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Agile Model: Changing development quickly.

. The main focus of agile model is early release of working software by responding promptly. Using collaborative techniques, code refactoring, test driven development and customer involvement. Individual and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Regarding changes over following of planning. No single agile method. xp more popular in development. Scrum most popular in project and Delivery. Agile Manifesto: Individuals and interactions over process and tools. Working Software over comprehensive document. Customer collaboration over contract negation. Responding to change over following a plan.

Principles of agile model: Highest priority is to satisfy customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. Channing requirements, even late development. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. Build project around motivated individuals. This method development team is face to face conversion. Scrum: Scrum is the agile process that allows us to focus on delivering the highest business value in the shortest time. It allows to rapidly and repeatedly inspecting actually working software. The business sets the priorities. Our teams self-manage to determine the best way to deliver the highest priority features. The Power of scrum: More business value delivered soon.

Better-return on investments for projects. Greater visibility team and customer. Less waste-lean mindset. Higher quality inspects and adopt frequently. Engineering process improved significantly.

The design of scrum: Its hard. It requires significant change. It demands honesty and transparency Bad project will be delivered sooner.

What is sprint? A 2-4 weeks long iteration, during which team increments the product functionality. Each sprint begins with the kickoff meeting. Daily scrum meeting conducted throughout the sprints. Sprints: Scrum projects make progress a series of sprints. Target duration is pre decided. Scrum suggest to 2 weeks to one month. Product design, coding, testing each sprint. Team may decide to unfinished items to the next sprint. Advantages:

Customer satisfaction by rapid, continuous delivery of useful software. People and interactions are emphasized rather than process and tools. Customers, developers and testers constantly interact with each other. Working software is delivered frequently (weeks rather than months). Face-to-face conversation is the best form of communication. Close daily cooperation between business people and developers. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design. Regular adaptation to changing circumstances. Even late changes in requirements are welcomed.


In case of some software deliverables, especially the large ones, it is difficult to assess the effort required at the beginning of the software development life cycle. There is lack of emphasis on necessary designing and documentation. The project can easily get taken off track if the customer representative is not clear what final outcome that they want.

Only senior programmers are capable of taking the kind of decisions required during the development process. Hence it has no place for newbie programmers, unless combined with experienced resources.


The V model is a modified version of the Waterfall method. As opposed to the Waterfall model this one was not designed in a linear axis; instead the stages turn back upwards after the coding phase is done so that it makes a V shape and hence the name V Model. Lets look at the different stages, test processes, techniques, advantages and disadvantages of this method.

1. Requirement Analysis This is the first step in the verification process. It is in here that the project and its function is decided. So a lot of brainstorming and documentation reveals what all will be required to produce that program or product. During this stage the employees are not going to discuss how it is going to be built; it is going to be a generalized discussion and a user requirement document is put forth. This document will carry information regarding the function of the system, performance, security, data; interface etc.This

document is required by the business analysts to convey the function of the system to the users. So it will merely be a guideline. 2. System Design Like the name of the phase suggests, here the possible design of the product is formulated. It is formulated after keeping in mind the requirement notes. While following the documents, if there is something that doesnt fit right in the design, then the user is made aware of it and changes are accordingly planned. Diagrams and data dictionary is also produced here. 3. Architecture Design The architecture design, also known as the computer architecture design or the software design should realize the modules and the functionality of the modules which have to be incorporated. 4. Module Design In the module design, the architectural design is again broken up into sub units so that they can be studied and explained separately. The units are called modules. The modules can separately be decoded by the programmer. The Validation Phases of the V model 1. Unit Testing A unit in the programming system is the smallest part which can be tested. In this phase each of these units are tested. 2. Integration Testing or Interface Testing In this phase the separate entities will be tested together to find out the flaws in the interfaces. 3. System Testing After the previous stage of interface testing, in this phase it is checked if the system meets the requirements that have been specified for this integrated product. 4. Acceptance Testing In the acceptance test, the integrated product is put against the requirement documents to see if it fulfills all the requirements. 5. Release Testing It is in here that judgment has to be made if the product or software which is created is suitable for the organization.

Advantages of the V Model The biggest advantage of using the V Model is that unlike the waterfall model and the aorta life cycle method, every stage is tested. Disadvantages of the V Model It assumes that the requirements do not change. The design is not authenticated. The Requirements are not verified. At each stage there is a potential of errors. The first testing is done after the design of modules which is very late and costs a lot.