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VALMIKI RAMAYANA BALAKANDA

"He is an adept one, moralist, learned, propitious, and a destroyer of enemies. His arms are lengthy, and his neck is like a conch-shell, and cheekbones high... [1-1-9] mahaa uraskaH= broad [lion-like,] chested; mahaa eSvaasaH= [one who handles] long, bow; guuDha jatruH= concealed, collarbones [thick shouldered]; arim damaH= enemy, subjugator; aa jaanu baahuH= up to, knees, his arms [lengthy armed]; su shiraaH= high [crowning] head; su lalaaTaH= with ample, forehead; su vi kramaH = good, verily, pacer [lion-like-pacer.] "He is lion-chested, thick-shouldered, knee-length are his arms, and his is longbow, an enemy-subjugator, and his emperor's countenance is with a crowning-head with an ample forehead, and his pacing is lion-like... [1-1-10] 11. samaH= medium-sized [physically]; sama vibhakta aN^gaH= symmetrically, divided [distributed, poised,] limbs; snigdha varNaH= soft [glossily,] coloured [complexioned]; prataapavaan= courageous one [or, resplendent

one]; piina vakshaaH= sinew, chested; vishaala akshaH= wide, eyed; lakshmiivaan= prosperous [personality]; shubha lakshaNaH= providential, features. "He is medium-sized physically, with limbs poised symmetrically, sinew-chested, wide-eyed, complexioned glossily... he is a prosperous personality with all the providential features, and thus he is self-resplendent... [1-1-11]

ARANYA KANDA 17 7. diipta aasyam= radiant, faced; mahaabaahum= lengthy armed; padma patra aayata ikSaNam= lotus, petal, long, eyed one; gaja vikraanta gamanam= elephant, in pacing, in walk [imposingly pacing]; jaTaa maNdala dhaariNam= hair-tuft, bunches, wearing; sukumaaram mahaasattvam= delicate, greatly vigorous; paarthiva vyanjana anvitam= kingly, aspects, one having them; indiivara shyaamam= blue-lotus-like, deep-blue coloured; kandarpa sadR^isha prabham= Love-god, similar, in his brilliance; indra upamam= Indra, in simile; raamam= at Rama; dR^iSTvaa= on seeing; raakSasii kaama mohitaa= demoness, love, sickened; babhuuva= she [Shurpanakha] became. He whose face is radiant, arms lengthy, eyes large like lotus petals, stride like that of an elephant, wearing bunches of hair-tufts, delicate yet greatly

vigorous, possessor of all kingly aspects, complexion deep-blue like blue lotus, similar to Love-god in brilliance and in simile to Indra, the demoness has seen such a Rama and became lovesick. [3-17-7, 8, 9a]

ARANYA KANDA 47 33. mahaa girim iva= sturdy, mountain, like; a + kampyam= not, flexible; mahendra sadR^isham= lordly Indra, comparable to; mahaa udadhim iva= vast, ocean, like; a + kSobhyam= not, be roiled - be churned - unshakeable; such a; patim raamam= husband, Rama; aham anu vrataa= I, follow up on [adhere,] avowed to. "I have avowed to adhere to such a husband Rama, who is inflexible like a sturdy mountain, comparable to lordly Indra, unshakable like a vast ocean. [3-47-33] 34. [aham= I am]; sarva lakshaNa sampannam= all, endowments, enriched; nyagrodha pari maNDalam= banyan tree [like,] surmounted, with orbicularity; satya sandham= truthfulness, as hs target; mahaabhaagam high-minded one; raamam anuvrataa= to such a Rama., I avowed to adhere. "He who is enriched with all endowments, and who is like a banyan tree with its surmounted

orbicularity, the high-minded one with truthfulness alone is his target, and I am avowed to adhere to such a Rama. [3-47-34] 35. aham= I; mahaa baahum= great, are his arms [ambidextrous]; mahaa uraskam= broad-chested; simha vikraanta gaaminam= lion, with prance, strider; nR^i simham= man, lion [here, not exactly a lion, the best, foremost, supreme one]; simha samkaasham= lion, like; raamam anuvrataa= to such a Rama, avowed to adhere. "He who is ambidextrous, broad-chested, supreme among men, and a lion-like person with the strides of prancing lion, and I am avowed to adhere to such a Rama. [3-47-35]

36. aham= I; puurNa candra aananam= full, moon, faced; viiram= valiant one; raaja vatsam= king's, son; jita indriyam= self-conquered one; pR^ithu kiirtim= expressly, acclaimed; mahaabaahum [mahaa aatmaanam]= effectively, armed [high-souled]; raamam anuvrataa= to such a Rama, avowed to adhere. "He who is a valiant one with a face like that of full-moon, a prince with his self-conquered, and he who is expressly acclaimed and effectively armed, and I am avowed to adhere to such a Rama. [3-47-36]

ARANYA KANDA 46 While standing before her then Ravana eyed at the auspicious wife of Rama, whose lips and teeth are fine, visage is shiny like a full moon, and who is presently tortured by her tearful lamentation and sitting in the straw-cottage, and he approached that lotus-petal eyed Vaidehi who is dressed in ochry silks, as that night-walker is gladdened at his

heart for her solitude. [3-46-11b, 12,13] samaaH shikhariNaH snigdhaaH paaNDuraa dashanaaH tava | vishaale vimale netre raktaante kR^iSNa taarake || 3-46-18 18. tava dashanaaH= your, teeth; samaaH= are evenly; shikhariNaH= have tips like jasmine buds; snigdhaaH= smooth; paaNDuraa= whitely; netre vishaale vimale= eyes, broad, spotless; rakta ante= red, at ends; kR^iSNa taarake= black, starred [irises, pupils are black.] "Your teeth are evenly, smooth and their tips are like jasmine buds, and your whitish broad eyes are spotless, reddish at ends, and pupils are black. [3-46-18]

vishaalam jaghanam piinam uuruu kari kara upamau | etau upacitau vR^ittau sa.mhatau sa.mpragalbhitau || 3-46-19 piina unnata mukhau kaantau snigdha taala phala upamau | maNi praveka aabharaNau rucirau te payo dharau || 3-46-20 19, 20. vishaalam jaghanam= beamy, hips; piinam uuruu= burly, thighs; kari kara upamau=

elephant's, hand [trunk,] akin to; te= your; etau= these; maNi praveka aabharaNau= those that have - jewellery, best, ornamented; payaH dharau= milk, bearers - two breasts; upa citau= butting [rubbing each other]; vR^ittau= rotund; sam hatau= well, bumping against each; sam pragalbhitau [sam pra valgitau]= verily, unobtainable [very, well, swinging up]; piina unnata mukhau= brawny, jutting out, faces [of breasts - nipples]; kaantau= covetable; snigdha taala phala upamau= smooth, palm, fruit, like; rucirau= beautiful. "Your hips are beamy, thighs burly akin to elephant's trunks, and these two breasts of yours that are ornamented with best jewellery are rotund, rubbing and bumping each other, and they are swinging up and up, their nipples are brawny and jutting out, and they are smoothish like palm-fruits, thus they are covetable for they are beautiful. [3-46-19, 20]

