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Maintaining the balance

Ballast water treatment systems PureBallast 2.0 and PureBallast 2.0 EX

Maintaining the balance

Ballast water treatment systems PureBallast 2.0 and PureBallast 2.0 EX


Essential protection
Marine ecosystems are important, not only to the environment, but also to our own health and livelihood. This is why protecting the balance of species through ballast water treatment is a key aspect of Alfa Lavals Pure Thinking. Our approach to ballast water treatment is determined not only by the legislation surrounding it, but also by the important demands of shipyards, ship owners and ship operators. Now in its second generation, our PureBallast system incorporates the full spectrum of installation and operational needs, as well as lessons learned in years of full-scale, real-life operation at sea. This means that PureBallast maintains not only the balance of species, but also the balance between onboard and global considerations.


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Overview

Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 EX version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Shipyards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inside back cover

Onboard performance
The global regulations that govern ballast water treatment are designed to stop a devastating wave of marine biological invasions. However, they affect far more than the organisms in ballast water. They also affect you. While the problem of invasive species is universal, the means of solving it has to be carried on individual vessels. You as a shipyard, ship owner or ship operator face tough demands when it comes to ensuring compliance, but you also have your own demands on size, economy, ease of use and compatibility with onboard operations. To meet these demands, you need a mature treatment system that handles the rigors of business at sea. Specifically, you need one that is as well adapted to life on board as it is to the requirements of international law, and one that has proven its merits under real-life operating conditions. Fortunately, PureBallast is just such a system.



Worldwide experience
By choosing PureBallast from Alfa Laval, you choose both the right solution for your onboard needs and a proven solution with global backing. In addition, you choose the worlds most experienced supplier in ballast water treatment. Having worked with ballast water treatment for years, we understand not only the theoretical issues, but also the practical realities. PureBallast 2.0, Alfa Lavals second generation of the PureBallast system, builds on thousands of hours spent working with actual installations on site at shipyards, as well as in full operation at sea. Backing up that experience is Alfa Lavals network of harbour support, which can be found in ports all over the globe. Our far-reaching resources give you access to parts, service and advice worldwide, in ballast water treatment and beyond. Wherever you sail, Alfa Laval is there to bring you true peace of mind.


Sailing on ahead
PureBallast is a clear and comfortable choice, having quickly established itself as the commercial leader in ballast water treatment since its launch in 2006. The system has been chosen for more vessels than any other ballast water treatment system, as well as for the greatest range of vessel types. These include everything from container vessels and tankers to offshore supply ships and naval vessels. Moreover, PureBallast has been installed at major shipyards all over the world. Behind the success of PureBallast is its unique combination of advantages. In addition to type-approved ballast water treatment, PureBallast offers: Easy installation in a compact space Automated, reliable and chemical-free operation Full integration with existing ballast water systems Low maintenance requirements and lifecycle cost




The next generation of leadership

The latest version of the PureBallast system, PureBallast 2.0, incorporates a range of advances that further simplify installation and operation. These fulfil the needs and wishes expressed by shipyards, ship owners and ship operators during the course of our extensive cooperation.

PureBallast 2.0 highlights

Among the many developments in PureBallast 2.0, the following are especially noteworthy: 40% lower power consumption A simplified electrical system The ability to pause operation The ability to stop individual AOT units Automatic flow control An easy-to-use graphical interface Bus communication for remote control

All control and distribution functions are now integrated in a single cabinet.

Now only a single cabinet is needed for each AOT unit.

PureBallast 2.0 offers a large number of improvements that simplify both installation and operation.

The flow meter and control valve are integrated for automatic flow control. A smaller and more effective filter is used.



The most significant change in PureBallast 2.0 is the reduction of the systems power consumption by a full 40% compared to its predecessor.

PureBallast 2.0 EX highlights

As part of the PureBallast 2.0 upgrade, there is also an Ex version of the system, PureBallast 2.0 EX, for installation in potentially explosive environments. Features include: Zone 1, IIC and T4 compatibility Reinforced AOT units AOT temperature and fluid-level protection Ventilated and pressure-controlled lamp drive cabinets Control cabinet placement outside the Ex zone More on PureBallast 2.0 EX can be found on pages 30-33.

