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Feedback Control of Linear SISO systems ProcessProcess DynamicsDynamics andand ControlControl 1
Feedback Control of
Linear SISO systems
ProcessProcess DynamicsDynamics andand ControlControl
1
Open-LoopOpen-Loop ProcessProcess  TheThe studystudy ofof dynamicsdynamics waswas limitedlimited toto
Open-LoopOpen-Loop ProcessProcess
 TheThe studystudy ofof dynamicsdynamics waswas limitedlimited toto open-loopopen-loop systemssystems
 Observe process behavior as a result of specific input signals
2
Closed-LoopClosed-Loop SystemSystem  In study and design of control systems, we are concerned with the
Closed-LoopClosed-Loop SystemSystem
 In study and design of control systems, we are concerned
with the dynamic behavior of a controlled or Closed-loop
Systems
Feedback Control System
3
FeedbackFeedback ControlControl  Control is meant to provide regulation of process outputs about a reference,
FeedbackFeedback ControlControl
 Control is meant to provide regulation of process outputs about a
reference,
, despite inherent disturbances
Controller
System
Feedback Control System
 The deviation of the plant output,
,from its intended
reference is used to make appropriate adjustments in the plant input,
4
FeedbackFeedback ControlControl  Process is a combination of sensors and actuators  Controller is a
FeedbackFeedback ControlControl
Process is a combination of sensors and actuators
Controller is a computer (or operator) that performs the required
manipulations
Computer
Actuator
+
+ +
-
Process
Sensor
e.g. Classical one degree-of-freedom feedback control loop
5
Closed-LoopClosed-Loop TransferTransfer FunctionFunction Block Diagram of Closed-Loop Process Computer Actuator + + +
Closed-LoopClosed-Loop TransferTransfer FunctionFunction
Block Diagram of Closed-Loop Process
Computer
Actuator
+
+ +
-
Process
Sensor
- Open-Loop Process Transfer Function
- Controller Transfer Function
- Sensor Transfer Function
- Actuator Transfer Function
6
Closed-LoopClosed-Loop TransferTransfer FunctionFunction  ForFor analysis,analysis, wewe assumeassume thatthat
Closed-LoopClosed-Loop TransferTransfer FunctionFunction
 ForFor analysis,analysis, wewe assumeassume thatthat thethe impactimpact ofof actuatoractuator andand
sensorsensor dynamicsdynamics areare negligiblenegligible
 Closed-loopClosed-loop processprocess reducesreduces toto thethe blockblock diagram:diagram:
Feedback Control System
7
Closed-loopClosed-loop TransferTransfer FunctionsFunctions  TheThe closed-loopclosed-loop processprocess hashas
Closed-loopClosed-loop TransferTransfer FunctionsFunctions
 TheThe closed-loopclosed-loop processprocess hashas
 TwoTwo inputsinputs
 TheThe referencereference signalsignal
 TheThe disturbancedisturbance signalsignal
 TwoTwo outputsoutputs
 TheThe manipulatedmanipulated (control)(control) variablevariable signalsignal
 TheThe outputoutput (controlled)(controlled) variablevariable signalsignal
 WeWe wantwant toto seesee howhow thethe inputsinputs affectaffect thethe outputsoutputs
 TransferTransfer functionsfunctions relatingrelating
,,
andand
,,
8
Closed-loopClosed-loop TransferTransfer functionfunction  ThereThere areare fourfour basicbasic transfertransfer
Closed-loopClosed-loop TransferTransfer functionfunction
 ThereThere areare fourfour basicbasic transfertransfer functionsfunctions
 TheyThey arisearise fromfrom threethree so-calledso-called sensitivitysensitivity functionsfunctions
 HighlightsHighlights thethe dilemmadilemma ofof controlcontrol systemsystem designdesign
 OnlyOnly oneone degreedegree ofof freedomfreedom toto shapeshape thethe threethree sensitivitysensitivity
functionsfunctions
9
Closed-loopClosed-loop TransferTransfer FunctionsFunctions  SensitivitySensitivity functions:functions: 
Closed-loopClosed-loop TransferTransfer FunctionsFunctions
 SensitivitySensitivity functions:functions:
 TheThe sensitivitysensitivity function:function:
 TheThe complementarycomplementary sensitivitysensitivity function:function:
 TheThe controlcontrol sensitivitysensitivity function:function:
10
Closed-loopClosed-loop TransferTransfer FunctionsFunctions  OverallOverall transfertransfer functionfunction forfor
