SPECIAL PROBLEM

FITTING A LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL IN PREDICTING THE LIKELIHOOD OF BEING MALNOURISHED AMONG CHILDREN AGED 0-5 YEARS IN THE PHILIPPINES

DAN OLIVER VILLALUZ ESQUIVEL

2nd Semester, SY 2010-2011

Institute of Statistics College of Arts and Sciences University of the Philippines Los Baños College, Los Baños , Laguna, 4031 The Special Problem attached hereto entitled “FITTING A LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL IN PREDICTING THE LIKELIHOOD OF BEING MALNOURISHED AMONG CHILDREN AGED 0-5 YEARS IN THE PHILIPPINES”, prepared and submitted by DAN OLIVER V. ESQUIVEL in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE in STATISTICS is hereby accepted.

________________________________ CONSORCIA E. REAÑO, PH.D Adviser

__________________ Date Signed

Accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE in STATISTICS.

______________________________ ZITA VJ ALBACEA, PH.D Director, INSTAT

__________________ Date Signed

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………………... 1

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study …………………………………………………………… 1

B. Statement of the Problem …………………………………………………………... 2

C. Objectives of the Study ……………………………………………………………... 3

D. Significance of the Study …………………………………………………………… 3

II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ………………………………………………………………. 3

III. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A. Test of Independence ……………………………………………………………….. 5

Testing the Significance of the Logistic Regression Coefficients ………………. 7 G.. 11 VI... Data Analysis ……………………………………………………………………….. 6 D. 8 IV.………………………………. 7 F. Odds …………………………………………………………………………………. Multinomial Logistic Regression Model ………………………………………….B.... RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ……... 19 ACKNOWLEDEGEMENT …………………………………………………………………. 5 C.... Conceptual Framework …………………………………………………………. Weights ………………………………………………………………………………. 6 E.. METHODOLOGY A. 9 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION ………….. Estimation of the Regression Coefficients βi ………………………………………... 20 APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………..………. 22 REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………… 29 . Evaluation of the Adequacy of the Model ………………………………………… 7 H. Data Resources ……………………………………………………………………… 9 B....

2008 7th NNS Page 10 2 Weighted percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by age 11 3 Weighted percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by age of the HH 12 4 Weighted percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by civil status of the HH 12 5 Weighted percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by highest educational attainment of the HH 13 6 Weighted percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by region 13 7 Weighted percentage distribution of the nutritional status of children by household size 13 8 Weighted percentage distribution of the nutritional status of children by presence of appliances of household 14 9 Weighted percentage distribution of the nutritional status of children by presence of electricity of household 14 .LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Title List of redefined variables with their corresponding values.

under the supervision of Consorcia E. submitted to the Institute of Statistics. Reaño. Ph. D.10 Measure of association between nutritional status of children and the independent variables 14 12 Estimated parameters in the multinomial regression model of underweight with normal as the reference category 15 12 Estimated increase/decrease of odds of being underweight instead of being normal 16 13 Estimated parameters in the multinomial regression model of overweight with normal as the reference category 17 14 Estimated increase/decrease of odds of being overweight instead of being normal 17 15 Percentage of correct classification of the multinomial logistic regression model 18 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Title Weighted percentage distribution of the nutritional status of children by sex Page 11 2 Weighted percentage distribution of the nutritional status of children by sex of household head 12 FITTING A LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL IN PREDICTING THE LIKELIHOOD OF BEING MALNOURISHED AMONG CHILDREN AGED 0-5 YEARS IN THE PHILIPPINES1 1 An undergraduate special problem. Los Baños. University of the Philippines. College of Arts and Sciences. as a partial .

Background of the Study Children are recognized as one of the most important assets of the nation. twelve variables were selected to describe the demographic characteristics of a malnourished child and to determine the possible factors influencing the nutritional status of children aged 0-5 years in the Philippines. age of household head. Cramer’s V. malnutrition. In addition. Conversely. Children. Article 1 of the Presidential Decree No. and participation in the programs Dewormization and Growth Monitoring. Also known as the Children Nutrition Act of the Philippines. growing into healthy adults. Rao-Scott χ 2 test of independence showed that the nutritional status is associated with the age of child. Based on the results of the 7 th NNS. island of residency. household size. and in turn giving their children a most likely better start in life (Viernes. means performing better in school. specifically among children. Results showed that a child who does not participate in the Growth Monitoring program. . underweight. but as the number of household members increases. Being healthy.8% and 1. be it underweight or overweight. From the secondary data set used in this study. it still has its own risks. sex of household head. 2008). Being healthy is one of the greatest gifts God can give to human kind. the likelihood of a child being overweight also increases. Keywords: NNS. as the number of household member increases. Estimation of the different parameters was done taking into account the multi-stage sampling design of the survey. and health situation. the likelihood of a child being underweight also increases.6% of the children according to their nutritional status correctly. The multinomial logistic model classified 75. 603 clearly states that “every effort should be exerted to promote a child’s welfare and enhance his opportunities for a useful and happy life. presence of appliances. the bill addresses malnourishment problem among Filipino children (Senate of the Philippines. a child who belongs to a household whose head did not finish college is less likely to be overweight. respectively. Rao-Scott χ2 test of independence. Esquivel ABSTRACT The National Nutrition Survey (NNS) is a nationwide survey conducted once every 5 years by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute with the aim of updating the official statistics on the Philippine food. presence of appliances.” This presidential decree is well-supported by the Senate Bill 237 proposed by Senator Eduardo Angara. 2010). Moreover. specifically fulfilment of the requirements for STAT 190 – 2nd semester 2010-2011. Multinomial logistic model I. Only the significant variables were included in fitting the multinomial logistic model. it was estimated that 20. nutrition. In addition. and presence of electricity. Cramer’s V showed that the nutritional status of children is moderately associated with the educational attainment of the household head. but as the age of the household head increases. educational attainment of household head. as the age of the household head increases. INTRODUCTION A. presence of electricity.6% of the children in the Philippines were underweight and overweight for their ages. the likelihood of a child being overweight decreases. the likelihood of a child being underweight decreases. overweight. On the other hand. Although being overweight among Filipino children is considered by many as attractive. has been recognized as one of the major public health problems among children in the Philippines. belonging to household that has no appliances and has no electricity and whose household head did not finished college is more likely to be underweight.by Dan Oliver V.

