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ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION

BEG 430 EC
Year: IV
Teaching Schedule Hours/Week Theory Tutorial Practical 2 1 3/2 Examination Scheme Internal Assessment Final Theory 20 Practical* 25 Theory 80 Practical** -

Sem: I
Total 125

* Continuous ** Duration: 3 hours Course Objectives: To provide the fundamental knowledge of antennas, propagation and to introduce optical fiber communications. 1. Introduction 9 1.1 Review of electromagnetic waves and equations. 1.2 Alternating current element for retarded vector potential. 1.3 Relationship between a current element and an electric dipole. 1.4 Power radiated by a current element, Input impedance of short and longer antennas. 1.5 Electromagnetic field close to an antenna: Quadrature and inphase terms, Antenna theorems Antenna fundamentals 11 2.1 Antenna gain, effective area and terminal impedance 2.2 Directional properties of dipole antennas 2.3 Radiation pattern for traveling wave antenna 2.4 Two - element array 2.5 Horizontal pattern for broadcast arrays 2.6 Multiplication of patterns, patterns in other planes 2.7 Yagi - Udi type dipole arrays, log-periodic array, Aperture antenna: Parabolic dish antenna, Horn antenna and mattress antenna. Antennas propagation 10 3.1 Transmission loss between antennas 3.2 Transmission loss as a function of frequency 3.3 Antenna temperature and signal to noise ratio 3.4 Plane earth propagation: Ground reflection, reflection factor and ground wave attenuation factor, different propagation regions and fresnel diffraction at a knife edge. Propagation in the radio frequency 10 4.1 Reflection from ionosphere layers 4.2 Reflections at medium and high frequencies 4.3 Experimental determination of critical frequencies and virtual heights, ion grams 4.4 Maximum usable and optimal frequency, lowest useful high frequency 4.5 Irregular variation of the ionosphere 4.6 Tropospheric waves: Formula for VHF propagation, tropospheric scattering 4.7 Microwave propagation: atmospheric bending and refractivity chart. Introduction to optical fibers 5.1 Basis of light propagation, Snells law, total internal reflection 5.2 Acceptable angle and numerical aperture 5.3 Number of modes in a fiber 5.4 Light sources and detectors. 5

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Laboratory: The students should perform six laboratory exercises covering the all the topics. References: 1. John D. Krauss, Tata McGraw Hill book company ltd. 2. E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain, "Electromagnetic waves and Radiating system", 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1997. 3. R.E. Collin,"Antennas and Radio wave propagation", McGraw Hill Book company 1985. 4. Gerd Kelser,"Optical Fibre Communications", McGraw Hill Book company, 1997.