caaru smite caaru dati caaru netre vilaasini | mano harasi me raame nadii kuulam iva a.mbhasaa || 3-46-21 karaantamita madhyaa asi sukeshii sa.mhata stanii | 21, 22a. caaru smite= oh, on who has - alluring, smile; caaru dati= alluring, teeth; caaru netre= alluring, eyes; vilaasini= oh, allurer; raame= oh, beautiful lady [or, Raamaa, the female form of Rama]; nadii ambhasaa kuulam iva= river, by water [by spate,] riverbank [eroding,] as with; me manaH harasi= my, soul, you are robbing; kara anta mita madhyaa= hand, inside, limitable, waisted - a palmful is your waist; su keshii= good, head-hair [velvety hair]; samhata stanii asi= jostling, breasted one, you are - breasts extrusive to each other. "Oh, allurer, your smile is alluring, teeth are alluring, and your eyes allure, oh, beauty, your waist is palmful, your hair velvety, your breasts are jostling, and you rob my soul as a spate robs riverbank. [3-46-21, 22a]

ARANYA KANDA 34 15. vishaala akSii= broad-eyed one; puurNa indu sadR^isha aananaa= full, moon, similar, one with such face; tu= but; raamasya dharma patnii= Rama's, wedded, wife; bhartR^iH priyaa= husband's, dear one; nityam priya hite rataa= always, in her dear one - Rama's, well-being, delights in. "But, one with her broad-eyes, face similar to the full-moon is the dear and wedded wife of Rama, and she always takes delight in the well-being of her dear one, namely Rama. [1-34-15] 16. su keshii= one with lengthy, hair; su naasa uuruH= with fine, nose, thighs; su ruupaa ca= fine, looking, also; yashasvinii= a glorious one; saa= she; asya vanastha devata iva= of that, situated in woodland, goddess, like; aparaa shriiH iva= another - temporal, Goddess Lakshmi, like; raajate = is beaming forth. "She is the one with lengthy hairdo, her nose and thighs are fine, and that glorious one with fine looks is the wife of Rama, and she is beaming forth like a sylvan deity situated in that woodland, who in turn is like Goddess Lakshmi in a temporal form. [1-34-16]

17. tapta kaancana varNa aabhaa= burnt [refined,] gold, in colour [in complexion,] in shade of; rakta tunga nakhii = having rosy, jutted, nails; shubhaa= auspicious one; [saa] vaidehii= that daughter of king of Videha kingdom; varaarohaa= with curvaceous, hips; tanu madhyamaa= with slender waist; siitaa naama = Seetha, known as. "She has a complexion mathing the shade of refined gold, her nails are rosy and jutting, and she with her curvaceous hips and slim waist is the daughter of King of Videha, and known as Seetha. [1-34-17] 21, 22a. mahaa bhuja= oh, mighty shouldered one - Ravana; vistiirNa jaghanaam= she who is broad, hipped; piina uttunga paya dharaam= one with fatty, bulgy, milk, containers [breasts]; taam vara aananaam tu= her, who has excellent, face, but; tava bhaaryaa arthe tu = wife, for the purpose of, but; aanetum= to bring her - to Lanka; udyataa = when venturing; aham= I am; kruureNa lakshmaNena= by cruel, Lakshmana; viruupitaa asmi= disfigured, I am. "Oh, mighty shouldered brother, but when I ventured to bring her as your wife, whose hips are broad, bosom fat and bulgy, face excellent, that cruel Lakshmana disfigured me. [1-34-21, 22a] 22b, 23a. puurNa candra nibha aananaam= full, moon, shine, with such a face; taam tu vaidehiim adya dR^iSTvaa = her, at Vaidehi, now, if you see;

tvam= you; manmathasya sharaaNaam= to Lover-god's, arrows; vidheyaH bhaviSyasi= a groveller, you will become. "You too will become a groveller at the arrows Lover-god in case you now see Vaidehi with a face shining like full-moon. [1-34-22, 23a]

ARANYA KANDA 52 19, 20, 21. su lalaaTam= one with pretty, forehead; su kesha antam = having prettyish, hair, ends [curls]; padma garbha aabham= lotus, pistil, in shine; a+ vraNam= without, boils [without pimples]; shuklaiH= whitish; su vimalaiH= verily, unblemished [spick and span]; prabhaavadbhiH= sparkling; dantaiH= with teeth; alankR^itam= adorned with; ruditam= on weeping; vyapamR^iSTa asram = vi apa mR^iSTa asram= verily, sideways, dabbed, face; candravat priya darshanam = moon, like, pleasant, to see; su naasam= shapely, nosed; su nayanam= with pretty, eyes; caaru taamra oSTham= charming, coppery [rosy,] lipped; aakaaSe haaTaka prabham= in sky, golden, in shine; aakaashe raavaNa anka gam= in sky, in Ravana's, flank, gone in; tasyaaH tat [vimalam] vaktra= her, that, [immaculate,] face - of Seetha; niilam jaladam bhittvaa= bluish, cloud, on bursting; uditaH= risen; candra iva = moon, like; babhuuva= it became - turned out.

Her lotus pistil like un-pimply face is adorned with a pretty forehead on which prettyish curls are fluttering, and with teeth that are spick and span and sparkling, but tears dabbed on that face to sideways when she wept, yet it is pleasant like moon for a sight with shapely nose, pretty eyes, roseate lips, and shining with golden hue in sky. Nevertheless, when she has gone in the flank of Ravana on the sky such an immaculate face of Seetha turned like a palish moon that has just risen bursting a bluish cloud. [3-52-19, 20, 21]

ARANYA KANDA 60 23. athavaa= or else; mR^iga= oh, deer; mR^iga shaaba akSiim= deer, fawn, eyed one; maithiliim jaanaasi= of Maithili, do you know [what bechanced to her]; mR^iga vi prekSaNii= deer-like, quick, with looks; [athavaa= or else] kaantaa= that lady; mR^igiibhiH sahitaa bhavet= herd of she-deer, along with, she will be [herded into her of deer.] "Or else, oh, deer, dost thou know what bechanced to that fawn-eyed Maithili, one with quick-looks like thee deer? Or else, hast she herded herself into the herd of she-deer of yours... [3-60-23] 24. gaja= oh, elephant; gaja naasa= elephant's, nose - trunk-like; uuruH= thighs - she who is