However.17 million children 0-5 years old were actually underweight for their ages. the National Nutrition Council Governing Board issued the Administrative Order No. 2010-0015 in which the Philippines will adopt the WHO-CGS. are the ones easily affected by this problem and face the greatest risk of adverse consequences since they are relying on the nurturing adults to survive (Cerdeña. Objectives of the Study This study generally aims to fit a logistic regression model that could predict the likelihood of being malnourished of a given child aged 0-5 years in the Philippines based on the 7th NNS which was conducted by the FNRI-DOST in the year 2008.” Based on the 2008 7th National Nutrition Survey (NNS). and.2% to 20. From 2003 to 2008. et al.. height-for-age.2 preschoolers. the objectives of this study are the following: . among the three indices. This study may then contribute in creating cost-effective programs that address malnutrition which then may improve the nutritional status of children 0-5 years old in the Philippines. in assessing the nutritional status of children 0-5 years old. 2010). Hence. As cited by Amar (2007). it is of interest to find out the causes or determinants of malnutrition among children in the Philippines. Thus. the Philippines used the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) International Reference Standards (NCHS-IRS) in assessing the nutritional status of children 0-5 years old. Therefore. which was first launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the United Nation Children’s Fund (UNICEF). There are three indices used to assess the nutritional status of a child – weight-for-age. nutrition is so important especially to pre-school children that if not given proper and immediate intervention may lead to deficiencies such as weak immune system thereby increasing susceptibility to infections. poor school performance and attendance. In 2003. Hence.. and loss of IQ. an understanding of the contributory factors that influence the nutritional status of children in the country will be of great importance and deserves an explicit attention. Statement of the Problem Though efforts have been undertaken by the government and private sectors to minimize the prevalence of being malnourished among children 0-5 years old in the Philippines through intervention programs and services (Molano et al. Accordingly. 2007). increased risk of morbidity when they become adults (FNRI. these have not been adequately supported by empirical data on the determinants of malnutrition for program-focusing. In addition. mental retardation. the NCHS-IRS does not adequately represent the early childhood growth at individual and population level assessment. C. the WHO-CGS is the “single international standard that represents the best description of physiological growth for all children from birth to five years of age. B. irritability and physical inactivity. 2001). poor growth and development. and weight-for-height. the weight-for-age index is usually used to assess nutritional status of children since a child being underweight can be viewed as indication of lack in sufficient or balanced diet due to inadequacy to sustain linear growth and body proportion. it was estimated that 2.8%) which is alarming. there was a significant increase in the proportion of children who were underweight for their ages (from 20. poor cognitive development. Specifically. de Onis et al. micronutrient deficiencies. (1993) described that the weight-for-age index represents a combination of the assessment of both linear growth and body proportion.

to determine the possible factors influencing the nutritional status of children aged 0-5 years in the Philippines. REVIEW OF LITERATURE It is believed that the molding of the character of a child starts at home. examples of determinants of nutritional status among children are intra-household distribution of food. (1996). More or less the same set of determinants was given by Fu et al. unhealthy environments. . However. According to him. n. it varies from place to place. especially to those parents who have children 0-5 years old. he added that there are community-based nutrition intervention programs which are effective strategies in improving the nutritional state of children especially in those poor areas. and. child care (breastfeeding. 3.). or intensify programs and services that focus on these factors. supplementary food. as cited by Shiugao (2000).1. A strong underlying determinant of undernutrition is poverty since it leads to household food insecurity. II. 2. A study in China conducted by Shuigao (2000) revealed that children are at a better nutritional state when they are living in the most developed areas than when they are living in the less developed areas. and poor health care.. etc. and having frequent infectious diseases (Fishman et al. and accessibility of health services. these concerned institutions can formulate. Nutritional status of an individual is never consistent. inadequate intake of nutrients and proteins. Shiugao (2000) indirectly said that environmental sanitation is also an important factor since bad sanitation and lack of safe water supply were two of the major causes of diarrhoea in rural China affecting the nutritional status of rural children. to come up with a multinomial logistic model that would show the relationship between the independent variables and the likelihood of a child being malnourished (dependent variable) D.). poor childcare. to describe the demographic and nutritional status of children aged 0-5 years old in the Philippines using the weight-for-age index. this also applies in the nutritional status of the child.d. disease prevention. This study is done to identify the factors influencing nutritional status among children 0-5 years old. besides food availability. As such. Significance of the Study Results of this study can help concerned institutions in giving the Filipino people their much needed information regarding nutritional status. These factors also branches out to immediate determinants of undernutrition like low birth weight. Moreover. and in turn may improve the nutritional status of children 0-5 years old in the Philippines.

Mahgoub. She further interpreted this as: a child is less likely to be underweight if he/she is food-secure. weaning practices and mother’s education are few of the important contributory factors which have been identified from recent studies. the mother’s level of education and occupation. The same study was conducted by Nguyen and Sin (2008) also on Nghean. birth interval. According to them. number of children in the family. and Bandeke (2006) also determined “Factors affecting the prevalence of malnutrition among children under three years of age in Botswana. which is based on the 6th NNS. Also. weight of child at birth. total carbohydrate and protein intakes were the variables that found to predict the likelihood of being underweight among children. Vietnam but covered children five years of age. underheright. sector of residence. a study conducted by Molano et al. They have found out that the determinants of underweight among children were number of children in the family. mother’s occupation. the dietary inadequacy is certainly a basic cause of malnutrition. the prevalence of underweight became lower as the level of the mother’s education became higher. underweight was less prevalent among children whose parents worked in the agricultural sector than among children whose parents were involved in informal business. and the factors contributing to such situation.4 Hien and Hoa (2006). time of initiation of breastfeeding. number of appliances. specifically in the case of children under five years of age. revealed that child’s food insecurity. Nnyepi. Locally. and duration of exclusive breast-feeding were significantly related to malnutrition. Also. household size.” They said that sex of child is one determinant. Specifically. living standards. sex of child. and thinness of Filipino children aged 0-5 years old. They found out that the region of residence. access to media by mother. mother washes her hands with soap after child defecated. ethnic. The Department of Census and Statistics in Sri Lanka (2003) undertook a methodological study entitled “Nutritional Status of Pres-School Children in Sri Lanka” with the aim of investigating the prevalence of malnutrition in children under five years of age. Breastfeeding was also found to reduce the occurrence of underweight among children less than three years of age. in their study entitled “Nutritional Status and Determinants of Malnutrition in Children under Three years of Age in Nghean. and so they included it in their study. Vietnam” said that socioeconomic. and that malnutrition is higher among male children than among female children. (2007) regarding the determinants of underweight. environmental factors and feeding practices are significant risk factors in determining malnutrition among children under three years old. They stressed that although food intake influences the nutritional status of an individual to a great extent. water and sanitation. household size. However. number of children in the family. mother’s BMI. and duration of exclusive breastfeeding were significantly related to malnutrition. Meanwhile. parity. weight at birth. per capita income. The prevalence of underweight decreased significantly as the family income increased. birth weight. and the type of latrine. age of child. mother’s educational level. they found out that the region of residence. children brought up by single parents suffered from underweight to a significantly higher level than children living with both parents. it is not the only critical factor responsible for malnutrition. work status of mother. belongs to household with per capita income lying in the .

Test of Independence In testing the independence of categorical variables. and ownership of refrigerator. III. household size.fourth quartile and has a high number of varied appliances. the usual test is the Pearson χ2 test of independence. These include the level of education of the household head. which uses the multi-stage stratified sampling design. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. χ 2 RS 2 χP = D (1. where A and B are categorical variables.1).The ˆ ˆ where DEFF (Prc ) = σ (Prc ) / σˆSRS (Prc ) null hypothesis is stated as “A and B are independent”. otherwise. number of earners. in her study entitled “Disparities in Household Food and Nutrition Intake and Nutritional Status of Children in Male and Female Headed Households” found out six significant predictors of being underweight among children aged 6 months to 5 years old.(a-1)(b-1). a correction for the Pearson χ2 test statistic should be employed. ) − ∑ (1 − P. and has a high intake of carbohydrates and protein. The decision rule then is to reject the null hypothesis if χ2RS ≥ χ2α. D= ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (∑∑ (1 − Prc )DEFF ( Prc ) − ∑ (1 − Pr. However. The Rao-Scott test statistic is then given by Equation (1. c)) r c r c ( R − 1)(C − 1) (1. and the alternative hypothesis is “A and B are not independent”. gas range and/or television. most of the surveys conducted have a more complex design such as the NNS. Huelgas (2007). Therefore. This test assumes the use of a simple random sample. c)DEFF (P.2) ˆ ˆ. fail to reject the null hypothesis. .1) 2 χP where is the Pearson χ 2 which is the sum of the squared differences of the observed and expected all over the expected totals and D is the design correction which is estimated by Equation (1.2). )DEFF (Pr.

