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and velocity for flow of water through smooth bore pipes of varying diameter and to confirm the head loss predicted by a pipe friction equation by comparing theoretical values with the empirical ones. This is performed by obtaining a series of readings o head loss at different low rates through two of the four smooth bore test pipes. Equipment that was used during the experiment is illustrated in Figure 1. The Figure 2 demonstrates the parts of the apparatus such as: an in-line strainer (2), an artificially roughened pipe (7), smooth bore pipes of 4 different diameters (8), (9), (10) and (11), a long radius 90 bend (6), a short radius 90 bend (15), a 45 "Y" (4), a 45 elbow (5), a 90 "T" (13), a 90 mitre (14), a 90 elbow (22), a sudden contraction (3), a sudden enlargement (16), a pipe section made of clear acrylic with a Pitot static tube (17), a Venturi meter made of clear acrylic (18), an orifice meter made of clear acrylic (19), a ball valve (12), a globe valve (20) and a gate valve (21). (JFCcivilengineer. com, 2011)

Figure 2: General arrangement of the apparatus Theory: The experiment examines how head loss is related to fluid friction as well as velocity for flow of water through smooth pipes of different diameter. In general, after careful inspections of flow in a pipe it is revealed that the fluid flow is streamlined at low velocities but turns chaotic as the velocity is increased above a critical value. The flow regime in the first case is said to be laminar, characterized by smooth streamlines and highly ordered motion, and turbulent in the second case, where it is characterized by velocity fluctuations and highly disordered motion. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs over some region in which the flow fluctuates between laminar and turbulent flows before it becomes fully turbulent. Laminar flow is encountered when highly viscous fluids such as oils flow in small pipes or narrow passages (Cengel, 2005, pp.607).

Figure 3 represents flow along a length of straight uniform pipe of diameter D. The shear stress at the wall, which is uniform along the length, produces resistance to the flow, which is fully developed. The piezometric head h therefore falls at a uniform rate along the length. Since the velocity head is constant along the length of the pipe, the total head H also falls at the same rate. Also, it can be expected that would increase as the rate of flow increases. Referring to Osborne Reynolds experiments performed in 1983, by observing the behavior of a filament of dye added into the flow along a glass tube, it was revealed the existence of two different types of motion. Particularly, in case the velocity was low, the filament appeared as a straight line passing down the whole length of the tube, indicating laminar flow. However, as the velocity was constantly increased, it was observed that the filament, after passing a little way along the tube, mixed suddenly with the surrounding water, implying a change to turbulent motion. Experiments with pipes of different diameters and with water at various temperatures led Reynolds to conclude that the parameter which determines whether the flow shall be laminar or turbulent in any particular case are: density of the fluid, mean velocity of flow, coefficient of absolute viscosity of the fluid. This is

Eqn. 1

where Re = Reynolds number of the motion = Density of the fluid V = Mean velocity of flow, obtained by dividing the discharge rate Q by the cross sectional area A = Coefficient of absolute viscosity of the fluid = Coefficient of kinematic viscosity of the fluid

Further experiments confirmed that if Re is below 2300, the pipe flow becomes laminar; as well as if Re is more 4000 the flow becomes turbulent. Also, the relationship of head loss i.e. h due to friction and the fluid

velocity i.e. u is

two types of flow where no definite relationship between h and u exists. Figure 4 indicates these zones.

Figure 4: Laminar, turbulent and transition zones Furthermore, the head loss (h1 - h2) between sections 1 and 2 of a pipe of diameter D in Figure 3, along which the mean flow velocity is V, can be expressed as

Eqn. 2

where L is the length of pipe, D is the diameter of the pipe, f is the friction factor, V is mean velocity g is gravitational acceleration. The above expression frequently referred to as Darcy's equation.

Experiment:

The bending moment instrumentation, used in this laboratory consists of a beam fitted into the structure test frame. Loads are applied to experiments using hangers, which hold different masses. The Digital Force Display electronically measures and displays forces during experiments.. (TecQuipment Ltd, n.d., p.2) It conveniently fixes to the test frame. All the equipment connects to a computer by means of an Automatic Data

Acquisition Unit and software (STR2000). (TecQuipment Ltd, n.d., p2). The beam is cut by a pivot. To stop the beam collapsing a moment arm bridges the cut on to a load cell thus measuring the bending moment force. A digital display shows the force from the load cell. The beam geometry and hanger positions are shown in Fig. 4.

