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UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING ABSTRACT:

Computer science and its most recent development of "Ubiquitous Computing" signifies the latest advancement of mankind in making such tools that aim to simplify ordinary life. Ubiquitous computing provides a paradigm shift in computing systems to an environment with a potentially large number of typically small networked components. At the same time they tend to disappear from the view of the user by providing user interfaces through the physical world. But this new paradigm also requires adapted design and engineering methods to guarantee a certain quality of service and scalability of the system. This becomes most important when ubiquitous computing is used in the eld of dependable computing. New concepts have to be provided to cope with the complexity of the large number of components. In this work we address the issue of designing dependable computing systems in such an environment by providing composability verication services. Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing, Dynamic Conguration, Dependable Systems, Composability

INTRODUCTION:
Ubiquitous computing, or calm technology, is a paradigm shift where technology becomes virtually invisible in our lives. Instead of having a desk-top or lap-top machine, the technology we use will be embedded in our environment. Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) is a post-desktop model of human-computer interaction in which information processing has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. In the course of ordinary activities, someone using ubiquitous computing engages many computational devices and systems simultaneously, and may not necessarily even be aware that they are doing so. This model is usually considered advancement from the desktop paradigm. More formally Ubiquitous computing is defined as "machines that fit the human environment instead of forcing humans to

enter theirs. In the world of ubiquitous computing, technology will be implicit in our lives, built in to the things we use, including the spaces. The proponents of this technology hold that this type of computing will be a more natural tool, and thus a more powerful and effective one for us to use.

HISTORY:
Mark Weiser coined the phrase "ubiquitous computing" around 1988, during his tenure as Chief Technologist of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). Both alone and with PARC Director and Chief Scientist John Seely Brown. The place which has pioneered research on this topic, and where Mark is located is the Computer Science Lab at Xerox PARC. Today's field got started at PARC in 1988, where Mark articulated the approach and the reasoning behind it. As he describes in [UBPARC], interface and computer design had historically been aiming to make computers more "dramatic", that is so exciting and interesting to use that we would not want to do without them. He reasoned that a better approach would be to make the machine disappear, or become hidden from the user, so that its use would be non-intrusive, becoming a graceful part of our everyday life.

TECHNOLOGY:
It is basically developed on the basis of following technologies builds on previous work in the areas of Distributed Systems and Mobile Computing. It inherits the following from Distributed system Remote communication (layering, remote procedure call, etc.) Fault tolerance (atomic transactions, etc.) High availability (optimistic/pessimistic replica control, mirrored execution, etc.) Remote information access (caching, distributed file systems, distributed databases, etc.) Security (authentication, privacy, etc.) It inherits the following from Mobile computing Mobile networking, e.g. ad-hoc protocols Mobile information access, e.g. disconnected operation Support for adaptive applications, e.g. proxy trans coding, Adaptive resource management system-level energy saving techniques, e.g. variablespeed processor scheduling Location sensitivity, e.g. location-aware system behavior

CHALLENGES AND REQUIREMENTS:

Hardware: The trend toward miniaturization of computers components down to an atomic scale is known as nanotechnology. Applications: This is the main motivation of ubiquitous computing. A combination of several factors, including the current location, the current user or if there are any other Unicom devices present in the near surroundings.

User Interfaces: The multitude of differrant Ubicomp devices with their differrant sizes of displays and interaction capabilities represents another challenge for it. Networking: The multitude of differrant Ubicomp devices with their differrant sizes of displays and interaction capabilities represents another challenge we can my use of wireless in efficient way.

Mobility: Mobility is made possible through wireless communication technologies Scalability: Mobility is made possible through wireless communication technologies Reliability: In order to construct reliable systems self-monitoring, self-regulating and self-healing features like they are found in biology might be a solution Interoperability: This will probably be one of the major factors for the success or failure of the Ubicomp vision. Use of technology just existed: JINI,CORBA,eccThis diversity will make it impossible that there is only one agreed standard

Resource Discovery: The ability of devices to describe their behaviour to the network is a key requirement. On the other hand, it cannot be assumed that devices in a ubiquitous environment have prior knowledge of the capabilities of other occupants

Privacy and Security: In a fully networked world with ubiquitous, sensor-equipped devices several privacy and security issues arise. The people in this environment will be worried about their privacy since there is the potential of total monitoring. Must be understandable by the user and it must be modelled into the system architecture.

