Rachel Ann M.

Castro 2010-20246 Political Science 170

International Journal of Asian Studies
© Cambridge University Press, 2011 “The Sino-Vietnamese Dispute Over Territorial Claims, 1974-1978: Vietnamese Nationalism and Its Consequences” by Kosal Path China and Vietnam were not always rivals in territorial claims. Once, in the 1950s, the world saw the two countries working closely together. Leaders of the Vietnamese Workers‟ Party and Chinese Communist Party fought against the oppression from European colonialism. “Brothers plus comrades” was the main idea that shaped Sino-Vietnamese intimacy. Leaders from both sides showed publicly how they respected the other. However, analysts have already seen this as an „alliance of/for mutual needs‟. For VWP and CCP, their newly forged alliance had different natures or roots. For example, China publicly says that „equality and mutual respect for independence‟ is the core principle of their new relationship but, in practice, China had a teacher-student relationship with Vietnam. Vietnam, on the other hand, enjoyed the benefit of having Chinese assistance to North Vietnam but resents the fact that the Chinese leaders would still openly impose their will on North Vietnam while it was weak and dependent on the former. The relationship they had was kept peaceful because of their respective strategic interests and their solidarity helped them against common enemies. Their primary motives of both countries were security and economic interests. It was a simple „compliance in face and betrayal in mind.‟ The Sino-Vietnamese territorial dispute went from initial triggering to an escalated phase of the conflict. When Hanoi was close to winning, both Beijing and Hanoi started to rush and get whatever they could from disputed land and maritime territory. They will use these to turn the upcoming negotiations in their favor. As the territorial contest put Beijing and Hanoi—which were once war-time “brothers plus comrades”—on a collision course, the land border conflict became a hotly contested territory and, eventually, a militarized zone between the two nations. Vietnam fought against the Chinese supremacy by reminding its people how their heroes resisted China‟s influence and aggression. Nationalism was the weapon they used against the Chinese; reminding

Analyzing the information included in the article. There were also many cases of mistreatment of Chinese experts residing in Vietnam. This is a well backed-up idea. they could only see through . The author further argued that when pro-Chinese figures were purged from the VCP‟s Central Committee Politburo. As their conflict escalated and the local authorities of both sides became involved. But since Vietnam isn‟t as democratic as other countries can be. The forced assimilation can be also taken as an economic decision. This will „naturalize‟ businesses owned by mostly Chinese people. However. this can also be an advantage for the government officials since the Chinese will not be able to compete against them in politics. hastened the flight of Chinese residents and technical experts. Most business owners are Chinese and not all countries require them to become citizens before they make profit in the foreign land. By this time. the population of Chinese residents contributes highly to their economic status. saying the Vietnamese were “using the past to imply the present” and that they were ungrateful for the support they have given through the years. Vietnam was already getting support from the Soviet Union. more and more Chinese residents in Vietnam were forced to change their citizenship. plenty of absences at work or simply returning home before schedule. one would agree that this was part of the campaign that highly infuriated the Chinese leaders. This resulted to mass exodus of Chinese residents from Vietnam.the people how China imposed itself on Vietnam that they should limit their influence on them. This is one noticeable advantage for the Chinese since not all laws of the foreign country would apply to them but they could have a grip on politics and decision-making because of their resources. One of the primary arguments of the article was that the „forced assimilation of the Chinese‟ to demonstrate their loyalty and the need to protect „fatherland‟ when put together. the leaders of Beijing interpreted this as part of Hanoi‟s anti-Chinese campaign. This movement angered the Chinese leaders. This was the solution of Vietnam to make sure that they were loyal to Vietnam. resulting to avoidance of work in Vietnam. This is the case in most of Asia. The article has sufficient evidence that these two actions on the part of Hanoi eventually pushed away the Chinese residents instead of having them naturalized. and not China.

it has only enough to say about the „consequences‟. it was a huge plus that the author explained how nationalism was their main weapon. and it is quite ironic because existence of Chinese chauvinism is exactly why Vietnam set those two policies. One would have thought that it would show more results or effects of Vietnam‟s relentless protection of itself from China. Rallying people around and reminding them of how the Chinese aggression negatively affected Vietnam was their way of encouraging Vietnamese to limit their connections to the Chinese. It could pass as a must-read if one is interested in how the conflict began. . “…Its Consequences” Although. it contained more of how it began and how it escalated than what the title says. This article further explains and shows us that Vietnam‟s policies drove away the Chinese residents. Vietnamese nationalism was chauvinistic too. Chinese residents lived with fear and paranoia and eventually returned to China. Actually. There were also many details which got repeated along the way and some proved to be good for emphasis but other repetitions just made the article a lot more confusing. This only caused local Vietnamese authorities along the border of the territories to become more hostile. While the article itself has many facts and supporting data.one lens that shows them how disadvantageous the dual citizenship (or being Chinese by blood) of the residents.

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