The value of V ranges from 0 to 1 and can be interpreted by the following: 0 < V ≤ 0. Odds The odds of an event.30 0. Weights For complex design surveys. weights are assigned to inflate or deflate the influence of each observation according to the sampling design.00 weak association moderate association strong association B. is the ratio of the probability of its occurrence to the probability of its non-occurrence. D.10 0.11 < V ≤ 0. say a child being underweight.3) where χ2RS is the Rao-Scott χ2 value. and. n is the sample size. 6 C. 1990). Survey weights should be used in order to produce valid estimates of population parameters. Instead of the usual frequencies of observations. that is.Furthermore. Chi-square based measures can be used such as the Cramer’s V coefficient and is estimated by Equation (1. Weighting is a process that attempts to make the estimates from the survey representatives of the total population that was sampled.3) V= 2 χ RS n( q − 1) (1. the ratio of the probability of a child being underweight to the probability of a child not being underweight. These weights are needed to compensate for the unequal selection probabilities used in the sampling design and for non-response. Multinomial Logistic Regression Model . q is the minimum of the number of rows and columns in the contingency table.31 ≤ V < 1. total weighted frequencies should be obtained (Agresti. to measure the strength of association of A and B.

the probabilities of the Y outcomes can be computed and are given by Equations (1. the logit equation for comparing Y=1 to Y=2 is obtained by taking the difference between L1(x) and L2(x).7). the two logit equations are given by Equations (1. yet reasonable model to describe the causal relationship between a categorical binary response variable Y and a set of k explanatory variables or regressors X1.5). is a technique used to find the best fitting. Y=2 if a child is in category B. In fitting such multinomial logistic models. From the logit equations. (1..2. + β 2k X k P (Y = 0) L1 ( x) = ln (1. j = 1.. …. …. the multinomial logistic regression analysis can be used as an extension of the binary logistic regression.. and. P (Y = 1) = α 1 + β 11X 1 + β 12X 2 + . and. + β 1k X k P (Y = 0) P (Y = 2) L2 ( x) = ln = α 2 + β 21X 1 + β 22X 2 + . 2004).. say A. k. category B is the event that a child is overweight. P ( =0) = Y 1+e L1 (x ) 1 + e L 2(x ) e L1 (x ) P( = = Y 1) ) 1 + e L1 (x+ e e L2 (x ) P ( =2) = Y ) 1 + e L1 (x+ e (1.7) (1. “Normal” will be the reference category since the focus of this study is the likelihood of being malnourished..8).8) . Moreover. x2. With Y=0 as the reference category. also called as the reference category. specifically binary logistic regression analysis. As such.5) where α is the regression constant and βj’s are the regression coefficients.6) L 2(x ) L 2(x ) (1. and (1.Logistic regression analysis. xk).4) (1. Xk which may be discrete and/or continuous variables (Solivas.4) and (1. category C is the event that a child is normal. assume that an individual or response unit belongs to one of the three mutually exclusive categories. if a child is in category C.. The set of values Y can take may be defined to be Y=1 if a child is in category A. For dependent variables which take three or more outcome categories.6). and taking the weight-for-age indicator as the response variable Y. Y=0... category A is the event that a child is underweight. and C. X2. there will be two logit equations which are linear functions of the explanatory variables (x1. B. In context of the study.

G. 2004). Estimation of the Regression Coefficients βi For logistic regression.It is also of interest to compute the odds ratio. or overweight. a particular independent variable does not affect the probability of the event occurring. changes for every one-unit β change in the independent variable. 2010). normal. otherwise. The null hypothesis will be rejected if the computed Wald statistic is greater than the tabular value of χ2α. 2010). Testing the Significance of the Logistic Regression Coefficients This aims to test the null hypothesis in logistic regression that a particular logit coefficient is zero (Ho: βi = 0). Each value of y represents the category for which a child belongs. let X be a matrix of independent variables which contains n rows and k+1 columns where k is the number of independent variables. that is for the weight-for-age indicator. It is computed as the squared ratio of the logistic regression coefficient and its standard error. that is. On the other hand. the Wald statistic is usually used. The first column of each row is 1 which represents the intercept. The maximum likelihood method seeks to maximize the log likelihood which reflects the odds that the observed values of the dependent variables may be predicted given the observed values of the independent variables (Garson.(1) and conclude that the particular independent variable affects the probability of the event occurring. Let the response variable Y be a row vector with n rows where n is the total number of responses. computed as e 1i (Solivas. the iterative procedure called the Newton-Ralphson Method is one method which can be used to obtain the maximum likelihood estimates of the regression coefficients (Agresti. say the odds of Y=1 to Y=0. β is then a matrix with k+1 rows and 2 columns such that each column contains the regression constant and the regression coefficients. It . A researcher may want to drop independent variables from the model when their effect is not significant (Garson. This method uses a preliminary estimator such as the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimator β=(X’X)-1(X’Y). 2004). F. For a continuous variable. 1990). In testing the significance of the individual logistic regression coefficients. underweight. it evaluates the adequacy of the model by examining the model’s predictive ability using the observed data – the rate of correct classification (Solivas. the usual test is the Pearson χ 2 Goodness-of-fit test. But for this study. Evaluation of the Adequacy of the Model In evaluating the adequacy of the model. fail to reject Ho. 7 E. it represents the factor by which the odds of the event.

2010). .tallies the correct and incorrect estimates (Garson. Sensitivity is the proportion of an event to be observed and predicted to be an event. while specificity is the proportion of a non-event to be observed and predicted to be a non-event (Solivas. 2004).

.

NNS is a survey conducted once every 5 years by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) with the aim of updating the official statistics on the Philippine food. The survey employed a three-stage stratified sampling which consisted of all the regions and provinces in the Philippines. It adopted the sample. Only children aged 0-5 years old were included in the data file.438 individuals taken from 36. The anthropometric measurements of the children. METHODOLOGY A.IV.088 children within the country comprised the study. such as their weight and height. were determined. the tertiary sampling unit or the ultimate sampling unit consisted of households which are randomly selected from the enumeration area (Philippine Facts and Figures. from the Labor Force Survey (LFS) developed by the National Statistics Office (NSO).633 households. secondary sampling unit or the enumeration areas consisted of contiguous areas within the barangays with at least 150-200 households. with 4 replicates. and. Data Analysis . B. From these. The primary sampling unit consisted of barangays or contiguous barangays with at least 500 households. Data Source Secondary data were used in this study which was based on the results of the 7th NNS conducted in 2008 was used in this study. From 191. A child is considered as underweight if his/her weight-for-age index is below the median of the CGS reference population minus 2 standard deviations. 18. a child is considered as overweight if his/her weight-for-age index is above the median of the CGS standards 2 standard deviations. On the other hand. and health situation. nutrition. their weight-for-age index were computed and compared with the World Health Organization – Child Growth Standards (WHO-CGS). 2008).