SOME COMPONENTS OF UBIQUOS COMPUTING:


1. Context aware 2. Wearable computers

Context aware: Context aware application:


It is one which can capture the context, assign meaning to it and change behavior accordingly. It refers to a general class of mobile systems that can sense their physical

environment, i.e., their context of use, and adapt their behavior accordingly. Such systems are a component of a ubiquitous computing or pervasive computing environment. It provides services like, Computing services sense aspects of environment (location, user emotion,) and tailor provided services Walk into conference room, my email is projected on a big screen there Examples: Active Badge & PARCTab Shopping assistant Cyberguide

User selection:
Proxy transforms as best as it can, but gives users a way to force proxy to deliver original content here, a simple client-side UI enhancement is coupled with proxy-side refinement intelligence.

Adapting vector mapping:


Maps can be split into features and presented in part. They can be encoded at different scales and different feature detail. Selective adaptation can consider content being degraded.

Smart dust:
Autonomous sensing and communication in a cubic millimeter dust motes. It has Sensors for temperature, humidity, light, motion. It has a bidirectional radio or laser with battery. Some of the typical Applications: 1. Defense related battlefield sensors, motion detectors etc. 2. Inventory control on boxes which communicate with crates, trucks, plane etc to tell you where they are 3. Product quality monitoring vibration, humidity, overheating 4. Car component monitoring

Future smart dust:


They have intelligent paper with integrated radio that replaces current displays. A Smart paint monitors vibrations and detect intruders or changes color to react to temperature, lighting etc. the intelligent glass can filter sunlight, become opaque. i.e., no need for curtains. A Smart garments or injects able sensors for people monitoring. Download design and printable motes for less than 1c mote. They also have Printable batteries

Scaling factors:
100K computers per person. They are self organizing and self configuring devices. They exhibit coherent behavior from vast numbers of unreliable sensors and actuators.

Intelligent environment:
Lights, air conditioning, TV automatically switch on and off when you enter or leave rooms Sit on your favorite chair and TV switches on to the program you usually watch at this time of the day Use communicator/PDA for phone, remote control, keys, payments, passport, health records, and authenticator. Route input from virtual keyboard to nearest suitable display. Automatic detection of new items to control and physical layout in a room or office, using computer vision. SOME DEVICES OF UBIQUOTIOUS COMPUTING:

i) Tab:
prototype handheld computer

Was 2x3x0.5", had a 2 week battery life on rechargeable batteries, and weighed 7 oz

Uused a Phillips 8051 processor with 128k NVRAM Ffeatured an external I2C external bus, a custom resistive touch screen, and a 128x64 mono display Iincluded an infrared base station in the ceiling for LAN connectivity

The Tab project is consider by many to be the most significant of the three prototyping efforts

ii) Classroom 2000:


Iinstructors are given the ability to present more information during each lecture, with the

goal of providing a deeper


As a result, sstudents are often drowned with information and forced into a heads down

approach to learning

iii) Universal computing environment:


The infrastructure of the ubiquitous computing environment may be organized and structured as a cyber equivalent of an ecosystem, a very complex, dynamic infrastructure. A ubiquitous computing system is a integrated system of computing resources, devices, services, and the ubiquitous computing environment (UCE) that provides a communication framework to connect all of the components.

this architecture was used as the basis for the implementation of BEACH it provides the functionality for synchronous cooperation and interaction with room ware components

CONCLUSION:
Ubiquitous computing provides a new philosophy of how computing systems should be designed. They consists of a lot of small networked components. At the same time ubiquitous computing systems have a high rate of component reintegration or reconguration.. Combining every object with identification, localization, and communication technologies will have a significant impact on private life of millions of people with decreasing cost of ubiquitous information and communication technology. The penetration of the technologies will become more widespread and no doubt a large number of business opportunities will emerge within this sector Much progress in information science, computer science, and material science is necessary to render the vision economically feasible and to overcome current technological hurdles such as energy consumption.

REFERNCE:
[1] N.K.Cheung, Towards the era of ubiquitous network, IEEE Intern. Symp. On Microwave, Antenna & Propagation and EMC Technology for Wireless Communication (MAPE-2005), 18-12, Aug. 2005, pp 1-9

[2] C.Y. Chong, S.P. Kumar, Sensor networks: Evaluation, opportunities, and challenges, Proc. Of the IEEE, 91(8), 2003, pp 1247- 1256 [3] P. Tandler, et al, Room ware-Moving towards ubiquitous computers, IEEE Micro, Nov.Dec.,2002, pp 36-47 [4] R. Want et al, Disappearing hardware, IEEE Pervasive Computing, Jan-March, 2002, pp 36-47 [5] T. Starner, The challenges of wearable computing: part 1 &2, IEEE Micro