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Vol. 3, Issue 2, May, 2012
85
On Energy Level Performance of Adaptive Power Based WSN in
Presence of Fading
Arnab Nandi
1
and Sumit Kundu
2
Department of ECE
1
National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, India
2
National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India
nandi_arnab@yahoo.co.in and sumitkundu@yahoo.com
Abstract
We propose an adaptive power based transmission scheme for WSN (Wireless Sensor
Networks) where transmit power is adapted depending on node density and channel
conditions so as to maintain a desired level of signal detection probability at a receiving node
as demanded by sensing range. In existing Fixed Transmit Power Scheme (FTPS), detection
probability degrades with decrease in node spatial density leading to reduction in sensing
range. We investigate the performance of the proposed Adaptive Transmit Power Scheme
(ATPS) for a square grid WSN under multipath fading. Further energy consumption for an
optimal packet length which yields highest energy efficiency is evaluated for both fixed and
proposed adaptive power based schemes. Impact of node density, packet length and Rician
fading on energy efficiency for both the ATPS and FTPS scheme is also shown.
Keywords: Sensing Range; Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs); Rician Fading; Optimal
Packet Size; Detection Probability
1. Introduction
The wireless communications revolution which is leading the convergence of all media and
data services appears to be gaining wide acceptance. Wireless sensor networks consist of
small battery powered devices with limited energy resources. Once deployed, the small sensor
nodes are usually inaccessible to the user, and thus replacement of the energy source is not
feasible. Hence, energy consumption is a key design issue that needs to be reduced in order to
improve the life span of the network. Other important issues involved in sensor networks
include node deployment, power management, and sensing range. In particular, sensing range
is an important factor for a WSN, as it influences performance or quality of service offered by
a sensor network. Most of the research work on WSN assumes idealized radio propagation
models. However signal fading due to multipath propagation severely impairs the
performance of wireless communication systems [1]. Hence, it important to evaluate the
performance of WSN in multipath Rician fading channels. Rician fading captures a wide
range of fading model. It represents Rayleigh fading when K=0, and no fading when K→∞,
where K is the Rician factor defined as the power ratio of specular to diffused components
[2]. In [3] Bettstetter et al. derived the transmission range for which network is connected
with high probability considering freespace radio link model. In [4], Qian et al. proposed an
adaptive transmit power scheme based on SMAC named Adaptive Transmit Power MAC to
reduce energy consumption in WSN. The proposed scheme calculates the distance between
the sender and the receiver by measuring the received power, and then adaptively decides the
appropriate transmit power level according to the propagation model and distance. In [5] the
International Journal of Energy, Information and Communications
Vol. 3, Issue 2, May, 2012
86
impact of the shadowing effects on the sensing coverage is investigated. It shows that
increase in standard deviation of the shadowing severely degrades the sensing coverage. In
[6], performance of an adaptive power based scheme is evaluated in lognormal shadowed
environment.
In an ideal scenario, the transmit power of a node should be modified on a linkbylink
basis to achieve the maximum possible power savings [79]. However, in ad hoc network,
performing power control on a linkbylink basis is a complicated and cumbersome task. A
straightforward solution in the view of practical implementation is to use a common transmit
power for all the nodes. This is very much desirable in inaccessible terrain where adjustment
of the transmit power after deployment is impossible or very much costly. Moreover, the
performance disparity, in terms of traffic carrying capacity, between adjusting the power
locally and employing a common transmit power is small, especially when the number of
nodes is large [10].
In this paper we propose an algorithm for adapting transmit power so as to maintain a
given level of detection probability [5]. In FTPS (Fixed Transmit Power Scheme), a
sensor node transmits at a fixed power level for any given node density. In this scheme
detection probability degrades with decrease in node spatial density. This is caused due
to increase in inter node distance with decrease in node spatial density. Further decrease
in detection probability degrades sensing range and signal quality. Our proposed
scheme of adapting transmit power to maintain a given level of detection probability
overcomes this. The contributions of this paper are as follows: Energy level
performances of fixed and the above proposed adaptive transmit power schemes (FTPS
and ATPS) are evaluated in presence of multipath Rician fading. Transmit power for
the proposed adaptive scheme is evaluated for several conditions of node spatial
density, detection probabilities and severity of fading. Further energy requirement for
successful delivery of a file based on an ARQ based scheme is evaluated and compared
under several conditions of network such as node density, channel fading and detection
probability for both fixed and adaptive power schemes. An optimal packet based
transmission [7] which yields highest energy efficiency [11] is also considered in our
proposed framework of adaptive power scheme. Energy expenditure corresponding to
optimal packet length is also evaluated for both the schemes (i.e. FTPS and ATPS) and
compared with an arbitrary fixed packet based transmission under same network
conditions. Further, impact of fading and node density on energy efficiency and optimal
packet length are discussed. Moreover, impact of severity of fading on energy
efficiency and optimal packet length are also evaluated.
2. System Model
The sensing range depends on the signal propagation path. The received signal power S
r
can be expressed as [1]
( )
( )
o
t
ì ¸
link
r t t
link r
d
G G S
d S
2
2
4
= (1)
where γ is the fading channel coefficient, S
t
is the transmit power, G
t
and G
r
are the
transmitting and receiving antenna gain respectively, α is the pathloss exponent,
link
d is the
distance between source and destination node (as shown in Fig. 1) and λ is the wavelength of
the used transmitted signal. Here we consider omni directional (G
t
= G
r
=1) antennas at the
transmitter and receiver. The carrier frequency is in the unlicensed ISM band (2.4 GHz). The
International Journal of Energy, Information and Communications
Vol. 3, Issue 2, May, 2012
87
parameter γ is introduced to represent the Rician fading effects in the propagation path, as
well as the asymmetric property in the sensing ability. Transmission from a sensor node will
be sensed by a receiving node when the received signal power is larger than the sensitivity
(S
sen
) of the receiving node. Therefore, the probability that the target location is detected by
this node is [5]
( ) ( ) ( )
sen link r link D
S d S P d P > = (2)
where P
D
(d
link
) denotes the probability of detection of the signal at a distance d
link
.
A square grid network architecture following [12] is considered in present work. Figure 1
shows a two tier sensor network using square grid topology. Distance between two nearest
neighbor (d
link
) is determined by the detection probability (P
det
) and propagation environment.
The node spatial density ρ
sq
is given as [12].