The civil status and highest educational attainment of the household head.The data set from NNS was weighted to conform to the multi-stage sampling design of the survey. which is to fit a logistic regression model that could predict the likelihood of a given child aged 0-5 years old in the Philippines to be malnourished. presence of appliances. highest educational attainment of household head. Weighted percentage distributions of the variables were done in describing the demographic and socio-demographic. weight for unequal selection probability or the base weight. All variables that were found to be not associated with the nutritional status of children were not included in fitting the model. These models can be used to compute the likelihood that a given child is malnourished.5) and (1. presence of electricity. . age of household head. and the programs Dewormization and Growth Monitoring were redefined to two categories. All of the retained variables were used to fit multinomial logistic regression models for nutritional status of children. Rao-Scott χ2 test of independence was done to determine the possible factors associated with the nutritional status of children. Dummy variables were used for regressors that are in the nominal/ordinal scale. two dummy variables were used. Moreover. and programs Dewormization and Growth Monitoring. sex of household head. Moreover. and so on. Cramer’s V was computed to measure the strength of association between the nutritional status of children and all of the variables that were retained. household size. age of the household head. The final survey weight assigned to each observation was computed based on three preliminary weights. and the weight for sample non-response adjustment. To meet the general objective of this study. the presence of appliances and electricity. Equations (1. Quantitative variables were also redefined such as the age of the household head which is redefined to five categories. and nutritional status of children aged 0-5 years. sex of child. The nominal variables with three or more values were redefined in order to lessen the number of values for easier analysis. one dummy variable was used.e. while variables with three categories. while the household size was redefined into three categories. the adequacy of the logistic regression model in predicting the likelihood of a child being malnourished was assessed by the rate of correct classification. Forward entry procedure was used to find the best fitting models. civil status of household head. The nutritional status of children was cross tabulated with independent variables age of child. and household size were treated as quantitative variables. being underweight or overweight using the weight-for-age index. Age of the child. i. the sampling weight.6) can be used in estimating the probability that a given child is malnourished. Table 1 shows the variables used in the study. the multinomial logistic regression analysis was used.e. i. For nominal/ordinal 10 variables with two categories. Region was redefined to three categories according to what group of island they belong. region.

0 . while the highest proportion of children who were overweight was aged 4 years (22. as the age increases. Table 2. The highest proportion of children was also seen among children who were aged 4 years (22.0%).9 Overweight 14.3 Normal 16. However. Weighted percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by age Age 0 Underweight 17. CAR. there is no distinct pattern in the proportion of children who were underweight as their ages increase. the proportion of children who were normal also increases until they turn five. 2008 7th NNS Variables AGE_CHILD SEX_CHILD AGE_HH Label Age of child Sex of child Age of Household Head (HH) Values 0 = female 1 = male 1 = less than 22 years old 2 = 22 to 31 years old 3 = 32 to 41 years old 4 = 42 to 51 years old 5 = greater than 51 years old 0 = female 1 = male 1 = married 2 = not married 1 = college graduate or higher 2 = college undergraduate or below 1 = Luzon (Region I-V.Table 1. NCR) 2 = Visayas (Region VI-VIII) 3 = Mindanao (Region IX-XII. The highest proportion of children who were underweight was aged 1 year (21.0%). List of redefined variables with their corresponding values. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION As shown in Table 2.2 Total 17. ARMM.5%). there is no distinct pattern that can be seen in the proportion of children who were overweight as their ages increase. Also. Caraga) 1 = small family (2-5 household members) 2 = medium family (6-10 household members) 3 = big family (greater than 10 household members) 0 = without appliances 1 = with one or more appliances 0 = no 1 = yes 0 = no 1 = yes 0 = no 1 = yes SEX_HH CV EDUC ISLAND HHSIZE APP ELEC DEWORM GROWTH Sex of HH Civil status of HH Educational attainment of HH Philippine group of Islands Household size Presence of appliances Presence of electricity Dewormization Growth Monitoring V.

8 18.8% of the proportion of underweight .4 25.3 15.5 3.8 100 Figure 2 shows that the proportion of children who were underweight was higher in male household heads than in female household heads.2% who were underweight were females. About 51. Only 0.5 21. there is no distinct pattern in the proportion of children who were underweight and overweight as the ages of the household heads increase.9 18.6 100 17.5 23. The proportion of children by sex is almost the same as it moves from one nutritional status to another showing that sex of child is not associated with the nutritional status of children. Fig.9 100 18.6 18.9 19.8 22.6 13. On the other hand.6% of the children who were overweight were male.0 4.3 15.0 100 Figure 1 shows that the proportion of children who were underweight.1 100 20.2 17.4% of the children who were overweight were female. About 51. Weighted percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by age of the HH Age less than 22 years old 22 – 31 years old 31 – 41 years old 42 – 51 years old greater than 51 years old Total Underweight 0.3 17.0 20.5 20. while 48.7 32.0 29. 1 Weighted percentage distribution of the nutritional status of children by sex As shown in Table 3. while the highest proportion of overweight children was seen in household heads aged 52 and above.2 16.0 4. normal.5 23.1 100 Overweight 0.6 31.3% of the household heads were 21 years old and below. 12 Table 3.1 2 3 4 5 Total 21.6 19.2 22.1 100 Normal 0.3 19. about 55.2 4. and overweight was higher in males than in females.8% of the children who were underweight were males.0 100 Total 0.4 35. while 44.6 22.8 43. The proportion of children who were underweight and normal was highest in household heads aged 31-41 years old.8 24.6 31.

the proportion of children who were underweight.5 79. The prorportion of children by civil status of household head is almost the same as it moves from one nutritional status by another. Weighted percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by civil status of the HH Civil status Not married Married Total Underweight 22.5 100 Total 21. respectively.3 100 Normal 21.4% of the children who were overweight belong to households whose heads are male and female.4%) were married. Fig 2. and overweight was higher in married household heads than in unmarried household heads. normal.4 78.6 100 Overweight 20.6% and 44. only 55. On the other hand.2% belong to households whose heads were female showing that females can take care of their children better than male household heads. Table 4. while only 48.children belong to households whose heads were male.4 100 13 Table 5 shows that the proportion of children who were underweight was higher in household heads that did not finish college than those household heads who at least finished . Most of household heads (78. Weighted percentage distribution of the nutritional status of children by sex of household head As shown in Table 4. This shows that civil status of household head is not associated with the nutritional status of children.6 78.2 77.

9% and 48.4 100 Overweight 67. the proportion of children who were underweight was higher in Mindanao than in Visayas. and overweight can be seen. medium-sized families have the highest proportion of underweight and normal children.1 100 Normal 46.6 100 Normal 55.3 48.0 41.2%).0 100 As shown in Table 6.3 20.0 52. Visayas showed the lowest proportion of children who were overweight (12. Also.2 100 Total 54. It shows that education plays an important to one’s life. Surprisingly.2 19.0% of the household heads have at least finished college level.3 19. Weighted percentage distribution of the nutritional status of children by household size Household size small family medium family big family Total Underweight 41.9 12.4%). It is also in Luzon where the highest proportion of children who were underweight.1%).6 5. more than half of the children were in Luzon (54.3 25. Table 5. Moreover. About half of the children who were underweight were in Luzon (49.2 10. 52.1 100 Overweight 53.1 28.2%).3 100 . It illustrates that a high educational attainment leads to a dining table full of foods which then may improve the nutritional status of a child.2 22.8 100 Normal 79.0 100 Total 81.4 5.9 19.0 19. Table 7. Small-sized families with 2 to 5 members have the highest proportion of overweight children (53. Only about 19.8 26.7 100 Overweight 59.7 42.6% respectively.8 3.0 100 Table 7 shows that about half of the children belong to medium-sized families with 6 to 10 members (49.7%).5 100 Total 45.9%).3 49. normal. big-sized families with more than 10 members have the lowest distribution of underweight children (6.9 6. Weighted percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by highest educational attainment of the HH Educational attainment College undergraduate or below At least college level Total Underweight 89. Table 6. Weighted percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by island Island Luzon Visayas Mindanao Total Underweight 49.college level.