PureBallast 2.0 EX features reinforced AOT units. Temperature sensors, level sensors and a non-return valve prevent ignition conditions from arising within the units.



An end to costly invasio

PureBallast is an optimized answer to one of todays most critical environmental issues: the introduction of marine species into foreign environments via ballast water. While ballast water is cheap and simple to pump aboard, it carries with it eggs, larvae and even adult organisms that are small enough to pass through the intakes and pumps. If these organisms survive to reach the deballasting site, they are sometimes capable of devastating local ecosystems. The resulting invasions cause billions of dollars in damage and may endanger human health, which has led IMO to identify them as one of the four greatest threats to our oceans today. The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments, adopted in February 2004, is designed to stop such invasions by setting requirements for ballast water treatment.






Regulating ballast water

The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments is in fact one of many pieces of legislation designed to address the ballast water problem. In the United States, for example, where billions of dollars have been spent to clear the Great Lakes and other waterways of invasive zebra mussels, legislation is being developed at the federal level. In addition, individual states are considering stricter regulations of their own. At the time of printing, these and other national regulations are still taking shape. Thus, while Alfa Laval intends to meet all possible treatment requirements and stays well abreast of legislative developments, it is the IMO convention that has formed the basis for PureBallast and other ballast water treatment solutions.

Entering into force

The IMO convention will become international law as soon as it is ratified by thirty states representing a combined 35 % of the worlds gross tonnage in merchant shipping. As an increasing number of treatment systems appear and a growing number of shipping nations choose to sign, the ratification process is gaining speed. When the requirements take effect, the treatment systems employed will have to be not only effective, but also safe and practicable for both ships and their crews. The complexity of this balance is reflected in the complex process of type approval.



The path to IMO approval

To receive Ballast Water Type Approval, a treatment system must reduce the number of organisms to within IMO limits. Organisms larger than 50 m must be reduced by more than 99.99%, which is a decrease from at least 100 000 organisms to less than 10 organisms per cubic metre. Even bacteria must be treated effectively. The approval process involves biological performance tests on land, which are conducted with water of varying composition and a minimum ballast water capacity of 200 m3/h, as well as six months of full-scale testing at sea. In addition, there is a two-step procedure known as Active Substance Approval, which certifies that the solution is safe and non-toxic.

Organism type Organisms > 50 m Organisms 50 m E-coli bacteria

IMO requirement 10 ind/m3 10 ind/m3 250 cfu/100 ml

IMO limits for type approval are given in individuals per cubic metre or colony-forming units per 100 ml.

Treatment or exchange?
Once ratified, the IMO convention will introduce ballast water treatment requirements in phases (see right). Though not all vessels will have to perform ballast water treatment directly, all vessels without a type-approved treatment system will be required to perform ballast water exchange. This involves flushing out the ballast tanks at sea, which may reduce the chances of organisms surviving within them. The effectiveness of ballast water exchange is in dispute, as it may actually supply organisms with fresh oxygen and nutrients. Moreover, the procedure is a time-consuming process that can compromise stability and put a vessel at risk in heavy weather. As such, many ship owners and operators will want to avoid it by installing a treatment system before they are required to do so.

Implementation of requirements Newbuilds (constructed 2010 or later) Treatment required from 2010 for BWC >5000 m3 Treatment required aboard all vessels from 2012 Existing vessels (constructed prior to 2010) Treatment required from 2014 for BWC 1500-5000 m3 Treatment required aboard all vessels from 2016
Whentheconventionhasenteredintoforce,allvessels withoutaballastwatertreatmentsystemmustperform ballastwaterexchangeinopenwaters. Vesselsconstructedin2009withBWC<5000m3must installaballastwatertreatmentsystembytheirsecond annualsurveyandnolaterthan31December2011.



