ2 Aα Aβ − g αβ Aλ Aλ 4π 4 2 The Proca Lagrangian density is L=− Since T µν = we ﬁnd 1 1 2 Fµν F µν + µ Aµ Aµ 16π 8π ∂L ∂ ν Aλ − η µν L ∂∂µ Aλ 1 µλ ν 1 µν 2 1 2 µν 2 F ∂ Aλ + η F − µ η A 4π 16π 8π where we have used a shorthand notation F 2 ≡ Fµν F µν and A2 ≡ Aµ Aµ .4 × 10−48 gm c (8. as in (12.91).where we have used the radius of the earth R = 6.91) and following the same procedure as for the electromagnetic ﬁelds. show that the diﬀerential conservation laws take the same form as for the electromagnetic ﬁelds.16 a) Starting with the Proca Lagrangian density (12. In order to convert this canonical stress tensor to the symmetric stress tensor.38 × 108 cm. Then T µν = − T µν = − 1 µλ ν 1 µλ [F F λ − 1 η µν F 2 + 1 µ2 η µν A2 ] − F ∂λ Aν 4 2 4π 4π 1 1 ∂λ (F µλ Aν ) = − [F µλ F ν λ − 1 η µν F 2 + 1 µ2 η µν A2 − (∂λ F µλ )Aν ] − 4 2 4π 4π Using the Proca equation of motion ∂λ F λµ + µ2 Aµ = 0 then gives T µν = Θµν + ∂λ S λµν where 1 F µλ F ν λ − 1 η µν F 2 − µ2 (Aµ Aν − 1 η µν A2 ) (1) 4 2 4π is the symmetric stress tensor and S λµν = (1/4π)F λµ Aν is antisymmetric on the ﬁrst two indices.
we used the Bianchi identity 3∂ [ρ F νλ] = 0 as well as the Proca equation of motion. it is straightforward to show that F 2 ≡ Fµν F µν = −2(E 2 − B 2 ). Thus Θµν = − 1 F µλ F ν λ + 1 η µν (E 2 − B 2 ) − µ2 (Aµ Aν − 1 η µν ((A0 )2 − A 2 )) 2 2 4π A2 ≡ Aµ Aµ = (A0 )2 − A 2 The timetime component of this is Θ00 = − 1 1 F 0i F 0 i + 2 (E 2 − B 2 ) − µ2 ((A0 )2 − 1 ((A0 )2 − A 2 )) 2 4π 1 1 1 =− − 2 (E 2 + B 2 ) − 2 µ2 ((A0 )2 + A 2 ) 4π 1 = E 2 + B 2 + µ2 ((A0 )2 + A 2 ) 8π Similarly. c) Show explicitly that the timetime and spacetime components of Θαβ are Θ00 = Θi0 1 2 [E + B 2 + µ2 (A0 A0 + A · A)] 8π 1 = [(E × B)i + µ2 Ai A0 ] 4π Given the explicit form of the Maxwell tensor.Taking a 4divergence of the symmetric stress tensor (1) gives ∂µ Θµν = − 1 ∂µ F µλ F ν λ + F µλ ∂µ F ν λ − 1 Fρλ ∂ ν F ρλ 2 4π − µ2 (∂µ Aµ Aν + Aµ ∂µ Aν − Aλ ∂ ν Aλ ) 1 =− ∂µ F µλ F ν λ + 1 Fρλ (2∂ ρ F νλ − ∂ ν F ρλ ) + µ2 Aλ (∂ ν Aλ − ∂λ Aν ) 2 4π 1 1 =− (∂µ F µλ + µ2 Aλ )F ν λ + 2 Fρλ (∂ ρ F νλ + ∂ λ F ρν + ∂ ν F λρ ) 4π 1 1 = − J λ F ν λ = Jλ F λν c c Note that in the second line we have used the fact that ∂µ Aµ = 0. To obtain the last line. the timespace components are Θ0i = − 1 1 F 0 j F ij − µ2 A0 Ai = − E j (− ijk B k ) − µ2 A0 Ai 4π 4π 1 1 =− − ijk E j B k − µ2 A0 Ai = (E × B)i + µ2 A0 Ai 4π 4π . which is automatic for the Proca equation.
