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1.1 Introduction: Use of rubber in modern world is so important; its application is from simple rubber insulator in electrical supplies to washers used in sealing of high pressure containers. Rubber can be either natural or artificial. Natural rubber is a simple agricultural product produced form tree called Para rubber tree or Hevea brasiliensis. Natural rubber on its raw state does not have much desired property for most application, the desired properties of natural rubber what we use is achieved by many chemical processes. During the time of Second World War the supply of natural rubber in Europe from Far East and South America was cut out and led to invention and commercial production of artificial rubber. (John S. Dick, 2003) Indentation test is important to materials like rubber because normal hardness test methods like Rockwell’s hardness tests are difficult to carry out on materials like this. Instrumented indentation can be used to test ceramics, polymeric and biological materials. In instrumented indentation test a controlled force or displacement is applied and is measured continuously and simultaneously over the whole loading - unloading cycle. Instrumented indentation or nano indentation test uses very small force and displacement and from the force displacement data it is possible to obtain many other properties of materials like modulus, stress strain relations etc. Indentation test can be done with different indentor tips, like spherical, diamond or conical, flat and so on. Spherical and flat indentors are used for testing thin rubber and the behaviour of both flat and spherical indentors are almost similar except flat indentors needs a slight more force than spherical indentors. Thin rubber is now widely used in many engineering and medical applications because of the advance in manufacturing to make it possible to manufacture as thin as in 0.001mm thickness rubber sheets. These thin rubbers are used in various applications like MEMS devices which include pressure sensors, valves and actuators in these devices. In medical application for the reconstruction of
tissues, cell seeded polymeric scaffold thin biomaterial are used. All this the performance depends on the mechanical properties of thin rubber used. Hence the characterization of mechanical properties likes young’s modulus, residual stress and the effects of force on deformation of thin rubber experimentally will help very much in improving the performance and will be able to predict the performance and service life. 
1.2 Aim and objective: 1) Study of the effect of indentor shape, size and loading rate on rubber of different thickness. 2) Find the Young’s modulus using a formula and the stimulation of indentation test on solid works with different young’s modulus and compare with the experimental results. 3) Find viscoelasticity of rubber with thickness of 0.2mm, 0.5mm and 1.0mm with indentor of different shape and radius. 4) Carry out indentation test on three different medical gloves from three manufactures with different properties.
1.3 Brief history of rubber Early days before synthetic rubbers are produced the only source of rubber was from trees. Even though many species of trees which can yield rubber are native to parts of Asia, Africa, Far East, the first noticeable mention about rubber was in fifteenth century in equatorial regions of South America. According to an article published by Massachusetts Institute of Technology in an article by Tech Talk rubber was used by Mayan people in ancient Mesoamerica for making rubber balls, hollow human figures, and used as bindings to secure axe heads to their handles as early as in 1600 BC. In early 16th century when first Europeans reached South America they observed the local population playing with a crude bouncing ball made out a white milk like fluid collected when bark of certain trees are cut. The elastic, high deformability, water resistant properties attracted Scientists in Europe. (Jim R. White, 2001) The scientific name of this species that produces natural rubber is Hevea brasiliensis. The first notable use of rubber was in the production of water proof garments. The disadvantages of this rubber garments was in original conditions this will become soft and sticky in summer and brittle in winters. In 1823 Charles Macintosh found a new way to minimise this defects and was by placing rubber between two textile fabrics and was called double texture waterproof garments or Macintoshes. In 1839 Charles Goodyear of Woburn, Mass, USA found another was to overcome the major disadvantage of rubber-susceptibility to temperature change. The method was combining rubber chemically with sulphur because of the trade depression Charles Goodyear made a little commercial progress. In the early stages of rubber history, rubber grades were not so important even though tests are conducted to distinguish between good and bad rubber. This test had a little commercial importance because these tests used to assist product development internally by large companies and had only visual standards. In late 1960’s Malaysia introduced a new grade called technically
specified rubber (TSR) which changed commercial aspect of natural rubber. In early 1970’s ASTM test become much important and by that time there was almost 22 official grades of natural rubber. (John S. Dick). Six grades technically specified rubber (TSR) by International Standard Organisation (ISO) are shown in table below. Parameters Grade: TSRCV 0.05 0.60 0.60 0.80
TSRL 0.05 0.60 0.60 0.80
TSRS 0.05 0.50 0.50 0.80
TSR10 0.10 0.75 0.60 0.80
TSR - 20 0.20 1.00 0.60 0.80
TSR50 0.50 1.50 0.60 0.80
Dirt content Ash content Nitrogen content Volatile matter
Table 1.1: TSR's Specified by ISO under ISO-2000, in percentage weight of the maximum weight
From 19th century applications of rubber is increasing constantly. Even though rubber is used in many applications like in automobiles the locations are not easily visible. Many applications and devices like automobile tires, medical gloves, footwear, belts, wires and cables in machineries, many sport utilities, waterproof fabrics won’t be exist in the present form if rubber was not discovered. A modern passenger car will have as many as 600 rubber parts. Any problem with this rubber parts because of its quality or manufacturing defects could lead to problems from its performance to a complete failure of the whole vehicle. Even though the history of rubber industry started about more than two hundred years still research and development works are continuing. To suite new application the rubber is constantly modified, new improved manufacturing methods, adoption of new additives, new techniques used for recycling are changing rubber day by day. (Jim R. White, 2001)
After about 12 hours coagulum of rubber in the form of solid slabs is formed. Ficus elastic also called India rubber but rubber from these species have several disadvantages like extraction process is difficult. This rubber is shipped to industries and different additives and manufacturing process are selected according to the applications and product to be produced. 2001) There are different ways of collecting rubber from latex. There are a number of other species like Parthenium argentatum also known as Guayule rubber. Groover. (Mikell P. The rubber thus produced is called ribbed smoked sheet. These solid slabs are squeezed to take out most of its water contents and other residuals and make it thin to about 3 mm. Manihot glaziovii also called Ceara rubber. 2010) 5 . Latex which flows down through the cut is collected in a small vessel. (Jim R. The most widely used method includes coagulation in which latex obtained is mixed with half of water and with acids like acetic acid (CH3COOH) or formic acid (HCOOH) to make latex coagulate in 12 hours.9 MPa. fungus. low rubber content or high resin. White. These sheets are kept in a closed room called smoke house on wooden frames where it is dried. Latex is extracted by making a small shave of bark of about 1 mm deep. In smoke room hot smoke contains creosote is produced by burning lump of dry wood. mildew etc. This prevents rubber from oxidation.1. The rubber latex will be present in latex vessels on in the bark of Para rubber trees which will be under a pressure called turgor pressure at 1MPa to 1.4 Literature review: Natural rubber Natural rubber is collected from trees called Para rubber of family called Euphorbiaceae and the species is Hevea brasiliensis. this process is called tapping. This are the passed through another set of rollers have a criss-cross pattern on them which are formed on the coagulum.
2000) 1. Some of the qualities of natural rubber are it got a better fatigue resistance. EPM is crossed liked with 6 . oil and even resistant to high temperatures.butadiene rubber: Styrene. Later United States modified styrene butadiene and manufactured on a large scale under the name Government Rubber Styrene widely known as SBR and is still widely used in rubber industry. As the plantations were unable to support the huge demand of natural rubber researches to manufacture rubber artificially was started by many countries and industries. SBR is commonly used for manufacturing of tyres of heavy vehicles. oxidation and weather resistance. The wide use of rubber tires in motor vehicles caused an explosion in rubber prices. ozone. a wide range of hardness can be obtained by varying the compounding process and compounds. In 1930’s Germany started the commercial production of first artificial rubber called Buna-S (styrene butadiene co polymer). Chloroprene rubber: Chloroprene rubber is also known as poly chloroprene is used in harsh environments. Chloroprene rubber is much resistant to most chemicals.1.6 Common vulcanized rubber compounds Natural rubber: Natural rubber which is one of the most common forms of rubber is widely used for automobile tyres.5 Synthetic Rubber The scared uses and applications of rubber due to it indiscipline behaviour changed in early 1900 when the first motor vehicle rolled out. Styrene. (Andrew Ciesielski.butadiene rubber also known as SBR resembles some of the properties natural when is compounded with reinforcing fillets rubber but certain properties are better than the natural rubber like abrasion resistance. good strength. fatigue resistance. anti vibration and other similar mountings. Ethylene propylene rubber: Ethylene propylene rubbers also known as EPM have similar properties that of SBR but EPR have a better resistance to atmospheric aging.
