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Hope Educational Foundation

iMatter Teacher Training Survey Pre and Post Outcomes Research South Africa

December 2011

iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa KEY RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS The iMatter teacher training is effective at boosting teachers confidence in using the following teaching methods (with the percent increase in those who felt very sure):
1.

Doing things with two or more of the learners' senses (sight, touch, hearing, taste, and smell) (20% increase) Using stories (17% increase) Using games (19% increase) Role playing or drama (21% increase) Asking learners questions during lessons (9% increase) Being willing to change lessons some to meet learner needs (13% increase)

2. The iMatter training also increased teachers confidence at teaching the following types of lessons (with the percent increase in those who felt very sure): Teaching grades 4 to 7 about being faithful to one partner in marriage (17% increase) Teaching learners in grades 4 to 7 to wait until marriage to have sex (13% increase) Helping the learners feel they mean a lot (self esteem) (12% increase) Teaching learners to cope with conflict (14% increase) Teaching morals regarding sexual activity (19% increase) Teaching learners to be kind to people who are different from them (7% increase) Teaching learners to make right choices (11% increase) Teaching learners to wait until marriage to have sex or be faithful to one partner in marriage instead of teaching other ways to prevent HIV (16% increase) Building learner self-worth (17% increase)

The training did not make a significant difference in teachers confidence to teach learners to be kind to others the majority already felt confident to do this in the pre survey and that did not change. 3. Overall the majority of teachers was knowledgeable and understood the correct facts about HIV & AIDS transmission, even before the iMatter 2

iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa training. However, significantly more teachers had the correct knowledge about these facts after the training: Babies can get HIV from breastfeeding (True). 13% increase A person can be completely cured or healed from HIV & AIDS (False). 11% increase. HIV can spread to babies before or during birth (True). 5% increase.

While the majority disagreed, note that there was a 9% increase, from pre to post training, in the percent that agreed with the statement, You can get HIV by drinking from the same glass or using the same toilet as someone who has HIV. 4. The majority of teachers agreed that learner/teacher support materials (LTSM) will have a positive effect on learner behaviors in the future, the AB approach is the best way to avoid HIV or AIDS, and agreed that HIV lessons in the LTSM are very worthwhile for learners. The percent that strongly agreed with the statement, The AB approach (teaching youth to wait until marriage to have sex and be faithful to one partner in marriage) is the best way to avoid HIV or AIDS increased from 73% in the pre survey to 82% in the post survey, which is a significant difference. 5. Specifically in regard to iMatter, a strong majority of teachers agreed that iMatter materials are very worthwhile for learners; they would rate them very good or good; and iMatter is worth teaching to children. Two-thirds (65%) indicated that iMatter is much better than other life orientation materials. The majority also reported that they feel sure of their ability to teach iMatter and that it will be helpful in their own lives. 6. Overall, stigma about those with HIV & AIDS is low among teachers. In regard to their attitudes about HIV & AIDS, there were some positive findings: The majority disagreed with the statement, I would rather stay away from people who have HIV or AIDS. Two-thirds disagreed with the statement, I would feel ashamed if one of my family had HIV or AIDS.

iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa The majority disagreed that HIV and AIDS are a penalty for doing bad things. The majority disagreed with the statement, I feel like I will get HIV and AIDS no matter what I do in life.

7. However, there were some concerning findings among teachers and their attitudes about HIV & AIDS: 83% are afraid of getting HIV and AIDS. The training did not ease their fears. One in five feel that they will get HIV and AIDS no matter what they do in life. This increased from 15% to 20%, from pre training to post training, which is a significant difference. The percent that agreed that they would rather stay away from people who have HIV or AIDS increased from 7% to 13%, from pre training to post training, which is a significant difference. One-quarter would feel ashamed if one of their family had HIV or AIDS. The percent that agreed increased from 22% to 28%, from pre training to post training, which is a significant difference. One-quarter does not have great pity for those who have HIV or AIDS. The training did not give them greater empathy. The percent who agreed that HIV and AIDS are a penalty for doing bad things increased from 9% to 16%, from pre training to post training, which is a significant difference.