Closed-loopClosed-loop TransferTransfer FunctionsFunctions
 OverallOverall transfertransfer functionfunction forfor thethe output:output:
SERVO
REGULATORY
RESPONSE
RESPONSE
 ServoServo responseresponse isis thethe responseresponse ofof thethe outputoutput toto setpointsetpoint changechange
 RegulatoryRegulatory responseresponse isis thethe responseresponse ofof thethe outputoutput toto disturbancedisturbance
changeschanges
11
Closed-loopClosed-loop TransferTransfer FunctionsFunctions  ServoServo mechanismmechanism requiresrequires
Closed-loopClosed-loop TransferTransfer FunctionsFunctions

ServoServo mechanismmechanism requiresrequires that:that:

RegulatoryRegulatory responseresponse requiresrequires that:that:
 SinceSince
 TheThe twotwo objectivesobjectives areare complementarycomplementary
12
Closed-loopClosed-loop TransferTransfer FunctionsFunctions  NoteNote thatthat oror requiresrequires thatthat
Closed-loopClosed-loop TransferTransfer FunctionsFunctions
 NoteNote thatthat
oror
requiresrequires thatthat thethe controllercontroller
isis largelarge
ThisThis leadsleads toto largelarge controlcontrol sensitivitysensitivity
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PIDPID ControllerController Most widespread choice for the controller is the PID controller The acronym PID
PIDPID ControllerController
Most widespread choice for the controller
is the PID controller
The acronym PID stands for:
P
I
D
- Proportional
- Integral
- Derivative
PID Controllers:
 greater than 90% of all control implementations
 dates back to the 1930s
 very well studied and understood
 optimal structure for first and second order processes (given
some assumptions)
 always first choice when designing a control system
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PIDPID ControlControl PID Control Equation Derivative Proportional Action Action Integral Controller Action Bias
PIDPID ControlControl
PID Control Equation
Derivative
Proportional
Action
Action
Integral
Controller
Action
Bias
PID Controller Parameters
K c
Proportional gain
Integral Time Constant
Derivative Time Constant
Controller Bias
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PIDPID ControlControl PID Controller Transfer Function or: Note:  numerator of PID transfer function cancels
PIDPID ControlControl
PID Controller Transfer Function
or:
Note:
 numerator of PID transfer function cancels second order dynamics
 denominator provides integration to remove possibility of steady-state
errors
16
PIDPID ControlControl Controller Transfer Function: or, Note:  Many variations of this controller exist 
PIDPID ControlControl
Controller Transfer Function:
or,
Note:
 Many variations of this controller exist
 Easily implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK
 each mode (or action) of controller is better studied individually
17
ProportionalProportional FeedbackFeedback Form: Transfer function: or, Closed-loop form: 18
ProportionalProportional FeedbackFeedback
Form:
Transfer function:
or,
Closed-loop form:
18
ProportionalProportional FeedbackFeedback Example: Given first order process: for P-only feedback closed-loop dynamics:
ProportionalProportional FeedbackFeedback
Example:
Given first order process:
for P-only feedback closed-loop dynamics:
Closed-Loop
Time Constant
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ProportionalProportional FeedbackFeedback Final response: Note:  for “zero offset response” we require Tracking
ProportionalProportional FeedbackFeedback
Final response:
Note:
 for “zero offset response” we require
Tracking Error
Disturbance rejection
 Possible to eliminate offset with P-only feedback (requires infinite
controller gain)
 Need different control action to eliminate offset (integral)
20
Proportional Feedback Servo dynamics of a first order process under proportional feedback  increasing controller
Proportional Feedback
Servo dynamics of a first order process under proportional feedback
 increasing controller gain eliminates off-set
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Proportional Feedback High-order process e.g. second order underdamped process  increasing controller gain reduces
Proportional Feedback