2
1
link
sq
d
= µ (3)
Figure 1. Sensor Nodes in Square Grid Topology; a Link Interconnecting Node
S1 and S2 in one hop is shown
Here we assume a simple routing strategy such that a packet is relayed hopbyhop,
through a sequence of nearest neighboring nodes, until it reaches the destination [13].
Therefore, we assume that a route between source and destination exists. Infinite ARQ is
considered between the pair of adjacent nodes. We would present a simulation model in
Section III to assess the performance of the above network in presence of multipath fading.
The necessary mathematical framework useful for simulation is presented below:
Here we consider a simple reservationbased MAC protocol, called reserveandgo
(RESGO) following [14]. In this protocol, a source node first reserves intermediate nodes on
a route for relaying its packets to the destination. A transmission can begin only after a route
is discovered and reserved. If the destination node is busy, it waits for an exponential random
backoff time before transmitting or relaying each packet. When the random backoff time
expires, node starts transmitting a packet. The random backoff time helps to reduce
interference among nodes in the same route and also among nodes in different routes.
Throughout this paper, we assume that the random backoff time is exponential with mean
t
ì 1 , where
t
ì is the packet transmission rate.
The major perturbations in wireless transmission are large scale fading and small scale
fading [1, 15]. Large scale fading represents the average signal power attenuation or path loss
due to motion over large areas. This phenomenon is affected by prominent terrain contours
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Vol. 3, Issue 2, May, 2012
88
(hills, forests, billboards, clumps of buildings, etc.) between the transmitter and receiver.
However smallscale fading exhibits rapid changes in signal amplitude and phase as a result
of small changes (as small as a halfwavelength) in the spatial separation between a receiver
and transmitter. If the multiple reflective paths are large in number and there is a dominant
non fading signal component, the envelope of the received signal is statistically described by
a Rician pdf given as [15]
( )
( )
0 ,
2
exp
2
0
2
2 2
2
> 
.

\

(
(
¸
(
¸
+ ÷
= z
zs
I
s z
z z p
z
o o
o (4)
where z is the envelope amplitude of the received signal,
2
2o is the average power in the non
LOS multipath components, s
2
is the power in the LOS component and I
0
is the modified
Bessel function of 0
th
order. In the present work we consider the multipath Rician fading in
addition to path loss and thermal noise.
Assuming that each destination is equally likely, the average number of hops on a route
can be expressed as [12]
2 N n
hop
~ (5)
where N is the number of nodes present in the network under consideration.
The received signal at the receiver is the sum of three components (i) the intended signal
from a transmitter, (ii) interfering signals from other active nodes and (iii) thermal noise.
Since the interfering signals come from other nodes, we assume that total interfering signal
can be treated as an additive noise process independent of thermal noise process. The
received signal in terms of amplitude, Y(d
link
) during each bit period can be expressed as [16,
12]
( ) ( )
thermal
N
j
j link s link
n v d V d Y + + =
¿
÷
=
2
1
(6)
where V
s
(d
link
) is the desired signal at a distance of d
link
in presence of Rician fading, v
j
is the
interference from the other nodes and n
thermal
is the thermal noise signal. We also assume that
interference from other active nodes (i.e., v
j
) undergo similar multipath fading as the desired
signal.
Assuming BPSK modulation, there can be two cases for the amplitude of the V
s
(d
link
)
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
÷ ÷ = ÷
+ =
=
ion transmiss 1 for
ion transmiss 1 for
link bit
bit
link r
link bit
bit
link r
link s
d E
R
d S
d E
R
d S
d V (7)
where R
bit
is the bit rate and ( )
link bit
d E is the bit energy of the received signal in presence of
Rician fading at a distance of d
link
.
For each interfering node j, the amplitude of the interfering signal can be of three types
with different probabilities [12]:
International Journal of Energy, Information and Communications
Vol. 3, Issue 2, May, 2012
89
( )
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
÷ ÷
+
=
trans
trans
bit
j
trans
bit
j
j
P
P
R
S
P
R
S
v
1 y probabilit ion with transmiss no for 0
2
1
y probabilit ion with transmiss 1 for
2
1
y probabilit ion with transmiss 1 for
int_
int_
(8)
where S
int_j
is the interference power received from node j; and P
trans
is the transmission
probability [14]. The probability that an interfering node will transmit and cause interference
depends on the MAC protocol used. Size of the interference vector
j
V
increases as the
number of nodes increases in the network. The vector
j
V
is defined as:
{ }
( )
{ }
2 2 1
2 ,..., 2 , 1
,..., ,
÷
÷ =
= =
N
N j
j j
v v v v V
, where v
j
(as given in eqn. (8)) is the amplitude of the
signal received at the receiver from an interfering node j.
The received thermal noise signal is simply
B FkT n
thermal 0
= (9)
where F is the noise figure, J/K 10 1.38 k
23 ÷
× = is the Boltzmann’s constant, T
0
is the room
temperature and B is the transmission bandwidth.
Next we derive the energy spent in successfully transmitting a data packet considering a
simple Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) schemes between a pair of source and destination
nodes via intermediate nodes. Fig. 2 shows the used ARQ scheme.
Figure 2. Different Information Delivery Mechanisms
The ARQ scheme is based on hopbyhop retransmission, as shown in Figure 2 following
[16], where at every hop the receiver checks the correctness of the packet and requests for a
retransmission with a NACK packet to previous node until a correct packet is received. ACK
packet is sent to the transmitter indicating a successful transmission.
It is assumed that each packet consists of header, message and trailer as shown in Figure 3.
So, transmitted packet length can be expressed as [11],
t m h pkt
l l l L + + = (10)
Figure 3. Simple Structure of a Packet
where l
h
, l
m
and l
t
are the header length, message length and trailer length respectively. So, the
energy required to transmit a single packet is
International Journal of Energy, Information and Communications
Vol. 3, Issue 2, May, 2012
90
st d
bit
ack t m h t
packet
E E
R
l l l l P
E + + ×
+ + +
= 75 . 1
) (
(11)
where E
d
is the decoding energy to decode a single packet; E
st
is the startup energy consumed
in the transmitter and receiver; and l
ack
is the acknowledge frame length. For RFMTR1000
transceiver that has been incorporated in MICS Mote startup energy is assumed to be 24.86 μJ
[17]. Since Forward Error Correction (FEC) technique is not used here, decoding energy and
trailer length both are assumed zero [11]. Here it is assumed that 75% of the transmit energy
is required to receive a packet.
