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Experiment No: 01 Name of the Experiment: Dyeing of Cotton with Pigments. Theory: Actually pigments are not dyes.

They are organic or inorganic coloring substances and have no affinity to fibers. According to the definition proposed by colored pigments manufacturers association pigments are colored, black, white or fluorescent particulate organic and inorganic solids which usually are insoluble in and essentially physically and chemically un affected by the vehicles or substrate in which they are incorporated. They alter appearance by selective absorption and or by scattering of light. Pigments are usually dispersed in vehicles or substrates for application as for instance in inks, paints, plastics or other polymeric materials. Pigments retain a crystal or particulate structure throughout the coloration process. Generally, the finely divided pigments provide negative surface charge when dispersed in water. This negative surface charge has been put to good use in textile coloration for attracting the pigment particles to fiber surfaces on which cationic groups have been attached. In pigmentation of textiles, there is no chemical reaction happening between the fiber and the pigment. Since pigment has no attraction to the fibers, thus the fibers are treated with a suitable cationizing agent for creating an attraction of anionic pigment to fibers. This process is called cationic pretreatment. Mainly pigments are used in printing and woven dyeing and to color garments without actually dyeing them. Pigment dyeing on garments is very popular and common in textile coloration field. The pigments are simply set on the surface of the fiber and held on with aid of binders. By putting color only on the surface of a garment, a washed out, faded look similar to denim jeans can be created.

Object: To dye fabric using pigments. To acquire knowledge over pigments.

Apparatus: 1) Beaker 2) Heater 3) Agitator 4) Chemicals 5) Thermometer 6) Oven

Recipe: Step Material M:L Pigments Binder Fixer Acetic Acid Leveling Agent pH Temperature Time Temperature Time Amount 1 : 30 3% 25 gm/l 7 gm/l 3 gm/l 3 gm/l Less than 6 80 90 C 45 60 minutes 140 C 3 5 minutes

Dyeing

After treatment

Recipe Calculation: Here, M : L ratio is given as 1 : 30. Our fabric weight was 4 gm which needs 120 ml water during dyeing process according to the M : L ratio. Now, the amount of pigments, chemicals, auxiliaries are calculated bellow.

Pigment required, 5% of fabric weight =

= 0.2 gm

At each 1000 ml water, required amount of Binder is 25 ml So, At 120 ml water, required amount of Binder is = At each 1000 ml water, required amount of Fixer is 7 ml So, At 120 ml water, required amount of Fixer is = = 0.84 ml

= 3 ml

At each 1000 ml water, required amount of Leveling Agent is 3 ml So, At 120 ml water, required amount of Leveling Agent = At each 1000 ml water, required amount of Acetic Acid is 3 ml So, At 120 ml water, required amount of Acetic Acid = = 0.36 ml = 0.36 ml

All the calculations is done on the basis of recipe given earlier. Actual amount which was used for dyeing may vary slightly due to few measurement errors or as per need.

Working Procedure: At first we wash all the beakers and dye bath well and weigh the fabric in order to complete necessary calculation to get the required amount of water and other chemicals for dyeing. Then we measured and poured necessary amount of water into the dye bath along with required amount of pigments and acetic acid. Then we heated the bath until the temperature reached 40 C and kept heating for about 10 minutes. At this point, we added the fabric into the dye bath that was to be dyed by pigment. After that, we continued heating until the temperature reached 60 C. At this point, we added Binder and leveling agent to the dye liquor and continued heating at 60 C for about 10 minutes. After that, we added fixer to the dye liquor. Then we, increased the heating and raised the temperature up to 80C at which temperature, heating is continued for about 60 minutes. At the end, we drained the dye liquor and dipped the fabric into clean water without rinsing or washing it. Then, we put the fabric into the oven where it is placed to dry up at about 140 C for about 5 minutes. At last, we got the fabric out of the oven and cut it into pieces for making samples of the experiment for each member of the group. Dyeing Curve:

Fig: Dyeing Curve for dyeing of cotton fabric with pigments

Precaution: The temperature at various stages of dyeing should be controlled carefully. There should be enough dyeing time given in order to get a good quality dye. Fabric should not be raised over dyeing liquor as it can cause uneven dyeing. Fabric is not washed after dyeing, however, it was dipped into fresh water to get rid of extra dye liquor.

Conclusion: We used red pigments for dyeing. Due to its natural tendency to wash away from the fabric, we had to use a fixing agent to bind the color onto the fabric so that it can have better color fastness. We obtained a red color which became a slightly lighter shade after drying.

SAMPLE