8. The typical iMatter teacher is female between the ages of 35 and 54. The average (mean) age is 43. Almost 100% of them teach students between the grades of 4 to 7, and 57% also teach grades R-3. One-quarter of the teachers surveyed had never had HIV & AIDS training in the past, while 45% had taken between one and 10 hours. Only 30% had 11 hours or more of HIV & AIDS training.

iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Conduct four focus groups among teachers to determine why a minority holds the following attitudes or beliefs: They They They They They are afraid of getting HIV and AIDS. will get HIV and AIDS no matter what they do in life. would rather stay away from people who have HIV or AIDS. would feel ashamed if one of their family had HIV or AIDS. do not have great pity for those with HIV or AIDS.

iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Primary: 1. Assess teacher confidence in and knowledge of teaching the Abstinence and Be Faithful message in Life Orientation education. Secondary: 1. Assess confidence among teachers in using various teaching methods, before and after the iMatter teacher training, to determine if the training boosted their confidence in using these participative and multi-sensory methods. 2. Determine if the iMatter teacher training boosted teachers confidence in teaching learners about how to cope with conflict, self-worth, kindness and safe behavior. 3. Measure teachers knowledge about the facts of HIV and AIDS before and after the iMatter training to assess possible increase in knowledge. 4. Assess attitudes and opinions about learner/teacher support materials in general and iMatter in particular. 5. Measure teachers attitudes about HIV and AIDS, i.e. in regard to fear, compassion, stigma and personal choices before and after the iMatter training to assess the effectiveness of the iMatter teacher training at changing attitudes among teachers.

iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa

iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Seventeen iMatter teacher-training sessions were conducted by Reaching a Generation in KwaZulu-Natal, Gauteng, Limpopo, Free State, and North West Provinces from May 2011 to October 31, 2011. At each of these sessions, the teachers were given self-administered questionnaires to complete before and after the training by staff members of Reaching a Generation. Each teacher who participated was given an informed consent form, with the option to not participate. 1,048 teachers or education students were surveyed. Sample sizes by Province are as follows: Province KwaZulu-Natal Gauteng Limpopo North West Free State Pre 259 382 182 195 30 Post 259 382 182 195 30

Application and Approval The survey protocol, informed consent form and survey questionnaire were submitted to and approved by Pharma-Ethics Committee (IEC, Independent Ethics Committee) in April 2010, with a protocol amendment in April 2011. In September 2011 the IEC approved an extension of end of enrollment to 31 October 2011. The protocol was initially submitted to CDC SA in May 2010 and subsequently approved by CDC Atlanta in April 2011. The survey protocol was registered on the SA National Clinical Trial Register (SANCTR) and subsequently a unique DOH Trial Number (DOH-27-0411-3300) was obtained from the National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC), Department of Health. Limitations On average, one-quarter of the teachers who attended the trainings were excluded from the survey due to the fact that they arrived late. The first 385 surveys were completed without Question 11 in the presurvey questionnaire. Question 11 reads: Please circle the number that shows how sure you feel about doing each thing stated below: 11) Teaching grades 4 to 7 about being faithful to one partner in marriage. This critical question was added and surveys were reprinted.

iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa Note: 83 of the respondents from Gauteng were education students enrolled in the trainings at the University of Pretoria. They were not able to respond to the question: What grades do you teach? However, they were still included in the survey.

Data Processing Upon completion of the survey, the sealed envelopes were delivered to Martie DuPreez in Polokwane, South Africa who entered them into Excel. The Excel files were then emailed to MR Data Corp. in Seaview, WA, for the data to be processed and to conduct significance testing on the data. Significance Testing Significance testing was conducted at the 5% level (95% confidence level) between the pre and post training. Significant findings that are considered to be meaningful are reported. These differences are in bold. Margin of Error At the 95% confidence level, a sample size of 1,048 has a margin of error of +\- 3.0%.

iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa CONFIDENCE IN USING VARIOUS TEACHING METHODS Teachers were asked to circle the number that shows how sure they feel doing each of the teaching activities below, using a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 meaning not sure at all and 5 meaning very sure. Following the iMatter teacher training, teachers showed significantly higher levels of confidence for doing all the teaching methods. Significant differences at the 5% level of significance (95% confidence level) are in bold. Pre Training Doing things with two or more of the learners' senses (sight, touch, hearing, taste, and smell). Very Sure Average Mean Rating Using stories Very Sure Average Mean Rating Using games Very Sure Average Mean Rating Role playing or drama Very Sure Average Mean Rating Asking learners questions during lessons. Very Sure Average Mean Rating Being willing to change lessons some to meet learner needs. Very Sure Average Mean Rating Post Training