sex of household head. the proportion of children who were underweight was higher in households that do not have electricity than those households that have electricity. There is a moderate association between nutritional status of children and the education attainment of the household head. The proportion of children who were overweight was higher among children who belong to households with one or more appliances than those who belong to households that do not have any appliances at all. about 71.As shown in Table 8. island of residence.8 69. educational attainment of household head.5% of the children who were underweight belong to households that have varied number of appliances. the nutritional status of children using the weight-for-age indicator was found to be associated with the age of child.7 84. household size. Weighted percentage distribution of the nutritional status of children by presence of electricity of household Presence of electricity Yes No Total Underweight 30. and programs Dewormization and Growth Monitoring. about 28.5 100 Normal 15. Also.8%) have one or more appliances. On the other hand.4 100 Overweight 9. and presence of electricity. Moreover.3 100 Total 21. presence of appliances. about 79.0 79. Table 9.3 100 Overweight 6.0 100 As shown in Table 10.5 71. presence of appliances.6 81. the nutritional status of children was found to be not associated with the sex of the child and the civil status of the household head.7 90.6 93. presence of electricity. Weighted percentage distribution of the nutritional status of children by presence of appliances of household Presence of appliances Without appliances With one or more appliances Total Underweight 28. age of household head. Moreover. 14 Table 8. most of the households (81.2 81.8 100 As shown in Table 9. the proportion of children who were overweight was higher in households that do not have electricity than those who belong to households that have electricity.0% of the households have one or more appliances. Cramer’s V indicates that weak association exists between the nutritional status and all of the significant variables except for the educational attainment of household head.2 100 Normal 18. Using the Rao-Scott χ2 test of independence. . Moreover. A moderate association can also be seen between the nutritional status of children and the presence of appliances and presence of electricity.5% of the children who were underweight belong to households that do not have a single appliance.4 100 Total 18.

all of these variables were fitted in the multinomial logistic regression model. Based on the model.02 0. and the participation of a child in the Growth Monitoring program were found to be significant in estimating the likelihood of being underweight among children.4853 169. island of residence. if a child belongs to a household that has no appliances and has no electricity. highest educational attainment of the household head. The age of the child. sex of the household head. the likelihood of the child being underweight also increases. island of residence and the participation of a child in the Dewormization program were found to be not significant in estimating the likelihood of being underweight among children. the household size. that is. the age of the household head has a negative effect on the likelihood of being underweight. not participating in the Growth Monitoring program has a positive effect on the likelihood of the child being underweight.8603 2. household size has a positive effect on the likelihood on the likelihood of a child being underweight. which means that as the household size.13 0. the age of the household head. Table 11 shows the estimates of the parameters of the logistic regression model of underweight with normal as the reference category. Age of the household head.1380 6.3019 23.02 0. Also. Table 11. presence of electricity. the likelihood of a child being underweight decreases.0849 139.6814 56. the presence of appliances. except for the sex of child and civil status of the household head. Among the variables that were fitted in the logistic regression model.06 0.04 0.4919 251.8570 Cramer’s V 0.01 0.Table 10.01 0. the presence of electricity.6816 2. Among the significant quantitative variables. Estimated parameters in the multinomial regression model of underweight with . the highest educational attainment of the household head.0084 73.12 0. positive effect on the likelihood of being underweight can be observed.05 0. presence of appliances.04 0.10 0. Dummy variables were used for all the predictors that are in the nominal level.1605 8. and programs Dewormization and Growth Monitoring. On the program participation of a child. a child whose household head did not finish college has a positive effect on the likelihood of the child being underweight. sex of the household head. Measure of association between nutritional status of children by all of the variables Variables Age of child Sex of child Age of household head Sex of household head Civil status of household head Education of household head Island of residence Household size Presence of appliances Presence of electricity Dewormization Growth Monitoring Rao-Scott χ2 66. which means that as the age of the household head increases.04 Since all of the independent variables were found to be significantly associated with the 15 nutritional status of children.6377 321. On the other hand. and the household size were treated as quantitative variables.

112 0.002 0.007 Table 12 shows the estimated increases/decrease of being underweight instead of being normal among variables that were found to be significant in estimating the likelihood of being underweight. On the program participation of a child. the household size.005 0. i.974 Visayas 0.043 0. and the participation of a child in the Growth Monitoring program.normal as the reference category Weight-for-age Underweight Parameter estimates Variables Β s.057 0.000 Sex of household head Female 0.913 among children whose household heads did not finished college than those whose household head are at least college graduate.275 if he/she belongs to a household that has no electricity than a household who has electricity.059 <0.911 16 Growth Monitoring No 0. The odds of being underweight is higher by a factor of 1.009 <0.241 Education of household head College undergraduate or below 0.243 0.e.986.060 <0.439 0. The estimated odds of a child being underweight is higher by a factor of 1.000 Region Luzon 0.064 <0.000 Presence of electricity No 0.018 0.025 Household size 0.000 Age of child -0.127 0. Also. the presence of appliances. the odds of being underweight instead of being normal increases multiplicatively by 1. the odds is higher by a factor of 1.074.042 0. the odds of being underweight instead of being normal is higher by a factor of 1.e. indicating that high education is indeed important.089 0. Estimated increase/decrease of odds of being underweight instead of being normal Variables Effect eβ .105 <0. On the other hand. the odds of a child being underweight instead of being normal decreases multiplicatively by 0.076 0.002 <0.015 0.808 0.551 if he/she belongs to a household that has no appliances than a household that has a varied number of appliances. As the age of the household head increases. the age of the household head. Table 12.232 Age of household head -0.000 Presence of appliances Without appliances 0.047 0. as the number of household members increases.( β) p-value Intercept -1.000 Dewormization No -0.119 among children who did not participate in the Growth Monitoring program than those who participated. the presence of electricity.649 0. the highest educational attainment of the household head.014 0.072 0.

Age of household head Household size College undergraduate or below Without appliances No electricity No participation in Growth Monitoring decrease increase increase increase increase increase 0. age of the household head has a positive effect on the likelihood a child being overweight. which means that as the age of the household head increases. the household size has a negative effect on the likelihood a child being overweight.( β) 0.091 <0. 17 Table 13. Among the significant quantitative variables. age of the household head.000 . The age of the child. and the household size were found to be significant in estimating the likelihood of being overweight among children.920 <0.326 0.238 0.551 1.275 1.912 s. a child who belongs to a household whose head did not finish college level has a negative effect on the likelihood of the child being overweight.e. Based on the model. which means that as the number of household member increases. On the other hand. only the age of the household head. island of residence.030 -0. presence of electricity. the likelihood of being overweight decreases. the likelihood of being overweight also increases.000 0.053 0.986 1.005 0. sex of the household head.074 1. the highest educational attainment of the household head.011 0.913 1.000 0.402 -0.005 0. and the programs Dewormization and Growth Monitoring were found to be not significant in estimating the likelihood of being overweight among children. presence of appliances. Estimated parameters in the multinomial regression model of overweight with normal as the reference category Weight-for-age Overweight Parameter estimates Variables Intercept Age of child Age of household head Sex of household head Female Education of household head College undergraduate or below Region Β -4.119 Of all the variables that were fitted in the logistic regression model of overweight.148 p-value <0. Table 13 shows the estimates of the parameters of the logistic regression model of overweight with normal as the reference category.