having; saa= she that Maithili; tvayaa dR^iSTaa yadi bhavet= by you. seen, if, she is [if she is seen by you]; taam= of her; tubhyam= to you; viditaam= [she who is already -] familiar to you; manye= I deem; vara vaaraNa= oh, best, elephant; aakhyaahi= you tell. "Oh, elephant, thou mightst beheld her whose thighs likens to your trunk at that problematic hour, thus methinks, and that Maithili is familiar to thee, and oh, best elephant, if thou beholdest her, thou tellest me... [3-60-24] 31. nuunam= evidently; tat shubha danta oSTham= that [lady with] pretty, teethed, lipped one; su naasam= with prettily, nose; shubha kuNDalam= with prettyish, earrings; puurNa candra nibham= full, moon, similar; [tat= that]; mukham= face; grastam= when devoured; niS prabhataam gatam= without, lustre [blanched looked,] entered [obtained.] "Her face which is similar to a full-moon with pretty teeth, prettier lips, prettily nose and with prettyish earrings, might have obtained a blanched look when being devoured... [3-60-31] 32. vilapantyaaH= while bewailing; kaantaayaa= lady's; campaka varNa aabhaa= campaka flower's, colour, in shine; graiveyaka ucitaa= for neck ornaments, befitting - neck; komalaa= exquisite; shubhaa= beautiful; saa griivaa tu= hers/that, neck, but; bhakSitaa hi= glutted down, indeed.

"But that exquisite and beautiful neck of that lady which shines forth in the colour of Campaka flower, befitting for any neck ornament, indeed it might be glutted down while she is bewailing... [3-60-32] 33. vikSipyamaaNau= when wriggling; pallava komalau= tender-leaf like, delicate; vepamaana agrau= having quivering, having ends - of arms, fingers; sa hasta aabharaNa angadau= with, hand, ornaments [bangles,] bicep-lets; tau baahuu= those two, arms; nuunam= definitely; bhakSitau= eaten - are nibbled. "Her two arms which are delicate like tender leaves, ornamented with bangles and bicep-lets might have been definitely nibbled while they are wriggling with quivering fingers... [3-60-33]

ARANYA KANDA 62 4. devi= oh, lady; kadalii kaaNDa [sknadha] sadR^ishau= banana plant's, stalk [trunk,] that likens to; kadalyaa samvR^itaa= by banana plants [grove,] lapped in; te ubhau uuruu= your, both, thighs; pashyaami= I caught sight of; ni guuhitum= inside, cover them in; shaktaa na asi= possible, not, you are [inapt].

"Maybe, both your thighs liken to the stalks of banana plants, thinking so, now you have lapped them in grovy banana plants, but I can distinguish which is which, thus now I caught sight of them, oh, lady, you are inapt at least to cover them from me. [3-62-4]

ARANYA KANDA 63 8. lohitasya= reddish [sandal-paste]; priya darshanasya= pleasant, for a look [sandal-paste]; uttama candanasya= for best, [red] sandalwood paste; sadaa ucitau= always, deserve [to bedaub]; vR^ittau= roundish; mama priyaayaaH= my, ladylove's; tau= those two; stanau= breasts; nuunam= definitely; shoNita panka digdhau= blood, mud of, bedaubed; na abhibhaata= not, shining forth. "Those two roundish bosoms of my ladylove which always deserved the application of pleasantly looking red-sandalwood's paste might definitely be unshiny, as they might be bedaubed with muddy blood when they are extricated from her body for devouring. [3-63-8] 9. rakshaH vasham upagataayaa= demon's, repression, went into; tasyaa [mukham]= her, [face]; shlakshNa= sweet; su vyakta= very, clear; mR^idu= softish; pralaapam= talkative; kuncita

kesha bhaaram= plaited, hair, lumped together; tat mukham= the same, visage; raahu mukhe induH yathaa= in Raahu [eclipsing planet,] in the mouth of [Rahu,] moon, as with; na bhraajate nuunam= not, shiny, definitely. "She has a sweet, softish, and very clear talkativeness on her lips. That visage with such lips is crowned with a hairdo with hair lumped together and plaited, such as her visage is, it must have become unshiny on her going into the repression of demon, as with an unshiny moon when repressed in the mouth of eclipsing planet Raahu, it is definite... [3-63-9] 14. padma aananaa= lotus, faced; padma palaasha netraa= lotus, petal, eyed Seetha; padmaani aanetum= lotuses, to bring; abhi pra yaataa= towards, well [straightly,] gone; vaa= or; tat api= that, even [thought, idea itself]; a + yuktam= not, congruous; saa kaddacit= she, ever; mayaa vinaa= me, without; pankajaani na gacChati hi= for lotuses, not, she goes, indeed. "Or, that lotus-faced, lotus-petal eyed Seetha has gone straight to bring lotuses! Nay, that idea itself is incongruous, for she never goes to get lotuses, indeed without me... [3-63-14]

KISHKINDHA KANDA 66

tasyaa vastram vishaalaakSyaaH piitam rakta dasham shubham | sthitaayaaH parvatasya agre maaruto apaharat shanaiH || 4-66-12 12. parvatasya agre sthitaayaaH= on mountain's, top, when she is staying [strolling]; vishaala akSyaaH= of broad, eyed one; tasyaaH= hers; piitam rakta dasham shubham vastram= ochry, with red, having such rouches, auspicious, [silky] apparel; maarutaH shanaiH apaharat= Air-god, slowly, stolen [air-flown, lifted up.] "When she is strolling on the mountaintop Air-god has slowly lifted up that broad-eyed lady's auspicious and ochry silk apparel with red rouches... [4-66-12]

sa dadarsha tataH tasyaa vR^ittau uuruu susa.mhatau | stanau ca piinau sahitau sujaatam caaru ca aananam || 4-66-13 13. tataH saH= then, he that Air-god; tasyaa= of her; vR^ittau= roundish; su sam hatau= well, twinned, thickset; uuruu= thighs; piinau sahitau stanau= plumpish, paired off, breasts; su jaatam= well, proportioned [becomingly build]; caaru aananam ca= beautiful, face, also; dadarsha= he beheld.

"Then the Air-god beheld her well-twinned, thickset, roundish thighs, and even the paired off plumpish breasts, and her beautiful face which is well proportioned in its build... [4-66-13]

taam balaat aayata shroNiim tanu madhyaam yashasviniim | dR^iSTvaa eva shubha sarvaan.hgiim pavanaH kaama mohitaH || 4-66-14 14. balaat [vishaala] aayata shroNiim= one with fatly [broad,] ample, pelvic girdle; tanu madhyaam= body, medium [slender-waisted]; yashasviniim= gorgeous one; shubha sarva angiim= pristine, by all, her limbs; taam= her; dR^iSTvaa eva= catching sight of, just on; pavanaH= Air-god; kaama mohitaH= by enamour, enamoured. "Just on catching the sight of that gorgeous one, whose pelvic-girdle is fat and ample and who is slender-waisted, and who by all her limbs is pristine, the Air-god is enamoured... [4-66-14]