In 19th and 20th century addition of several solid particulates found to improve the mechanical properties of natural rubber.0 16.2 (Rubber processing: technology.7 10. In this chemical process the polymer molecules are linked with other polymer molecules with sulphur atoms as bridges. Rubber can be either natural or artificial. can be deformed into different shape by applying small heat and becomes brittle under low temperature.7 Sulphur 6. This makes natural rubber a bulky material with much hardness and also much resistant to chemical attack and this was the first way used to improve the properties natural rubber. In order to make rubber into hard more durable a chemical process called vulcanization or vulcanisation is carried out which will have has superior mechanical properties than natural rubber.7 Chemical structure Chemically rubber is a polymer with a continuous chain of isoprene whose chemical formula is (C5H8) n. 1983) 1. Rubber is a polymeric material which has a long molecular chain arrangement which is flexible and deform elastically.0 6. Rubber is considered as an elastomeric and hence rubber materials usually have low Young’s modulus and high yield strain. Vulcanization is a curing process in which sulphur is added at a high temperature. seals in washing machines and radiator hoses in automobiles. The bridging of sulphur also makes the surface smooth and less sticky. Composition of typical rubber used in industries is Para rubber Zinc Oxide Magnesia Java rubber China Clay Red Lead 83. materials. (Peter C Powell. Natural rubber is usually very soft. principles by James Lindsay White) 7 .sulphur can be used in sealing strips of automobile windows.3 53.3 20.
extension of rubber will be as shown below. Rubber sometimes can be stretched to about few hundred percent and when the stress causing deformation is removed it can regain its original dimension without much stress remaining. G. It is been considered that steel is more elastic than rubber and it is true. The graph of tensile force vs. R. Figure 1.1: Typical tensile versus extension curve for rubber (L. The fact is that steel can be stretched not more than 2%. Treloar) 8 . after steel won’t be elastic.The most important property of rubber that makes it so widely used is the high degree of deformation under a small force.
oil etc 9 .For rubber the stress strain graph will not be linear as shown in the above graph so Hook’s law are invalid for rubber material. For an extinction of more than 100% rubber becomes softer. In rubber up to 2% or more than 2% the stress strain curve is linear. Young’s modulus is almost inapplicable for rubber material. For small change in loading rate will not affect too much on young’s modulus but a large change have some effect on young’s modulus (Andrew Ciesielski. From figure 1. The other factors affecting young’s modulus are temperature and loading rate. However rubber is a material which is elastic up to several hundred percentage and hence it cannot be considered as a material which follows Hooks law. it can be seen that for an extinction of less than 50% the curve can be considered as linear and as the strain increases strain abruptly increases shows its deviation from its linear path. If temperature increases young’s modulus will decrease. 2000) Some other properties are: Elasticity Good electric insulation Resistance to tear Resistant to many chemicals. For materials like steel which follows Hook’s law will satisfy Hooks law only up to an elastic limit which is usually 2%.
10 . When rubber is stretched quickly it gives out some heat. area etc but in most of the cases rubber contract reversibly under heating. Joule’s experiments where contacted on vulcanized rubber which was unavailable when Gough’s experiments were carried out. The study on thermo elastic properties started in early 19th century when John Gough an English scientist observed two things about rubber.1.20K. his findings where conformed after some 50 years by Joule in 1859. These two thermal effects of rubber are now known as Gough – Joule effects. When rubber is stretched by a constant load and was held for a long time it changes its dimension like length. Even Gough observed thermo elastic properties of rubber in 1805. Figure 2 shows the second effect of thermo elastic property of rubber when rubber is stretched to 100 percent to produce a temperature of 0.8 Thermo elastic properties Thermo elastic property is a mechanical property of rubber.
Treloar. Treloar. G.9 Viscoelasticity: Viscoelasticity in simple words can be defined as the property of certain materials which can be viscous but exhibits elastic properties. 2005) 1. thicker rubber stores more energy than thin rubber i. 0. R. Viscoelasticity in rubber can be considered as a combination of two different mechanisms which will be exhibited at same time.2 mm.5mm and 1. In indentation test of rubber of thickness 0.2: shows heat produced when a rubber strip is stretched up to 100% (L. Page 38.0mm.e. (L. Even rubber can be considered as elastic material but rubber exhibits certain properties of viscous materials. The mechanism can be considered as spring and dashpot where spring represents elastic behaviour of 11 . R.Figure 1. 2005) Thermo elastic properties are not only observed for natural rubber but for a wide range of materials in rubber like state. thicker rubber shows more division from elastic characteristics. G. like most variety of synthetic rubber polymers.
3: The figure represents rubber with viscous and elastic components by using Maxwell and Voights models. 2001. As we know the behaviour of spring and dashpot is different. 2000) 12 . Figure 1. In applications Maxwell’s model is widely used for stress relations experiments and Voight models is used in experiments with creep. In Maxwell’s model spring and dashpot are arranged in series and in Voight model spring and dashpot are arranged in parallel. stress relaxation. (Andrew Ciesielski. Both Maxwell and Voight can describe dynamic and mechanical experiments but Voight model is widely used. the deformation on the spring is stored as energy and this energy is released when the spring returns to its original state.rubber and dashpot represents viscous part. When a force is applied to a spring. page 128) The above figure (figure 3) represents the concept of Maxwell and Voight model. The piston will not have energy to return to its original state. Where as in dashpot when the piston moves the piston has kinetic energy and this energy is converted into heat and it is irreversible. (Andrew Ciesielski. Viscosity component can explain some of the engineering properties like creep. When a force is applied causing a deformation on a spring dashpot combination system the behaviour of system will be different than spring and dashpot considered individually.
leak could be of pressure leak or fluid or air under pressure.11 Stress relaxation Stress relaxation can be considered as the inverses of creep. As the time progresses the thickness will continues to decrease but the rate will be decreased as time advances. In a couple of weeks this rate will becomes extremely small and this phenomenon is called creep. 2000) 13 . From an example when a load is kept over a rubber block the thickness of rubber block will decreases with time even the load is kept constant. Stress relaxation will increases as viscous component increases in rubber. (Andrew Ciesielski. This is due to the phenomenon called stress relaxation. Creep at room temperature is proportional to the logarithm of time but as temperature increases creep also increases. Seal or gaskets are used to prevent leak. In some applications of rubber as in seal or gasket will fail due to stress relaxation. Stress relaxation can be defined as change in stress as time changes while the strain is constant. As time passes the force acting against housing will reduce and finally the seal will become unable to hold the pressure of fluid without leak. The force is due to both viscous and elastic components. 1. For a very short time creep is very difficult to predict accurately but for a long time period it can be predicted with much accuracy. Creep is occurring in rubber because of viscous component in rubber hence more viscous the rubber is the more the creep level. Rubber kept as seals will be kept under compression inside the housing.1. Rubber sealing will exert a force against the housing and this force will keep it from leakage.10 Creep: Creep can be defined as the change in strain with time when the stress is constant.
12 Elastic behaviour of rubber There is a number of theory’s suggesting the elastic behaviour of rubber. Valko and Kerrer and von Susich. This repulsive force between parallel and extended chains will cause rubber to retract. Generally accepted theories of elasticity of rubber are Meyer. This rubber hydro carbons usually have a lower density than and molecular weight than latex globules. Atoms thermal energy is created because of the external force which pulls rubber strip. According to Meyer larger amplitudes of vibration is produced by atoms thermal energy in long chain molecules. The vibrations will be greater in the direction perpendicular to the chain rather than the vibration in the direction of chain. All this theories are able to explain the retraction force of rubber and some of its elastic properties but was unable to explain thermo elastic properties and was unconvincing about the interpretation of mechanical properties. Another theory was by Fikentscher and Mark in 1930 known as helical spring theory. 2005) 14 . (L. According to his theory elasticity is because of a serious of networks of electrically charged molecules of proteins or resins from the outer parts of latex globule suspended in a semi liquid medium of hydrocarbons. Treloar. G. One of the theories was by Ostwald in 1926. This theory is now widely accepted as the theory of elasticity of rubber. R.1. The uneven vibration along the chain will cause a repulsive force along the parallel and extended chains. In helical spring theory the retraction force occurs because the force between two adjacent turns of helix.
14 Tests on rubber The important purpose of testing are to predicting service performance: It should be possible to predict service. Brown. In nano indentation tests the depth of penetration due to plastic deformation will be so small and can be found accurately by modern optical measurement techniques and can be used in measurement of hardness. It is better if the test is not extensively complex and extreme speed and inexpensive. As in materials like forms the indentation is more likely to plastic deformation rather than to elastic deformation. hardness of the test material. 15 . In a typical indentation test load is applied from zero on the test specimen to a certain maximum force and then the load is decreased from the maximum value back to zero load. There are some attributes related to each tests. (R. P. To get more satisfactory results the test conditions should relates to service condition. When the indentor (load) is removed the material will try to regain its original shape back and to some extended it will regain its shape because of the relaxation of elastic strain in the material but full recovery is prevented due to its plastic deformation.13 Load Displacement curve Indentations tests are carried out to obtain a force displacement diagram and thus to obtain elastic modulus.1. figure A5) Since rubber beaver is as of an elastic material indentation tests will not make any impression on the rubber test specimen. production and quality control of goods the material properties should be known and is much important. In plastic deformation more energy stored rather than elastic material and also some residual impression is left on such materials. The most common reasons for testing could be for quality control purpose or for design data or to predict service performance or for investigate failure. There could be one or more reasons for testing. 1. (Figure A4. 2001) For a good design. In a load displacement diagram load will be plotted along the X axis and load will be along Y axis. There are many testing methods for different materials.