In this experiment the bending moment is measured at Cut position as shown in Fig. 5. The procedure of the experiment is as follows: 1. Make sure that the beam is load less and in its horizontal position. 2. Turn on the load digital force displayer. 3. Make sure that the digital force displayer displays zero force 4. Hang the load hanger exactly in the Cut position 5. Put proper masses to get loads according to the first column of the following Table 1, with single weight P2at x=100 mm from the Cut position 6. Put proper masses to get loads according to the first column of the following Table 2, with single weight P1 at x=440 mm from the Cut position 7. Put proper masses to get loads according to the first column of the following Table3, with single weight P3 at x=140 mm from the Cut position 8. Read the Reaction Forces displayed by the digital force displayer and record it, in the third and fourth columns accordingly of Table 1, 2, 3 for each case.

5

9. Record the Measured Moment in the fifth columnof Table 1, 2, 3 for each case.

Data Analysis: For m = 100 gr at x=100 mm from the Cut position, the value of R1 and R2 are 0.54N, 0.45N. The bending moment about AA might be calculated theoretically by the following equations:

hence,

( ) where g is gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s). ( )

Thus,

the remaining measured and calculated values are presented in the table below ,Table 1. Note in order to find the theoretical bending moment, the left hand side of the Cut position was chosen, see Figure 7

Load Load (Newtons) (grams) 100 200 500 0.981 1.962 4.905 Resistance R1 (N) 0.54 1.07 2.68 Resistance R2 (N) 0.45 0.89 2.23 Measured moment (N m) 0.02 0.05 0.21 Calculated moment (N m) 0.0639 0.1245 0.3135 Estimated error 68.7% 59.8% 33.0%

Figure 6: Force diagram in case 1 For m 2= 100 gr at x=440 mm from the Cut position, the value of R1 and R2 are 3.12N, 0.318N. The bending moment about AA might be calculated theoretically by the following equations:

( ) ( )

;

( )

hence,

( ( ) ( ) ( ) )

the remaining measured and calculated values are presented in the table below , Table 2. Note in order to find the theoretical bending moment, the left hand side of the Cut position was chosen, see Figure 7.

Load Load (Newtons) (grams) 100 200 500 2.943 3.924 6.867 Resistance R1 (N) 3.12 3.66 5.26 Resistance R2 (N) -0.318 0.27 1.61 Measured moment (N m) -0.03 0.04 0.21 Calculated moment (N m) -0.0254 0.0385 0.2242 Estimated error 18% 3.89% 6.33%

Figure 7: Force diagram in case 2 For m3 = 800 gr at x=580 mm from the Cut position, the value of R1 and R2 are 3.12N, 4.73N respectively. The bending moment about AA might be calculated theoretically by the following equations:

( ) ( )

;

( ) ) ) ( )

hence,

) (

the remaining measured and calculated values are presented in the table below , Table 3.

8

Note in order to find the theoretical bending moment, the left hand side of the Cut position was chosen, see Figure 8.

Load Load (Newtons) (grams) 100 200 500 7.848 8.829 11.77 Resistance R1 (N) 3.12 3.66 5.26 Resistance R2 (N) 4.73 5.17 6.51 Measured moment (N m) -0.02 -0.0254 0.04 0.0385 0.22 0.2242 1.87% 3.89% 21% Calculated moment (N m) Estimated error

Figure 8: Force diagram in case 2 Discussion/Conclusions: Theoretical banding moment measurements were performed by following the steps stated in the beginning. It can be clearly seen that the calculated value of the bending moment in case 1 is identical to the case 2, because the left hand side of the Cut position was considered. By comparing both theoretical and experimental values of the banding moment there could be seen significant deviations i.e. 68.7%, 59.8% and 33.0% estimate error for each run respectively. in the first case. However, the value of the estimated error decreases steadily to 1.87% in case 3. The source of the errors could be: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Unstable beam Not putting the loads on the exact middle Distribution of the load while the force is applied The environment Human error. Misuse of the apparatus.

The results represented in Table 1, 2 and 3 indicates that the value of the resistance increases as the load value increases, hence the beam becomes more stable, and the error value decreases.

Figure 9 illustrates bending moment of the beam in case 3. It can be seen from the graph that the bending moment is maximum when the Resistances value is 5.26 N and the moment is clockwise, also when the moment is anticlockwise the bending moment is maximum at the Loads value is 5.26 N. At resistance value of 6.51 N the bending moment is minimum. References: Hibbeler, R. C.,.2010. Mechanics of Materials .8th ed,..Prentice Hall: New Jersey TecQuipment Ltd. n.d. Bending Moments in a Beam [pdf] Available at: <http://www.tecquipment.com/Datasheets/STR2_0109.pdf > [Accessed 4 April 2012] Remarks: 1) Minimize disturbance from the surroundings 2) Ensure that the beam is balanced

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