High-order process
e.g. second order underdamped process
 increasing controller gain reduces offset, speeds response and increases
oscillation
22
ProportionalProportional FeedbackFeedback Important points:  proportional feedback does not change the order of the
ProportionalProportional FeedbackFeedback
Important points:
 proportional feedback does not change the order of the system
 started with a first order process
 closed-loop process also first order
 order of characteristic polynomial is invariant under proportional
feedback
 speed of response of closed-loop process is directly affected by controller
gain
 increasing controller gain reduces the closed-loop time constant
 in general, proportional feedback
 reduces (does not eliminate) offset
 speeds up response
 for oscillatory processes, makes closed-loop process more oscillatory
23
IntegralIntegral ControlControl Integrator is included to eliminate offset  provides reset action  usually added
IntegralIntegral ControlControl
Integrator is included to eliminate offset
 provides reset action
 usually added to a proportional controller to produce a PI
controller
 PID controller with derivative action turned off
 PI is the most widely used controller in industry
 optimal structure for first order processes
PI controller form
Transfer function model
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PIPI FeedbackFeedback Closed-loop response  more complex expression  degree of denominator is increased by
PIPI FeedbackFeedback
Closed-loop response
 more complex expression
 degree of denominator is increased by one
 Assuming the closed-loop system is stable, we get
25
PIPI FeedbackFeedback Example PI control of a first order process Closed-loop transfer function Note: 
PIPI FeedbackFeedback
Example
PI control of a first order process
Closed-loop transfer function
Note:
 offset is removed
 closed-loop is second order
26
PIPI FeedbackFeedback Example (contd) effect of integral time constant and controller gain on closed-loop dynamics
PIPI FeedbackFeedback
Example (contd)
effect of integral time constant and controller gain on closed-loop
dynamics
 (time constant) natural period of oscillation
 damping coefficient
 integral time constant and controller gain can induce oscillation
and change the period of oscillation
27
PI Feedback Effect of integral time constant on servo dynamics  Small integral time constant
PI Feedback
Effect of integral time constant on servo dynamics
 Small integral time constant induces oscillatory (underdamped)
closed-loop response
28
PI Feedback Effect of controller gain on servo dynamics  affects speed of response 
PI Feedback
Effect of controller gain on servo dynamics
 affects speed of response
 increasing gain eliminates offset quicker
29
PI Feedback Effect of integral action of regulatory response  reducing integral time constant removes
PI Feedback
Effect of integral action of regulatory response
 reducing integral time constant removes effect of disturbances
 makes behavior more oscillatory
30
PIPI FeedbackFeedback Important points:  integral action increases order of the system in closed-loop 
PIPI FeedbackFeedback
Important points:
 integral action increases order of the system in closed-loop
 PI controller has two tuning parameters that can independently affect
 speed of response
 final response (offset)
 integral action eliminates offset
 integral action
 should be small compared to proportional action
 tuned to slowly eliminate offset
 can increase or cause oscillation
 can be de-stabilizing
31
DerivativeDerivative ActionAction Derivative of error signal  Used to compensate for trends in output 
DerivativeDerivative ActionAction
Derivative of error signal
 Used to compensate for trends in output
 measure of speed of error signal change
 provides predictive or anticipatory action
 P and I modes only response to past and current errors
 Derivative mode has the form
 if error is increasing, decrease control action
 if error is decreasing, decrease control action
 Usually implemented in PID form
32
PIDPID FeedbackFeedback Transfer Function Closed-loop Transfer Function  Slightly more complicated than PI form 33
PIDPID FeedbackFeedback