The true green solution

Compact and flexible, PureBallast was among the first ballast water treatment systems to receive Ballast Water Type Approval. Having operated at full scale under real-life conditions since 2003, it is also without a doubt the most extensively tested. PureBallast provides ballast water treatment that is 100% chemical-free, in contrast to chemical-free systems that actually produce chemicals during the treatment process. Despite its high biological efficiency, PureBallast requires no chemical additives and generates no chemicals in operation, which means its self-contained process is harmless to the ballast water tanks and crew. The avoidance of chemicals also makes PureBallast easy and affordable to operate. With no additives to stock on board or arrange for in port, the system is a sound investment not only in environmental terms, but also in terms of operating economy.







Uniquely effective
The PureBallast treatment process is based on a patented form of advanced oxidation technology (AOT), developed in cooperation with Wallenius Water. Related technologies can be found in many of todays smart products, such as the self-cleaning windows of skyscrapers and cars, which prevent the growth of organisms through an AOT reaction that occurs when sunlight strikes titanium dioxide. Within the PureBallast system, treatment occurs in a closed chamber known as a Wallenius AOT unit, in which radicals are generated. These radicals are potent yet exist for only a few milliseconds, which means they neutralize microorganisms but are incapable of leaving the treatment system.

Radical advantages
In addition to being safe for the ballast water tanks and the vessels crew, the use of radicals has advantages over other prominent treatment technologies. For example, the spread of radicals is not affected by the presence of particles, which means treatment is still effective when the water has high sediment content. Even more importantly, the radicals actually break down cellular membranes, which effectively destroys the microorganisms rather than rendering them unable to reproduce. As a result, the potential for them to do damage at the deballasting site is completely eliminated.



PureBallast neutralizes the living threat in ballast water with the help of radicals, which disrupt the cell membranes of microorganisms. After passing through the PureBallast system, the dinoflagellate above has lost its chlorophyll.



Keeping it compact
PureBallast is a perfect match for the cramped engine room. Built to fit where every bit of space is worth saving, it is as compact as it is effective. PureBallast is constructed from a series of block components, which gives the overall system exceptional flexibility. Each component is optimized for a minimum footprint, and with planning, components can actually be installed between existing pipes. Depending on the needs of the vessel, a single PureBallast system can handle flow rates of 250-3000 m3/h. If more capacity is required, even higher flow rates can be achieved by installing multiple systems in parallel.
Control system (5)

Flow meter (4)

Wallenius AOT unit (2)

Filter (1)



Because PureBallast is flexibly constructed to suit the engine room, no single illustration can provide a complete overview. The sample layout here, in which the AOT units are arranged in a linear fashion, is designed for a flow rate of 1000 m3/h. 1. Filter A 40 m mesh filter is used during ballasting operations. This not only blocks the intake of larger organisms, but also reduces the amount of sediment in the ballast water tanks. This filter is bypassed during deballasting and is cleaned via automatic backflushing. 2. Wallenius AOT unit(s) One or more Wallenius AOT units comprise the active stage of PureBallast treatment, in which radicals are generated to neutralize microorganisms and other organic matter. The number of AOT units is determined by the systems flow rate, with individual units handling a flow of 250 m3/h. The AOT units can be placed in a number of configurations, including the linear configuration shown here. 3. CIP unit The performance of the AOT units is safeguarded by an automatic Cleaning-in-Place (CIP) system, which circulates a biodegradable solution to prevent seawater scaling within the AOT units. This solution is reusable and is replaced only once per year or when its pH level has become too high. The cleaning cycle, which takes 15 minutes per unit, is automatic and occurs after each ballasting or deballasting operation. 4. Flow meter A flow meter coupled with a control valve automatically ensures that the system does not exceed its certified flow rate. This meter also provides the main control system with valuable data regarding the amount of ballast that has been taken in or discharged. 5. Control system PureBallast can be operated either automatically or manually, as well as by optional remote control. The intuitive control panel provides a graphical overview of every aspect of the control system, including monitoring and log functions.