47% 4.2 56% 4.4 45% 4.2 34% 4.0 76% 4.7 51% 4.3

67% 4.6 73% 4.7 64% 4.5 55% 4.4 85% 4.8 64% 4.5

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iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa CONFIDENCE IN TEACHING MORALS, CONFLICT RESOLUTION, KINDNESS & SELF WORTH Again, teachers were asked to circle the number that represents how sure they feel teaching each of the following type of lessons, using a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 meaning not sure at all and 5 meaning very sure. Teachers increased their confidence on all the types of lessons tested except for teaching learners to be kind to others, for which the majority already felt confident before the training. Significant differences at the 5% level of significance (95% confidence level) are in bold. Pre Training Teaching grades 4 to 7 about being faithful to one partner in marriage Very Sure Average Mean Rating Helping the learners feel they mean a lot Very Sure Average Mean Rating Teaching learners to cope with conflict Very Sure Average Mean Rating Teaching morals regarding sexual activity Very Sure Average Mean Rating Teaching learners in grades 4 to 7 to wait until marriage to have sex Very Sure Average Mean Rating Teaching learners to be kind to others Very Sure Average Mean Rating 43% 3.8 71% 4.6 54% 4.4 49% 4.2 58% 4.2 83% 4.8 Post Training

60% 4.3 83% 4.8 68% 4.6 68% 4.5 71% 4.5 86% 4.8

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iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa

Pre Training Teaching learners to be kind to people who are different from them Very Sure Average Mean Rating Teaching learners to make the right choices Very Sure Average Mean Rating Teaching learners to wait until marriage to have sex or be faithful to one partner in marriage instead of teaching other ways to prevent HIV. Very Sure Average Mean Rating Building learner self-worth Very Sure Average Mean Rating 73% 4.7 73% 4.7

Post Training

80% 4.7 84% 4.8

55% 4.2 60% 4.5

71% 4.5 77% 4.7

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iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE FACTS OF HIV & AIDS TRANSMISSION Teachers were asked to indicate if each statement about HIV & AIDS was true or false. The majority of teachers knew all the correct facts about HIV & AIDS transmission before and after the training. However, significantly more teachers had the correct knowledge about these facts after the training: A person can be completely cured or healed from HIV & AIDS. (False) HIV can spread to babies before or during birth. (True) Babies can get HIV from breastfeeding. (True)

While still a minority overall, of concern is that significantly more teachers agreed to this statement after the training: You can get HIV by drinking from the same glass or using the same toilet as someone who has HIV.

Significant differences at the 5% level of significance (95% confidence level) are in bold. Pre Training A person can be completely cured or healed from HIV & AIDS. True False Do not know You can get HIV by having sex with someone who has HIV or AIDS. True False Do not know HIV can spread to babies before or during birth. True False Do not know 15% 81% 4% 97% 3% 0% 90% 9% 1% Post Training

8% 92% 1% 98% 2% 0% 95% 4% 0%

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iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa

Pre Training Babies can get HIV from breastfeeding. True False Do not know HIV is spread by mosquitoes. True False Do not know HIV can be spread by sharing needles with someone who has HIV or AIDS. True False Do not know It is ok to touch the blood or an open sore of someone who has HIV or AIDS. True False Do not know You can get HIV by hugging or shaking hands with someone who has it. True False Do not know You can get HIV by drinking from the same glass or using the same toilet as someone who has HIV. True False Do not know Someone may have HIV for years and not know they have the disease. True False Do not know 76% 19% 5% 6% 92% 3% 96% 4% 0% 6% 94% 0% 2% 98% 0%

Post Training 89% 10% 1% 8% 91% 1% 96% 4% 0% 8% 92% 0% 3% 97% 0%

2% 97% 0% 94% 4% 1%

11% 89% 0% 93% 7% 0%

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iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa

ATTITUDES ABOUT LTSM AND iMATTER Using a 1 to 5 scale, with 5 being the highest rating and 1 being the lowest rating, teachers were asked to rate each of the following statements about learner teacher support materials (LTSM) and iMatter. The majority of teachers agreed that learner/teacher support materials (LTSM) will have a positive effect on learner behaviors in the future; the AB approach is the best way to avoid HIV or AIDS; and agreed that HIV lessons in the LTSM are very worthwhile for learners. Specifically in regard to iMatter, the majority of teachers also agreed that iMatter materials are very worthwhile for learners; they would rate them very good or good; and iMatter is worth teaching to children. Two-thirds (65%) indicated that iMatter is much better than other life orientation materials. The majority also reported that they feel sure of their ability to teach iMatter and that it will be helpful in their own lives. Significant Increase in Percent who Strongly Agreed: The AB approach (teaching youth to wait until marriage to have sex and be faithful to one partner in marriage) is the best way to avoid HIV or AIDS. Pre: 73%, Post: 82% I believe learner teacher support materials (LTSM) will have a good effect on what learners do in the future. Pre: 68%, Post: 81% Pre Training I believe learner/teacher support materials (LTSM) will have a good effect on what learners do in the future. Agree Neutral Disagree Average Mean Rating The AB approach (teaching youth to wait until marriage to have sex and be faithful to one partner in marriage) is the best way to avoid HIV or AIDS. Agree Post Training