we have simply (Θ00 xi − Θ0i x0 ) d3 x (uxi − cg i x0 ) d3 x = (uxi − c2 tg i ) d3 x u d3 x is the total ﬁeld uxi d3 x = EX i where E = M 0i = EX i − c2 tP i . integrating M 0ij over 3space gives the ﬁeld angular momentum M ij ≡ M 0ij d3 x = −c ijk (x × g )k d3 x = −c ijk Lk The conservation law ∂µ M µij = 0 then corresponds to the conservation of angular momentum in the electromagnetic ﬁeld.117). Note that M αβγ = Θαβ xγ − Θαγ xβ Hence M 0ij = Θ0i xj − Θ0j xi = c(g i xj − g j xi ) = c ijk (g × x )k = −c ijk (x × g )k where g is the linear momentum density of the electromagnetic ﬁeld.12. Since x × g is the angular momentum density. a) Show that when β and γ are both space indices conservation of the total ﬁeld angular momentum follows.19 Sourcefree electromagnetic ﬁelds exist in a localized region of space. we have M 0i ≡ M 00i d3 x = = Making use of the deﬁnition energy. where M αβγ is deﬁned by (12. Consider the various conservation laws that are contained in the integral of ∂α M αβγ = 0 over all space. deﬁned by X u d3 x = xu d3 x where u is the electromagnetic energy density and Eem and Pem are the total energy and momentum of the ﬁelds. b) Show that when β = 0 the conservation law is dX c2 Pem = dt Eem where X is the coordinate of the center of mass of the electromagnetic ﬁelds. In this case.
the Proca equation may be rewritten as [ 2 + (ω 2 /c2 − µ2 )]A = 0 This has a generic solution of the form A(x. Since the vector potential outside the superconductor (x < 0) only points in the y direction. Since M 0i is a conserved charge. namely dE/dt = 0 and dP /dt = 0). The behavior of the vector potential inside the superconductor may be described by the massive Proca equation 2 1 ∂2 − 2 2 − µ2 A = 0 c ∂t Working with a harmonic time behavior e−iωt . The vector potential is tangential and for x < 0 is given by Ay = (aeikx + be−ikx )e−iωt Find the vector potential inside the superconductor. This gives 0= d d dX (E X) − c2 (tP ) = E − c2 P dt dt dt (where we used the fact that energy and momentum are conserved.9.where P = g d3 x is the (linear) ﬁeld momentum.20 A uniform superconductor with London penetration depth λL ﬁlls the halfspace x > 0. it ˆ is natural to expect the solution inside the superconductor to be of the form √ 2 2 2 √ 2 2 2 Ay = (αe− µ −ω /c x + βe µ −ω /c x )e−iωt for appropriate constants α and β. Evaluate the surface impedance Zs (in Gaussian units. Then it is straightforward to see that matching at x = 0 gives Ay (x. The result dX/dt = c2 P /E then follows. we take β = 0. t) = (aeikx + be−ikx )e−iωt √ 2 2 2 (a + b)e− µ −ω /c x e−iωt x<0 x>0 . 12. To avoid an exponentially growing behavior. Show that in the appropriate limit your result for Zs reduces to that given in Section 12. and since the wave is normally incident (ie only a function of x). t) = A0 eik·x−iωt where k = ω 2 /c2 − µ2 = i µ2 − ω 2 /c2 The second form of the square root is appropriate for suﬃciently low frequencies. 4π/c times the ratio of tangential electric ﬁeld to tangential magnetic ﬁeld). Determine expressions for the electric and magnetic ﬁelds at the surface. its time derivative must vanish.
the electric and magnetic ﬁelds are E(x = 0+ ) = − and B(x = 0+ ) = ×A x=0+ 1 ∂ A c ∂t = x=0+ iω (a + b)ˆe−iωt y c z = − µ2 − ω 2 /c2 (a + b)ˆe−iωt The surface impedance is given by Zs = 4π Ey =− c Bz c2 4πiω µ2 − ω 2 /c2 Setting µ = 1/λL and ω = 2πc/λ ﬁnally yields 8π 2 i λL Zs = − (1 − (2πλL /λ)2 )−1/2 c λ This reduces in the long wavelength limit (λ Zs = − 8π 2 i λL c λ λL ) to the expected result .In the absence of a scalar potential.
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