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and velocity for flow of water through smooth bore pipes of varying diameter and to confirm the head loss predicted by a pipe friction equation by comparing theoretical values with the empirical ones. This is performed by obtaining a series of readings o head loss at different low rates through two of the four smooth bore test pipes. Equipment that was used during the experiment is illustrated in Figure 1. The Figure 2 demonstrates the parts of the apparatus such as: an in-line strainer (2), an artificially roughened pipe (7), smooth bore pipes of 4 different diameters (8), (9), (10) and (11), a long radius 90° bend (6), a short radius 90° bend (15), a 45° "Y" (4), a 45° elbow (5), a 90° "T" (13), a 90° mitre (14), a 90° elbow (22), a sudden contraction (3), a sudden enlargement (16), a pipe section made of clear acrylic with a Pitot static tube (17), a Venturi meter made of clear acrylic (18), an orifice meter made of clear acrylic (19), a ball valve (12), a globe valve (20) and a gate valve (21). (JFCcivilengineer. com, 2011)
Figure 1: ARMFIELD C6-MKII-10 Fluid Friction Apparatus
In general. 2 . and turbulent in the second case.607).Figure 2: General arrangement of the apparatus Theory: The experiment examines how head loss is related to fluid friction as well as velocity for flow of water through smooth pipes of different diameter. characterized by smooth streamlines and highly ordered motion. 2005. The flow regime in the first case is said to be laminar. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs over some region in which the flow fluctuates between laminar and turbulent flows before it becomes fully turbulent. after careful inspections of flow in a pipe it is revealed that the fluid flow is streamlined at low velocities but turns chaotic as the velocity is increased above a critical value. pp. Laminar flow is encountered when highly viscous fluids such as oils flow in small pipes or narrow passages (Cengel. where it is characterized by velocity fluctuations and highly disordered motion.
The piezometric head h therefore falls at a uniform rate along the length. after passing a little way along the tube. implying a change to turbulent motion. coefficient of absolute viscosity of the fluid. as the velocity was constantly increased. 1 where Re = Reynolds number of the motion ρ = Density of the fluid V = Mean velocity of flow. the filament appeared as a straight line passing down the whole length of the tube. produces resistance to the flow. Particularly. indicating laminar flow. Also. it can be expected that τ would increase as the rate of flow increases. Since the velocity head is constant along the length of the pipe. The shear stress τ at the wall. Experiments with pipes of different diameters and with water at various temperatures led Reynolds to conclude that the parameter which determines whether the flow shall be laminar or turbulent in any particular case are: density of the fluid. by observing the behavior of a filament of dye added into the flow along a glass tube. obtained by dividing the discharge rate Q by the cross sectional area A µ = Coefficient of absolute viscosity of the fluid ν = Coefficient of kinematic viscosity of the fluid 3 . Referring to Osborne Reynolds experiments performed in 1983. the total head H also falls at the same rate. it was observed that the filament. it was revealed the existence of two different types of motion.Figure 3: Fully developed flow along a pipe Figure 3 represents flow along a length of straight uniform pipe of diameter D. mean velocity of flow. This is Eqn. However. mixed suddenly with the surrounding water. which is uniform along the length. which is “fully developed”. in case the velocity was low.
p. the pipe flow becomes laminar. which hold different masses. along which the mean flow velocity is V..Further experiments confirmed that if Re is below 2300. can be expressed as Eqn. The above expression frequently referred to as Darcy's equation.. used in this laboratory consists of a beam fitted into the structure test frame. turbulent and transition zones Furthermore. Transition phase separates the two types of flow where no definite relationship between h and u exists.h2) between sections 1 and 2 of a pipe of diameter D in Figure 3. the head loss (h1 . Experiment: The bending moment instrumentation. Figure 4 indicates these zones. Also.e. h due to friction and the fluid velocity i. All the equipment connects to a computer by means of an Automatic Data . u is for laminar flow and is for turbulent flow. The Digital Force Display electronically measures and displays forces during experiments. Figure 4: Laminar. n. Loads are applied to experiments using hangers.2) It conveniently fixes to the test frame. D is the diameter of the pipe. as well as if Re is more 4000 the flow becomes turbulent.e. f is the friction factor.d. 2 where L is the length of pipe. (TecQuipment Ltd. the relationship of head loss i. V is mean velocity g is gravitational acceleration.
To stop the beam collapsing a moment arm bridges the cut on to a load cell thus measuring the bending moment force.Beam geometry and hangers positions In this experiment the bending moment is measured at „Cut‟ position as shown in Fig. with single weight P1 at x=440 mm from the „Cut‟ position 7.. The beam is „cut‟ by a pivot. The procedure of the experiment is as follows: 1. A digital display shows the force from the load cell. Turn on the load digital force displayer. 4. Put proper masses to get loads according to the first column of the following Table 2. 3 for each case. Put proper masses to get loads according to the first column of the following Table3. Put proper masses to get loads according to the first column of the following Table 1. Read the Reaction Forces displayed by the digital force displayer and record it. 5 . p2). Make sure that the beam is load less and in its horizontal position. n. 5. 2. The beam geometry and hanger positions are shown in Fig. 2.d. in the third and fourth columns accordingly of Table 1. Figure 4. Hang the load hanger exactly in the „Cut‟ position 5.Acquisition Unit and software (STR2000). (TecQuipment Ltd. Make sure that the digital force displayer displays zero force 4. 3. with single weight P3 at x=140 mm from the „Cut‟ position 8. with single weight P2at x=100 mm from the „Cut‟ position 6.