SUNDARA KANDA 15

28b-29. siitaam= (Hanuma saw) Seetha; puurNa candra aananaam= with a face like full moon; subhruum= with beautiful eyebrows; caaru vR^itta payo dharaam= with graceful rounded breasts; prabhayaa= by the radiance; kurvantiim= making; sarvaaH dishaH= all directions; vitimiraaH= without darkness; deviim= goddess like; niila keshiim= with black hair; bimba oSThiim=with lips like bimba fruit; sumadhyaam= with a good waist; supratiSThaam= very firm; padma palaasha akSiim= with eyes like lotus petals; manmathasya ratim yathaa= like Rati the consort of god of love. Hanuma saw Seetha with a face like full moon, with beautiful eyebrows, with graceful rounded breasts, by the radiance making all directions without darkness, goddess like with black hair, with lips like bimba fruit, with a good waist, very firm, with eyes like lotus petals, like Rati the consort of god of love. 35b-36. mR^iga shaava akSiim= with eyes like those of a young doe; baaSpa ambu paripuurNena= full of tears; kR^iSNa vaktra akSi pakSmaNaa= with black and oblique eye-brows; aprasannena vadanena= with a cheerless countenance; viikSamaaNaam= seeing; tataH tataH= there and there; abalaam= being helpless; niHshvasantiim= sighing; punaH punaH= again and again. With eyes like those of a young doe full of tears, with black and oblique eye-brows, with a cheerless

countenance, seeing there and there, being helpless, sighing again and again.

SUNDARA KANDA 20 15. shiitaaMshusadR^ishhanane = O one with face like that of moon!; pR^ithushroNi=O one with broad hips!; te = your; yadyat = whichever; gaatram =limb; pashyaami = I see; mama = my; chakshuH = eye; nibadhyate = is getting tied; tasmin tasmin = in that that (limb). "O one with face like that of moon! O one with broad hips! Your whichever limb I see, my eye is getting tied in that that limb."

SUNDARA KANDA 29

tathaa gataam taam vyathitaam aninditaam | vyapeta harShaam paridiina maanasaam | shubhaam nimittaani shubhaani bhejire | naram shriyaa juShTam iva upajiivinaH || 5-29-1 1. taam= to her; tathaagataam= who was in such circumstances; vyathitaam= who was in distress; aninditaam= who was irraproachable; vyapeta

harSaam= devoid of joy; paridiinamaanasaam= who was dejected; shubhaam= who was virtuous; bhejire= was bestowed with; shubhaani= auspicious; nimittaani= omens; naram iva= as a man; juSTam= possessed; shriyaa= of prosperity; upajiivinaH iva= is bestwoed with dependent servants. To her who was in such circumstances, who was in distress, who was irraproachable, devoid of joy and dejected but virtuous, was bestowed with auspicious omens, as a prosperous man is bestowed with dependent servants.

tasyaaH shubham vaamam araala pakShma | raajii vR^itam kR^iShNa vishaala shuklam | praaspandata ekam nayanam sukeshyaa | miina aahatam padmam iva abhitaamram || 5-29-2 2. sukeshyaaH= the beautifully haired; tastaaG= Seetha's; vaamanayanam= araala pakSma raajiivR^itam= whose surrounding row of eye-lashes were curved; kR^iSNa vishaalaa shuklam= which was black, wide and bright-looking; praaspandata= like a red lotus; miinaahatam= (quivered) by the blow of a fish. The beautifully haired Seetha's left eye, which was auspicious, whose surrounding row of eye-lashes were curved, which was black, wide and bright-looking; was predominantly quivering, like a

red lotus quivered by the blow of a fish.

bhujaH ca caarv ancita piina vR^ittaH | para ardhya kaala aguru candana arhaH | anuttamena adhyuShitaH priyeNa | cireNa vaamaH samavepata aashu || 5-29-3 3. vaamaH bhujashcha= Her left shoulder; chaarvaNchita piina vR^ittaH= which was pretty, distinguished, beefy and round; paraarthyakaaguru chandanaarhaH= which deserved to be applied with excellent black aloe and sandalwood paste; chireNa dhyuSitaH= which had been used for long as a pillow; anuttamena= by her most excellently; priyeNa= beloved Rama; aashu= quickly; sannavepata= quivered. Her left shoulder, which was pretty, distinguished beefy and round, which deserved to be applied with excellent black aloe and sandalwood paste, which had been used for long as a pillow by her most excellently beloved Rama quickly quivered

gaja indra hasta pratimaH ca piinaH | tayoH dvayoH samhatayoH sujaataH | praspandamaanaH punaH uuruH asyaa | raamam purastaat sthitam aacacakShe || 5-29-4 4. tayoH dvayoH= of her two thighs; samhatayoH=

kept together; asyaaH uruH= her (left) thigh; piinaH= which was beefy; sujaataH= and well born; gajendrahasta pratimaH= which resembled the trunk of a princely elephant; praspandamaanaH= was predominantly quivering; achachakSe= spoke; sthitam= the existance; raamam= of Rama; purustaat= in front. Of her two thighs kept together, the left thigh which was beefy and well born, which resembled the trunk of a princely elephant was predominantly quivering, spoke indistinctly of existenc of Rama in front.

shubham punaH hema samaana varNam | iiShat rajo dhvastam iva amala akShyaaH | vaasaH sthitaayaaH shikhara agra dantyaaH | kimcit parisramsata caaru gaatryaaH || 5-29-5 5. punaH= again; vaasaH= the clothing; sthitaayaaH= of Seetha standng there; amalaakSyaaH= of spotless eyes; chaarugaatryaaH= and charming limbs; shikhaagra dantyaaH= having teeth resembling the buds of jasmine; hema samaana varNam= which was of golden shade; iiSat= and was slightly; rajodhvastamiva= soiled as it were with dust; parisramsata= glided down; shubham= which looked auspicious. Again, the clothing of Seetha standing there, of

spotless eyes and charming limbs, having teeth resembling the buds of jasmine, which was of golden shade and was slightly soiled as it were with dust, glited down, which appeared auspicious (for her).

etaiH nimittaiH aparaiH ca subhruuH | sambodhitaa praag api saadhu siddhaiH | vaata aatapa klaantam iva pranaShTam | varSheNa biijam pratisamjaharSha || 5-29-6 6. etaiH= these; nimittaiH= omens; aparaishcha= and some other omens; sambodhitaa= explained, saadhu= straight; siddhaiH= which were fruitful; praagapi= previously also; subhruuH= Seetha of beautiful eyebrows; pratisamjaharSa= disclosed a great joy; biijam iva= even as a seed; praNaSTam= vanished; vaataatapa klaantam= and withered by the wind and the sun; (got sprouted); varSeNa= by rain. Bolstered by these and some other omens which straight explained that they were fruitful on the earlier occasion also, Seetha of beautiful eyebrows disclosed a great joy, even as a seed vanished and withered by the wind and the sun, got sprouted by rain.

