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HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN TIBET

Annual Report

2009

Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy

Cover Photo : Iconic images that say it all.

Loyak executeed for participating in March 14 2008 protest in Lhasa, without free and fair trial

C ONTENTS

Executive Summary Civil and Political Liberties Right to Education Rights to Development Religious Freedom Appendices

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1 List of Known Tibetans sentenced 2. List of Known Current Political Prisoners 3. List of Know Tibetans who were arrested and detained in 2009 4. Table Listing Relevant International Human Rights Instruments Signed and/or Ratified by the Peoples Republic of China 5. Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations

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Map of Tibet

Human Rights Stituation in Tibet: Annual Report 2004

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The year 2009 marked 50 years of exile for the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan people. In five decades the Tibetan people have suffered enormous hardships and systematic human rights abuses by the government of Peoples Republic of China (PRC). Human rights violations continue unabated with impunity and there is no sign of let up by the government. The uprising of 2008 by the Tibetans in Tibet was a thunderous call for reform and solution to the Tibetan issue, yet the government continues to callously dismiss the legitimate voice of the people. The bygone year was marked by some defining events. On the one hand the authorities in Chinese administered Tibet executed Tibetans over the spring 2008 protests, announced serf emancipation day, struck hard on Tibetan intellectuals and wangled law to drive home the point that the Communist Party is above law. On the other hand, the Chinese and Tibetan people forged closer ties and the Chinese intellectuals and think tanks boldly differed with their government over the issue of Tibet. During the year fast track courts in Tibet issued death penalty to five Tibetans for their participation in the spring 2008 protests. 1 Pushing aside global appeals to overturn the death penalty, China put into effect the sentences amidst international hue and cry over it.2 China is the worlds leading practitioner of death penalty carrying out more executions than all the other nations in the world put together.3 The state aggressively exhibits its right to sovereignty through its implementation of death sentences despite international appeals and a UN General Assembly resolution on global moratorium 5 on death penalty4. This was evident from the numerous executions carried out in Tibet, East Turkestan5 and that of a Briton with mental disorder for whom the British government sought clemency.6 In response to the wide spread protests on the Tibetan plateau in spring 2008, the government launched a carefully crafted propaganda offensive by announcing 28 March as the Serf Emancipation Day.7 Instead of listening to local voices and bringing about solutions, the governments imposition of an annual propagandistic festival only refreshes the Tibetans memories of 2008 and brings about even deeper resentment against the government. In striking straight against the message of the Tibetan protests in 2008 by bringing further slurs to the Dalai Lama and the erstwhile Tibetan government, the government has further provoked sentiments of the Tibetans. Since spring 2008 pan-Tibet protests, Tibetan areas incorporated into the Sichuan province have clearly become the focal point in the whole of present-day Tibet.8 In the recent past, dominance of political activities has shifted from the so-called Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) to Tibetan areas outside the TAR designate. This is clearly evident from the total number of arrests, detentions and sentencing statistics maintained by the TCHRD. Although it is certain that the total figures may be far greater than that documented by the Centre, a total of 1,542 known Tibetans9 continue to remain in detention or are serving prison sentences since spring 2008.