402 18 Based on Tables 4.231 -0.559 0.140 0.169 0.030 0.184 0.869.410 -0. the multinomial logistic regression models of underweight and overweight with normal as the reference category are then given by Equations (2.143 0.238 0. respectively. Table 14.030. i. the odds of a child being overweight instead of being normal increases multiplicatively by 1.037 0.1) and (2.338 0.241 0. .1 and 4.116 -0.450 -0.Luzon Visayas Household size Presence of appliance Without appliances Presence of electricity No Dewormization No Growth Monitoring No 0.421 0.433 among children whose household heads did not finished college than those whose household head are at least college graduate. highest educational attainment of the household head. the age of the household head. as the number of household member increases.002 0.015 0.2). Estimated increase/decrease of odds of being overweight instead of being normal Variables Age of household head Household size College undergraduate or below Effect increase decrease decrease eβ 1.141 -0.107 0.011 Table 14 shows the estimated increases/decrease of being overweight instead of being normal among variables that were found to be significant in estimating the likelihood of being overweight. the odds of a child being overweight instead of being normal decreases multiplicatively by 0.891 0.3. and the household size. the estimated odds of being overweight is higher by a factor of 0. Also.335 0. As the age of the household head increases. On the other hand.e.296 0.

2) Table 15 shows that the multinomial logistic model classified 75. and other concerned institutions may create programs that focus on these determinants of malnutrition with an adequate information to back it up.112GROWTH (2.L1(x) = -1.6% of the children according to their nutritional status correctly.1) L2(x) = -4.808 – 0.243ELEC + 0. private sectors.912EDUC (2.0649EDUC + 0.072HHSIZE + 0. Table 15 Percentage of correct classification of the multinomial logistic regression model Observed Underweight Normal Overweight Overall Percentage Underweight 2 4 0 0% Predicted Normal Overweight 3316 0 10961 0 214 0 100% 0% Percent 0.6% .116HHSIZE – 0.439APP + 0.014AGE_HH + 0.011+ 0. This shows that the multinomial logistic model can predict malnutrition among children aged 0-5 years in the Philippines with high accuracy.030AGE_HH – 0.1% 100% 0% 75. This implies that the government.

and did not finish college level. and has no electricity. Cramer’s V shows that there is a weak association between the nutritional status and all of the significant variables except for the educational attainment of the household head. On the other hand. age of household head. belong to households whose heads are aged 31 to 41 years. and did not finish college level.VI. living in Luzon. The Rao-Scott χ2 test of independence shows that the nutritional status of children is associated with all of the variables. belong to households whose number of members is 2 to 5. married. the nutritional status of a child can be classified into three – being underweight. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The main objective of this study is to fit a logistic model that would predict the likelihood of being malnourished among children 0-5 years old in the Philippines. Only the significant variables were included in fitting the multinomial logistic model. with one or more appliances. Specifically.8% and 1. respectively. married. this study was conducted to describe the demographic and nutritional status of children using the weightfor-age index and to determine the possible factors influencing the nutritional status of children 05 years old in the Philippines. and the presence of electricity. Moreover. A child who does not participate in the Growth Monitoring program. the presence of appliances. and programs Dewormization and Growth Monitoring. and overweight. except for the sex of child and civil status of the household head. On the other hand. Using the weight-for-age index. males. males. the likelihood of a child being underweight also increases. island of residence. It was estimated that 20. belong to households whose heads are aged 52 and above. normal. a child who belongs to a . household size. males. the likelihood of a child being underweight decreases. but as the age of the household head increases. Twelve possible determinants of malnutrition were considered in this study which were the following: age of child. In addition. belong to households whose number of members is 6 to 10. presence of appliances and electricity. There is a moderate association between the nutritional status of children and the educational attainment of the household head. The highest proportion of children who were underweight was seen in the following characteristics: aged 1 year old. and has no electricity. the presence of appliances. sex of household head.6% of the whole population was underweight and overweight. A multinomial logistic model was fitted to conform to the general objective of the study. and the presence of electricity. with one or more appliances. the highest proportion of overweight children was seen in the following characteristics: aged 4 years. males. who belongs to household that has no appliances and has no electricity and whose head did not finished college level is more likely to be underweight. sex of child. civil status of household head. and. as the number of household member increases. living in Luzon. highest educational attainment of household head.

my dear. I thank Him for constantly blessing me with abundant life. I will be forever in debt for all the things you’ve done for me. Thank you for always believing in me. as the age of the household head increases. Roy and Olive Esquivel. but as the number of household members increases. thank you Jayson for reminding me to be not afraid to ask for money to our parents whenever I no longer have. loves to eat. Though not well-blessed with height.  Janine. the likelihood of a child being overweight also increases. and strength that I needed every day. are one of the reasons why waking up is a beautiful thing do. Hindi ko na papahabain pa. The multinomial logistic model classified 75.6% of the children according to their nutritional status correctly. Thank you for telling me everything that I need to know. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The completion of this study would not be possible without the help of several people who. I thank the Lord Jesus Christ for everything. and most of all. I thank Him for constantly giving me wisdom. Thank you for loving me unconditionally.  I mean. In addition. I finished my SP because of Him. and financially. the likelihood of a child being overweight decreases. Thank you for supporting me emotionally.household whose head did not finish college level is less likely to be overweight. thank you raising me with a fear in God. a Christian. It is all because of Him. They call it distraction. in one way or another. There is no point in my SP-life that I doubted whether I can finish this or not. I thank God for giving me a princess who is fun to be with. God blessed me with wonderful and loving parents. It is from the deepest of my heart to say thank you. I call it inspiration. I love you Ma and Pa! Also. she definitely has a pure heart. spiritually. stand beside me in times of my ups and downs. My college life became more colorful when I met you. knowledge. mahal na mahal kita! Mwuah!  . Thank you for raising such an awesome son. You.

I say Room 111 is the best medicine. this SP would not be possible. in Jesus’ name. Precious. Imee Zhella A. Game na mga sir! I will never trade the moments we spent laughing. Ham. FNRI. If not for Him. Datu. The completion of my SP would not be possible without the data set that the Food and Nutrition Research Institute. Joy. . Matatalino pero hinding hindi rin naman papahuli pagdating sa kalokohan. Ate Mica. Chad. Nyka. Hindi naman sasabihin ni Ma’am Zita na magaling ang batch natin ng walang dahilan ‘di ba?  Tayo na ang batch ng Stat na apat ang laude. Robie. ang bilis kasi. You guys are my real friends. Josh. Reaño and Prof. Sana wala akong nakalimutan. Ramon. In general. all the honor. New Dorm Room mates . specifically the Nutritional Assessment and Monitoring Division. Raq. Jessa. and doing stupid things. Nadine. for you alone deserves it. and all of the praises. Arra. Edzel. He will be the first one I will be thanking of. Jocelyn Juguan and Chief Corazon Cerdeña for being very accommodating every time we go to your division. I also 21 thank Ma’am Jhoanne Ynion for the advices that made my SP better. Thank you Ma’am Beth for being my summer practicum adviser. I also thank Ma’am Ida for being a friend more than an instructor.  Magkakahiwalay man tayo. Ate Jewel. Morrante. If there is one thing I will miss the most in my college life. Carl. it is worth it. I thank the Lord Jesus Christ for everything. Ate Feriz. Thank you for guiding me in my SP. those are the nights when all we can do is to laugh. Bern. I thank all of my professors/instructors in Statistics for imparting valuable knowledge that will never be taken away from me by anyone. Jeb. Yon!  Mahal ko kayo batch mates! Sa mga maiiwan. and Marby. Maricris. Again. Angel.Francis.  Hanggang sa muli nating pagkikita. and he will also be the last one I will be thanking of. had provided. Though going back and forth at FNRI to run results seems to be expensive and very tiring. and Von. Ate Obet. Nancy Tandang teaching me some of my data analysis. I will surely miss you guys! Mahal ko kayo mga sir! Hanggang sa muli nating pagkikita. Hannah. Camille. Neale. Consorcia E. hindi ako nakahabol sa laude. Dr. Lei Ann. Mau. A page of this acknowledgement would not be enough to express how much I am thankful. Now. Cath. AMEN. Nathan. Janine. LA. Real friends do not let their friends do stupid things… alone. for telling me what and what not to do. Alvin. I gave you back all the glory. Mel. ‘07 na rin kayo. at lalo na sa iyo Ate Jara sa walang sawang pagtulong sa akin sa aking SP. alam ko na ang matinding pagkakaibigang ating ipinundar ng apat na taon ay hindi mawawala sapagkat habang buhay na tayong mananatili sa puso ng bawat isa. LABAN lang! Salamat rin kina Ate Jesselle. Sa puso ko.’07 Stat Batch mates . Thank you Ate Aiza and Ate Lynell for not being tired replying to my somewhat repetitive questions and for making me feel like we are all just batch mates. I also thank Dr.Francis. David.  They say laughter is the best medicine. Thank you to Dr. and to Kuya Glen. Rocky. Joseph. Carlo.  Sorry. playing basketball. Zita Albacea for giving me some clarifications and to Prof. Ronald. Bjorn. Cory. Lady. Jared. Lei Isabel. eating. Kim.  May iba pa bang batch ng Stat na mas cool kesa sa atin? Wala na.