tasyaaH punaH bimba phala upama oShTham |

svakShi bhru kesha antam araala pakShma | vaktram babhaase sita shukla damShTram | raahoH mukhaac candra iva pramuktaH || 5-29-7 7. punaH= moreover; bimbaphalaadharoSTham= having the lips like Bimba fruit; svakSSibhru keshaantam= having beautiful eyes and eyebrows; araalapakSma= who eye lids are curved; sita chaaru dantam= having charming white teeth; tasyaa= her; vaktram= face; babhaase= shone; chandraH iva= like the moon; pramuktaH= liberated; raahoH mukhaat= from the mouth of the demon Rahu. Moreover, having the lips resembling Bimba fruit, having beautiful eyes and eyebrows, whose eye lids are curved, having charming white teeth, her face shone like the moon liberated from the mouth of the demon Rahu.

saa viita shokaa vyapaniita tandrii | shaanta jvaraa harSha vibuddha sattvaa | ashobhata aaryaa vadanena shukle | shiita anshunaa raatriH iva uditena || 5-29-8 8. viita shokaa= free from sorrow; vyapaniita tandrii= her weariness removed; shaanta jvaraa= her mental affliction alleviated; harSa vibuddhasattvaa= and her consciousness awakened with exaltation; saa aaryaa= that esteemed lady, (Seetha); ashobhata= looked

splendid; vadanena= with her countenance; raatririva= as a night; shiitaam shunaa= with the moon; uditena= appear; shukle= during the bright fortnight. Free from sorrow, her weariness removed, her mental affliction alleviated and her consciousness awakened with exaltation, that esteemed lady (Seetha) looked handsome with her countenance, as a night with the moon appears during the bright fortnight.

YUDDHA KAND 5 14. khalu= when will; tau= those; stanau= breasts; hasantyaaH= which are delightful; sahitau= close; piinau= bulging; sotkampau= and quivering; taalaphalopamau= looking like Palmyra fruits; bhajishhyathaH nu= indeed press; maam= me? “When will those breasts which are delightful close, bulging and quivering, looking like palmary fruits, indeed press me?”

YUDDA KANDA 33 diirgha vR^itta bhujah shriimaan mahaa uraskah prataapavaan | dhanvii samhanana upeto dharma aatmaa bhuvi vishrutaH || 6-33-11 vikraanto rakSitaa nityam aatmanashca parasya ca | lakSmaNena saha bhraatraa kushalii naya shaastravit || 6-33-12 hantaa para bala oghaanaam acintya bala pauruSaH | na hato raaghavaH shriimaan siite shatru nibarhaNaH || 13 11, 12, 13. siite= O, Seetha! raaghavaaH= Rama; diirghavR^itta bhujaH= who has long and rounded arms; shriimaan= an illustrious man; mahoraskaH= who is large-chested; prataapavaan= a man of great energy; dhanvii= wielder of a bow; samhananopetaH= a man endowed with muscularity; dharmaatmaa= a righteous minded man; vishrutaa= a man of celebrity; bhuvi= on earth; nityam= forever; vikraantaH= a man of strength; rakshhitaa= a protector; aatmanashcha= for himself; parasyacha= and for others; bhraataa lakshhmaN ena saha= who is together with his brother Lakshmana; kuliinah= a man of high descent; nayashaastravit= knower of doctrines of prudence and wisdom; hantaa= killer; para baloughaan= of a stream of enemy forces;

achintyabala pourushhaH= a man with an inconceivable strength and valor; shriimaan= a venerable man; shatru nibarhaNaH= an annihilator of adversaries; na hataH= has not been killed. “O, Seetha! Rama, who is endowed with long and well rounded arms, an illustrious man, who is large-chested, a man of great energy, an archer well known in the world, a man endowed with muscularity, a righteous minded man, a person of celebrity on earth, a man of eternal strength, a protector for himself and for others, while together with his brother Lakshmana, a man of high descent, a knower of doctrines of conduct and behavior, the killer of a stream of enemy forces, a man of inconceivable strength and valor, a venerable man and an annihilator of adversaries, has not been killed.”

YUDDHA KANDA 48 imaani khalu padmaani paadayor yaih kila striyaH | adhiraajye abhiSicyante nara indraih patibhih saha || 6-48-6 6. padmaani khalu= by the marks of lotus indeed; imaani= on these; paadayoH= my feet; yaiH= by which; kulastriyaH= hight-born women;

abhiSichyante= are consecreated; aadhiraajye= for an empire; patibhiH saha= with their husbands; narendraH= and kings. "Yet I bear the marks of lotus on my soles by virtue of which high-born women are consecrated on an imperial throne with their husbands and lords."

vaidhavyam yaanti yair naaryo alakSaNair bhaagya durlabhaaH | na aatmanas taani pashyaami pashyantii hata lakSaNaa || 6-48-7 7. na pashyaami= I do not find; taani= tohse; alakSaNaiH= marks of ill-fortune; yaiH= which; yaanti= betoken; vaidhavyam- widowhood; naaryaH= in women; bhaagya durlabhaaH= who are ill-starred; pashyantii= and as I examine; hata lakSaNaa= all the auspicious signs appear to be rendered void; aatmanaH= for me. "I do not find those marks of ill-fortune which betoken widowhood in women who are ill-starred and as I examine, all the auspicious signs appear to be rendered void for me."

satyaani imaani padmaani striiNaam uktvaani lakSaNe | taany adya nihate raame vitathaani bhavanti me ||

6-48-8 8. lakSaNaiH= (These) marks; padmaani= of the lotus; uktaani= said to be; satyanaamaani= good angury; striiNaam= for women; (by the wise men); taani= those marks; me= of mine; bhavanti= have become; vitathaani= meaningless; adya= now; raame= that Rama; nihate= is slain. "Those marks of the lotus said to be good angury for women by wise men, have become meaningless, now that Rama is slain."

keshaah suukSmaah samaa niilaa bhruvau ca asamgate mama | vR^itte ca alomashe janghe dantaash ca aviralaa mama || 6-48-9 9. mam= my; keshaaH= hair; suukSmaaH= is fine; niilaaH= black in clour; samaaH= and smooth; bruvoucha= my eye-brows too; asamhate= are dis-united; mama= my; jaN^ghe= shanks; vR^itte= are well-rounded; aromake= and hair-less; dantaashcha= my teeth; aviralaaH= are contiguous. "My hair is fine, black in colour and smooth. My eye-brows are disunited. My shanks are hair-less and well rounded. My teeth are contiguous, without any gaps between them."

shankhe netre karau paadau gulphaav uuruu ca me citau | anuvR^ittaa nakhaah snigdhaah samaash ca angulayo mama || 6-48-10 10. mama= My; shaNkhe= temples, netre= eyes; karau= arms; paadau= feet; gulphau= ankles; uuru= thighs; samau= are homogenous; chitau= and wll-proportioned; aNgulayaH= the fingers; anuvR^ittanakhaaH= have well-rounded nails; snigdhaaH= which are glossy; samaashcha= and having a right length. "My temples, eyes, arms, feet, ankles and thighs are homogenous and well-proportioned. My fingers have well-rounded and glossy nails, having a right lenght."