2003) Indentation test also known as micro indentation. less than 100nN or 100nm respectively. VanLandingham. part 1 which specifies the indentation tests for finding different material parameters and hardness are defined in three ranges as shown in table below. creep compliance. energy dissipation etc. (Anthony C. nano indentation etc. ultramicro indentation. In most of the indentation test are carried out by changing the load and can be considered as load controlled test equipment.15 Indentation Test Indentation test is a type of hardness test. This indentor is pressed against rubber which is under a certain tension. onset of nonlinear elasticity.2: Different ranges in indentation tests 16 . Indentation test can be conducted by changing either load or displacement and in both cases is noted against time. test is carried for load and displacement on nano level. (Mark R. In nano indentation. polymers. For thin rubber sheets of thickness less than 1mm the ideal experiment method is instrumented indentation to understand mechanical properties like elastic modulus. biological materials and so on. Indentation test or instrumented indentation or nano indentation is been used to test some of the mechanical properties of materials like metals. 2004) Macro indentation range 2 N ≤ F ≤ 30000 N Micro indentation range 2 N > F. can be of shapes like spherical. ceramics.1. In indentation test for rubber a hard indenter.02 micro meter Nano indentation range h ≤ 0. flat. In indentation test it is possible to obtain good accurate force displacement results and also a small material volume is required for the quantitative analysis. Fischer-Cripps. berkovich which are commonly used indentors. Where F is force in Newton’s and h is the depth of indentation. h> 0. According to ISO 14577.02 micro meter Table 1. loss tangent.
cracking point. For example since the force used in nano indentation is less than one Newton and the deformation is so small. July-August 2003) 17 . nano indentation can be used for materials of very small thickness such as thin surface films.4: Figure shows the common arrangements in indentation testing instrument. Figure 1. 1. In this experiment a load is applied on an indenter and the displacement of indentor is measured simultaneously. Indentation can be used for materials of various thickness according to the force used for indentation. By knowing the material properties and geometry of indentor tip and with the load displacement results mechanical properties of rubber can be find. viscoelasticity. toughness.16 Working of indentation test equipment: Another name for indentation test is depth-sensing indentation. and stress and strain graphs and so on. The indentation depth can be varied from few nanometres to several millimetres. Number 4. Indentation tests can be used for the analysis of different properties of materials like hardness of material.Indentation tests are used for several applications. creep of material. (Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Volume 108.
Flat indentor has certain advantages and disadvantages over spherical indentor. The hardness of rubber is determined by the size of indentor and shape of indentor. The commonly used sensors are load cells.In indentation test a device used for producing displacement is usually an electric motor or electromagnetic actuators that can produce very accurate displacement. In flat for low loads the force is distributed all along the flat surface but as load increases more load will be acting on the circumference or corners of the flat surface sometimes will causes errors or even can damage the rubber.2 nm displacement. In spherical indentor as the load increases the area of contact between rubber and spheres increases will cause slight error as load increases. Once the signal for motion reached the actuator from controller it will produce the same displacement as per the signal. The controller can either produce the required force or displacement. In indentation systems a specific force or displacement can be applied and can be simultaneously controlled and measured over whole load cycle. Indentation test also have very high resolution of force and displacement. 18 . Commonly used indentors in testing of rubber are flat indentor and spherical indentor. The force from actuator is transferred to the tip of indentor which will cause the effect on the sample. Indentation test have several advantages over conventional hardness tests like Rockwell hardness tests. Flat indentor will have a flat surface and spherical will have spherical tip. The load cell measures the displacement continuously and can produce it against time or force. There will be one or more sensors are used to measure the displacement produced by the actuator. This resolution can be as low as 1 μN of force and 0.
This tip will be pressed with a constant force against the materials to be tested which will makes a hardness impression on the testing material.17 Difference between Indentation tests and other hardness tests Indentation testing can be also called as hardness testing because both are used for finding the quality. 2003) For example Rockwell hardness has different scales according to different tips used. In Rockwell’s tests and the other conventional tests the result of hardness will be a dimensionless single value. Table below shows some of the scales and material and geometry of tips used. (Mark R. This impression could be so small. 60 kgf 130 150 kgf 100 kgf 100 kgf 100 100 130 Total load 60 kgf 100 kgf Young’s modulus(E) 100 130 19 . VanLandingham.3: Table showing the different types of indentors used. character and for quality control of different materials. The difference is only on the methods carried out. In conventional hardness tests like in Rockwell’s hardness tests a constant force is applied on the material and will do for a particular span of time. The value of hardness depends on the depth of penetration made by tip. The tip used for such tests will have a specific geometry and specific material. Scale A B Indentor tip Diamond cone (120o) Steel sphere(1/16 inch diameter sphere) C D E Diamond cone (120o) Diamond cone (120o) Steel sphere(1/8 inch diameter sphere) F Steel sphere(1/16 inch diameter sphere) Table 1. the dimensions of the impression could be in the order of millimetres.1. the total load and young’s modulus in Rockwell’s hardness test.
(Mark R. Rockwell’s test and instrumented indentation tests are been used for a long time but Rockwell’s test haven’t changed much in recent times but instrumented indentation have changed due to the development in control of force and displacement by user more precisely. O rings. insulations for electrical wires. Instrumented indentation or nano indentation test uses very small force and displacement. catheters tubes. They used rubber for making rubber 20 . condoms. surgical and veterinary apparatus. Scale A is commonly used for hardest materials like tungsten carbide. In instrumented indentation test a controlled force or displacement is applied and is measured continuously and simultaneously over the whole loading unloading cycle. piston and washers. VanLandingham. 2003) 1. According to an article published by Massachusetts Institute of Technology in an article by Tech Talk rubber the first rubber was ever used was in 1600 BC by Mayan people of ancient Mesoamerica. Scale B is used for common materials like brass. swimming caps.18 Applications of rubber Common applications of rubber are in medical applications like medical gloves. load and young’s modulus. Indentation technique is now widely used for research propose for the analysis of dimensions and finite element analysis and to study the behaviour from force displacement curve from actual instrumented indentation test and can even predict stress strain curves behaviour. automobile tyres. inking rollers of printers. titanium alloys etc.There are different scales after F but all the tips after are steed balls with different dimension. air pump valves. high response time in measurement instruments. aluminium soft steel and other soft materials and scale C is used for hard steel. flexible joints for pipes. buffer and bearing springs for carriages. hoses. sensitivity made instrumented indentation more popular. new powerful software and hardware. The most commonly used scales are B and C. polymeric and biological materials. rubber bands. Whereas instrumented indentation can not only used for testing metals but can also be used to test ceramics. balloons.
and surgical gloves.18a Medical gloves Medical gloves are usually made from latex. cell seeded polymeric scaffold thin biomaterial are used. of which surgical gloves should be more reliable. This mould is dipped in a bath of natural rubber latex. police persons. This set is heated to a slight more temperature and then is removed from the mould. In the manufacturing of gloves starts with mould which have the shape of hand or sometimes with a forearm. Thus gloves are formed. Gloves are also used by emergency medical technicians. forming thin polymer latex coating on the mould. hollow human figures. These thin rubbers are used in various applications like MEMS devices which include pressure sensors. and fire persons. Medical gloves are used as safety accessory to limit patient’s exposure to infectious matters and to ensure sanitary hospital conditions and also to protect health of professionals’ from diseases. All this the performance depends on the mechanical properties of thin rubber used. Hence the characterization of mechanical properties likes young’s modulus. residual stress and the effects of force on deformation of thin rubber experimentally will help very much in improving the performance and will be able to predict the performance and service life. should not rip or tear and should be more precise.  1. 21 . Thin rubber is now widely used in many engineering and medical applications because of the advance in manufacturing to make it possible to manufacture as thin as in 0.balls.001mm thickness rubber sheets. In medical application for the reconstruction of tissues. valves and actuators in these devices. The two common types of medical gloves are exam. and used as bindings to secure axe heads to their handles.
power assist devices. emission control etc the under hood temperature also increases resulting in reduced life of coolant hoses. fabric and thin steel reinforcements. rubber. temporarily or permanently. Now most of the cases instead of natural rubber synthetic rubber 22 . during this process additive like carbon black is added. So rubbers without aging or resistant to body fluid are widely used for catheter tubes. duct. Catheter can be sometimes left inside the body.18d Rubber adhesives Rubber latex is also used as bonding and sealants. can be very flexible. Another important use of rubber in automobile industry is the coolant hoses. Carbon black will give rubber its black colour. silica and some more chemicals to make rubber tougher. In rubber tyres different proportions of natural rubber and artificial rubber is mixed with different fillers like carbon black.1. Catheter tube is flexible tube made from rubber latex. 1. Certain properties of latex which makes it most suitable for catheter tube are latex can be made into thin. can be made soft and long.000 miles but now the improved manufacturing process and advanced method of testing and predicting the life of coolant tubes. Tyre is not made with just rubber it is a product made up of polymers. most popular is building industries. Next phase is the assembly of various rubber parts and the finishing operations. In the manufacturing of tyres natural rubber is thickened by drying. In recent years as a way to improve fuel efficiency new ways like turbo charging. vessel etc for injection of fluids or drainage of body fluids or for access to surgical instruments into body. a life time of 10 years or 150.18cTyres Most of the rubber produced in world is used for the production of rubber tyres.000 mile have achieved. In 1988 the goal of coolant tubes was 100. 1.18b Catheter tube Catheter tube is used to insert into body.