I have kept the faith.“I have fought the good fight.” 2 Timothy 4:7 Dan Oliver Villaluz Esquivel ’07 BS Statistics . I have finished the race.

APPENDICES .

23 Appendix Table 1. List of variables with their corresponding values. 2008 7th NNS Variables Nutritional status (weight-for-age indicator) Age of child Sex of child Age of household head Sex of household head Values 1 = underweight 2 = normal 3 = overweight 1 = male 2 = female 1 = male 2 = female .

.SOCCSKSARGEN 13 = NCR (National Capital Region) 14 = CAR (Cordillera Administrative Region) 15 = ARMM (Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao) 16 = Caraga Region 1 = without appliances 2 = with one or more appliances Household size Presence of appliances 24 . government Dewormization .continued Presence of electricity 0 = no 1 = yes 2 = no electricity in the area 3 = no electricity but with generator 4 = others 0 = no 1 = yes.Civil status of household head Highest educational attainment of household head Region 1 = single 2 = married 3 = widowed 4 = divorced/separated 5 = live-in 1 = no schooling 2 = elementary 3 = high school 4 = college level 5 = above college level 6 = daycare/prep/nursery 7 = double degree 8 = special education 9 = Arabic Education 10 = NA (not applicable) 1 = Region I – Ilocos Region 2 = region II – Cagayan Valley 3 = Region III – Central Luzon 41 = Region IVA – CALABARZON 42 = Region IVB – MIMAROPA 5 = Region V – Bicol Region 6 = Region VIII – Western Visayas 7 = Region VII – Eastern Visayas 8 = Region VIII – Central Visayas 9 = Region IX – Zamboanga Peninsula 10 = Region X – Northern Mindanao 11 = Region XI – Davao 12 = Region XII .

5% 5392236 51.8% 1509776 18.8% 19.8% 2174334 100. private 8 = no data 9 = not a target group 0 = no 1 = yes.0% 35748 1948179 20.2% 330384 4.6% 31365 1975287 18.1% 8132007 100.6% 170993 100.0% 438137 20.9% 4.5% 434146 20.9% 33778 2054542 19.0% 22.0% 8364 416937 4.5% 78189 3.7% 4171532 51.6% 37535 2304692 22. Weighted frequencies and percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by sex Status normal 3960474 48. private 8 = no data Appendix Table 2.0% overweight 76005 44.0% 100. Weighted frequencies and percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by age group of household head .9% 18. Weighted frequencies and percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by age Status normal 1377629 16.3% 467546 21.5% 1886706 23.0% 170992 10477335 100.6% 1582627 19.Growth Monitoring 2 = yes.3% 8132006 100. government 2 = yes.5% 10477333 100.2% 1125716 51.2% 380451 17.3% 18.6% 2174336 100.0% overweight Total 24202 1777698 14.0% Age of child 0 1 2 3 4 5 Total Count % within Count % within Count % within Count % within Count % within Count % within Count % within Status Status Status Status Status Status Status underweight 375867 17.0% 25 Appendix Table 4.4% 94988 55.2% 17.0% Sex of child female male Total Count % within Status Count % within Status Count % within Status underweight 1048618 48.0% Total 5085097 48.9% 1444885 17.0% Appendix Table 3.

0% 29.6% 8132007 100.4% 9382582 89.8% 163758 10058008 100.0% 100.6% .0% Total 2265521 21.1% 7816060 100.6% 147767 86.0% 1977828 91.8% 22.0% overweight 35004 20.0% Sex of HH female male Total Count % within Status Count % within Status Count % within Status Appendix Table 6.6% 2429678 31.0% 70360 3000939 43.2% 8132006 100. Weighted frequencies and percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by sex of household head underweight 196506 9.3% 1218480 15.2% 341381 16.5% 170993 100.1% 2078190 100.5% 1686203 21.2% 29076 2209123 17.7% 41418 3238979 25.Age group of HH less than 22 y/o 22 to 31 y/o 32 to 41 y/o 42 to 51 y/o greater than Total Count % within Count % within Count % within Count % within 51 y/o Count % within Count % within Status Status Status Status Status Status underweight 3933 .4% 738131 35.0% overweight Total 1003 27205 .4% 15.3% 32.3% 2174334 100.6% 8211813 78. Weighted frequencies and percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by civil status of household head underweight 492706 22.6% 2459430 31.4% 170992 100.0% Status normal 875019 10.0% overweight 23225 13.8% 7256987 89.0% Civil status of HH not married married Total Count % within Status Count % within Status Count % within Status .4% 10477334 100.0% Status normal 22269 .0% Total 1094750 10.0% Status normal 1737811 21.6% 10477332 100.7% 1681628 77.0% 2174334 100.5% 135989 79.3% 21901 1581762 13.5% 493844 23.0% Appendix Table 5.8% 500901 24.4% 6394196 78.

Weighted frequencies and percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by educational attainment of household head Status underweight normal 1940449 6450173 89. Weighted frequencies and percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by the Philippine group of islands underweight 1070501 49.3% 1569129 19.1% 622779 28.9% 32861 19.0% Educational attainment of HH Total college undergraduate or below at least college level Count % within Status Count % within Status Count % within Status Appendix Table 8.0% Status normal 4494323 55.9% 22079 12.7% 2174335 8132006 100.3% 233886 1681833 10.0% 1985887 19. Weighted frequencies and percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by household size group .8% 20.4% 8132006 100.0% 100.0% 10477333 100.0% 10477332 100.2% 79.0% Philippine group of islands luzon visayas mindanao Total Count % within Count % within Count % within Count % within Status Status Status Status Appendix Table 9.3% 2068554 25.0% overweight 100824 59.2% 481054 22.2% 170992 100.26 Appendix Table 7.0% Total 5680876 54.0% Total 8491446 81.0% 70168 41.0% 170992 100.2% 2072262 19.0% overweight 116052 67.8% 2724194 26.6% 2174334 100.