CIP unit (3)





Designed to capacity
The vertical reaction chambers in which treatment occurs, known as Wallenius AOT units, make up the bulk of a PureBallast system. Each of these units handles a flow rate of 250 m3/h, and with the introduction of PureBallast 2.0, they consume 40% less power than their predecessors. Up to twelve AOT units can be connected within a single system. If flow rates greater than 3000 m3/h are required, two or even three PureBallast systems can be installed, each with its own filter, Cleaning-in-Place (CIP) unit and control system. The AOT units are installed such that the flow and pressure of the water is equally distributed between them. Although the units are often arranged in a linear fashion, they can also be arranged in blocks or other configurations to suit the engine room layout.

Integrated benefits
With its flexible design and ability to fit between existing pipes, PureBallast adapts easily to existing engine room conditions. PureBallast 2.0 is even simpler to install than the previous generation of the system, thanks to a high level of integration that eliminates a remote interface cabinet, a control cabinet and one breaker cabinet per AOT unit. In addition, PureBallast is as integrated with ballast operations as it is with the space on board. PureBallast utilizes the ballast pumps that are already installed and requires no extra holding time in the ballast water tanks, so there are no additional procedures and no delays when ballasting or deballasting. This makes PureBallast as suitable for retrofits as it is for newbuilds.
PureBallasts modular components allow for truly flexible installation. With planning, components can even be installed between existing pipes.



Making operation easy

Though ballast water treatment is a complicated process, there is no reason why it should complicate life on board. PureBallast makes it easy to meet global treatment standards, since it provides IMO-compliant results while requiring little from the crew. Functioning unnoticed in the background, PureBallast is fully automated and integrated with the vessels other ballast water equipment. This means there are no extra procedures and no sources of interference, and it ensures that no delays are experienced during ballasting and deballasting. As illustrated on the following pages, ballast operations with PureBallast occur almost exactly as they do today.





Ballasting operations
In preparation for ballasting, the lamps of the Wallenius AOT units undergo a brief startup sequence, during which they are cooled by a flow of seawater. During actual ballasting, fresh water is used to cool the systems electronic components. When ballasting begins, the incoming ballast water first passes through the filter, which removes organisms and particles larger than 40 m. The water then continues through the AOT units, which treat the water to IMOestablished limits before it enters the ballast water tanks. Once ballasting is complete, the AOT units are cleaned via an automated Cleaning-in-Place (CIP) cycle, which takes around 15 minutes per unit. This cycle can be automatically initiated directly after ballasting, or manually initiated from the control system within 30 hours. The AOT units are automatically rinsed with fresh water before the CIP cycle begins and filled with fresh water upon its completion. The filter is also rinsed with fresh water once ballasting is completed.



Deballasting operations
The deballasting process is essentially the same as the ballasting process. However, the filter is bypassed during deballasting since the water has already been filtered. After leaving the ballast water tanks, the outgoing ballast water passes through the Wallenius AOT units to eliminate any regrowth of microorganisms that may have occurred in transit. Having thus been treated to the limits set by IMO, it is then discharged into the receiving water at the deballasting site. The same startup and shutdown sequence is employed during both ballasting and deballasting (see left).





Simplicity at a glance
PureBallast can be operated either automatically or manually. The main control panel, which takes the form of a durable, full-colour graphical touchscreen in PureBallast 2.0, provides access to every aspect of the system, including its monitoring and log functions. Even PureBallast manuals are directly viewable from the control panel. In addition, PureBallast can be steered by optional remote control. Each PureBallast system can be complemented with a maximum of four remote control panels, which allow it to be started, stopped and monitored from any location on board. Modbus communication can also be used to integrate PureBallast with other automation systems, providing access to all PureBallast functions through the vessels standard interface.

Operational advances
In addition to the visual and intuitive control panel, PureBallast 2.0 offers a number of operational improvements over its predecessor. These include a connection between the flow meter and control vent for fully automatic flow control. The startup and shutdown sequences, which are faster in PureBallast 2.0, are bypassed in a new pause function, which allows operation to be suspended for short intervals. This can be done during heeling, for example, to facilitate the redistribution of ballast water without having to restart the ballast water treatment system. Finally, users now have the option of shutting down individual AOT units while the system is still running. This allows changes in flow rate as well as the exchange of AOT lamps without interrupting treatment.
PureBallast is fully automated and offers ample possibilities for remote control. Modbus communication ensures easy integration with the vessels general automation systems.