The minimum energy required to communicate a packet at the destination is the energy
required to transmit and receive the message bits (l
m
) only. Thus minimum energy is given as:
hop
bit
m t
n
R
l P
E × × = 75 . 1
min
(12)
Now we consider the energy requirement for ARQ scheme as mentioned above to
communicate a data packet from source to destination node until it is received successfully.
Average probability of error at packet level at each hop is expressed as [1]
pkt
L
link link
BER PER ) 1 ( 1 ÷ ÷ = (13)
where, BER
link
is the link BER. The effect of propagation path is incorporated in BER
link
. The
probability of ‘n’ retransmissions is the product of failure in the (n1) transmissions and the
probability of success at the n
th
transmission [18]:
1
) )( 1 ( ] [
÷
÷ =
n
link link I
PER PER n P (14)
Average number of retransmissions for an infinite ARQ scheme is given by,
( )
link
link
n
I I
PER
PER
n n P R
÷
= =
¿
·
=
1
]. [
1
(15)
We consider only path loss in reverse link. Further we assume that ACK/NACK from
receiving node is instantaneous and error free.
The energy consumed per packet at the end of
hop
n number of hops is considered as the
energy spent in forward transmission of information and reverse transmission for
NACK/ACK as in [16]
hop I st ack m h
bit
t
I
n R E l l l
R
P
E ) 1 ( ) (
75 . 1
+
(
¸
(
¸
+ + + = (16)
Now the energy efficiency (η) of the scheme can be expressed as [11]:
( )
ack m h
l l l
link
I
U
st ack m h
bit
t
bit
m t
BER U
R
E l l l
R
P
R
l P
E
+ +
÷ × =
+
×
(
¸
(
¸
+ + +
×
=
=
1
) 1 (
1
) (
75 . 1
75 . 1
Scheme for that Required Energy
min
q
(17)
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91
Our aim is to maximize η with respect to the message length
m
l to reduce the energy
consumption. It is seen that there exists a unique maximum value of η for a given message
length [11]. The corresponding optimal packet length is obtained by setting 0 =
m
dl
dq
, in (17).
After solving, we obtain
( )
2
75 . 1 1 ln
75 . 1
4
75 . 1
2


.

\

+ + ÷
÷


.

\

+ +
÷


.

\

+ +
=
t
bit st
ack h
link
t
bit st
ack h
t
bit st
ack h
opt
P
R E
l l
BER
P
R E
l l
P
R E
l l
L (18)
In practice L
opt
is rounded off to the nearest integer.
Next we discuss the simulation model developed for evaluating the performance of
above discussed network in the presence of multipath fading. We develop a simulation
test bed to evaluate the optimal transmit power, optimal packet length, energy
efficiency, energy consumption for successful packet transmission using Matlab
®
.
3. Simulation Model
We now present our simulation model developed in MATLAB to evaluate the
performance of fixed and adaptive transmit power schemes in multipath fading environment:
 At first digital data 1 and 0 with equal probability is generated for BPSK modulation.
 The detection probability is evaluated using eqn. (2).
 In adaptive transmit power scheme, transmit power is increased gradually from a
small value to a high value. The minimum transmit power which satisfies the
predefined detection probability is the transmit power corresponding to that node
density and network condition.
 The desired message signal is affected by multipath Rician fading, thermal noise and
interference from other nodes. The signal received by the receiving antenna in
destination node is generated following eqn. (6).
 Rician random variables (r.v.) for different values of K are generated.
 The received signal Y(d
link
) as given in eqn. (6) is then detected considering the
threshold level at 0.
 Each received bit is then compared with the transmitted bits. Now dividing the error
count by the total number of transmitted bits, link BERs are obtained.
 The energy consumption for the two schemes is evaluated using eqn. (16).
4. Results and Discussion
In this section, we present a performance analysis of different network parameters to
present a comprehensive overview. The simulation parameters are listed in Table 1. All the
simulations are performed at a confidence level of 95% using Matlab.
International Journal of Energy, Information and Communications
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92
Table 1. Network Parameters used in the Simulation
Parameter Values
Path loss exponent (γ) 2
Number of nodes in the network (N) 289
Node spatial Density (ρ
sq
) 10
9
 10
1
Packet arrival rate at each node (λ
t
) 1 pck/s
Career frequency (f
c
) 2.4 GHz
Noise figure (F) 6 dB
Room Temperature (T
0
) 300° K
Transmission Power (P
Tx
) 10 mW
Receiver Sensitivity (S
i
) 100 dBm
Rician Factor (K) 0, 2 and 10
Figure 4 shows the detection probability (P
d
) of the signal at the receiving node for the two
schemes: (i) FTPS and (ii) ATPS. It is seen that in FTPS detection probability gradually
increases from 0 to 1 with increase in node spatial density. Thus for low node density P
d
may
be very low leading to significant reduction in sensing range and link failure due to loss of
internode connectivity. However in our proposed ATPS detection probability remains at a
predetermined fixed level (say 0.8 in present case) as transmit power is adapted with respect
to change in node density and channel condition. It is also seen that detection probability
degrades as severity of Rician fading increases (i.e., decrease of K factor) in FTPS.
Figure 4. Detection Probability as a function of Node Spatial Density
Figure 5 shows the required transmit power for ATPS to keep the detection probability at a
chosen fixed level in the receiving node in presence of multipath Rician fading. It is seen that
required transmit power decreases with increases in node spatial density. Required transmit
power increases in presence of fading. It is also seen that transmit power increases as severity
of fading increases. Further high transmit power is required to maintain higher P
D
in case of
ATPS. At a node density of
6
10 2.1
÷
× , a transmit power of 0.79 mW is required to maintain a
detection probability of 0.8. However, it increases to 1.5 mW to meet a detection probability
of 0.95.
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93
Figure 5. Transmit Power as a Function of Node Spatial Density
Figure 6. BER link as a Function of Node Spatial Density; bit rate= 1Mbps;
P
D
=0.9.
Figure 6 shows the link BER performance for the two schemes. It is seen that in case of
fixed transmit power scheme, link BER performance improves with increase in node spatial
density. However in ATPS, link BER performance remains at a fixed level. Further link BER
performance of adaptive transmit power scheme is significantly improved as compared to the
fixed transmit power scheme in low node spatial density region. However, BER performance
of adaptive transmit scheme is poor as compared to fixed transmit power scheme in high node
spatial density region. It is also observed that BER performance degrades with increase in
severity of Rician fading. In case of FTPS and at a node density of
5
10
÷
, link BER is
4
10 7 . 3
÷
× for a Rician coefficient K=10 while it degrades to
3
10 7 . 2
÷
× for K=2.