5% 170992 100.7% 73242 42.Household size group small family medium family big family Total Count % within Count % within Count % within Count % within Status Status Status Status underweight 892253 41.0% Status normal 3767364 46.1% 2174334 100.7% 6854319 84.3% 10477333 100.0% overweight 91742 53.3% 3951981 48.3% 8132007 100.6% 159625 93.8% 10477334 100.0% overweight 11367 6.4% 170992 100.1% 8132007 100.3% 5175244 49.0% Total 1909156 18.9% 132060 6.0% Total 4751359 45.8% 6008 3.5% 2174335 100.2% 8568178 81. Weighted frequencies and percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by presence of appliances underweight 620101 28. Weighted frequencies and percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by presence of electricity .6% 412662 5.0% Presence of appliances without appliances with one or more appliances Count % within Status Count % within Status Count % within Status Total Appendix Table 11.0% Status normal 1277688 15.0% 1150021 52.0% 27 Appendix Table 10.4% 550730 5.5% 1554234 71.

Weighted frequencies and percentage distribution of nutritional status of children (weight-for-age index) Frequency underweight 2174335 normal 8132006 overweight 170993 Total 10477333 Percent 20.6 100.8% 8052494 100.8 77.0% Total 3431339 40.0% overweight 16638 9.0% Total 2197158 21.0 Valid Appendix Table 15.3% 170993 100.7% 154355 90.2% 135950 100.8 77.6% 6620572 81.7% 4996571 59.2% 3443176 42.0% Status normal 4609318 57.1% 167875 10367740 100.6 100.0% Status normal 1511434 18.0% Status normal 2617796 40.7% 57.0% 100.3% 830666 38.2% 6411394 100.7% 1133308 60.6 1.6 1.3% 1880566 100.0% overweight 66285 48.3% 42.3% 8427910 100.0% 10477334 100.9% 86193 4360035 51.8% 69665 51.2% 2174335 100.0 Cumulative Percent 20.0% overweight Total 81682 6007705 48.8% 3793598 59.0% 28 Growth Monitoring no yes Total Count % within Status Count % within Status Count % within Status Appendix Table 14. Pearson χ2 test statistic and Design Corrections of the variables .0% Dewormization no yes Total Count % within Status Count % within Status Count % within Status Appendix Table 13. Weighted frequencies and percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by the program Dewormization underweight 747258 39.8% 1505249 69.7% 2147371 100.Presence of electricity no yes Total Count % within Status Count % within Status Count % within Status underweight 669086 30.0 Valid Percent 20.8 98.4 100. Weighted frequencies and percentage distribution of nutritional status of children by the program Growth Monitoring underweight 1316705 61.0% Appendix Table 12.0% 8280176 79.4% 8132006 100.

.2149 1.2649 1.319 55.315 16816.6814 56. Z.1156 1.8603 352.667 Likelihood Ratio Tests Effect Intercept age_child age_HH hhsize sex_HH educ_HH island appliance electricity dewormization growth Chi-Square .1835 66. New York: John Wiley & Sons.483 .6377 321.455 17069. 1990.000 .9981 288.697 17135.I.000 .3019 23.002 .8603 2.607 16885.2727 94.165 16980.172 16814.6562 30.204 16769.695 156.111 4. UPLB.1478 1.699 16786.616 16993.569 16825.699 16830.112 16983.969 16981.2933 1.000 .1436 285.3867 D 1.569 16785.2737 Rao-Scott χ2 66.4448 1. Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics: Categorical Data Analysis.Variables Age of child Sex of child Age of household head Sex of household head Civil status of household head Education of household head Region Household size Presence of appliances Presence of electricity Dewormization Growth Monitoring Pearson χ2 74.6185 12.1829 0.819 16782.658 16858.000 1. Barangay Level Estimation of the Proportion of Underweight Filipino Children Aged 0-5 years.607 16841.365 17. Likelihood Ratio Tests Model Fitting Criteria AIC of Reduced Model 16816.Z.157 17034. 2009.497 16996.667 BIC of Reduced Model 16998.5894 2.819 16826.658 16902.6816 2.1316 1.001 REFERENCES Agresti. EDSA Shangri-la Hotel.8570 Appendix Table 17. pp.271 .523 16823. 2007.968 2.4853 169.204 16813. A.2562 7.1380 6.315 16772.5432 3. 10th National convention on Statistics (NCS). Lecture Notes on Applied Regression and Correlation.366 16977. .454 90.1605 8.096 .495 17.172 16770. .000 .615 14. INSTAT.3428 100.7223 1.900 16968. R.6807 1. Amar.4919 251.464 -2 Log Likelihood of Reduced Model 16768. 1-3.404 17052. Albacea.403 73.900 16924.0084 73.000 .0849 139.523 16867.463 df 0 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 Sig.098 1.

M. Nutritional status and the characteristics related to malnutrition in children under five years of age in Nghean. Molano. Garcia. & Sin. 2008..chass.. INSTAT. Fishman. FNRI. Retrieved September 18.D.ncsu.C. & Black.E. (2006). T. 2010. May 5). S. K. Hyder.. Blössner..A. from North Carolina University. Taguig City. 3-5. R.. Korea. & Bandeke. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition .. M. . Taguig City.. Mahgoub.. (2003). M.M.edu/garson/PA765/logistic. Nutritional Status and Determinants of Malnutrition in Children under Three Years of Age in Nghean. A. Factors Affecting Prevalence of Malnutrition among Children under Three Years of Age in Botswana. Mullany. 2008. 2007. de Onis. Sri Lanka . underheight.E. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development .Department of Census and Statistics. Public Administration Program: http://faculty. Childhood and Maternal underweight. and thinness among Filipino children. N. Hien. FNRI. Caulfield L.. & Hoa. Vietnam . & Ilagan.H. Tarrayo. Philippine Facts and Figures. (2006). W. Undergradute Special Problem.J. N. L. Determinants of underweight. (2010. Taguig City. UPLB.. 2007. from Logistic Regression: Statnotes. A.A. 958. 2.E.. J. Logistic Regression. G. S. Huelgas.. 0-5 years old. Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children in Sri Lanka. M. N. C. Disparities in Household Food and Nutrition Intake and Nutritional Status of Children in Male and Female Headed Households. 2000. Vietnam. Nguyen. Nnyepi. Fitting a Logistic Regression Model for Predicting Poverty in Laguna.htm Gulles.. L. Garson. A.

INSTAT. May 26).J.net/news/index. Press Release – Angara bats for school children nutrition program. 2010. 2007. No.S. Vol.asp.N.K.Rao. Taguig City. Scott.dost. 2007. 221-229 Reyes. E. Journal of the American Statistical Association.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2008:-whocgs-standards-for-implementation-in-baguio-&catid=1:baguio-news&Itemid=9 http://www. http://www. (2010.ph . Retrieved August 2.gov. _________. Revised Edition of the Lecture Syllabus on Analysis of Multivariate Data. Lecture Manual on Categorical Data Analysis.R.senate. pp.baguionews.gov.doh.ph/press_release/2010/0526_angra. 374. INSTAT. FNRI.gov. from Senate: http://www. Nutritional status of the elderly in the Philippines: 6th National Nutrition Survey.htm Solivas. UPLB. and A. 2004. The Analysis of Categorical Data from Complex Sample Surveys: Chi-Squared Tests for Goodness of Fit and Independence in Two-way Tables. J. 30 Senate.fnri. 76.ph http://www. UPLB. J. 1981.

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