6 . ( ) where g is gravitational acceleration (9. ( ) . the value of R1 and R2 are 0.45N.54N. Record the Measured Moment in the fifth columnof Table 1. Figure 5: Force diagram in experiment Data Analysis: For m = 100 gr at x=100 mm from the „Cut‟ position. ( ) ( ) ( ) Thus. 0. The bending moment about AA‟ might be calculated theoretically by the following equations: ∑ hence. 2.9. 3 for each case.81 m/s).
( ) hence. the value of R1 and R2 are 3.45 0.0639 0.89 2.21 Calculated moment (N m) 0.7% 59.1245 0.12N.0% Table 1: Recorded data for case 1 Figure 6: Force diagram in case 1 For m 2= 100 gr at x=440 mm from the „Cut‟ position.54 1.962 4. The bending moment about AA‟ might be calculated theoretically by the following equations: ∑ ( ) ( ) . 0.Table 1. ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) 7 .905 Resistance R1 (N) 0.981 1.05 0.23 Measured moment (N m) 0.07 2.3135 Estimated error 68. see Figure 7 Load Load (Newtons) (grams) 100 200 500 0.8% 33. Note in order to find the theoretical bending moment.68 Resistance R2 (N) 0.02 0. the left hand side of the ‟Cut‟ position was chosen.( ) the remaining measured and calculated values are presented in the table below .318N.
4.12 3.27 1.( ) the remaining measured and calculated values are presented in the table below .73N respectively. Table 3.33% Table 2: Recorded data for case 2 Figure 7: Force diagram in case 2 For m3 = 800 gr at x=580 mm from the „Cut‟ position. 8 .12N.21 Calculated moment (N m) -0.66 5.0254 0. Table 2. Load Load (Newtons) (grams) 100 200 500 2. the value of R1 and R2 are 3. The bending moment about AA‟ might be calculated theoretically by the following equations: ∑ ( ) ( ) .61 Measured moment (N m) -0. see Figure 7.26 Resistance R2 (N) -0.2242 Estimated error 18% 3. Note in order to find the theoretical bending moment.867 Resistance R1 (N) 3.924 6.0385 0.04 0.89% 6.03 0. ( ) ( ( the remaining measured and calculated values are presented in the table below .943 3.318 0. the left hand side of the ‟Cut‟ position was chosen. ( ) ) ) ( ) hence.
8% and 33. see Figure 8.51 Measured moment (N m) -0. The source of the errors could be: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Unstable beam Not putting the loads on the exact middle Distribution of the load while the force is applied The environment Human error.73 5. the value of the estimated error decreases steadily to 1.Note in order to find the theoretical bending moment.0385 0.7%. in the first case.02 -0. 59. the left hand side of the ‟Cut‟ position was chosen.87% 3.848 8.17 6.66 5.22 0.12 3.26 Resistance R2 (N) 4.89% 21% Calculated moment (N m) Estimated error Table 2: Recorded data for case 3 Figure 8: Force diagram in case 2 Discussion/Conclusions: Theoretical banding moment measurements were performed by following the steps stated in the beginning.0254 0.87% in case 3.04 0. It can be clearly seen that the calculated value of the bending moment in case 1 is identical to the case 2.e. 9 . 68. Load Load (Newtons) (grams) 100 200 500 7.0% estimate error for each run respectively.829 11. By comparing both theoretical and experimental values of the banding moment there could be seen significant deviations i. However.2242 1.77 Resistance R1 (N) 3. because the left hand side of the ‟Cut‟ position was considered. Misuse of the apparatus.
. hence the beam becomes more stable.tecquipment.Prentice Hall: New Jersey TecQuipment Ltd. References: Hibbeler.26 N.com/Datasheets/STR2_0109. n.. also when the moment is anticlockwise the bending moment is maximum at the Load‟s value is 5. Figure 9: The diagram of the apparatus and bending moment graph Figure 9 illustrates bending moment of the beam in case 3... Bending Moments in a Beam [pdf] Available at: <http://www. At resistance value of 6.51 N the bending moment is minimum. C.8th ed.pdf > [Accessed 4 April 2012] Remarks: 1) Minimize disturbance from the surroundings 2) Ensure that the beam is balanced 10 . R. 2 and 3 indicates that the value of the resistance increases as the load value increases. Mechanics of Materials .d. It can be seen from the graph that the bending moment is maximum when the Resistance‟s value is 5.26 N and the moment is clockwise. and the error value decreases.2010.The results represented in Table 1.
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