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94
Figure 7. Efficiency as a Function of Packet Length for ATPS and FTPS
Figure 7 shows the energy efficiency as a function of packet length for both the schemes
(i.e. ATPS and FTPS). It is seen that there exists a peak value of efficiency for a given packet
size. The message length corresponding to maximum efficiency is the optimal packet size
from energy efficiency perspective [11]. Thus there exists an optimal packet size for a
particular network condition. It is also seen that optimal packet length decreases with increase
in severity of multipath Rician fading. Further energy efficiency shows a steep drop for
message lengths smaller than the optimal length. This behavior can be attributed to the higher
overhead and startup energy consumption of smaller packets [11]. On the other hand, for
message length larger than the optimal length, the drop in energy efficiency is much slower
due to increase in average retransmission. With the increase of packet length the vulnerable
interval increases and the probability of transmission of an interfering node becomes high.
Energy efficiency degrades in presence of multipath fading. It is also seen that energy
efficiency degrades with increase in severity of fading. Further, in case of FTPS, energy
efficiency improves with increase in node spatial density. However, in case of ATPS, energy
efficiency is independent of node density (i.e., in case of ATPS, we get same energy
efficiency curve for two different node density
7
10 4.6
÷
× and
6
10 2.1
÷
× when other conditions
are same). In FTPS, optimal packet length increases with increase in node spatial density.
Figure 8. Energy Efficiency as a Function of Node Density for ATPS and FTPS;
P
D
=0.9.
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95
Figure 8 shows the energy efficiency of ATPS and FTPS scheme as a function of node
spatial density for several sizes of packet. It is seen that, in high node density region FTPS is
more energy efficient that ATPS scheme. However in moderate and low node density region
ATPS outperforms FTPS in terms of energy efficiency. It is also seen that energy efficiencies
in FTPS scheme improve with increase in node spatial density. However beyond a certain
node density the efficiency does not change with further increase in node density. This occurs
as there is no improvement in SINR beyond a certain limit. However in case of ATPS energy
efficiency remains at a constant level throughout the entire region. In FTPS, energy efficiency
degrades with decrease in packet size while in ATPS, energy efficiency improves with
decrease in packet size.
Figure 9 shows the energy required to successfully deliver a file of size 10
6
using fixed and
optimum size [16] packets in ATPS and FTPS. Optimum size packet is that length of packet
which yields highest energy efficiency [16, 11] as explained in Fig. 7. It is seen that
transmission using optimum size packets consumes less energy than that of fixed packet
based transmission over a wide range of node density which may be region of interest.
Further, use of optimum size packet in ATPS consumes less energy as compared to that of
FTPS over wide range of node densities. In case of ATPS, energy requirement increases with
decreases in packet length. Further, optimum packet based ATPS requires significantly less
energy than ATPS using a fixed size packet. For example, at a node density of 10
5
, optimum
packet based ATPS consumes 18% less energy than ATPS using fixed packet of size 200 bit.
Figure 9. Energy Consumption as a Function of Node Spatial Density
5. Conclusion
In this article, we have compared the energy level performance of fixed and a proposed
adaptive transmit power schemes (FTPS and ATPS) in presence of Rician fading for a square
grid WSN. Performance of such network in analyzed in terms of detection probability and
energy consumption. In ATPS, transmit power is varied according to node density and
channel condition so as to keep the detection probability at a fixed level. However in case of
FTPS, detection probability decreases with decrease in node spatial density. Further an
International Journal of Energy, Information and Communications
Vol. 3, Issue 2, May, 2012
96
optimum packet length based transmission is studied. It is seen that ATPS consumes less
energy than FTPS in moderate and high node spatial density region (i.e. region of interest
from operational point of view) to successfully deliver a file. Transmission exploiting
optimum size packets consumes less energy in moderate and high node spatial density region
compared to that of an arbitrary fixed packet size based transmission in ATPS. Thus
simultaneous use of optimal size packets and ATPS shows a significant reduction in energy
consumption. Further, in high node density region FTPS is more energy efficient that that of
ATPS scheme. However in moderate and low node density region ATPS outperforms FTPS
in terms of energy efficiency. Our results are significant in designing energy efficient WSN in
presence of fading.
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[12] S. Panichpapiboon, G. Ferrari and O. K. Tonguz, “Optimal Transmit Power in Wireless Sensor Networks”,
IEEE Transaction on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 14321447, (2006).
[13] C. E. Perkins, “Ad Hoc Networking”, AddisonWesley, (2001).
[14] G. Ferrari and O. K. Tonguz, “Performance of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks with Aloha and PRCSMA MAC
Protocols”, Proc. IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf. (GLOBECOM), pp. 28242829, (2003) December.
[15] Sklar, “Rayleigh Fading Channels in Mobile Digital Communication Systems Part I: Characterization,” IEEE
Communication Magazine, pp. 90100, (2003) July.
[16] A. Nandi and S. Kundu, "Energy Efficient Packet Data Service in Wireless Sensor Network in Presence of
Raylrigh Fading", International Journal of Grid and High Performance Computing (IJGHPC), vol. 3, Issue 3,
pp. 3144, (2011). DOI: 10.4018/jghpc.2011070103.
[17] MICS Mote Datasheet. Crossbow Corp. [Online]. Available http://xbow.com
[18] Kleinschmidt J.H., Borelli, W.C. and Pellenz, M.E, “An Analytical Model for Energy Efficiency of Error
Control Schemes in Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp.
3895 – 3900, (2007) June 2428.
International Journal of Energy, Information and Communications
Vol. 3, Issue 2, May, 2012
97
Authors
Arnab Nandi received his B. Tech degree from the Kalyani Govt.
Engg. College, India, in 2003 and the M. Tech degree from University of
Burdwan, India in 2005, all in Electronics and Communication
Engineering (ECE). He is currently Assistant Professor in the ECE
Department at National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh (NIT
AP), India. Before joining NITAP he worked as Assistant Professor in
ECE at Dr. B. C. Roy Engg. College (BCREC), Durgapur, India. Before
joining BCREC, he worked as SRF in National Institute of Technology,
Durgapur up to November 2011. Before that, he was with the ECE
Department as Lecturer at Bankura Unnayani Institute of Engineering
and University Institute of Technology since July 2005. His research
interests include ad hoc wireless networks, Wireless sensor networks,
cross layer issues and medium access control. He has published 19
research papers in various Internationals Journals and Conferences. He is
reviewer of several International Conferences.