Transfer Function
Closed-loop Transfer Function
 Slightly more complicated than PI form
33
PIDPID FeedbackFeedback Example: PID Control of a first order process Closed-loop transfer function 34
PIDPID FeedbackFeedback
Example:
PID Control of a first order process
Closed-loop transfer function
34
PID Feedback Effect of derivative action on servo dynamics  IncreasingIncreasing derivativederivative actionaction
PID Feedback
Effect of derivative action on servo dynamics
 IncreasingIncreasing derivativederivative actionaction leadsleads toto aa moremore sluggishsluggish servoservo responseresponse
35
PID Feedback Effect of derivative action on regulatory response  increasing derivative action reduces impact
PID Feedback
Effect of derivative action on regulatory response
 increasing derivative action reduces impact of disturbances on controlled
variable
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 slows down servo response and affects oscillation of process
PDPD FeedbackFeedback  PDPD ControllerController  ProportionalProportional DerivativeDerivative
PDPD FeedbackFeedback

PDPD ControllerController

ProportionalProportional DerivativeDerivative ControlControl isis commoncommon inin mechanicalmechanical
systemssystems
 AriseArise inin applicationapplication forfor systemssystems withwith anan integratingintegrating behaviourbehaviour

ExampleExample :: SystemSystem inin seriesseries withwith anan integratorintegrator
37
PDPD FeedbackFeedback Transfer Function Closed-loop Transfer Function  Slightly more complicated than PI form 38
PDPD FeedbackFeedback
Transfer Function
Closed-loop Transfer Function
 Slightly more complicated than PI form
38
PDPD FeedbackFeedback  DCDC MotorMotor example:example:  InIn termsterms ofof angularangular
PDPD FeedbackFeedback
 DCDC MotorMotor example:example:
 InIn termsterms ofof angularangular velocityvelocity (velocity(velocity control)control)
 InIn termsterms ofof thethe angleangle (position(position control)control)
39
PDPD FeedbackFeedback  Closed-loopClosed-loop transfertransfer functionfunction  SimplifyingSimplifying
PDPD FeedbackFeedback
 Closed-loopClosed-loop transfertransfer functionfunction
 SimplifyingSimplifying
 NoticeNotice thatthat
 SameSame effecteffect asas aa PIDPID controller.controller.
40
DerivativeDerivative ActionAction Important Points:  Characteristic polynomial is similar to PI  derivative
DerivativeDerivative ActionAction
Important Points:
 Characteristic polynomial is similar to PI
 derivative action does not increase the order of the system
 adding derivative action affects the period of oscillation of the process
 good for disturbance rejection
 poor for tracking
 the PID controller has three tuning parameters and can independently
affect,
 speed of response
 final response (offset)
 servo and regulatory response
 derivative action
 should be small compared to integral action
 has a stabilizing influence
 difficult to use for noisy signals
 usually modified in practical implementation
41
Closed-loop Stability Every control problem involves a consideration of closed-loop stability General concepts: Bounded
Closed-loop Stability
Every control problem involves a consideration of closed-loop stability
General concepts:
Bounded Input Bounded Output (BIBO) Stability:
An (unconstrained) linear system is said to be stable if the output
response is bounded for all bounded inputs. Otherwise it is unstable.
Comments:
 Stability is much easier to prove than instability
 This is just one type of stability
42
Closed-loop Stability Closed-loop dynamics Let then, The closed-loop transfer functions have a common denominator
Closed-loop Stability
Closed-loop dynamics
Let
then,
The closed-loop transfer functions have a common
denominator
called the characteristic polynomial
43
Closed-loop stability General Stability criterion: “ A closed-loop feedback control system is stable if and
Closed-loop stability
General Stability criterion:
“ A closed-loop feedback control system is stable if and only if all
roots of the characteristic polynomial are negative or have negative
real parts. Otherwise, the system is unstable.”
 Unstable region is the right half plane of the complex plane.