stanau ca aviralau piinau mama imau magna cuucukau | magnaa ca utsanginii naabhih paarshva uraskam ca me citam || 6-48-11 11. maamakau= my; stanau= breasts; aviralau= are close to each other; piinau= fully developed; magna chuuchukau= and have depressed nipples; naabhiH= my navel; magnaa= is deeply; utsedhinii= indented; me= my; paarshvoraskamcha= flanks and bossom; chitam=

are well-formed. "My breasts are close to each other, fully developed and have depressed nipples. My navel is deeply indented. My flanks and bossom are well-formed."

mama varNo maNi nibho mR^iduuny anga ruhaaNi ca | pratiSThitaam dvadashabhir maam uucuh shubha lakSaNaam || 6-48-12 12. mama= my; varNaH= complexion; maNinibhaH= has the sheen of a pearl; aNga ruhaaNicha= the hair on my skin; mR^iduuni= are soft; uuchuH= It is said; maam= of me; as endowed with auspicious signs; pratiSThitaam= in that I touched the ground; dvaadashabhiH= with my twelve limbs ( vix. the ten toes and two soles). "My complexion has the sheen of a pearl. The hair on my skin are soft. It is said of me as endowed with auspicious signs, in that I touched the ground with my twelve limbs (viz. the ten toes and two soles).

samagra yavam acchidram paaNi paadam ca varNavat | manda smitaa ity eva ca maam kanyaa lakSaNikaa viduH || 6-48-13

13. kanyaalakSaNikaaH= those who interpret the marks of youthful maidens; viduH= spoke; maam= of me; iti= that; paaNipaadamcha= my hands and feet; varNavat= are rosy; samagrayavam= fully provided with marks resembling a barley-corn; achchhidram= devoid of space between the fingers and toes; mandasnitaa= and my smile is gentle. "Those who interpret the marks of youthful maidens spoke of me that my hands and feet are rosy, fully provided with marks each resembling a barley corn, devoid of space between my fingers and toes and that my smile is gentle."

BRIHAT PARASHARA STRI SAMUDRIKA LAKSHANA & ANGA LAKSHANA Judging a Girl from her Features & Looks

FEET A girl whose feet are soft, smooth, well developed, warm, shining pink in colour, without much perspiration, will be enjoying full happiness befitting her sex. If the indications are contrary, she will suffer misery. A girl whose soles bear the symbols of conch, wheel, lotus, flag, stout fish, umbrella and the line of Head (as understood in Palmistry) on her left hand is fairly long, is fit to be married by a King. Symbols of rat, snake and crow denote poverty/misery. Nails on Toes Shining pink in colour, smooth, raised and round nails indicate happiness & good health. Blackish or torn nails indicate misery.

Great Toe Raised, full, round, pink colour indicates happiness. Small and irregular in shape denote misery. Toes Short in length short life Flat poverty & servitude Bent & irregular in shape deceitful nature Spaced more than average mediocre financial status Toes overlapping one over the other widowhood and spending the rest of life depending on a relation Smallest (5th) toe doesn't touch the ground Will forsake husband & marry another If 2nd toe is longer than great toe Conjugal happiness before marriage If 3rd and 4th do not touch ground Widowhood

If dust on the road is thrown up while a girl walks She will turn out to be a bad character and bring shame.

Back of Feet Raised, as smooth and soft as a lotus flower, without veins showing up and with no visible hair is the sign of a Queen. Veins showing up indicates that she will have to travel a lot. Hair on feet denotes servitude and if feet are lean, bony or without flesh, it is an indication that she is sexually undesirable. Heels Even heels denotes she is good for companionship Stout ............................ undesirable sexually High ............................. loose character Long ............................. misery Legs (portion below knee) Even, smooth, without hair, without veins showing up, are signs of a girl destined to enjoy life fully. Knees Round, smooth, good looking knees are lucky

indications. Loose knees indicate poverty. Bony knees without flesh connote loose character. Thighs Fleshy, round, like an elephant's trunk or the trunk of a plantain tree, spacing between thighs being very little, without hair, denote that she is good enough to be married by a King. Waist Circumference not exceeding the width of 24 fingers (approx. 15 to 16") with well developed hips denote full happiness. Flat, long, without flesh, caved in or hairy waist forebodes widowhood and misery. Hips Raised fleshy hips (like water melon) and well spread indicate full happiness. Sexual Organ Hidden clitoris, pink coloured, curved like the back of tortoise or an elephant's trunk and smooth is highly auspicious. If shaped like the feet or deer or furnace, with hard hair, with raised clitoris indicates evil. If the left side is raised, she will beget more girl children while a raised right side denotes more boys. If the organ is shaped like a conch, she will be barren.

Bottom of Stomach (portion below navel & above sex organ) Soft, spread out and slightly raised is highly auspicious. Hairy, veins showing up and full of lines (folds or wrinkles) indicate misery. Navel Deep, with right turn is auspicious. Raised with left turn is inauspicious. Sides of Stomach Well spread indicates many sons. If sides resemble that of a frog's, her son will become a King. Raised sides indicate childlessness; fold/wrinkle denote slavish tendency. Long sides denote birth of a Sandow Ribs Good luck will result if the portion covering ribs is smooth and fleshy Chest Even and without hair is lucky and auspicious. Breasts Of equal size, fleshy, round and firm but close together are lucky. Raised right breast indicates many sons; left breast, if raised, indicates more of girls. If the portion surrounding the nipple is round

and

good looking, good luck. Pressed in or unusually small indicates bad luck. Shoulders Even, well built and without the joints showing up are lucky signs. Armpits Soft, with small smooth hair is lucky; deep, full of perspiration and showing out veins in unlucky. Arms Fleshy, soft,round and with veins not showing is lucky. Thumbs If thumbs take the shape of a lotus bud, she is fit to be married by a King. Bent or bony denotes bad luck. Palms Red, raised in the middle, fingers evenly spaced with few lines on palm is a very auspicious sign. Back of Hands Soft without hair, well-built is lucky. Palmistry - Lines on Palm A clear, pink, circular, smooth, full and deep LINE OF LIFE (as followed by Hindus) indicates happiness in full measure.

