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QUESTION PAPER QUESTION ONE a) Discuss the reasons for planning pr programmes b) Discuss the Six-point PR Planning Model

[8 Marks] [12 Marks]

c) Discuss five used Methods used Assessment the results of a Pr campaign [10 Marks] QUESTION TWO
Discuss the main Functions of public relations [8 marks]

Discuss the Three phases of public relation development 12 marks

QUESTION THREE
identify six publics for an institution and discuss the type of information that should be communicated to this publics [12 marks] Discuss the main Reasons for defining publics of an institution [8 marks] QUESTION FOUR a) Discuss the main preparations involved in Planning a public relations exhibition 14 MARKS b) Discuss the reasons why companies offer financial support (sponsor)for worthy subjects, causes and individuals, stems from the patronage given to artists and musicians by wealthy royalty and autocracy. [6 marks]

QUESTION FIVE
a) Define Crisis Management 2 marks b) Discuss the 4 stages of a crisis and state what the management should do to minimize the effect of the crisis at each stage 12 marks c) Discusss the importance of good ethics and social responsibilities when practicing public relations 8 Marks

MARKING SCHEME

Discuss the reasons for planning pr programmes

8 marks

(a) To set targets for PR operations against which results can be assessed. (b) To estimate the working hours and other costs involved. (c) To select priorities which will control (i) The number and (ii) the timing of different operations in the programme

(d) To decide the feasibility of carrying out the declared objectives according to the availability of:(i) (ii) (iii) Sufficient staff of the right caliber Physical equipment such as office machines, cameras or vehicles An adequate budget

Discuss the Six-point PR Planning Model (a) Appreciation of the situation (b) Definition of objectives (c) Definition of publics (d) Selection of media and techniques (e) Planning of a budget (f) Assessment of results

12 marks

Discuss five used Methods used Assessment the results of a Pr campaign [10 Marks] I. By enquiries received II. By Statistical Data on audience numbers and ratings III. Evaluation by Source IV. Opinion Polls V. GRAPH VI. Evaluation by Direct Statistical Feedback VII. Media Feedback

VIII. Assessing Increasing Understanding IX. Desired Results QUESTION TWO


Discuss the main Functions of public relations Publicity Information with news value that is transmitted by media without cost: i.e. stories fund-raising campaign. Advertising Information published by media with cost: i.e. advertisements, advertorials. Press Agentry Creating newsworthy stories and events to attract media attention: i.e political campaigns, gossips Public Affairs Builds and maintains mutually beneficial governmental and local communities relations (i.e. scholarship, sponsorship) Issues Management Proactive process of identifying and responding on public policy issues that affect organizations and their publics: i.e. organizations Lobbying Builds relations with government to influence regulations and legislations: i.e. campaign sponsorship Inventory Relations Build relations with shareholders and other in the financial community: i.e. appreciation dinner, gifts Development relation with non-profit organizations for the purpose of securing financial and volunteer support: i.e. auctions, sponsorship or programs. 8 marks

Discuss the Three phases of public relation development 12 marks publicity phase of public relations The field's earliest manifestations have been called the publicity phase of public relations. During this stage of development practitioners were primarily concerned with creating awareness and building recognition for the individual or organization employing public relations. It was/is closely tied to advertising and promotion, and getting "the message" out to the widest possible audiences was/is paramount. Practitioners in the publicity phase see public relations as: basically a one-way process;

something done to someone else; primarily press agentry; relying almost exclusively on the mass media; and using transmission theories of communication and/or diffusion theories of information and innovation as the basis for message dissemination.

Maximizing awareness was the first goal of public relations. Explanatory phase of public relations The explanatory phase of public relations emphasized getting information from the organization to its publics so these publics would understand, sympathize with, and patronize the organization. Getting the message out was no longer enough; receivers now had to understand and accept the point of view of the sending organization. Practitioners in the explanatory phase see public relations as: more than publicity seeking; primarily a one-way process even though feedback is sometimes sought; something done to someone else; providing relevant information to key audiences;

Mutual satisfaction phase of public relations The mutual satisfaction phase of public relations encourages organizations and their publics to compromise and make complementary adjustments to one another so both benefit from their relationship. It is as much concerned with receiving and interpreting in-coming messages which it uses to counsel management as it is with developing outgoing messages. Practitioners in the mutual satisfaction phase see public relations as:

two-way interaction between an organization and its publics; something done with someone rather than something done to them; negotiation, compromise, and mutual accommodation; communicating in a variety of ways that range from one-on-one interpersonal conversations to dealing with mass audiences via the major media; and

QUESTION THREE

identify six publics for an institution and discuss the type of information that should be communicated to this publics [12 marks] The community Will depend on the type of organization. It will be different for a department store, local authority, media, power station, hotel, airport, educational establishment, prison, army barracks or police headquarters, seaport. Even if different organization share the same location. Each will have its own communication needs and problems e.g. safety, dirt, noise, pollution, strikes etc. A good neighbor policy is wise, PR begins on the doorstep.