Now latex adhesives are used in applications where mechanical properties of joints are more important. Rubber has a good vibration isolation property because of its elastic property. One of the required characteristic of shock absorber is as deflection increases shock absorber should get softer so the resistive force could be constant for all the deflection range. One of the advantages of rubber is its non linear elastic response. Gent. Shock absorbs will reduce the speed of a moving part with a resistive force. Shocks absorbs are used to stop moving object without transmitting the unwanted load to the unnecessary parts. Rubber used as vibration isolator will be under a constant load which will cause creep so rubber with slight high carbon content is used in vibration isolation applications. good weathering resistance. Depending on the kind and amount of vibration the rubber is selected for vibration isolation applications. Rubber shock absorbers are designed to have some degree of flexibility.latex are used.18e Vibration Isolation and shock absorbers Vibration isolators are used to provide a low resonant frequency for a suspended mass to make the amplitude of vibration small. One way to predict deformations and stress distribution in rubber is by FMA or Finite Element Analysis using ABAQUS. a particular dynamic stiffness so rubber shock absorbs can undergo some large deflection before bringing the part to a total stop. The properties such as relatively stable cost. Many machine will produce a high vibration during there working this could damage the structure on which the machine is kept and also the other equipments and machines attached. which are based on styrene and butadiene polyvinyl acetate and acrylic ester latex. This also helps the shock absorber to work with least deflection. (Alan N. Rubber used as shock absorber should also have a little internal damping to the reduce rebound. latex adhesives exhibits flexibility makes popular for non structural applications. 1. 2001) 23 . SolidWorks or any similar numerical methods.
In strict mathematical view finite element method can be considered as an integral formulation. 24 . As the mesh size increases the nodes will also increases and the number of algebraic equation also increases. Most of the finite element software will have several ways of analysis like stress. Finite element method can be used in mechanical industries for solving the design in aeronautical. 1. fluid.9 represents the finite element model with mesh size 2 mm.19 Finite element analysis Finite element method which is also known as FEM is used to find the numerical solution of partial differential equations and integral equations. For each node there will be an algebraic equation and the by solving these equations simultaneously will forms the solution. This makes the model to take more time for finding the solution and hence the mesh size is limited in most cases. The accuracy of the finite element method improves as number of mesh increases or as the mesh size decreases. automobile and so on.8. thermal. These small parts are connected together at different nodes.8 represents a finite element model with mesh size 1 mm generated in SolidWorks and the figure 1.9) are the finite models developed for the experimental set up of the cylinder with 10 mm chamber size and the flat indentor of radius 2 mm. The above figures (figure 1. The nodes can be considered as pins or the gloved points that holds the whole elements together.1. It can be observed that the mesh number is much more in mesh 1 mm than mesh 2 mm and hence the time needed for solving mesh 1 mm will take a lot more time and memory than mesh size 2 mm. electromagnetic and so on. For solving by using finite element method the model will be divided into a finite number of small elements all have the same properties as the whole part of that model. The figure 1.
Figure 1. rubber and flat indentor with radius 2 mm 25 . rubber and flat indentor Figure 1.5: Mesh size 1 mm with cylinder with chamber size 10 mm.6: Mesh size 2 mm with cylinder with 10mm radius.
26 . inertia etc. viscous.Finite element methods have several advantages and the important advantages are by finite element methods it is possible to solve the most complex geometry. The loading rate can also be varied by using finite element methods. Even though finite element methods have several advantages the solution is only approximated. The advance in software and the robust in computer hardware make the finite element process more precise and accurate than ever before. electrostatic problems. it can also used for heat problems. it cannot be always the same in real cases. By finite element the load can be applied even on a point (nodal loading). Finite element method can not only be used for solid mechanism like stress or displacement. fluid problems and so on. Finite element method can solve the most complex shape once its mathematical model is generated and only for the modelling human assistance is needed. thermal. The loading can be applied can includes pressure.
12. Once the required displacement is given to the control unit it will produce the same force for 3 mm displacement.1: Indentation testing equipments shows screen where output will be displayed and the frame to which the load cells are attached.CHAPTER 2: EXPERIMENTAL WORKS The experiment was carried out on the experimental set up as shown in figure 2. These values of force and displacement are used for further calculations and different graphs. The inputs are given through a computer having an interface called LinkMot. The figure 2.3. Figure 2. This displacement and force are continuously and simultaneously measured against time and is recorded on to the computer attached.1.2 shows an iron flat table on to which the specimen to be tested are kept and also the frame which carries the screw mechanism to lift the actuator and sensor assembly is attached. and its visual display called LinkMot Talk R1. 27 .
Figure 2.2: Rubber of thickness 1 mm attached on brass cylinder of chamber size 15mm during testing. Figure 2.3: Output display showing the loading and unloading curves on testing 1 mm thick rubber on a chamber radius of 15 mm. 28 .
According to the displacement or force needed the reference line can be changed and hence the displacement can be set.3 the red curve is the reference line and the blue line is the experimental results.1 Different chamber size used Figure 2. 29 .4: Brass cylinder with a chamber radius of 5 mm. 2.5: Brass cylinder with a chamber size of 10 mm.From the figure 2. Figure 2.
2.Figure 2.7: Natural rubber with 0.2 Different rubber used in testing Figure 2. 30 .2 mm thickness.6: Brass cylinder with a chamber radius of 15 mm.
5 mm.9: Natural rubber with thickness of 1 mm 31 . Figure 2.Figure 2.8: Natural Rubber with thickness of 0.
11: Flat indentor with 4 mm radius. 2.10: Chamber radius of 15 mm fitted with 1 mm thick rubber for experiment.3 Different indenters used Figure 2.Figure 2. 32 .
Figure 2.13: Flat indentor with 2 mm radius.12: Spherical indentor with 4 mm radius. Figure 2. 33 .
Figure 2.15: Blue rubber gloves of 0.4 Three kind of gloves used Figure 2.12 mm thickness. 2.14: Spherical indentor with 2 mm radius. 34 .
03 mm thickness.17: Yellow rubber gloves of 0.14 mm thickness. 35 .Figure 2. Figure 2.16: White rubber gloves of 0.
(test 2. 36 . 1. figure 2.5 1 1. 0.2mm thickness with flat intentor of 2 mm radius 1. The data obtained from four test overlap and hence we can conclude that the test with flat indenter of thickness 2 mm on 0. (test 4) Figure 2.2 mm the curve is not linear.2 0 0.2 mm thin rubber is repeatable.5 2 2.4 1.2 1 Force (N) 0.4 0.2mm to show repeatability.18: Tests with flat indentor of radius 2 mm on rubber sheet of thickness 0.5 3 3.2. This is because in rubber the rate of deflection increases as the force increases.6 0.5 Four test on each rubber of thickness 0.8 0.17) until a displacement of 1 mm the slop is less than the slope after 2 mm displacement.2 0 -0.1 N at any point so the four tests can be considered as repeatable.5mm. The force varying is not more than 0.0mm to show repeatability Four tests on 0. In the test with flat indenter of radius 2 mm on rubber with thickness 0.5 4 Displacement (mm) test 1 test 2 test 3 test 4 Poly.2mm.
2mm thickness with sphrical intentor of 2 mm radius 1 0.4 test 2 test 3 0.5 2 2.5 1 1.8 0. As from the black curve (test 4) it can be see that the slope is not a constant.5 3 3.18).6 Force (N) test 1 0.2 mm thick rubber (figure 2. 37 .5 Displacement (mm) Figure 2.2mm to show repeatability. The slope is slightly less initially till 1 mm displacement and from there on the slope increases as the force and displacement increases almost similar as that of with flat indentor of radius 2 mm on 0.19: Tests with spherical indentor of radius 2mm on rubber sheet of thickness of 0. In the test with spherical indentor of radius 2mm on rubber with thickness 0.Four tests on 0.2 test 4 0 0 -0.2 0.2 mm (figure 2.19) all the four curves obtained from the four tests are one over the other and hence the tests can be considered as repeatable.
In all the curves the slope slightly increasing as the force and displacement increases.5 mm is plotted as per the data got from indentation test is shown is figure (figure 2. 38 .Four tests on 0.5 0 0 -0.5 2 Force (N) 1.5 2 2. For the tests with flat indentor of radius 2 mm on rubber with thickness 0.5 3 3.5 1 1.20: Tests with flat indentor of radius 2mm on rubber sheet of thickness of 0. It can be seen that all the four tests results are comparable.20).5mm thickness with flat intentor of 2 mm radius 3 2.5 4 test 1 test 2 test 3 test 4 Displacement (mm) Figure 2.5 0.5 1 0.5 mm to show repeatability.
Slop of force-displacement curve is slightly increasing as force or displacement increases.5 2 2.5mm to show repeatability.5 2 1.Four tests on 0.21 shows the force displacement curves of four tests. Curves of four tests are overlapping each other and hence the tests are repeatable.5 Force (N) test 1 1 0. The figure 2.5 test 2 test 3 test 4 Displacement (mm) Figure 2.5 3 3.5 1 1. 39 .5 0.5 0 0 -0.5mm thickness with spherical intentor of 2 mm radius 2.21: Tests with spherical indentor of radius 2mm on rubber sheet of thickness of 0.
5 4 3.5 2 1.5 0 -0.5 0 0.5 3 3.22: Four tests with flat indentor of radius 2mm on rubber sheet of thickness of 1 mm showing repeatability.5 1 1.0mm thickness with flat intentor of 2 mm radius 4.5 4 Displacement (mm) test 4 test 1 test 2 test 3 Figure 2. In the above figure 2.5 1 0. 40 . Slope of the curve is relatively less for small force and displacement and increases as force and displacement increases.22 shows the repeatability with flat indentor of radius 2 mm on rubber of thickness 1 mm.5 2 2.Four tests on 1.5 3 Force (N) 2.