On left palm of a girl, the symbol of :Stout fish denotes she is very fortunate Swastika wealth Lotus position equal to Queen Conch/Umbrella/tortoise one whose son will be equal to a King/enjoy kingly status Scales/Elephant/horse/bull will marry a merchant Horse or Trident luck and that she will beget a learned & wealthy son Cart or plough will marry an agriculturist/farmer Bow, sword, trident, mace, trumpet, arrow, ankush, or Chamar will marry one who will become equal to a King Donkey/scorpion

poverty and misery

If there is a line starting from the thumb to the finger of Mercury, she will suffer widowhood. Fingers Soft, smooth, long, gradually thinning out and hairless fingers are on fortunate hands. Small, bony, bent, hairy, without clear divisions or with more divisions are found on unfortunate hands. Nails (on fingers) Pink in colour and raised are lucky. Dirty or caved in and ugly in shape denote bad luck. White spots on nails denote evil befalling. Note : According to Nature Cure Specialists, Nails are an index to a man's health. Back Fleshy is lucky. Hair on back with veins showing up are unlucky signs. Neck Soft, without bones showing out, with 3 lines (fold/divisions) are lucky. Stout neck denotes widowhood. Flat/short neck denotes a barren woman. Bent or curved forward denotes slavish

tendency. Throat Straight and slightly raised in centre is lucky. Chin Pink, soft, fleshy chin is a sign of luck. Double or hairy chin is unlucky. Cheeks Raised, fleshy, round and pink in colour denotes luck. Hard or deep without flesh are evil signs. Mouth Round, smooth and with good odour are lucky signs. Lips (Lower) Red like a lotus petal, smooth and divided in the middle is very auspicious. Dark, long, dry lips indicate widowhood and misery. Lips (Upper) Red, slightly raised in the middle, smooth without hair, is very auspicious. Teeth Pearl white, even, 32, are lucky. If the number of teeth in lower jaw are more than in the upper jaw or yellowish, long or double, spread out, are indications of bad luck.

Tongue Red and soft tongue shows enjoyment. Caved in, in the middle and spread out in front indicates misery. White tongue indicates death in water. Dark tongue denotes quarrelsome nature. Thick tongue denotes poverty. Long tongue - one who is omnivorous; long and broad denotes lunacy. Upper portion inside mouth Red, soft, smooth indicates luck White .............................. widowhood Yellow ............................. recluse Black ............................. barren Dry ................................. large family Laughter When she laughs, if her cheeks are raised and teeth are not visible, it is a sign of luck. Nose Small nostrils of equal size is auspicious. Flat or thick nose is unlucky. If the tip of nose is red or shrunken, widowhood is indicated. Flat nose denotes slavery; too small or too large a nose indicates quarrelsome nature. Eyes Black pupil, surroundings white like cow's milk, large and broad, smooth, with dark eye lashes are lucky signs. Raised eyes show short life; round eyes denote bad character; honey-coloured eyes

indicate luck and happiness; eyes resembling those of pigeon denote bad nature; elephant's eyes denote suffering. If left eye is non-existent, adulterous tendency will manifest. Non-existence of right eye denotes barren-ness. Eye lashes Soft, black and thin are lucky. Eye brows Round shaped like a bow, smooth, black, not joined in the middle, indicate happiness. Ear Long with a round turn indicates children and happiness. Small, unevenly shaped, very thin, with veins showing up are unlucky signs. Forehead Without veins showing through, without hair, like a half Moon, even, width equal to that of 3 fingers (2 to 2½") are signs of a fortunate girl blessed with children and husband. Sign of Swastika on forehead denotes a Queen. Hairy forehead is very unlucky. Head High and round like an elephant's head is lucky. Spread out, flat, long or uneven are unlucky. Hair

Soft, black, long hair are lucky. Yellow, hard hair is evil. But fair women with yellow hair and dark women with black hair are also lucky.

The Perfumed of the Shaykh Nefwazi CHAPTER 2 Concerning Women Who Deserve To Be Praised Know, O Vizir (and the mercy of God be with you!), that there are women of all sorts; that there are such as are worthy of praise, and such is deserve nothing but contempt। In order that a woman may be relished by men, she must have a perfect waist, and must be plump and lusty. Her hair will be black her forehead wide, she will have eyebrows of Ethiopian blackness, large black eyes, with the whites in them very limpid. With cheek of perfect oval, she will have an elegant nose and a graceful mouth; lips and tongue vermilion; her breath will be of pleasant odour, her throat long, her neck strong, her bust and her belly large; her breasts must be full and firm, her belly in

good proportion, and her navel well-developed and marked; the lower part of the belly is to be large, the vulva projecting and fleshy, from the point where the hairs grow, to the buttocks; the conduit must be narrow and not moist, soft to the touch, and emitting a strong heat and no bad smell; she must have the thighs and buttocks hard, the hips large and full, a waist of fine shape, hands and feet of striking elegance, plump arms, and well-developed shoulders. If one looks at a woman with those qualities in front, one is fascinated; if from behind, one dies with pleasure. Looked at sitting, she is a rounded dome; lying, a soft-bed; standing, the staff of a standard. When she is walking, her natural parts appear as set off under her clothing. She speaks and laughs rarely, and never without a reason. She never leaves the house, even to see neighbours of her acquaintance. She has no women friends, gives her confidence to nobody, and her husband is her sole reliance. She takes nothing from anyone, excepting from her husband and her parents. If she sees relatives, she does not meddle with their affairs. She is not treacherous, and has no faults to hide, nor bad reasons to proffer. She does not try to entice people. If her husband shows his intention of performing the conjugal rite, she is agreeable to his desires and occasionally even provokes them. She assists him always in his affairs, and is sparing in complaints and tears; she does not laugh or rejoice when she sees her husband moody or sorrowful, but shares his troubles, and wheedles him into good humour, till

he is quite content again. She does not surrender herself to anybody but her husband, even if abstinence would kill her. She hides her secret parts, and does not allow them to be seen; she is always elegantly attired, of the utmost personal propriety, and takes care not to let her husband see what might be repugnant to him. She perfumes herself with scents, uses antimony for her toilets, and cleans her teeth with souak. Such a woman is cherished by all men.

Description of Madhva Procession The men, who had gathered, saw Madhva coming forward accompanied by many clever disciples, wearing strings of lotus seeds on their necks, Sudarshana Chakra markings on their bodies, singing melodiously and dancing to the tunes of compositions in praise of the Supreme Being composed by Madhva (themselves). Seeking Madhva’s blessings, King Jayasimha accepted his being jostled by the crowds ahead of himself, who were bustling to see Madhva, and followed him in all sincerity with folded hands, conveying his dasyabhava (being a humble servant).

