Tissue - a group or mass of similar cells working together to perform certain co mmon functions There are 4 major types
of tissue Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous 1. Epithelial Tissue General Characteristics: - Found throughout the body, covers all body surfaces both inside and out. - Main glandular tissue. - Attached to underlying connective tissue by noncellular nonliving basement mem brane. - Usually has no vascular tissue - blood supply - Cells reproduce rapidly (rapid healing). - Cells tightly packed together
Functions: Protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, sensory perception Six Specific types of epithelial tissue - categorized based on the shape of the cells and the layers of cells. ( * We won't distinguish glandular epithelium bec ause it is of the cuboidal or columnar type.) A. SIMPLE SQUAMOUS - single layer (simple) of very thin, flattened cells (squamo us). Function: diffusion and filtration. Found in air sacs of lungs, walls of ca pillaries. B. SIMPLE CUBOIDAL - single layer, cube-shaped cells. Function: Secretion and ab sorption. Found: Lining of kidney tubules, ducts of glands, covering surface of ovaries C. SIMPLE COLUMNAR - single layer, elongated cells with their nuclei in about th e same position in each cell (usually near the basement membrane). Protection, s ecretion, absorption. Found in the lining of digestive tract and uterous - contains scatter goblet cells functioning in the secretion of mucus - some columnar cells (involved in absorption) have tiny finger-like processes f rom their free surface called microvilli (increases surface area)
D. STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS - muli-layered, squamous cells. Thicker tisse. Functions in protection. Found lining body cavities like the mouth and outer lay er of skin E. PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR - appear "stratified" but really a single layer wit h nuclei at various levels giving the appearance of layered cells. Usually cilia ted (tiny, hair-like projections for sweeping materials along a surface). Contai ns goblet cells. - Function: secretion and cilia-aided movement - Location: lining air passages like the trachea and tubes of the reproductive s ystem
beneath skin. respiratory passages. FIBROCARTILAGE . closely packed. TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM . or AREOLAR TISSUE . menisci
. appear in long parallel bundles. 2.microfibrils in protein elastin. large numerous collagenous fibers.connect bones to bones
CARTILAGE (all cartilage cells are called chondrocytes) D. stores fat. insulation to preserve body heat. Strong.dense tissue. abdomina l membranes. Not as st rong.more flexible and elastic. thick collagenous fibers and fin e network of elastic fibers. -Composed of more scattered cells with abundant intercellular material ' matrix -Made up of a ground substance (fluid. framework. Function: Protective cushion. . noise.aka FAT. layered cuboidal cells. HYALINE CARTILAGE . "Stretchable" tissue .F. mast cells (prevents blood clots) 2. ADIPOSE TISSUE . Found: lining of urinary bladder. but not very elastic. ELASTIC CARTILAGE .T. fights infection. but very elastic (respiratory and vocal cords) CATEGORIES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE A. produces bloo d cells. Intervertebra l disks. LOOSE C. (bones. protection. space between muscles.connect muscles to bones Ligaments . tendons) . macrophages (phagocytic) and 3. ligaments. throughout body B. also known as white fibers. flexible.thick. FIBROUS C.T. Connective Tissue General Characteristics: -Most abundant tissue in your body. thus slow healing. major structural prot ein in the body. fills space. Few cells. E. produce fibers) Main types of fibers: -collagenous fibers .elastic fibers . Tendons . semi-solid) and fibers -Most has a good blood supply -Cells can reproduce Three common types of cells: 1. poor blood supply. cells are called adipocytes
C.very tough. also forms barrier to block diffusion. made of protein collagen.very fine white (collagenous) fibers. yellow fibers.binds skin to underlying organs and organs to organs. found throughout -Binds structures together -Provides support.thick. Most common cartila ge. Covers ends of bones and joints. around kidneys and eyeballs. and helps repair tissue. fibroblasts (most abundant. external ear and larynx F. sto res energy.
skeletal muscles . BONE TISSUE .Found in brain. stomach .transmit signals B.Osseus tissue. Neuroglia . Neurons . 4. C.protection. osteocytes H.wall of the heart Nerve Tissue . Rigid due to mineral salts. Muscle Tissue A. BLOOD TISSUE .lamellae.circulates throughout the body 3.in hollow organs. spinal cord.voluntary (striated) Smooth .G. nerves
A. Skeletal .involuntary Cardiac . B. support
. haversian canals. Layers .