41 .5 3 3.5 0 -0.2 mm.5 1 0.0 mm and are repeatable.5 2 1.5 mm and 1.5 3 Force (N) 2. In the figure 2.5 0 0.2 mm.23: Tests with spherical indentor of radius 2mm on rubber sheet of thickness of 1.0mm to show repeatability.Four tests on 1.5 test 1 test 2 test 3 Figure 2. With flat and spherical indentor with radius 4 mm on rubber of thickness 0.0mm thickness with spherical intentor of 2 mm radius 4.0 mm shows a similar curves as in that of flat and spherical indentor with radius 2 mm on rubber of thickness 0.5 4 3.23 the curves from the three tests are overlapping each other so for spherical indentor with a radius of 2 mm on rubber of thickness 1 mm can be considered as repeatable.5 1 1. 0.5 mm and 1. 0.5 2 displacement (mm) 2.
5 15 sec 20 sec 40 sec 100 sec Force (N) 3 displacement (mm) Figure 2. from 1 sec to 100 sec for 3 mm displacement.6 Test with different loading rate Force Vs displacement 6 5 1 sec 4 2 sec 4 sec 10 sec 2 1 0 -0.2.24) shows the force displacement data for rubber of 1 mm thickness under different loading rate. 42 .5 3 3.5 2 2.5 1 1. The above figure (figure 2.24: Force displacement curves showing different loading rate on 1 mm thick rubber.5 -1 0 0.
In appendix A1.25: Force displacement curve on 0. The above figure is obtained when the whole cycle of both loading and unloading is considered during the experimental process. That means the rubber of thickness 0.2 mm behaves perfectly elastic at higher loads than at loads of less than 0.25) both the loading and unloading curves overlapping each other and is relatively high in higher loads or displacement.6 0.2 1 0.4 0 1 2 3 4 Displacement (mm) Figure 2. In the above figure (figure 2. Unloading part is important to find viscoelasticty.2.7 Loading-unloading graph Force Vs Displacement 1. amount of plastic deformation and similar properties. creep. 43 .4 1.2 0 loading unloading -1 -0.2 mm thick rubber with flat indentor of 2 mm radius showing the loading and unloading curves.8 Force (N) 0.4 0. A2 shows the loading and unloading curves of 0.5 mm and 1.8 N.0 mm thick rubber.2 -0.
26: Force displacement figure with flat indentor of 2 mm radius on three different rubber gloves. Figure above (figure 2.12 mm blue and 0.14 mm for yellow gloves.8 Test on three different gloves 3 different glove with flat indentor 6 5 Force (N) 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 displacement (mm) blue gloves (flat) yellow gloves (flat) white gloves (flat) Figure 2.2. The thicknesses of gloves are 0.26) represents the result of indentation test carried out on three different kinds of gloves.03 mm for white. 44 . 0.
0. 45 .2mm Flat R2 at 0.5 2 1.5 mm and 1.0mm sphericalR2 at 0.1) the force needed for same displacement is almost same for both flat and spherical indentors on rubber with diameter 0.1: Tests with spherical and flat indentor with radius 2 mm on rubber sheet with thickness 1 mm.0 mm but flat indentor needs a slight more force than spherical indentor.5mm spherical R2 at 1.5 4 3. By comparing the data obtained from flat and spherical indentor of 2 mm radius (figure 3.5 mm and 0. flat indentor needs slightly more force than spherical and from there after the force is almost equal for both flat and spherical indentors.5mm Flat R2 at 1.5 3 Flat R2 at 0.2 mm shows not much difference.5 0 1 2 3 4 displacement (mm) Force (N) 2.1 Comparison of flat and spherical indentor ForceVs dispalcement with spherical and flat indentors of 2mm for different thickness 4. 0.75.5 0 -1 -0.2mm sphericalR2 at 0.2 mm.0mm 0.2 mm for same displacement of less than 0.5 1 Figure 3. For rubber of thickness 0.Chapter 3: Results and discussions 3.
2: Tests with spherical and flat indentor with radius 4 mm on rubber sheet with thickness 1 mm. In flat indentor for a radius 4 mm the rubber under the indentor will not expand as the rubber under the spherical indentor so flat indentor needs a slight more force than spherical indentor.Force-displacement of 4mm indentor radius 7 6 5 Flat R4 for 0.2) shows the graph plotted from data obtained by indentation test with flat and spherical indentors both with a radius of 4 mm. 0.5 mm.2 mm shows flat indentor need slight more force than flat. In a careful examination of figure 3. 0. 0. This is because of the penetration effect of spherical indentor. 46 .2mm Flat R4 for 0. curves for flat indentor can be found slightly high than spherical indentor.0mm spherical R4 for 0. The above figure (figure 3.5mm and 0.5mm 1 0 -1 0 1 2 displacement (mm) 3 4 spherical R4 for 1.2mm spherical R4 for 0.2 mm.5mm Flat R4 for 1. Form the graph for both spherical and flat indentors of 4 mm radius have same effect on rubber of thickness 1 mm.2.0mm Force (N) 4 3 2 Figure 3.
5 2 1.6 0.4 0.2 0.8 1 1.4 0.3) represents maximum force needed for a displacement of 3mm on rubber with thickness from zero to maximum thickness of 1 mm.5 0 0 0.2 Figure 3.4: Shows the slope of force displacement curve against different thickness of rubber with flat indentor of radius 2 mm.2 0 0 0.8 1 1.6 thickness (mm) 0.2 Thickness of rubber (mm) maximum force needed for 3 mm displacement with flat indentor Figure 3.2 Maximum force and slope on different thickness of rubber with 2mm indentor Maximum force needed for 3 mm displacement with flat indentor of 2mm radius 4 3. 0.2 1 0. It can be seen that slope of the curve is in larger at small thickness and reduces gradually as thickness increases.0 mm.5 3 Force (N) 2.5 1 0.2 mm. 47 .5mm and 1. The above figure (figure 3.4 0.2 0.3: Maximum force needed for a displacement of 3 mm on rubber sheet with thickness 0.8 Slope 0.6 0.3. Slope Vs thickness 1.
0 mm Maximum displacement 3 mm Maximum force Slope of force displacement curve 0. Flat indentor with 2 mm radius Thickness 0.251 3 mm 3 mm 2.4 0.4 3.75 0. It can be seen from the graph that the slope rapidly increases till a thickness of 0.5 mm 1.1: Shows the maximum displacement.4 shows the slope of force displacement curve along y axis at different thickness shown along x-axis.829 1.2 mm 0. maximum force and slope of force displacement curve for different thickness using flat indentor with 2 mm radius 48 .108 Table 3.The above figure 3.5 and the slope tents to decreases thereafter.
5 Thickness of rubber (mm) Maximum force for 3mm displacement with flat indentor of 4mm radius Figure 3.3 Maximum force and slope for indentor 4 mm on different thickness of rubber Maximum force for 3mm displacement with flat indentor of 4mm radius 7 6 5 Force (N) 4 3 2 1 0 0 0. 49 .3. The slope is slightly more for thin rubber but the curve’s slope is reducing as thickness increases.5 1 1.5: The figure shows the maximum force needed for a displacement of 3 mm with different thickness.
260 2.6 N 3.2 mm Thickness 0.4 0.179 Table 3.0 mm Maximum displacement 3 mm 3 mm 3 mm 1.6 thickness (mm) 0.6 represents the slope of force displacement curve and the different thickness of rubber on X axis.2: Shows the maximum displacement. The line is almost a linear than the flat indentor with radius 2 mm (figure 3. In the figure 3.5 0 0 0.5 mm Thickness 1.5 1 0.8 1 1.4) but the slope have a tent to decreases as the as the thickness increases.504 1.4 N Maximum force Slope of force displacement curve 0.2 Figure 3. maximum force and slope of force displacement curve for different thickness using flat indentor with 4 mm radius Slope 50 .5 2 1.2 0.Slope Vs thickness for flat indentor with 4mm radius 2. Flat indentor with 4 mm radius Thickness 0.6: The figure shows thickness on X axis and slope of force displacement curve on Y axis for rubber with 1 mm thickness.6 N 6.
4: Shows the maximum displacement.1 N 0.2 mm Thickness 0.2 N 3.9 N 0.Spherical indentor with 2 mm radius Thickness 0.245 0. maximum force and slope of force displacement curve for different thickness using spherical indentor with 4 mm radius 51 .963 Table 3.436 1.3: Shows the maximum displacement.0 mm Maximum displacement 3 mm 3 mm 3 mm Maximum force Slope of force displacement curve 0.96 Table 3.5 mm Thickness 1.3 N 5. maximum force and slope of force displacement curve for different thickness using spherical indentor with 2 mm radius Spherical indentor with 4 mm radius Thickness 0.0 mm Maximum displacement 3 mm 3 mm 3 mm Maximum force Slope of force displacement curve 1.7 N 2.2 mm Thickness 0.696 0.10 1.1 N 3.5 mm Thickness 1.
2 Thickness of rubber (mm) Maximum force for 3mm displacement with flat indentor of 4mm radius Maximum force needed for 3 mm displacement with flat indentor of 2mm radius Figure 3.7) the curves of flat indentor with radius of 4 mm have almost a constant slope than the indentor of 2 mm radius. It can also seen that the difference of force between flat indentor radius 2 mm and 4 mm is have not much difference till 0.2 0. 52 . The contact area is more for indentor of 4 mm radius and is more than four times for 4 mm radius flat indentor than the 2 mm radius flat indentor and hence the force is also more for 4 mm radius.6 0. From the above figure (figure 3.Maximum force needed for Flat indentor with radius 2 and 4 mm for 3 mm displacement 7 6 5 Force (N) 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.4 mm thick rubber but from 0.4 mm thickness the force difference between indentors of 2 mm radius and 4 mm radius increases dramatically. The larger area of contact makes the curve more stable than the indentor of radius 2 mm.8 1 1.4 0.7: Graphs shows the maximum force needed for a displacement of 3 mm on rubber of thickness 1 mm with flat indentors of 2 mm and 4 mm.