 Valid for any linear systems.
44
Closed-loop Stability Problem reduces to finding roots of a polynomial (for polynomial systems, without delay)
Closed-loop Stability
Problem reduces to finding roots of a polynomial (for
polynomial systems, without delay)
Easy (1990s) way : MATLAB function ROOTS (or POLE)
Traditional:
1. Routh array:
 Test for positivity of roots of a polynomial
2. Direct substitution
 Complex axis separates stable and unstable regions
 Find controller gain that yields purely complex roots
3. Root locus diagram
 Vary location of poles as controller gain is varied
 Of limited use
45
Closed-loop stability Routh array for a polynomial equation is where Elements of left column must
Closed-loop stability
Routh array for a polynomial equation
is
where
Elements of left column must be positive to have roots with negative real
parts
46
Example: Routh Array Characteristic polynomial 5 4 3 2 2 3 6 . s +
Example: Routh Array
Characteristic polynomial
5
4
3
2
2 3 6
.
s
+ .
1 4 9
s
!
0 5 8
.
s
+ .
1 2 1
s
+
0 4 2
.
s + .
0 7 8 0
=
Polynomial Coefficients
a
= 2.3 6,
a
= 1.4 9 ,
a
= ! 0.5 8,
a
= 1.2 1,
a
= 0.4 2 ,
a
= 0.7 8
5
4
3
2
1
0
Routh Array
a
(
2
.
36
)
a
(
!
0 58
.
)
a
(
0 42
.
)
5
3
1
a
(
1 49
.
)
a
(
1 21
.
)
a
(
0 78
.
)
4
2
0
b
(
!
2 50
.
)
b
(
!
0 82
.
)
b
(
0
)
1
2
3
c
(
0
.
72
)
c
(
0 78
.
)
1
2
d
(
1
.
89
)
d
(
0
)
1
2
e (
0
.
78
)
1
 Closed-loop system is unstable
47
Direct Substitution  Technique to find gain value that de-stabilizes the system.  Observation: Process
Direct Substitution
 Technique to find gain value that de-stabilizes the system.
 Observation:
Process becomes unstable when poles appear on right half plane
Find value of
that yields purely complex
poles
 Strategy:
 Start with characteristic polynomial
 Write characteristic equation:
 Substitute for complex pole
48
 Solve for
and
Example: Direct Substitution Characteristic equation Substitution for Real Part Complex Part  System is unstable
Example: Direct Substitution
Characteristic equation
Substitution for
Real Part
Complex Part
 System is unstable if
49
Root Locus Diagram Old method that consists in plotting poles of characteristic polynomial as controller
Root Locus Diagram
Old method that consists in plotting poles of characteristic polynomial as
controller gain is changed
e.g.
Characteristic polynomial
50
Stability and Performance  Given plant model, we assume a stable closed-loop system can be
Stability and Performance
 Given plant model, we assume a stable closed-loop system can be
designed
 Once stability is achieved - need to consider performance of closed-
loop process - stability is not enough
 All poles of closed-loop transfer function have negative real parts - can
we place these poles to get a “good” performance
S
C
P
Space of all
Controllers
S: Stabilizing Controllers for a given plant
P: Controllers that meet performance
51
Controller Tuning Can be achieved by  Direct synthesis : Specify servo transfer function required
Controller Tuning
Can be achieved by
 Direct synthesis : Specify servo transfer function required and calculate
required controller - assume plant = model
 Internal Model Control: Morari et al. (86) Similar to direct synthesis
except that plant and plant model are concerned
 Pole placement
 Tuning relations:
 Cohen-Coon - 1/4 decay ratio
 designs based on ISE, IAE and ITAE
 Frequency response techniques
 Bode criterion
 Nyquist criterion
 Field tuning and re-tuning
52
Direct Synthesis From closed-loop transfer function Isolate For a desired trajectory given by and plant
Direct Synthesis
From closed-loop transfer function
Isolate
For a desired trajectory
given by
and plant model
, controller is
 not necessarily PID form
 inverse of process model to yield pole-zero cancellation (often inexact
because of process approximation)
 used with care with unstable process or processes with RHP zeroes
53
Direct Synthesis 1. Perfect Control  cannot be achieved, requires infinite gain 2. Closed-loop process
Direct Synthesis
1. Perfect Control
 cannot be achieved, requires infinite gain
2. Closed-loop process with finite settling time
 For 1st order open-loop process,
 For 2nd order open-loop process,
, it leads to PI control
, get PID control
3. Processes with delay
 requires
 again, 1st order leads to PI control
 2nd order leads to PID control
54
IMC Controller Tuning Closed-loop transfer function In terms of implemented controller, G c 55
IMC Controller Tuning
Closed-loop transfer function
In terms of implemented controller, G c
55
IMC Controller Tuning 1. Process model factored into two parts where contains dead-time and RHP
IMC Controller Tuning
1. Process model factored into two parts
where
contains dead-time and RHP zeros, steady-state gain scaled
to 1.