95% 4% 1% 4.6

97% 2% 0% 4.8

91%

95%

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iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa Neutral Disagree Average Mean Rating 5% 4% 4.6 3% 2% 4.7

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iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa

Pre Training Other HIV lessons in the learner/ teacher support materials are very worthwhile for learners. Agree Neutral Disagree Average Mean Rating The iMatter lessons are very worthwhile for learners. Agree Neutral Disagree Average Mean Rating How would you rate iMatter? Very good or Good Neutral Fair or Poor Average Mean Rating How does iMatter materials compare to other LO books? Much Better A Little Better About the Same A Little Worse Much Worse Average Mean Rating I believe iMatter is worth teaching to children. Agree Neutral Disagree Average Mean Rating I feel sure about my ability to teach iMatter. Agree Neutral Disagree

Post Training

92% 6% 2% 4.5 95% 4% 1% 4.6 96% 3% 1% 4.6 65% 26% 9% 1% 0% 4.5 96% 4% 0% 4.7 92% 8% 0% 17

iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa Average Mean Rating 4.5

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iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa

Pre Training iMatter will be helpful in my own life. Agree Neutral Disagree Average Mean Rating

Post Training 96% 4% 0% 4.7

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iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa ATTITUDES ABOUT HIV & AIDS Teachers attitudes about HIV & AIDS were measured using a 1 to 5 scale, ranging from 1 meaning strongly do not agree to 5 meaning strongly agree. Positive Findings: The majority disagreed with these statements: I feel like I will get HIV and AIDS no matter what I do in life. I would rather stay away from people who have HIV or AIDS. I would feel ashamed if one of my family had HIV or AIDS. (Two-thirds disagreed.) HIV and AIDS are a penalty for doing bad things. Concerns: 83% are afraid of getting HIV and AIDS. The training did not ease their fears. One in five feel that they will get HIV and AIDS no matter what they do in life. This increased from 15% to 20%, from pre training to post training, which is a significant difference. The percent that agreed that they would rather stay away from people who have HIV or AIDS increased from 7% to 13%, from pre training to post training, which is a significant difference. One-quarter would feel ashamed if one of their family had HIV or AIDS. The percent that agreed increased from 22% to 28%, from pre training to post training, which is a significant difference. One-quarter does not have great pity for those who have HIV or AIDS. The training did not give them greater empathy. The percent who agreed that HIV and AIDS are a penalty for doing bad things increased from 9% to 16%, from pre training to post training, which is a significant difference. Significant differences at the 5% level of significance (95% confidence level) are in bold. Im afraid of getting HIV and AIDS. Agree Neutral Disagree Average Mean Rating Pre Training 82% 10% 8% 4.4 Post Training 83% 8% 8% 4.4 20

iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa

Pre Training I feel like I will get HIV and AIDS no matter what I do in life. Agree Neutral Disagree Average Mean Rating I would rather stay away from people who have HIV or AIDS. Agree Neutral Disagree Average Mean Rating I would feel ashamed if one of my family had HIV or AIDS. Agree Neutral Disagree Average Mean Rating I have great pity for people who have HIV or AIDS. Agree Neutral Disagree Average Mean Rating HIV and AIDS are a penalty for doing bad things. Agree Neutral Disagree Average Mean Rating 15% 11% 74% 2.0

Post Training

20% 11% 70% 2.1

7% 9% 84% 1.7 22% 10% 68% 2.0 58% 16% 26% 3.6 9% 5% 86% 1.6

13% 9% 78% 1.9 28% 9% 63% 2.1 60% 14% 26% 3.6 16% 6% 78% 1.9

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iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa DEMOGRAPHICS Age The average mean age of the teachers is 43.0 years old, with 72% between the ages of 35 and 54 years old. Under 25 years old 25-34 years old 35-44 years old 45-54 years old 55+ years old 9% 7% 37% 35% 11%

Gender The majority of teachers are female. Male Female 17% 83%

Grades Taught The majority of teachers attending the iMatter training workshops teach grades 4 to 7, followed by those teaching grades R-3. Note that teachers were asked to indicate all the grades they teach; hence the total equals more than 100%. Eighty-three education students at the University of Pretoria did not answer this question. Grades R-3 57% Grades 4 - 7 96% Grades 8-9 2% Grades 10-12 1% Number of Hours of HIV & AIDS Training Had in the Past One-quarter of the teachers have never had HIV & AIDS training in the past. 45% have had from one to 10 hours of training, and 30% have had 11 or more hours of training. None 25% 1-5 hours 22% 6-10 hours 23% 11-40 hours 20% Over 40 hours 10% Average Mean Hours 17.3 Average Median Hours 6.0 22

iMatter Teacher Training Survey, S. Africa

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