5 3 3. Loading rate with flatR2 on 1mm 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -0.4 Effect of rate of loading As the times increases the force decreases slightly for flat indentor but it does not have much effect on spherical indentor.5 1 1. It can be seen that loading rate has not much effect on small changes of loading rates but for a large change in loading rates the slope changes.8: Force displacement data showing the effect of loading rate from 1 sec to 100sec with flat indentor with radius 2mm on 1mm thick rubber sheet. Figure 3.8 represents force displacement curve with flat indentor of radius 2 mm with rubber of thickness 1mm with different loading rates from 1 sec to 100 sec for a displacement of 3 mm. 53 . a small decrease in slope can be observed as loading rate increases.5 1 sec 2 sec Force (N) 4 sec 10 sec 15 sec 20 sec 40 sec 100 sec displacement (mm) Figure 3.3.5 -1 0 0.5 2 2.
But still there is a slight effect on loading rate in indentor with radius 4mm. The slope of force displacement curve will reduces slightly as the loading rate increases so the force needed for a 3 mm displacement is less for a loading rate of 100 sec than 1 sec.5 1 1.9) force displacement curve for flat indentor of radius 4 mm on rubber with thickness 1 mm. 54 .5 2 2.Loading rate for flat R4 8 7 6 5 2 sec 4 sec 10 sec 15 sec 20 sec 2 1 0 -0.9: Force displacement data showing the effect of loading rate from 2 sec to 100sec with flat indentor with radius 4 mm on 1mm thick rubber sheet. The figure above shows (figure 3.5 displacement (mm) 40 sec 100 sec Force (N) 4 3 Figure 3. It can be seen that loading rate is not having as much effect it has on indentor with radius 2 mm.5 3 3.5 -1 0 0.
5 3 2.5 1 sec 2 sec 4 sec 1.10) shows force displacement diagram of 1 mm thick rubber on different loading rate from 1 sec to 40 sec with spherical indentor. 55 . The above figure (figure 3.5 displacement (mm) 10 sec 15 sec 20 sec 40 sec Force (N) 2 Figure 3.5 1 1.5 3 3. The slope tents to decrease as the loading time increases.5 1 0.10: Force displacement data showing the effect of loading rate from 1 sec to 40 sec with spherical indentor of radius 2 mm on 1 mm thick rubber sheet.5 2 2.Force displacement curves for different loading rate 3. The loading rate has some effect with indentor size of 2 mm similar to that of flat indentor with 2 mm.5 0 0 0.
5 1 1.Loading rate spherical R4 6 5 1 sec 2 sec 4 Force (N) 3 4 sec 10 sec 2 15 sec 20 sec 1 40 sec 100 sec 0 -0. It can be observed that loading rate have a slight influence on the slope of force displacement curves but the large indentors have slightly less influence on loading rate than smaller indentor.11) shows the force displacement curve of spherical indentor with a radius of 4 mm.5 2 2. The above graph (figure 3. 56 .5 -1 0 0.5 displacement (mm) Figure 3.5 3 3.11: Force displacement data showing the effect of loading rate from 1 sec to 100sec with spherical indentor of radius 4 mm on 1 mm thick rubber sheet.
The spherical Indentor will also have a piercing effect and hence same displacement is obtained with less force. It can be seen that the force needed for flat indentor is slightly more than spherical indentors it could be because the area of the tip of flat indentor is constant from the very starting of loading where as in spherical indentor the contact area with rubber will be slightly less in the initial stages of loading and as the loading increases the area of contact also increases.8 N respectively. 57 . The above bar chart (figure 3.5 Effect of indenter shape and size on force 7 6 5 Force (N) 4 3 2 1 0 flat R2 1mm flat R4 1mm spherical R2 1mm spherical R4 1 mm Figure 3.12: Bar chart showing maximum force needed for a displacement of 2 mm on indenter shape with flat and spherical of radius 2mm and 4 mm shows force needed is slightly large for flat indentor. The maximum force needed for a displacement of 2 mm with flat indentors of radius 2 mm and 4 mm on rubber of thickness 1 mm is 4 N and 6 N respectively and for spherical indentors of radius 2 mm and 4 mm are also 3.3.9 N and 5.12) shows the maximum force needed for a displacement of 2 mm by flat and spherical indentors of radius 2 mm and 4 mm on rubber with thickness 1 mm.
01 in this case) will give the area between loading and unloading curves and hence the viscoelasticity.430-0.5 mm thick rubber on flat indentor with radius 2 mm Equation for loading curve is y = 0.142 x3 – 0. 0 and 1.374 x =0 Integrating the above equation with limits (maximum and minimum force.236-0.0.2 mm thick indentor.3.01 0 ∫ 0.374 x =0 58 .016) x3+ (-0.126+0.123) x2+ (0.1466 x2 + 0. Viscoelasticity can be found by the area between force displacement curves.236x2 + 0.1466 x2 + 0.126x3 .056x Difference between loading and unloading curve (0.056) x=0 0.430x Equation for unloading curve is y = -0. 1.016x3 + 0.123x2 + 0. By integral calculus to find the area between two curves can be found by subtracting the equation of curve with lower value from the curve with higher value and by integrating the resultant equation with limits with the two meeting points.142 x3 – 0. Calculation of viscoelasticity for 0.6 Viscoelastic Specimen calculation: Viscoelasticity for flat indentor with radius 2 mm on 0.
1466 (1.187 .01)2 .0.3211x y = -0.0 = 0.0 4 3 2 = 0.374 (1.13: Above figure shows the loading (red) and unloading (blue) curve for flat indentor with radius 2mm on rubber sheet of thickness 1 mm.0488 + 0.0278x3 + 0. (loading) Figure 3.102x2 + 1.7786x unloading loading Poly.0355 – 0. (unloading) Poly.0192x3 + 0.271367 Loading unloading curve of flat indentor with radius 2mm on 1mm thickness 6 5 4 Force (N) 3 2 1 0 -1 0 1 2 displacement (mm) 3 4 y = -0. 59 .01)3 + 0.0082x4 + 0.142 (1.01)4 – 0.1909x2 + 0.
5 0 -0.5832x Force (N) 1. (loading) 0 1 2 displacement (mm) 3 4 y = -0.0627x3 + 0.0202x4 + 0.4 displacement (mm) Force (N) loading unloading Poly.2 0 1 2 3 4 -0.2 0 -1 -0.5 1 0.3119x2 + 0.8 0.14: loading (red) and unloading (blue) curve for flat indentor with radius 2 mm on rubber sheet of thickness 0.0564x 0.5 mm.107x unloading loading Poly.2 mm thickness 1.0144x3 + 0.1238x2 + 0.0091x4 .5 mm thickness 3 2.15: loading (red) and unloading (blue) curve for flat indentor with radius 2 mm on rubber sheet of thickness 0.0.5 2 y = 0. Loading unloading curve for flat indentor with 2 mm radius on 0.6 0.2 y = -0.2 mm.4 1.4 y = -0. (loading) Poly. 60 .5 Figure 3.1034x2 + 0.4304x 1 0. (unloading) Poly.1269x3 .0.011x3 + 0.Loading unloading curve of flat indentor radius 2mm on 0. (unloading) Figure 3.2366x2 + 0.
741422 24. It is the radius of cylinder inside where the rubber is fixed.18269 5.463914 0. 3.0 mm 4.2056 5. 61 .264753 0. As the radius of cylinder or chamber size increases the force required will also decreases and is explained later in this part.071067 19.175654 0. A-2. Loading unloading curves for flat indentor radius is shown in appendix A-1.2mm 0.148 3.5: Shows viscoelasticity of rubber with different thickness of rubber with flat and spherical indentors of radius 2 mm and 4mm Thicker the rubber viscoelasity will be more for thicker rubber and is more for large diameter indentor.488667 14.viscoelasticity Flat indentor radius: 2mm 4 mm Spherical indentor radius: 2 mm 4 mm Thickness: 0.33383 Table 3.5 mm 1.7 Effect of chamber size Chamber size is the radius of rubber where the effect of force affects. A-3.271367 0.833182 32.
5 Displacement (mm) Figure 3. For chamber size 5 mm the force needed is much larger than large chamber size.5 mm thick spherical 1. Hence we can conclude that as the chamber size is more the force is also larger.5 mm2 For a chamber radius of 10 mm the area under goes extinction is π* 102= 314. 0. 62 .2 mm thick flat 0.5 mm and 0.14*25 = 78.16: Load displacement curves for 1.5 mm thick flat 1. 0. Force displacement curves for a chamber size of 10 mm and 15 mm is shown in appendix A6 and A7. π* 52= = 3.2 mm with flat indentor of radius 2 mm with a chamber radius of 5 mm. The above figure shows the force displacement curve for a chamber size of 5 mm on rubber of thickness of 0.0 mm.0 mm thick flat 0.e.0 mm thick spherical Force (N) 4 3 2 1 0 -1 0 0. which is four times more than 5 mm chamber radius.5 1 1.5 3 3.0 mm.2 mm thick spherical 0.5 mm and 1.5 2 2.Load Vs displacement for 5 mm chamber size 8 7 6 5 0. This is because the extinction is produced in an area of πr2 i.2 mm.