2. Controller
where
is the IMC filter
 The constant
is chosen such the IMC controller
is proper
 based on pole-zero cancellation
56
Example PID Design using IMC and Direct synthesis for the process Process parameters: 1. Direct
Example
PID Design using IMC and Direct synthesis for the process
Process parameters:
1. Direct Synthesis:
(Taylor Series)
(Padé)
 Servo Transfer function
57
ExampleExample 1.1. IMCIMC Tuning:Tuning: a)a) TaylorTaylor Series:Series: •• FilterFilter ••
ExampleExample
1.1. IMCIMC Tuning:Tuning:
a)a)
TaylorTaylor Series:Series:
••
FilterFilter
••
ControllerController (PI)(PI)
b)b) PadPadéé approximation:approximation:
••
FilterFilter
••
ControllerController (Commercial(Commercial PID)PID)
58
ExampleExample  ServoServo ResponseResponse 59
ExampleExample
 ServoServo ResponseResponse
59
ExampleExample  RegulatoryRegulatory responseresponse 60
ExampleExample
 RegulatoryRegulatory responseresponse
60
IMCIMC TuningTuning  ForFor unstableunstable processes,processes,  MustMust modifymodify IMCIMC filterfilter
IMCIMC TuningTuning
 ForFor unstableunstable processes,processes,
 MustMust modifymodify IMCIMC filterfilter suchsuch thatthat thethe valuevalue ofof
atat
isis 11
 UsualUsual modificationmodification
 StrategyStrategy isis toto specifyspecify
andand solvesolve forfor
suchsuch thatthat
61
ExampleExample  ConsiderConsider thethe processprocess  ConsiderConsider thethe filterfilter  LetLet
ExampleExample
 ConsiderConsider thethe processprocess
 ConsiderConsider thethe filterfilter
 LetLet
thenthen solvesolve forfor
 YieldsYields aa PIPI controllercontroller
62
ExampleExample  ServoServo responseresponse 63
ExampleExample
 ServoServo responseresponse
63
PolePole placementplacement  GivenGiven aa processprocess modelmodel aa controllercontroller ofof thethe
PolePole placementplacement

GivenGiven aa processprocess modelmodel
aa controllercontroller ofof thethe form,form,
andand anan arbitraryarbitrary polynomialpolynomial

UnderUnder whatwhat conditioncondition doesdoes therethere existexist aa uniqueunique controllercontroller
pairpair
andand
suchsuch thatthat
64
PolePole placementplacement  WeWe saysay thatthat andand areare primeprime ifif theythey dodo notnot havehave
PolePole placementplacement

WeWe saysay thatthat
andand
areare primeprime ifif theythey dodo notnot havehave
anyany commoncommon factorsfactors
 Result:Result:
AssumeAssume thatthat
andand
areare (co)(co) prime.prime. LetLet
arbitratyarbitraty polynomialpolynomial ofof degreedegree
polynomialspolynomials andand
thatthat
ofof degreedegree
bebe anan
ThenThen therethere existexist
suchsuch
65
PolePole PlacementPlacement  ExampleExample  ThisThis isis aa secondsecond orderorder systemsystem 
PolePole PlacementPlacement
 ExampleExample
 ThisThis isis aa secondsecond orderorder systemsystem
 TheThe polynomialspolynomials
andand
areare primeprime
 TheThe requiredrequired degreedegree ofof thethe characteristiccharacteristic polynomialpolynomial isis
 TheThe degreedegree ofof thethe controllercontroller polynomialpolynomial
andand
areare

ControllerController isis givengiven byby
66