Sumit Kundu received his B.E. (Hons.) degree in Electronics and
Communication Engineering in 1991 from NIT, Durgapur, India and
M.Tech. degree in Telecommunication Systems Engineering and Ph.D.
in Wireless Communication Engineering from IIT Kharagpur, India,
respectively. He has been a faculty in the department of ECE, National
Institute of Technology, Durgapur since 1995 and is currently an
Associate Professor there. His research interests include radio resource
management in wireless networks, Wireless Ad Hoc and sensor
networks, and Cognitive Radio Networks. As of today, he has published
hundred (100) research papers in various journals and conferences. He is
a member of IEEE (Communication Society) and is a reviewer of several
IEEE journals.
International Journal of Energy, Information and Communications
Vol. 3, Issue 2, May, 2012
98
Further energy requirement for successful delivery of a file based on an ARQ based scheme is evaluated and compared under several conditions of network such as node density. Issue 2. Gt and Gr are the transmitting and receiving antenna gain respectively. Here we consider omni directional (Gt= Gr=1) antennas at the transmitter and receiver. The 86 . 2012 impact of the shadowing effects on the sensing coverage is investigated. performance of an adaptive power based scheme is evaluated in lognormal shadowed environment. An optimal packet based transmission [7] which yields highest energy efficiency [11] is also considered in our proposed framework of adaptive power scheme. In FTPS (Fixed Transmit Power Scheme). dlink is the distance between source and destination node (as shown in Fig. In [6]. The received signal power S r can be expressed as [1] S r dlink St Gt Gr 2 4 2 dlink (1) where γ is the fading channel coefficient. a sensor node transmits at a fixed power level for any given node density. Further. the transmit power of a node should be modified on a linkbylink basis to achieve the maximum possible power savings [79]. The contributions of this paper are as follows: Energy level performances of fixed and the above proposed adaptive transmit power schemes (FTPS and ATPS) are evaluated in presence of multipath Rician fading. This is caused due to increase in inter node distance with decrease in node spatial density. detection probabilities and severity of fading. 3. performing power control on a linkbylink basis is a complicated and cumbersome task. In an ideal scenario. Transmit power for the proposed adaptive scheme is evaluated for several conditions of node spatial density.International Journal of Energy. the performance disparity. impact of fading and node density on energy efficiency and optimal packet length are discussed. Our proposed scheme of adapting transmit power to maintain a given level of detection probability overcomes this. It shows that increase in standard deviation of the shadowing severely degrades the sensing coverage. 1) and λ is the wavelength of the used transmitted signal. In this scheme detection probability degrades with decrease in node spatial density. May. System Model The sensing range depends on the signal propagation path. between adjusting the power locally and employing a common transmit power is small. in ad hoc network. A straightforward solution in the view of practical implementation is to use a common transmit power for all the nodes. α is the pathloss exponent. in terms of traffic carrying capacity.e. especially when the number of nodes is large [10]. Further decrease in detection probability degrades sensing range and signal quality. channel fading and detection probability for both fixed and adaptive power schemes.4 GHz). 2. Moreover. Energy expenditure corresponding to optimal packet length is also evaluated for both the schemes (i. However. In this paper we propose an algorithm for adapting transmit power so as to maintain a given level of detection probability [5]. Moreover. Information and Communications Vol. The carrier frequency is in the unlicensed ISM band (2. This is very much desirable in inaccessible terrain where adjustment of the transmit power after deployment is impossible or very much costly. impact of severity of fading on energy efficiency and optimal packet length are also evaluated. FTPS and ATPS) and compared with an arbitrary fixed packet based transmission under same network conditions. St is the transmit power.
If the destination node is busy. When the random backoff time expires. The random backoff time helps to reduce interference among nodes in the same route and also among nodes in different routes. 3. node starts transmitting a packet. Information and Communications Vol. Transmission from a sensor node will be sensed by a receiving node when the received signal power is larger than the sensitivity (Ssen) of the receiving node. a Link Interconnecting Node S1 and S2 in one hop is shown Here we assume a simple routing strategy such that a packet is relayed hopbyhop. where t is the packet transmission rate. The major perturbations in wireless transmission are large scale fading and small scale fading [1.International Journal of Energy. The necessary mathematical framework useful for simulation is presented below: Here we consider a simple reservationbased MAC protocol. it waits for an exponential random backoff time before transmitting or relaying each packet. Infinite ARQ is considered between the pair of adjacent nodes. A transmission can begin only after a route is discovered and reserved. This phenomenon is affected by prominent terrain contours 87 . Distance between two nearest neighbor (dlink) is determined by the detection probability (Pdet) and propagation environment. The node spatial density ρsq is given as [12]. Therefore. A square grid network architecture following [12] is considered in present work. the probability that the target location is detected by this node is [5] PD d link PS r d link S sen (2) where PD(dlink) denotes the probability of detection of the signal at a distance dlink. until it reaches the destination [13]. Large scale fading represents the average signal power attenuation or path loss due to motion over large areas. Therefore. In this protocol. called reserveandgo (RESGO) following [14]. we assume that the random backoff time is exponential with mean 1 t . Figure 1 shows a two tier sensor network using square grid topology. We would present a simulation model in Section III to assess the performance of the above network in presence of multipath fading. through a sequence of nearest neighboring nodes. 2012 parameter γ is introduced to represent the Rician fading effects in the propagation path. as well as the asymmetric property in the sensing ability. 15]. Sensor Nodes in Square Grid Topology. sq 1 2 dlink (3) Figure 1. Issue 2. we assume that a route between source and destination exists. May. Throughout this paper. a source node first reserves intermediate nodes on a route for relaying its packets to the destination.