5 mm and 0. The above figure (figure 3.5 mm and 1. So it can be considered that the force is inversely proportional to chamber radius. For a thickness of 0.Effect of chamber size 8 7 6 Force (N) 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 7 9 11 13 15 Chamber size (mm) 0. Chamber size curves for rubber with thickness 0.2 mm thickness 0.17: Force vs. The slope tents to reduce as the chamber size decreases.2 the curves are much like a linear line.5 mm thickness 1.0 mm for an extension of 5 mm. For a chamber size till 10 mm the slope of force chamber radius curve is more.17) shows the effect of chamber radius and force for three different thickness of rubber.2 mm.0 mm thickness Figure 3. 63 . 0.
1 mm. The slope for chamber size 10 mm and 15 mm are showing same trend without much variation from 0.6 0. After the thickness of about 0.4 0. 64 .2 1 0.2 0 0 0.8 1 1. From the figures we can conclude that as the chamber size increases the force also increases.2 0.5 mm thickness of rubber.8 Slope 0.18) for a very small thickness of rubber of less than 0.Slope.4 0.2 10 mm radius 15 mm radius Figure 3.18: Slope of force displacement curves of chamber radius 10 mm and 15 mm with various thickness of rubber.6 Thickness (mm) 0. From the above figure (figure 3.thickness for different chamber size 1.5 mm the 10 mm chamber radius line and 15 mm chamber radius line as almost parallel to each other so the difference of 10 mm could be a multiple of 15 mm radius chamber.01 mm the chamber size of 10 mm and 15 mm does not have much difference than that of thickness from 0.
6 0.2 0.5 0.162 2.0 0.5 1.0 Table 3.4935 0. : 65 .8 3.6 1.2 1.2 3 15 0.Number Chamber size Thickness Force for 3 mm displacement Slope 0.6: Table with different chamber size and different thickness and the maximum force needed for 3mm displacement and slope of force displacement curve for each thickness.0726 0.1923 0.8 7.0 0.4 3.5746 1.3 3.4055 1.0465 1 5 0.2 2 10 0.5 1.5 1.8 2.2518 0.723 1.
4mm and 1.0 mm thick and the indentor radius is 2 mm and 4 mm. 0.2 mm. The value of variable D is 66 . The comparison of experimental and calculated parameters of rubber published in the Journal called International Journal of Mechanical Science 47 (2005) and test conducted by myself is shown in the tables below. page 326) Where P= force in Newton’s P = π c2 q c= radius of indentor q= intensity h= thickness of rubber a = chamber radius and D can be calculated by the formula D = Eh3/ (12 (1-µ2)) ----------------------------------------------------------------. The difference between the journal’s calculated young’s modulus and experimental young’s modulus is because of the difference in value in the variable D.(2) from which young’s modulus E can be found out. In the journal the thickness of rubber used is 120 µm and the radius of indentor is 250 µm where as in the experiment the thickness used are of 0. As per the journal the Young’s modulus is accurate and is around 1.6 MPa for rubber of thickness 120 µm but when the same formula (1) is used in the experiment the young’s modulus found to be much inaccurate.3.8 Young’s Modulus using formula Deflection. w= P [ 3 + µ a2 + c2 log c 16πD 1+µ a 7 + 3µ c2 ]---.-----------(1) 4 (1 + µ) (International Journal of Mechanical Science 47 (2005).
044 Table 3.40 0.05 X 106 3.7: Shows the parameters used to find the Young’s modulus. (International Journal of Mechanical Science 47 (2005).325 X 10-6 1.8: Experimental parameters used and the young’s modulus for each thickness with flat indentor of 2 mm radius 67 .26 0.270 0.251 0. page 327. The variable D is calculated from the formula (2) and can be seen except the value of h.693 2 2. By Journal Number a h P/w D E (MPa) 1 1.0 mm 120 µm 120 µm 120 µm 7.313 X 10-6 1.108 2.0 mm 0.526 3 5.2 mm 10 mm 0.0 mm 0.631 Table 3. table 1)  By experiment: Indentor radius 2 mm Number a h P/w D E (MPa) 1 2 3 10 mm 0.829 1.02 0.293 X 10-6 1.much higher than the Journal’s value.5 mm 1. thickness all the other values is constant.71 X 106 4.5 mm 10 mm 1.96 X 106 1.26 0. Since the cube root of thickness is much different we can conclude that the above formula can be used for a small thickness.
079 Table 3.0 mm h P/w 0.03 mm. It can be 68 . The above figure (figure 3.19) shows the force displacement curves for three different gloves of thickness 0.26 2.31 0.9 Test on three different gloves 3 different glove with flat indentor 6 5 4 Force (N) 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 displacement (mm) blue gloves (flat) yellow gloves (flat) white gloves (flat) Figure 3.By experiment: Indentor radius 4 mm Number 1 2 3 a 10 mm 0.504 1.14 mm named white.86 X 106 E (MPa) 1. 0. blue and yellow respectively according to the colours of the gloves.12 mm and 0.179 D 2.5 X 106 512 X 106 8.9: Experimental parameters used and the young’s modulus for each thickness with flat indentor of 4 mm radius 3.367 0.5 mm 10 mm 1.2 mm 10 mm 0.19: Load displacement curve for three different gloves.
068.5 2 SolidWorks E=1 SolidWorks E=2 SolidWorks E=3 Force (N) 1. 3.20: The figure shows the SolidWork force displacement curves at different young’s modulus with the actual force displacement curve from experiment using 1 mm thick rubber and 2 mm radius indentor.5 1 0. From the loading unloading curve of three gloves (figure A4) it can be seen that the viscoelastic effect is maximum for blue gloves. Since the creep effect is also least for yellow gloves it can be used again without any problem after wearing and removing for a number of times. 0. Since the force needed for elongation of yellow rubber is between blue and white gloves it cannot be as tight as blue gloves are and white have most creep effect so it can get less fit after using a couple of times. In this approach the rubber test is stimulated under the same properties except 69 .5 0 0 0.seen that for an elongation of 5 mm the largest force needed is for blue so it can be considered as the tightest gloves. The slopes of three gloves are 1. yellow and white gloves.542 and 0.5 2 SolidWorks E=4 SolidWorks E=5 SolidWorks E=6 experimental Figure 3.5 1 displacement (mm) 1.286 respectively for blue. The white gloves have a large amount of creep than the other gloves (figure A5). Yellow gloves are the thickest as have the least viscoelastic and creep effect. Since the formula (1) used was unable to find the young’s modulus another approach is used to find the young’s modulus of rubber used in experiment.10 SolidWorks stimulation Experiment and solidworks 2.
0 mm. 3.5 mm and a force 3N the displacement produced is 2. Thus it can be concluded that the Young’s modulus of rubber of thickness 1 mm is 6 MPa.04 mm displacement is produced between a mesh size of 0. From the SolidWork stimulation different force displacement curves are plotted for different young’s modulus from 1 MPa and are compared with the force displacement curves obtained from the experiment as shown in figure 3.5 mm can produce more accurate result than a model with a mesh size 1. 70 .the young’s modulus. For a mesh size of 0.5 mm and 0.199 mm and for mesh size of 0. for the same force 3N produces a displacement of 2. The above figure (figure 3. All the other curves are the SolidWorks results on the stimulation of the rubber of 1 mm under the same conditions as in the experiment with the young’s modulus 1 MPa to 6 MPa. That means a difference of 0. So the mesh size 0.9 mm.11 Effect of mesh size As the element size decreases the number of elements increases and hence the accuracy of the stimulation will also increases.20) shows the experimental force displacement curve obtained from 1 mm thick rubber with an indentor radius of 2 mm on a chamber size of 10 mm.16 mm. It can be clear that the force displacement curve of rubber matches with the force displacement curve obtained from SolidWork stimulation of Young’s Modulus 6 MPa.20.9 mm. The table below shows the effect of different mesh size on a rubber of thickness 1 mm with a flat indentor of 2 mm radius.
5 1 1.5 5 0.8 mm 2 2.202 1.778 1.746 1.5 1 1.994 2.7 mm 2 2.10: Effect of mesh size at different force shows the deformation on 1 mm thick rubber 71 .211 1.07578 1.208 0.5 1 1.5 3 0.5 1 1.7432 1.508 1.5 2 0.9 mm 2 2.5 3 0.07643 1.199 0.5 3 0.182 0.5 3 0.757 1.963 2.5 3 Table 3.759 1.526 1.502 1.5 1 1.7367 1.5 mm 2 2.98 2.5 0.1515 1.178 0.5 4 0.187 1.Number element size (mesh size) Force (N) Displacement (mm) 0.6 mm 2 2.981 2.495 1.181 1.16 1 0.766 1.975 2.194 1.5 3 0.075 1.