Potential employees May exist in other organization, or can be recruited from schools, colleges, universities or from overseas. Theyre not likely to seek employment with an organization or answer its vacancy ads, unless they understand what the organization does and regard it as a potential employer. Employees Can be of many kinds, some of which are; management and executives, laboratory, factory and warehouse workers, office staff, sales and servicing staff and transport staff. They may be concentrated in one building or scatted like ship airline personnel, chain-store sales etc. They may present many different salary wage social and ethnic groups. Suppliers Can be of two kinds, those who supply services such as water and energy, and those who supply raw materials, components packaging and professional services. The Financial Publics Begin with the local bank and if it is a public company i.e. its shares being sold on the stock exchange, investors will not consist of not only personal buyers of securities but also of investment analysts. (who advise on short buying) and big share buyers. Big share buyers include; institutions, pension fund managers, banks, insurance companies and unit trust managers. Willingness to buy shares or invest in new issues, will depend on what is known about the company background, performance and prospects. A fall in share price could invite a takeover bid. Discuss the main Reasons for defining publics of an institution [8 marks] - To identify all groups of people relative to a PR programme To establish priorities within the scope of the budget and resources To select media and techniques To identify a need for each PR publics To choose a suitable technique and method in meeting the PR publics needs To identify a suitable time frame for delivering the services Useful in calculation of the fee to be charged depending on the time limit Innovative and creating A sense of identity of publics/belonging To prepare the message in acceptable and effective forms

QUESTION FOUR Discuss the main preparations involved in Planning a public relations exhibition [14 marks] Secretariat support. Correspondence with speakers Invitation of guest Printing Final staff appointments Transportation & parking Reception Tour Refreshment Pre-event publicity

Designate overall coordinator Naming the Event Theme & Speakers Program Choosing the date Estimating expenses Scheduling Facilities Discuss the reasons why companies offer financial support (sponsor)for worthy subjects, causes and individuals, stems from the patronage given to artists and musicians by wealthy royalty and autocracy. [6 marks] (i) To augment advertising campaigns through the publicizing of company and product names which will often get wide coverage by the media, e.g. cricket, football, horse swimming, tennis etc. (ii) To assist the marketing policy as when the sponsor gives financial support to something that interests potential customers and the company or product is associated with an interest such as youth, health, leisure or beauty. E.g. Coca-cola has associated itself with youthful pursuits. (iii) To show a sense of social responsibility as when companies have sponsored university awards, medical research, libraries theatres, festival and orchestras QUESTION FIVE Define Crisis Management

2 marks

Crisis management involves identifying a crisis, planning a response to the crisis and confronting and resolving the crisis.

Discuss the 4 stages of a crisis and state what the management should do to minimize the effect of the crisis at each stage 12 marks

Prodromal Crisis Phase - Warning stage where advance signs of trouble can be seen. - E.g. Should there be a disgruntled employee, the organization would then probably receive a warning or threatening letter. - At this stage, it is possible to avert the crisis but in a limited time period; so the organization should act quickly. Acute Crisis Phase - The problem would now be a full blown crisis, and there is no way to avoid it. - Damage of some sort would have occurred to the company (physical, financial or even reputation damage). Something has to be done in order to ensure the organizations survival. Chronic Crisis Phase - This is where the clean-up begins and where crisis is resolved. - Steps have to be taken to handle and minimize the crisis.

Crisis Resolution Stage - This is when things will return to normal. Normal in this situation means, having to face the effects of the crisis. - Lessons should have been learnt as well as steps should have been implemented in order to ensure that the similar crisis doesnt reoccur.

Discusss the importance of good ethics and social responsibilities when practicing public relations 8 Marks Human resources

aid to recruitment and retention, particularly within the competitive graduate student market.

Risk management Brand Differentiation License to operate