we assume that total interfering signal can be treated as an additive noise process independent of thermal noise process. Assuming BPSK modulation. clumps of buildings. (ii) interfering signals from other active nodes and (iii) thermal noise. the average number of hops on a route can be expressed as [12] nhop N 2 (5) where N is the number of nodes present in the network under consideration. Issue 2. May. z 0 2 (4) where z is the envelope amplitude of the received signal. the amplitude of the interfering signal can be of three types with different probabilities [12]: 88 . If the multiple reflective paths are large in number and there is a dominant non fading signal component. Y(dlink) during each bit period can be expressed as [16. The received signal at the receiver is the sum of three components (i) the intended signal from a transmitter. etc.. 2012 (hills. the envelope of the received signal is statistically described by a Rician pdf given as [15] z2 s2 p z z z 2 exp 2 2 I 0 zs .e. there can be two cases for the amplitude of the Vs(dlink) S r d link Ebit d link Rbit Vs d link S r d link E d bit link Rbit for 1 transmission (7) for 1 transmission where Rbit is the bit rate and Ebit d link is the bit energy of the received signal in presence of Rician fading at a distance of dlink. vj) undergo similar multipath fading as the desired signal. Since the interfering signals come from other nodes. For each interfering node j. 12] Y d link Vs d link N 2 j 1 v j nthermal (6) where Vs(dlink) is the desired signal at a distance of dlink in presence of Rician fading. vj is the interference from the other nodes and nthermal is the thermal noise signal. 2 2 is the average power in the non LOS multipath components. Assuming that each destination is equally likely. billboards. However smallscale fading exhibits rapid changes in signal amplitude and phase as a result of small changes (as small as a halfwavelength) in the spatial separation between a receiver and transmitter. We also assume that interference from other active nodes (i.) between the transmitter and receiver. The received signal in terms of amplitude. In the present work we consider the multipath Rician fading in addition to path loss and thermal noise. 3.International Journal of Energy. s2 is the power in the LOS component and I0 is the modified Bessel function of 0th order. Information and Communications Vol. forests.
Next we derive the energy spent in successfully transmitting a data packet considering a simple Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) schemes between a pair of source and destination nodes via intermediate nodes.2.. It is assumed that each packet consists of header.. So.International Journal of Energy. message length and trailer length respectively. L pkt lh lm lt (10) Figure 3. 2012 S int_ j 1 for 1 transmission with probability Ptrans Rbit 2 S int_ j 1 v j for 1 transmission with probability Ptrans Rbit 2 0 for no transmission with probability 1Ptrans (8) where Sint_j is the interference power received from node j..N 2 v1. Different Information Delivery Mechanisms The ARQ scheme is based on hopbyhop retransmission. The probability that an interfering node will transmit and cause interference depends on the MAC protocol used. message and trailer as shown in Figure 3. where at every hop the receiver checks the correctness of the packet and requests for a retransmission with a NACK packet to previous node until a correct packet is received.vN 2 . So. the energy required to transmit a single packet is 89 . The received thermal noise signal is simply nthermal FkT0 B (9) where F is the noise figure... Size of the interference vector V j increases as the number of nodes increases in the network. Figure 2.. as shown in Figure 2 following [16]. Information and Communications Vol. (8)) is the amplitude of the v signal received at the receiver from an interfering node j. May.381023 J/K is the Boltzmann’s constant. Fig.. v2 . and Ptrans is the transmission probability [14]. ACK packet is sent to the transmitter indicating a successful transmission. 3. The vector V j is defined as: V j j j 1. T0 is the room temperature and B is the transmission bandwidth. 2 shows the used ARQ scheme.. where vj (as given in eqn. k 1. lm and lt are the header length. Issue 2. Simple Structure of a Packet where lh. transmitted packet length can be expressed as [11].
International Journal of Energy. May. Here it is assumed that 75% of the transmit energy is required to receive a packet. The probability of ‘n’ retransmissions is the product of failure in the (n1) transmissions and the probability of success at the nth transmission [18]: PI [n] (1 PERlink )( PERlink ) n1 Average number of retransmissions for an infinite ARQ scheme is given by.n 1 PER I n 1 PERlink link (15) We consider only path loss in reverse link. decoding energy and trailer length both are assumed zero [11]. and lack is the acknowledge frame length.75 Ed Est Rbit (11) where Ed is the decoding energy to decode a single packet. The minimum energy required to communicate a packet at the destination is the energy required to transmit and receive the message bits (lm) only. Information and Communications Vol.75Pt EI (l h l m l ack ) E st (1 RI )nhop Rbit (16) Now the energy efficiency (η) of the scheme can be expressed as [11]: E min Energy Required for that Scheme Pt l m 1. 3. Est is the startup energy consumed in the transmitter and receiver. BERlink is the link BER.86 μJ [17].75 nhop Rbit (12) Now we consider the energy requirement for ARQ scheme as mentioned above to communicate a data packet from source to destination node until it is received successfully. 2012 E packet P (lh lm lt lack ) t 1. Thus minimum energy is given as: E min Pt l m 1. RI (14) P [n]. For RFMTR1000 transceiver that has been incorporated in MICS Mote startup energy is assumed to be 24. Further we assume that ACK/NACK from receiving node is instantaneous and error free.75Pt (1 R I ) (l h l m l ack ) E st Rbit U (17) U 1 BER link lh lm lack 90 .75 Rbit 1 1. The effect of propagation path is incorporated in BER link. Average probability of error at packet level at each hop is expressed as [1] PERlink 1 (1 BERlink ) L pkt (13) where. Issue 2. Since Forward Error Correction (FEC) technique is not used here. The energy consumed per packet at the end of n hop number of hops is considered as the energy spent in forward transmission of information and reverse transmission for NACK/ACK as in [16] 1.
in (17). Each received bit is then compared with the transmitted bits. May.75Pt (18) In practice Lopt is rounded off to the nearest integer. thermal noise and interference from other nodes. 91 . Now dividing the error count by the total number of transmitted bits. All the simulations are performed at a confidence level of 95% using Matlab. 2012 Our aim is to maximize η with respect to the message length l m to reduce the energy consumption. we obtain E R l h l ack st bit 1.International Journal of Energy. 3.v.) for different values of K are generated. optimal packet length. The corresponding optimal packet length is obtained by setting 0 . dl m After solving.75Pt 2 Lopt E R 4 l h l ack st bit 1. 3. It is seen that there exists a unique maximum value of η for a given message d length [11]. (16). Information and Communications Vol. We develop a simulation test bed to evaluate the optimal transmit power. Rician random variables (r. The detection probability is evaluated using eqn. The signal received by the receiving antenna in destination node is generated following eqn. Simulation Model We now present our simulation model developed in MATLAB to evaluate the performance of fixed and adaptive transmit power schemes in multipath fading environment: At first digital data 1 and 0 with equal probability is generated for BPSK modulation. we present a performance analysis of different network parameters to present a comprehensive overview. (6) is then detected considering the threshold level at 0. The received signal Y(dlink) as given in eqn. The simulation parameters are listed in Table 1. transmit power is increased gradually from a small value to a high value. (6). The desired message signal is affected by multipath Rician fading. 4. The minimum transmit power which satisfies the predefined detection probability is the transmit power corresponding to that node density and network condition. Issue 2.75Pt ln1 BER link 2 E R l h l ack st bit 1. link BERs are obtained. The energy consumption for the two schemes is evaluated using eqn. energy consumption for successful packet transmission using Matlab ®. Results and Discussion In this section. (2). Next we discuss the simulation model developed for evaluating the performance of above discussed network in the presence of multipath fading. In adaptive transmit power scheme. energy efficiency.