PolePole PlacementPlacement  PerformancePerformance objective:objective: 3rd3rd orderorder polynomialpolynomial
PolePole PlacementPlacement
 PerformancePerformance objective:objective: 3rd3rd orderorder polynomialpolynomial
 CharacteristicCharacteristic polynomialpolynomial isis givengiven byby
 SolvingSolving forfor
andand
byby equatingequating polynomialpolynomial
coefficientscoefficients onon bothboth sidessides
 ObtainObtain aa systemsystem ofof 44 equationsequations inin 44 unknownsunknowns
67
PolePole PlacementPlacement  SystemSystem ofof equationsequations  SolutionSolution isis 
PolePole PlacementPlacement
 SystemSystem ofof equationsequations
 SolutionSolution isis
 CorrespondingCorresponding controllercontroller isis aa PIPI controllercontroller
68
Tuning Relations Process reaction curve method:  based on approximation of process using first order
Tuning Relations
Process reaction curve method:
 based on approximation of process using first order plus delay model
Manual Control
1. Step in U is introduced
2. Observe behavior
3. Fit a first order plus dead time model
69
Tuning Relations Process response 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 0 1 2
Tuning Relations
Process response
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
4. Obtain tuning from tuning correlations
 Ziegler-Nichols
 Cohen-Coon
 ISE, IAE or ITAE optimal tuning relations
70
Ziegler-Nichols Tunings Controller P -only PI PID - Note presence of inverse of process gain
Ziegler-Nichols Tunings
Controller
P -only
PI
PID
- Note presence of inverse of process gain in controller
gain
- Introduction of integral action requires reduction in
controller gain
- Increase gain when derivation action is introduced
Example:
PI:
PID:
71
Example Ziegler-Nichols Tunings: Servo response 72
Example
Ziegler-Nichols Tunings: Servo response
72
Example Regulatory Response Z-N tuning  Oscillatory with considerable overshoot  Tends to be conservative
Example
Regulatory Response
Z-N tuning
 Oscillatory with considerable overshoot
 Tends to be conservative
73
Cohen-Coon Tuning Relations Designed to achieve 1/4 decay ratio  fast decrease in amplitude of
Cohen-Coon Tuning Relations
Designed to achieve 1/4 decay ratio
 fast decrease in amplitude of oscillation
C o n t r o l l e r
K c
T i
T d
P - o n l y
(1 /
K
)(! / " )[1 + " / 3! ]
p
PI
(1 /
K
)(! / " )[ 0 . 9 + " / 12! ]
" [ 30
+
3( / )]
" !
p
9
+
20 ( / )
"
!
PID
3
"
+
16
!
" [ 32
+
6 ( / )]
" !
4
"
(1 /
K
)( / )[
! "
]
p
12
!
13
+
8 (
"
/
!
)
11
+
2 (
" !
/
)
Example:
PI:
PID:
K c =10.27
K c =15.64
τ I =18.54
τ I =19.75
τ d =3.10
74
Tuning relations Cohen-Coon: Servo  More aggressive/ Higher controller gains  Undesirable response for most
Tuning relations
Cohen-Coon: Servo
 More aggressive/ Higher controller gains
 Undesirable response for most cases
75
Tuning Relations Cohen-Coon: Regulatory  Highly oscillatory  Very aggressive 76
Tuning Relations
Cohen-Coon: Regulatory
 Highly oscillatory
 Very aggressive
76
Integral Error Relations 1. Integral of absolute error (IAE) " IAE = ! e (
Integral Error Relations
1. Integral of absolute error (IAE)
"
IAE
= !
e ( t )
dt
0
2. Integral of squared error (ISE)
"
ISE = e t
!