Always on guard
Vessels like crude tankers and product tankers, which carry volatile cargo and thus have potentially explosive areas on board, are not exempted from ballast water treatment requirements. However, until now there has been a lack of treatment systems adapted to their needs. Today, as a part of PureBallast 2.0, Alfa Laval can supply an Ex version of the PureBallast system. Designed for Zone 1, group IIC and temperature class T4, PureBallast 2.0 EX is suitable for installation aboard most types of tankers that carry ignition-sensitive cargo. Since PureBallast 2.0 EX is a specialized version of our second-generation system, it naturally also features most of the improvements found elsewhere in PureBallast 2.0, including reduced power consumption and the ability to pause operation.





Thoroughly prepared
The creation of PureBallast 2.0 EX has been a comprehensive undertaking. Because of the extreme hazards that exist when working with oil and chemicals, it has been necessary to take every possible safety concern into account. For this reason, Alfa Laval has looked beyond mere regulations. Working closely with shipyards and shipping companies that deal with volatile cargo, we have designed PureBallast 2.0 EX to incorporate their suggestions and insights.

PureBallast 2.0 EX requirements

In general, PureBallast 2.0 EX has the same installation characteristics as the standard version of the PureBallast system. The only major difference is the placement of the control cabinet outside the Ex zone. All non-specialized equipment, such as the electric motor that drives the filter, is standard and Ex-certified. The only additional requirement with PureBallast 2.0 EX is the availability of compressed oil-free air, also referred to as instrument air. At startup, instrument air is used to ventilate the drive cabinet for the AOT lamps, which contains electronics and warm surfaces that cannot come into contact with explosive gas. During operation, an atmosphere of instrument air is maintained in the lamp drive cabinet through an overpressure of two millibar. This keeps volatile gases from leaking in, while a lock on the cabinet door prevents accidental opening directly after shutdown.



Protection of AOT units

The most difficult aspect of creating an explosion-proof ballast water treatment system is eliminating the risk where treatment actually occurs. In the case of PureBallast, this means protecting the Wallenius AOT units inside and out. At all times, the AOT units must be completely filled with liquid. This removes the possibility of ignition, even if a leak from the product tanks should contaminate the ballast water flow and enter the treatment system. To ensure the presence of liquid, the AOT units of PureBallast 2.0 EX are fitted with a non-return valve, which ensures that nothing can drain from the bottom of the unit. The AOT lamps themselves, which reach operating temperatures of up to 900C, are surrounded by tough quartz-glass shielding. As well as physically protecting the lamps, this shielding acts as a heat barrier, never getting hotter than the ballast water itself. An extra level sensor and a temperature sensor, independent from the rest of the control system, provide additional insurance of safety margins. Finally, the external housing of the AOT units is reinforced, allowing it to withstand substantial forces. With this protection, an AOT unit can absorb the explosion that would occur if gases entered the area between the quartz-glass shielding and an AOT lamp itself.

Internal and external modifications of the Wallenius AOT units eliminate explosion risk.



Full speed ahead

Because PureBallast is chemical-free and has no moving parts, it involves few consumables and poses no service hazards for the crew. In fact, there is little maintenance to be performed at all. The crews obligations are limited to a just a few maintenance checkpoints: Inspection of the filter cartridge once per year Inspection of the sacrificial anode once per year CIP fluid replacement once per year, or when the pH value reaches 3.0 Cleaning of the flow meters electrodes once per year Replacement of AOT lamps when broken (life expectancy 1500 hours)



Economical ease
PureBallasts limited maintenance can be handled without special tools and poses no difficulty for a mechanical engineer using the manual as a guide. This means the system can be serviced even by inexperienced crewmembers. For convenience and economy, the necessary maintenance items have been organized into kits, which contain all the instructions and tips for the relevant maintenance checkpoints. In fact, the maintenance costs for PureBallast amount to just a few dozen euro per thousand cubic metres of processed ballast water.