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 Out of the total, 53.17% (or 820 Tibetans) were from Sichuan province, the rest are as follows: 19.90% (307 Tibetans) were from Gansu, 9.01% (139 Tibetans) belonged to Qinghai, 0.19% (3 Tibetans) were from Yunnan and 17.70% (273 Tibetans) belonged to the TAR. Additionally the figures for known Tibetans who were legally sentenced since spring 2008 also point to the fact that Sichuan has indeed been most active politically. Out of the 334 known cases of Tibetans having been sentenced, 48.1% (or 161 Tibetans) were from Sichuan province while the remaining were as follows: 37.42% (125 Tibetans) were from TAR, 8.68% (29 Tibetans) were from Qinghai and 5.08% (17 Tibetans) belong to Gansu Province. In 2009, there were 145 known cases of detentions or serving prison sentences. Out of them, 62.06 % (or 90 Tibetans) were from Sichuan, 18.62% (27 Tibetans) were from the TAR, 4.13% (6 Tibetans) were from Gansu, 13.79% (20 Tibetans) were from Qinghai and 1.37% (2 Tibetans) were from Yunan Province. Owing to the fact that Tibetan areas outside the TAR witnessed the maximum number of protest incidents since spring 2008 and which is supported by the huge number of legal convictions, it is highly possible that control in areas outside the TAR which used to enjoy a relative freedom will be made tighter in the near future. The authorities have already taken stringent measures and heightened vigorous patrolling of the border areas. The number of refugees exodus from Tibet has dropped significantly in 2009 and 2008. As against the usual average of around 2000 Tibetans fleeing Tibet, this year only 691 Tibetans10 managed to escape while 627 fled Tibet in 2008. The authorities make a mockery of judiciary in present-day Tibet by stifling it to cater to the needs of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). In order to protect the party interest and legitimize the party leaders call for peoples war,11 laws of the country have been wangled to convict Tibetan demonstrators. According to TCHRD documentation, over 334 known Tibetans have received legal convictions since spring 2008 protest.12 Out of the total convictions, 11 are known to have been served with life imprisonment. The legal proceedings have been performed with political motivations and hence were not free and fair.13 In almost all the cases the defendants had no independent legal counsel and in a few cases where the defendants were being represented by a lawyer of choice, the authorities ensured that these representations were blocked either through intimidation or through procedural tactics. One of the most high profile cases this year was the sentencing of Phurbu Tsering Rinpoche to eight and a half years prison term.14 Rinpoches lawyer from Beijing was barred from representing him and in a closed door trial the court sentenced him to a fixed imprisonment term on charges of possessing weapons.15 Phurbu Rinpoche is a well respected religious figure and as per the established pattern he was framed for his personality and influence over the masses. He was charged of possessing weapons in an attempt to manipulate the case as that involving terrorist activity. The local Tibetans never believed such a charge and instead such a conviction stirs up more resentment against the authorities for framing their beloved teacher as a criminal. One such case in the near past was that of sentencing of Trulku Tenzin Delek Rinpoche in 2003 to death with two years reprieve which was later commuted to life imprisonment.16 Seven years after the conviction, the local Tibetans in Lithang and Nyagchukha counties made fresh appeals for his release in December 2009 to the provincial as well as the central authorities. Huge congregations of Tibetans from all walks of life staged enormous demonstrations to seek the lamas release and it was eventually compromised that the authorities would allow monthly prison visits to Trulku for Lithang and Nyagchukha people. This latest episode in Trulku Tenzin Deleks case reveals the peoples clear rejection of the unjust legal conviction passed several years ago. 17 Phurbu Tsering

Executive Summary Rinpoches case is identical to that of Trulku Tenzin Delek Rinpoches case. During the year Tibetan intellectuals, artists and internet bloggers came under heavy crackdown by the government. They were mostly charged for leaking state secret and for activities which are otherwise a standard practice of expression of opinion or belief. Some of the most prominent cases were those of sentencing of Kunga Tsangyang to a five year imprisonment term for writing essays and photographing environmental degradation in Tibet18, Kunchok Tsephel Gopeytsang to 15 years for running Chonmei website19, Kang Kunchok, the former editor of Gangsai Meiduo to two years of prison term20. Tashi Rabten, editor of a banned literary magazine and author of Written in Blood has remained disappeared since July 200921, Dokru Tsultrim, editor of literary magazine Life of Snow was arrested in April 2009, Tashi Dondrup, singer who released an album Torture without Trace was arrested in December 2009,22 Gyaltsen and Nyima Wangdue were sentenced to three prison terms for posting Dalai Lama pictures on the popular Chinese chatsite QQ.com, Five monks from Tsakho and Khakhor Monasteries continue to be detained for producing a VCD entitled Chakdrum Marpo23. The governments severe restriction on freedom of expression is prompting Tibetans to attempt bold ways to relay their message under the knowledge that they would face the most severe of punishment with the trade off that their message will effectively reach a large audience. Video testimonials are becoming popular for their sheer effectiveness in communication, coupled with authenticity of watching and hearing a real individual speaking in front of the camera. Last year, the defiant Labrang monk Jigme Guri24 fearlessly spoke about torture in detention in a video testimonial; Dhondup Wangchen documented many Tibetans video testimonials regarding their concerns in his documentary Leaving Fear Behind;25 Kelsang Tsultrim of Gitsang Gaden 7 Choekhorling Monastery recorded his testimonials in July 200926 and distributed it widely in his locality; Ven. Rinchen Sangpo recorded video testimonials of Tibetans in Golok region in October 2008 which were released in September 200927. It should be noted that this trend is a desperate attempt by Tibetans inside Tibet to have their voice heard in the absence of independent human rights monitors or media and international observers. Surge in availability of pictures and video evidences coupled with the growing trend of video testimonials indicate an encouraging rise in citizen journalism in Tibet. Torture is systematic in Chinese administered prisons across Tibet. Chinas lies to the world and to the UN mandates on torture were exposed in 2010. Despite the denial of use of torture by the Chinese authorities and the claim of restraint in dealing with the Tibetan protesters, video evidences smuggled out of Tibet utterly shocked the entire world regarding the painful death of a young Tibetan, Mr. Tendar, due to torture inflicted upon him while in detention.28 His crime was that he interfered when he saw some policemen beating monks during protest in Lhasa in March 2008. For his act in defending the monks, he was brutally tortured in the detention centre and was denied timely medical care on the injuries suffered during torture. At the time of his death the wounds on his body had rotten and a nail was found pierced into his foot when his body was given a traditional sky burial.29 In other instances, Kalden, a monk of Drepung Monastery who was arrested on 10 March 2008 for participating in the demonstration died in August 2009 after a prolonged period of confinement, torture and maltreatment in the prison.30 Another prominent case of death due to torture came to light when a 33-year-old nun Yangkyi Dolma died in December 2009 at the Chengdu government hospital.31 She was arrested on 24 March 2009 when she along with a nun colleague staged a peaceful protest at the Kardze County main market square. They called for human rights for Tibetans in Tibet. They were severely beaten by