3.12 Summary of project
Same tests under same conditions are carried out on rubber with thickness of 0.2 mm, 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm and the results found to be same so the tests are repeatable. Compared the flat and spherical indentor and from the force displacement graphs obtained shows the same characters except flat indentor needs a slight more force than spherical indentor to get the same displacement. For different loading rates both spherical and flat indentors have the same behaviour. For small radius indentors loading rate will affect more than indentors with a larger radius. Still loading rate of up to 0.03 mm/sec with 2 mm radius indentor shows not much influence on force displacements graphs. (figure 3.9-3.11) Visco elastic effect of natural rubber increases as the thickness of rubber increases. From table 3.5 as the thickness gets doubled from 0.5 mm to 1.0 mm viscoelasticity is getting square. As the chamber size increases the force needed for same extinction will decreases. The slope for chamber size 10 mm and 15 mm are showing same trend without much variation from 0.5 mm thickness of rubber. (figure 3.18) From figure 3.17 for rubber of thickness 0.5 mm and 0.2 mm the force varies almost linearly with force. So the force can be considered as inversely proportional to chamber radius. Compared the formula and parameters used by the Journal International Journal of Mechanical Science 47 (2005) and test conducted by myself and found that the same formulae used in that journal is valid for rubber of very small thickness of the order of less than 120 µm and for small chamber size of less than 1 mm with small extension of 10 nm or small force of 0.1 µN.  By comparing the test results of test carried out on three different gloves it can be found that Young’s modulus will be maximum for blue gloves then for yellow and least for white gloves. For white gloves the effect of creep and visco elastic is high than other two gloves. The blue glove needed much more force for
same displacement than other two gloves so it can be considered to be too tight to wear. For different Young’s modulus values from 1MPa to 6MPa different force displacement graphs are plotted with SolidWorks. This force displacement data form SolidWorks are compared with the experimental force displacement data for 1 mm thick rubber and the Young’s modulus found to be 6MPa. Found the effect of mesh size, as the element size decreases the accuracy will also increases since for the mesh size of 0.5 mm and 0.9 mm the maximum difference in deflection for 3N is 0.039 N so we can be neglect the effect of mesh size for a difference of 0.4 mm. (table 3.10)
CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION
Rubber with different thickness of 0.2 mm, 0.5 mm and 1.0mm are test with flat and spherical indentors with two different radiuses of 2 mm and 4 mm. Both indentors of flat and spherical behave in a similar manner except for flat indentors the force is a little larger than flat indentor. As the size of indentor increases the force needed for extension will also increases. Thus for both spherical and flat indentor of 4mm radius needs more force than indentor of 2mm radius. The effect of loading rate can be neglected for indentor of 2 mm radius but as the indentor radius becomes larger the effect of loading rate becomes more predominant hence cannot be neglected for 4mm radius indentor. The viso elastic effects are less for less thickness of rubber than large thickness. Hence the effect is higher for 1 mm thick rubber than that of 0.5 mm and 0.2 mm. The force decreases as the chamber size chamber size increases. As chamber size increases the force can be found to be varying almost linearly for 0.5 mm and 0.2 mm thick rubber so force can be considered to be inversely proportional to chamber size. The formula used by the Journal International Journal of Mechanical Science 47 (2005) to find young’s modulus is valid only for very small parameters of thickness, chamber radius, displacement and force. By comparing the experimental works with the testing results of three different gloves found that white glove can be used only for a few times, blue glove is the hardest with the largest Young’s modulus and the white gloves is better than the other two gloves. By comparing solid works force displacement data with experimental force displacement data the young’s modulus of 1mm thick natural rubber found to be 6MPa. The mesh size of 0.5mm to 0.9mm does not have much difference. The largest difference in force for 3 mm displacement was for rubber of 1mm thickness and was only 0.039N so the effect of element size of a difference of up to 0.4 mm can be neglected. So the comparison of mash size of 0.5 mm and 0.9 mm won’t affect much while comparing with the solid works and experimental works force displacement data.
Reference: 1) Applications of Synthetic Resin Lattices: Lattices in diverse applications by Henry Warson, C. A. Finch 2) Alan N. Gent, Engineering with rubber: how to design rubber components, second edition, 2001, Hanser Gardner Publications Inc 3) Anthony C. Fischer-Cripps, Nanoindentation, Second edition, Springer – Verlag New York, 2004 4) Andrew Ciesielski, An introduction to rubber technology, Rapra Technology Limited, First Edition, 2000 5) Basic rubber testing: selecting methods for rubber test program (Page 61-63) By John S. Dick, ASTM International Publisher, 2003 6) Bing – Feng Ju, Yang Ju, Musumi Saka, Kuo – Kang Liu, Kai – Tak Wan, A systematic method for characterizing the elastic properties and adhesion of thin polymer membrane, 2005. 7) Challenges and Progress in High-Throughput Screening of Polymer Mechanical Properties by Indentation by Johannes M. Kranenburg, Catherine A. Tweedie, Krystyn J. van Vliet, and Ulrich S. Schuber 8) E. I. Rivin, Properties and prospective applications of ultra thin layered rubber-metal laminates for limited travel bearings. 9) Jim R. White and S. K De, Rubber technologist's handbook, Rupra Technology Limited, 2001, 1st edition. 10) L. R. G. Treloar, The physics of rubber elasticity, Oxford University Press, 2005. 11) Mikell P. Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes, and Systems, John Wiley & Sons Publications, 4th edition 2010
Volume 5. Chapman and Hall Ltd. Review of Instrumented Indentation.gordonengland.adhesivestoolkit.pdf 15) www.html (Viscoelasticity) 17)http://www.advmat. July. Rupa Technology limited 2001. Report 58 .de 16) http://silver. 76 .co. R. 1983 19) Rubber compounding: chemistry and applications by Brendan Rodgers 20) Roger P. Physical Testing of Rubber third edition.com/DocuData/NPLDocuments/P%20A%20J/Ot hOt%20documents/Adh99%20rubber%20paper.12) Mark R.uk/hardness/rockwell.wisc. 1996 21) R.neep.gov/pic/NISTMV. Volume 108. Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Powell. VanLandingham.nist. G.pdf 18) Peter C.edu/~lakes/VEnotes. Engineering with polymers. Physical Testing of Rubber. Champman and Hall.htm 14) http://slp. Number 4. 22) The physics of rubber elasticity by L. P Brown. Brown. Treloar 2005Oxford University Press.August 2003 13) http://www.
77 .8521x Force(N) loading unloading Poly. (loading) Poly.1243x 4 y = -0.0 mm thickness 7 6 5 y = 0.2368x2 + 1.0493x3 + 0. (unloading) 3 2 1 0 -1 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Displacement(mm) Figure A1: loading (red) and unloading (blue) curve for flat indentor with radius 4 mm on rubber sheet of thickness 1 mm.2544x2 + 1.0446x3 + 0.Appendix Loading unloading curve of flat indentor radius 4mm on 1.
2 1 y = -0.5 1 1.3461x loading unloading Poly.079x2 + 0.5 2 2.1572x2 + 0.5 3 2.0.5 mm thickness 3.5 1 0.2334x3 .2 mm thickness 1. 78 .0101x3 + 0.2 0 0.4 0. (unloading) Poly.6776x Force (N) 0.6727x unloading loading Poly.2473x3 0.0392x4 + 0.0347x4 + 0.6455x Figure A2: loading (red) and unloading (blue) curve for flat indentor with radius 4 mm on rubber sheet of thickness 0.0591x3 .5 0 -1 -0. Force (N) Loading unloading curve of flat indentor radius 4mm on 0.5 2 1. (loading) Poly.4123x2 + 0.6 0. (unloading) y = -0.0.0048x4 + 0.Loading unloading curve of flat indentor radius 4mm on 0.3123x2 + 0.4 1.5 displacement (mm) 3 3.2 mm. (loading) y = -0.2 0 -0.5 mm.5 Figure A3: loading (red) and unloading (blue) curve f or flat indentor with radius 4 mm on rubber sheet of thickness 0.6 1.8 0.5 0 1 2 displacement (mm) 3 4 y= -0.
Force displacement curve for three gloves 6 5 4 Force (N) 3 2 1 0 Blue white Yellow -1 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 displacement (mm) Figure A4: Force displacement curve showing loading and unloading curve of three different gloves.2 0 Force (N) white 1 2 3 displacement (mm) 4 5 6 Figure A5: Force displacement curve for white rubber gloves.8 1.6 0.4 0.8 0.4 1.6 1.2 1 0.2 0 -1 -0. 79 . Force displacement curve for three gloves 1.
5 0 -0.5 FlatR2 for 0.5 3 2.2mm sphericalR2 at 0.0mm 0 1 2 displacement (mm) 3 4 Force (N) 2.5mm spherical R2 at 1. 80 .2mm Flat R2 at 0.0mm sphericalR2 at 0.5mm Flat R2 at 1.2mm thick FlatR2 for 0.5mm thick Force (N) 2 1.5 4 3.5 Figure A7: Force displacement curves for chamber size 15 mm with different thickness and with flat and spherical indentors.5 0 Figure A6: Force displacement curve for 1 mm thick rubber on spherical and flat indentor with 2mm radius on a chamber size of 10 mm.5 2 1.2mm thick 0 1 2 Displacement (mm) 3 4 sphericalR2 for 0.5 1 0.5 1 0. Force displacement curve for chamber size of 15 mm 3.5mm thick FlatR2 for 1mm thick sphericalR2 for 0.Force displacement curve chamber size of 10 mm 4.5 3 Flat R2 at 0.
5mm 81 .Figure A8: Solid work stimulation output for 1 mm thick rubber with mesh size 0.
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