May. Issue 2. It is seen that in FTPS detection probability gradually increases from 0 to 1 with increase in node spatial density. However.8 in present case) as transmit power is adapted with respect to change in node density and channel condition.4 GHz 6 dB 300° K 10 mW 100 dBm 0. Figure 4. Information and Communications Vol. It is also seen that detection probability degrades as severity of Rician fading increases (i.International Journal of Energy.79 mW is required to maintain a detection probability of 0. 2012 Table 1. 92 .101 1 pck/s 2. Network Parameters used in the Simulation Parameter Path loss exponent (γ) Number of nodes in the network (N) Node spatial Density (ρsq) Packet arrival rate at each node (λt) Career frequency (fc) Noise figure (F) Room Temperature (T0) Transmission Power (PTx) Receiver Sensitivity (Si) Rician Factor (K) Values 2 289 109 . decrease of K factor) in FTPS. At a node density of 2. It is seen that required transmit power decreases with increases in node spatial density. Detection Probability as a function of Node Spatial Density Figure 5 shows the required transmit power for ATPS to keep the detection probability at a chosen fixed level in the receiving node in presence of multipath Rician fading. It is also seen that transmit power increases as severity of fading increases. Further high transmit power is required to maintain higher PD in case of ATPS.95. However in our proposed ATPS detection probability remains at a predetermined fixed level (say 0.e. Thus for low node density P d may be very low leading to significant reduction in sensing range and link failure due to loss of internode connectivity.8.110 6 . Required transmit power increases in presence of fading.. it increases to 1. a transmit power of 0.5 mW to meet a detection probability of 0. 2 and 10 Figure 4 shows the detection probability (Pd) of the signal at the receiving node for the two schemes: (i) FTPS and (ii) ATPS. 3.
link BER performance improves with increase in node spatial density. May. Further link BER performance of adaptive transmit power scheme is significantly improved as compared to the fixed transmit power scheme in low node spatial density region. link BER performance remains at a fixed level. It is seen that in case of fixed transmit power scheme. BER performance of adaptive transmit scheme is poor as compared to fixed transmit power scheme in high node spatial density region. BER link as a Function of Node Spatial Density.7 10 3 for K=2. Transmit Power as a Function of Node Spatial Density Figure 6. However. bit rate= 1Mbps. In case of FTPS and at a node density of 10 5 . link BER is 3.International Journal of Energy.7 10 4 for a Rician coefficient K=10 while it degrades to 2. Information and Communications Vol. 2012 Figure 5. However in ATPS. 93 . Issue 2. 3. Figure 6 shows the link BER performance for the two schemes. It is also observed that BER performance degrades with increase in severity of Rician fading.9. PD=0.
we get same energy efficiency curve for two different node density 4. However. 2012 Figure 7. 3. It is also seen that optimal packet length decreases with increase in severity of multipath Rician fading. May.e. Energy Efficiency as a Function of Node Density for ATPS and FTPS.. Energy efficiency degrades in presence of multipath fading. for message length larger than the optimal length. In FTPS. in case of FTPS.e. Thus there exists an optimal packet size for a particular network condition. The message length corresponding to maximum efficiency is the optimal packet size from energy efficiency perspective [11]. PD=0.9. the drop in energy efficiency is much slower due to increase in average retransmission. It is also seen that energy efficiency degrades with increase in severity of fading. in case of ATPS. Information and Communications Vol.International Journal of Energy. in case of ATPS.610 7 and 2. Further. Efficiency as a Function of Packet Length for ATPS and FTPS Figure 7 shows the energy efficiency as a function of packet length for both the schemes (i. This behavior can be attributed to the higher overhead and startup energy consumption of smaller packets [11]. optimal packet length increases with increase in node spatial density. On the other hand. Figure 8. ATPS and FTPS).110 6 when other conditions are same). 94 . Issue 2. With the increase of packet length the vulnerable interval increases and the probability of transmission of an interfering node becomes high. Further energy efficiency shows a steep drop for message lengths smaller than the optimal length. energy efficiency is independent of node density (i. It is seen that there exists a peak value of efficiency for a given packet size. energy efficiency improves with increase in node spatial density.
International Journal of Energy. In ATPS. Performance of such network in analyzed in terms of detection probability and energy consumption. However in moderate and low node density region ATPS outperforms FTPS in terms of energy efficiency. However beyond a certain node density the efficiency does not change with further increase in node density. at a node density of 105. Issue 2. Further. In case of ATPS. detection probability decreases with decrease in node spatial density. energy efficiency degrades with decrease in packet size while in ATPS. May. use of optimum size packet in ATPS consumes less energy as compared to that of FTPS over wide range of node densities. 11] as explained in Fig. It is seen that transmission using optimum size packets consumes less energy than that of fixed packet based transmission over a wide range of node density which may be region of interest. transmit power is varied according to node density and channel condition so as to keep the detection probability at a fixed level. energy efficiency improves with decrease in packet size. Energy Consumption as a Function of Node Spatial Density 5. energy requirement increases with decreases in packet length. we have compared the energy level performance of fixed and a proposed adaptive transmit power schemes (FTPS and ATPS) in presence of Rician fading for a square grid WSN. in high node density region FTPS is more energy efficient that ATPS scheme. Further an 95 . It is also seen that energy efficiencies in FTPS scheme improve with increase in node spatial density. Information and Communications Vol. 7. It is seen that. Figure 9 shows the energy required to successfully deliver a file of size 106 using fixed and optimum size [16] packets in ATPS and FTPS. For example. However in case of ATPS energy efficiency remains at a constant level throughout the entire region. optimum packet based ATPS consumes 18% less energy than ATPS using fixed packet of size 200 bit. Optimum size packet is that length of packet which yields highest energy efficiency [16. optimum packet based ATPS requires significantly less energy than ATPS using a fixed size packet. 3. Further. This occurs as there is no improvement in SINR beyond a certain limit. In FTPS. Conclusion In this article. Figure 9. 2012 Figure 8 shows the energy efficiency of ATPS and FTPS scheme as a function of node spatial density for several sizes of packet. However in case of FTPS.