( ) 2
dt
0
 penalizes large errors
3. Integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE)
"
IT AE
= !
t
e ( t )
dt
0
 penalizes errors that persist
 ITAE is most conservative
 ITAE is preferred
77
ITAE Relations Choose K c , τ I and τ d that minimize the ITAE:
ITAE Relations
Choose K c , τ I and τ d that minimize the ITAE:
 For a first order plus dead time model, solve for:
! IT AE
! IT AE
! IT AE
= 0,
= 0,
= 0
!
! "
! "
K c
I
d
 Design for Load and Setpoint changes yield different ITAE optimum
Type of
Type of
Mode
A
B
Input
Controller
Load
PI
P
0.859
-0.977
I
0.674
-0.680
Load
PID
P
1.357
-0.947
I
0.842
-0.738
D
0.381
0.995
Set point
PI
P
0.586
-0.916
I
1.03
-0.165
Set point
PID
P
0.965
-0.85
I
0.796
-0.1465
D
0.308
0.929
78
ITAE Relations From table, we get Load Settings: B " Y = A ( )
ITAE Relations
From table, we get
Load Settings:
B
"
Y
=
A
(
)
=
K K
=
=
d
! "
c
" "
"
I
Setpoint Settings:
B
"
Y
=
A
(
)
=
K K
=
d
=
A B
+
(
)
! "
c
" ,
" "
! "
I
Example
79
ITAE Relations Example (contd) Setpoint Settings " ( 9 = 0 . 796 0 1465
ITAE Relations
Example (contd)
Setpoint Settings
"
(
9
=
0
.
796 0 1465
.
)
=
0
.
7520
! !
30
! 0 . 8 5
I
0 9 6 5
.
(
9
K K =
)
=
2 6 8 5 2
.
c
3
0
!
30
!
=
=
= 39 89
.
I
0 7520
.
0 . 7520
2 6 8 5 2
.
2 6 8 5 2 0 3
.
K
=
=
= 8 . 9 5
c
K
.
!
0
. 929
d
0
.
(
9
=
308
)
= 0 1006
.
!
30
!
=
0 1006
.
!
=
3 0194
.
d
Load Settings:
"
0 . 738
=
0
.
842
(
9
)
=
2 0474
.
! !
30
I
!
0 . 9 4 7
9
K K =
1 3 5 7
.
(
)
=
4 2 4 3 7
.
c
3
0
!
30
!
=
=
= 14 65
.
I
2 0474
.
2 . 0474
4 2 4 3 7
.
4 2 4 3 7 0 3
.
K
=
=
= 1 4 . 1 5
c
K
.
!
0
. 995
d
9
=
0
.
381
(
)
= 0 1150
.
!
30
!
=
0 1150
.
!
=
3 4497
.
d
80
ITAE Relations Servo Response  design for load changes yields large overshoots for set-point changes
ITAE Relations
Servo Response
 design for load changes yields large overshoots for set-point changes
81
ITAE Relations Regulatory response 82
ITAE Relations
Regulatory response
82
Tuning Relations  In all correlations, controller gain should be inversely proportional to process gain
Tuning Relations
 In all correlations, controller gain should be inversely proportional to
process gain
 Controller gain is reduced when derivative action is introduced
 Controller gain is reduced as
increases
! "
 Integral time constant and derivative constant should increase as
increases
! "
 In general,
! d
! I = 0.25
 Ziegler-Nichols and Cohen-Coon tuning relations yield aggressive
control with oscillatory response (requires detuning)
 ITAE provides conservative performance (not aggressive)
83