Strength to build on
Alfa Laval has been involved in ballast water treatment from the very beginning, having been among the very first to launch a ballast water treatment system. This means we were also among the first to meet with shipyards and discuss the practical realities of installing such a system. Today we are the commercial leader in ballast water treatment, having sold more ballast water treatment systems and equipped a greater range of vessel types than any other supplier. That experience yields clear benefits for shipyards, since it means we have worked extensively with them in a broad range of projects with varied installation demands. The improvements in our second-generation system, PureBallast 2.0, are based in no small part on the suggestions and wishes of our shipyard partners. These include a reduction in the number of units to install, as well as the reduction of power consumption by 40%, which makes it easier to use the designed power on board and to avoid installing an extra generator. From the drawing board to on board, PureBallast today is an optimized answer to shipyard needs.



Drawing on experience
PureBallast has always been appreciated as a welldocumented system with comprehensive manuals. PureBallast 2.0 further gears that documentation toward the specific needs of shipyards. With the new documentations simplified drawings and more installation-oriented descriptions, it is easier not only to plan a PureBallast installation, but also to place it on board within the set timeframe for vessel construction.

On hand and on task

Of course, no amount of documentation can replace expert advice and on-site cooperation. Alfa Laval has a strong presence in all shipbuilding countries, complete with technically competent personnel and engineers who speak the local language. Having already helped to install PureBallast on a wide range of vessel types, we meet with shipyards every day to discuss new possibilities. After installation is complete, we also offer a broad range of commissioning and technical services to aid in starting up the system. Moreover, we can support the buyer with valuable advice about PureBallast operation and maintenance as well as onboard training for the crew if desired.



A world of support
PureBallast builds on a 100% chemical-free technology, which means there are no chemical additives to be kept in stock. Likewise, the system has no moving parts to wear or break, so there is little maintenance that has to be performed. In other words, PureBallast offers long-term self-sufficiency. Nonetheless, PureBallast comes with the backing of a truly global supplier. Alfa Laval has a full equipment portfolio and century of experience meeting the needs of maritime industry as well as a worldwide network of harbour support. Wherever your ship sails with PureBallast, you will find access to our dedicated team of peace-of-mind specialists. As a result, technical assistance, onboard service and genuine spare parts are never out of reach.





Greater depth
Lift the flap for a CD with multimedia content and additional information about PureBallast 2.0 and PureBallast 2.0 EX.

Maintaining the balance

Ballast water treatment systems PureBallast 2.0 and PureBallast 2.0 EX

The attached CD contains the following items:

Invaders from the sea (excerpt)
This short lm, taken from the BBC Worldwide/IMO production Invaders from the sea, presents some of the shocking consequences of the transport of organisms via ballast water.

Turning the tide: PureBallast

This lm explores the key benets of PureBallast and shows the PureBallast installation aboard the Wallenius car carrier Aniara.

Overview animation
This brief animation serves as an introduction to the basic principles of PureBallast operation.

Technical data leaflet

These leaflets provide more specic technical details about the PureBallast 2.0 and PureBallast 2.0 EX systems, including detailed capacity and maintenance information.

EMD00181EN 1008 PureBallast is a trademark owned by Alfa Laval Corporate AB. Alfa Laval is a trademark registered and owned by Alfa Laval Corporate AB. Alfa Laval reserves the right to change specifications without prior notification.

Alfa Laval in brief Alfa Laval is a leading global provider of specialized products and engineering solutions. Our equipment, systems and services are dedicated to helping customers to optimize the performance of their processes. Time and time again. We help our customers to heat, cool, separate and transport products such as oil, water, chemicals, beverages, foodstuffs, starch and pharmaceuticals. Our worldwide organization works closely with customers in almost 100 countries to help them stay ahead. How to contact Alfa Laval Contact details for all countries are continually updated on our web site. Please visit to access the information.