Borelli. 90100. and Applications. [14] G. [10] S. Cambridge University Press. "Fade margin calculation for channels impaired by Rician fading". (2010) July. AddisonWesley. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. Dao. vol. Further. Perkins. 7485. “Ad Hoc Networking”. “Optimal Transmit Power in Wireless Sensor Networks”. Ferrari and O. "Energy Efficient Packet Data Service in Wireless Sensor Network in Presence of Raylrigh Fading". Qian and T. in high node density region FTPS is more energy efficient that that of ATPS scheme. (2002). [7] S. Issue 3. Katz. 125129. pp. G. 5. Our results are significant in designing energy efficient WSN in presence of fading. Proc. W. IEEE Trans. pp. Architecture. Tonguz. pp. (2011). Wireless Communications. I. 3. “Sensing Coverage for Randomly Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks in Shadowed Environments. F. Computer Comm. 28242829. Elbatt and A. [12] S. no. Personal. 1. It is seen that ATPS consumes less energy than FTPS in moderate and high node spatial density region (i. Akyildiz and S. R. pp. References [1] A. Proc. [9] T. “Joint Scheduling and Power Control for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks”. DOI: 10. 556564. “On Energy Level Performance of Adaptive Power Based WSN in Shadowed Channel. (INFOCOM). Wireless Comm. pp. “How to Achieve a Connected Ad Hoc Network with Homogeneous Range Assignment: An Analytical Study with Consideration of Border Effects. (GLOBECOM). Conf. Issue 1. 3rd IEEE International Conference on Ubimedia Computing (UMedia). Ephremides. S. Algorithm and Implementation of the COMPOW Protocol”.2011070103. 34. “An Analytical Model for Energy Efficiency of Error Control Schemes in Sensor Networks." 2010 Proc. [2] F. “Rayleigh Fading Channels in Mobile Digital Communication Systems Part I: Characterization. and Pellenz. “Power Control in AdHoc Networks: Theory. Kawadia. [8] R. (2005). (2008). M. Network.E.e. K. IEEE Int’l Symp. Sreenivas and P. V. Nandi and S. "An adaptive transmit power scheme for wireless sensor networks. Proc. Goldsmith. Issue 1. Krishnamurthy and S. pp. 3. V. (2003) December. Kundu. RosalesHain. Proc. and Mobile Radio Comm. Issue 2. pp. International Journal of Grid and High Performance Computing (IJGHPC). pp. (2011) February 2425. 15. Crossbow Corp. [Online]. vol. Proc. 156162. IEEE Global Telecomm. 96 . pp.4018/jghpc. [15] Sklar. Tonguz. no.” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. Nandi and S. (2007) June 2428. IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). Transmission exploiting optimum size packets consumes less energy in moderate and high node spatial density region compared to that of an arbitrary fixed packet size based transmission in ATPS. vol. [17] MICS Mote Datasheet. Information and Communications Vol. First IEEE International Workshop on Sensor Network Protocols and Applications. IEEE Conf. R. Zhenzhou. (2001). Mclaughlin. [11] Y. R. vol. pp. (PIMRC). Indoor. K. IEEE Interference Conference on Devices and Communication (ICDeCom 2011). Kumar. 4144. (2001). Kundu. Bettstetter and J. IEEE Int’l Workshop Mobile and Wireless Comm. Thus simultaneous use of optimal size packets and ATPS shows a significant reduction in energy consumption. May. K. 14321447. Panichpapiboon. Agarwal.. [13] C. 57. “Distributed Power Control in AdHoc Wireless Networks”. 2012 optimum packet length based transmission is studied. Available http://xbow. [6] A. 10. Zangl. Protocols. F59F66. Narayanaswamy.” IEEE Communication Magazine. 18. [3] C. pp.. Ramanathan and R. 404413.com [18] Kleinschmidt J. [4] H. vol. However in moderate and low node density region ATPS outperforms FTPS in terms of energy efficiency. region of interest from operational point of view) to successfully deliver a file. 3. (2006). 3144. (2003). Sankarasubramaniam. Davarian. 3895 – 3900. “Performance of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks with Aloha and PRCSMA MAC Protocols”.C. (2003) July.H. Ferrari and O. (1985). (2002) September. E. 1216.” Proc. pp. S. Services. (2004). “Energy efficiency based packet size optimization in wireless sensor networks”.” Proc. “Topology Control of Multihop Wireless Networks Using Transmit Power Adjustment”. IEEE Transaction on Mobile Computing.” Proc.International Journal of Energy. [16] A. pp. (2000). pp. W. [5] YuhRen Tsai. European Wireless Next Generation Wireless Networks: Technologies. pp.
His research interests include ad hoc wireless networks. in 2003 and the M.D. May. As of today. He is reviewer of several International Conferences. Tech degree from the Kalyani Govt. India and M. India in 2005. He is a member of IEEE (Communication Society) and is a reviewer of several IEEE journals. College (BCREC). Durgapur since 1995 and is currently an Associate Professor there. Arunachal Pradesh (NIT AP). 3. 97 . degree in Telecommunication Systems Engineering and Ph. all in Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE). Issue 2. India. Wireless sensor networks.International Journal of Energy. His research interests include radio resource management in wireless networks. Durgapur. he has published hundred (100) research papers in various journals and conferences. Before that. he worked as SRF in National Institute of Technology. He has been a faculty in the department of ECE. he was with the ECE Department as Lecturer at Bankura Unnayani Institute of Engineering and University Institute of Technology since July 2005.Tech. Wireless Ad Hoc and sensor networks. 2012 Authors Arnab Nandi received his B.E. Durgapur. Information and Communications Vol. He has published 19 research papers in various Internationals Journals and Conferences. Roy Engg.) degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering in 1991 from NIT. Engg. Tech degree from University of Burdwan. National Institute of Technology. India. College. C. He is currently Assistant Professor in the ECE Department at National Institute of Technology. cross layer issues and medium access control. Durgapur up to November 2011. respectively. Before joining NITAP he worked as Assistant Professor in ECE at Dr. India. Sumit Kundu received his B. (Hons. India. in Wireless Communication Engineering from IIT Kharagpur. B. and Cognitive Radio Networks. Before joining BCREC.
May. 3. Information and Communications Vol. 2012 98 .International Journal of Energy. Issue 2.
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