Note: The king’s humility and reverence for the great teacher was seen by the people who saw him as one of them, instead of a great king, on this great occasion. Madhva had the personality and effulgence (of a rising Sun) whose limits could not be determined. Thus, he looked like another Sun, who was a special decoration to the earth. Note: The Sun in the sky provided light and heat for the day. But the Sun who had come down to earth itself was special and was a great decoration on this great occasion. Madhva’s pace appeared to be slow, though it was really brisk (because the people accompanying him did not feel the pace). He had a majestic trot like a young and strong lion cub and his feet having a deep red colour and resembling tender sprouting leaves, sanctified the earth he trod on. Madhva’s toe nails were red excelling the red of the gem PadmarAga mani (Jade). His feet were of the shape of the back of a tortoise. His ankles were round. His knees were fit for worship by great gods (such as Rudra). His two thighs were muscular and rounded like the great trunk of an elephant. Madhva was wearing a pure silk cloth below his waist (externally covering the loin cloth prescribed for the ascetics). His lean stomach, neck and

forehead were having three folds (considered as the characteristic of great men). Madhva had covered the upper part of his body with a red shawl densely woven from fine soft wool. This was like the radiance of the rising Sun on the bright golden peaks of the Meru mountain. Madhva had a broad chest and proud shoulders which looked like a high wall. His upper arms were big, round, long, beautiful and like the trunk (of an elephant). His palms were very red like tender leaves, which had proud ridges and lines with markings of the Flag, wheel etc (All these are considered as Lakshanas of a great man ) At first sight, his radiant face could be mistaken for the full moon. A further look would reveal that it was not the full moon (which has the scars). Madhva’s blemishless perfect face was more radiant than the full moon, and was like an ocean of unlimited pure effulgence. Madhva’s smile was very attractive, showing his teeth which shone like bright new Jasmine buds. His lips were red and auspicious. His eyes were large like lotus petals. People became happy when he looked at them. Madhva wore in his beautiful ears the sacred Tulasi leaves. His cheeks were radiant. The mere flicker of

his great eye brows was sufficient to create and destroy all the three worlds. (could do good to the good people and destroy the wicked in all the three worlds). His forehead was bright with effulgence. Note: The description of Madhva’s physical personality from the toes to head is complete here. This appears to be one of an eyewitness who had seen Acharya Madhva. The circumstantial details of the King receiving him also supports this view. '

Note: The 32 auspicious attributes of a human form are: 5 parts should be long, 5 others short, 7 parts red, 6 parts full, 3 broad, 3 small and 3 majestic. These are recognised as indicating the greatness of the person. Only Rjus like Mukhya Prana have all these features. Lesser gods have lesser number, with the number gradually reducing in the case of Rishis and other great personalities

Head This form is wearing a priceless crown decorated with groups of precious jewels with thousands of black hair strands (seen below the crown). He also wears a half moon shaped shining mark (Tilaka) on His forehead and effulgent ear ornaments in the

ears. Face The face of this divine form laughs (in its beauty) at the full moon with all sixteen sections, has large eyes resembling the lotus and red lips. Its smile is matchless (in its attractiveness) and gives bliss to the devotees who prostrate before it. Neck His neck is similar to a new conch (with three lines marked on it). He also wears the Kaustubha jewel, as bright as the sun, excellent ropes of pearls, and shining bangles, rings and armlets decorated with beautiful jewels. Arms He wears the Sudarshana Chakra which shines like a number of suns, the Conch - Panchajanya, white like the moon, a beautiful lotus, the Kaumodaki mace, which is bright like the fire and the great Bow Sharnga, in His arms which are long, strong and round with red palms. Chest and Stomach He has high and exquisite shoulders and a breast which is like a great jewelled Mantapa where the effulgent Goddess Lakshmi (His consort) stays. His stomach is thin, but contains all the fourteen

worlds. Chaturmukha Brahma, who is extolling the Lord, is like a bee in His auspicious lotus like navel. Waist On His delightful waist is worn a Peetambara (Yellow silken cloth) laced with golden braids held with a waist ornament. His thighs resemble the trunk of a great elephant with gradually well rounded knees. Legs and feet He wears excellent anklets and the forepart of his feet is effulgent with lustre. His nails shine like new rubies. His feet have the (auspicious signs) of the Discus, Conch and Flag and purify all the three worlds with the dust beneath them.

The Perfumed of the Shaykh Nefwazi CHAPTER 2 Concerning Women Who Deserve To Be Praised Know, O Vizir (and the mercy of God be with you!), that there are women of all sorts; that there are such as are worthy of praise, and such is deserve

nothing but contempt। In order that a woman may be relished by men, she must have a perfect waist, and must be plump and lusty. Her hair will be black her forehead wide, she will have eyebrows of Ethiopian blackness, large black eyes, with the whites in them very limpid. With cheek of perfect oval, she will have an elegant nose and a graceful mouth; lips and tongue vermilion; her breath will be of pleasant odour, her throat long, her neck strong, her bust and her belly large; her breasts must be full and firm, her belly in good proportion, and her navel well-developed and marked; the lower part of the belly is to be large, the vulva projecting and fleshy, from the point where the hairs grow, to the buttocks; the conduit must be narrow and not moist, soft to the touch, and emitting a strong heat and no bad smell; she must have the thighs and buttocks hard, the hips large and full, a waist of fine shape, hands and feet of striking elegance, plump arms, and well-developed shoulders. If one looks at a woman with those qualities in front, one is fascinated; if from behind, one dies with pleasure. Looked at sitting, she is a rounded dome; lying, a soft-bed; standing, the staff of a standard. When she is walking, her natural parts appear as set off under her clothing. She speaks and laughs rarely, and never without a reason. She never leaves the house, even to see neighbours of her acquaintance. She has no women friends, gives her confidence to nobody, and her husband is her sole reliance. She takes nothing from anyone,

excepting from her husband and her parents. If she sees relatives, she does not meddle with their affairs. She is not treacherous, and has no faults to hide, nor bad reasons to proffer. She does not try to entice people. If her husband shows his intention of performing the conjugal rite, she is agreeable to his desires and occasionally even provokes them. She assists him always in his affairs, and is sparing in complaints and tears; she does not laugh or rejoice when she sees her husband moody or sorrowful, but shares his troubles, and wheedles him into good humour, till he is quite content again. She does not surrender herself to anybody but her husband, even if abstinence would kill her. She hides her secret parts, and does not allow them to be seen; she is always elegantly attired, of the utmost personal propriety, and takes care not to let her husband see what might be repugnant to him. She perfumes herself with scents, uses antimony for her toilets, and cleans her teeth with souak. Such a woman is cherished by all men.

Ritu samhaaram of kavi kAlidAsa dadhati vara kuca agraiH unnataiH haara yaSTim pratanu sita dukuulaani aayataiH shroNi bi.mbaiH nava jala sekaat udgataam roma raajim lalita vali vibhangaiH madhya deshaiH ca naaryaH

2-25. naaryaH women; unnataiH vara kuca agraiH= on busty, best, bosoms, tops; haara yaSTim dadhati= pearl, chains, wearing; aayataiH shroNi bimbaiH= beamy, pelvic, roundish [girdles]; madhya deshaiH ca= in middle, of body [on torso,] also; pra tanu= very, thin; sita dukuulaani= white, finery; lalita vali vibhangaiH= delicate, waist-folds [waistlines,] crimps; nava jala sekaat= new, water, on sprinkling; ud gataam roma raajim [dadhati]= up, shot [bristles up,] hair, line, [they are wearing; rather, they have.] "The women are wearing sets of chains of pearls on the top of their busty bosoms, and on their beamy pelvic girdles and on their torsos a very thin and white finery, and those torsos wear a delicately crimpy triple-waistline, while their belly wears a very fine hairline that suggests their maturity, which bristles up with the sprinkles of new water... [2-25]