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 the security forces at the site of the demonstration and taken away to the detention centre. The UN Committee Against Torture in its concluding observations following assessment of PRCs state report to the Committee in November 200832 made several recommendations to the Chinese government including ensuring that all persons detained or arrested in the aftermath of Spring 2008 events to have prompt access to an independent lawyer, independent medical care and the right to lodge complaints free from official reprisal or harassment. However, the recommendations were not heeded by the government as no discernable improvement in prohibiting the use of torture, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment is evident. The Chinese authorities blatantly denied use of extreme force upon the Tibetan demonstrators during the spring 2008 uprising in Tibet. The government ignored a joint communication by seven United Nations mandates on protection of human rights33 and the UN Committee against Tortures demand for answers by the government regarding the use of excessive force and killings of Tibetan demonstrators particularly in Ngaba County, Kardze County and Lhasa.34 A year has elapsed since the Committees concluding observations in November 2008 and yet PRC continues to passively dismiss the demand for answers by the committee. In the absence of any answer by the government, a young monk who survived the security forces indiscriminate firing in Kardze County fled Tibet. 18year-old Ven. Dorjee Rinchen told a horrifying account of how the security forces without issuing any warning opened indiscriminate firing on a group of peaceful demonstrators which eventually led to the known death of at least 14, including Ven. Dorjees uncle.35 He himself was hit by a bullet but luckily survived the incident and evaded arrest by hiding in the high mountains for over two months. Another Tibetan, 39-year old Tsewang Dhondup also narrowly survived gunshots while trying to help a young monk, Kunga, who later succumbed to bullet injuries sustained during the police indiscriminate firing on a group of around 300 Tibetan demonstrators in Tehor.36 Dhondups friends hid him for 14 months in mountains during which they provided him crude medications and he miraculously escaped death. He later fled Tibet in the hope of testifying before the United Nations. Despite the availability of first hand victim testimonies, documentary and visual evidences, the government of PRC stubbornly insist on denying the occurrence of these extrajudicial killings. In true spirit of Bodmi Kyiduk Nyamnyong (a popular slogan used during the Tibetan uprising in 2008 meaning Tibetan people stand together through happy and difficult times), solidarity movement of non celebration of the Tibetan New Year37 and civil disobedience movement of farming boycott by the Tibetans in Kardze region were extraordinarily successful. The non celebration of Tibetan New Year became a global Tibetan movement with roots in Tibet. There have been reports where some local Chinese authorities have either given direct orders or tried to lure some sections of the society with monetary benefits if they celebrate the New Year38. The state dance troupes shows, which are usually popular among the people especially during Tibetan New Year, were also shunned at most places. 39 The farming boycott movement had severe repercussions as many Tibetans got arrested40 and there was at least one known death associated with the movement.41 The authorities in Kardze, Drango and Nyarong Counties issued notices warning the farmers to till their land or face confiscation of the land. On one occasion the police opened fire on a group of Tibetans who were protesting against a court verdict42. There was a crackdown on the farmers and on one occasion the authorities publicly paraded 11 Tibetans who had refused to comply with the authorities order to till their farmlands.43 All the intimidation tactics employed by the authorities failed; how-

Executive Summary ever, ironically a request by the exile Tibetan Prime Minister asking the Tibetans to go back to their fields was heeded44. Nevertheless, they were already one month late in the cultivation season, hence the farmers incurred heavy loss due to crop failure. Freedom of religion is severely curtailed in present day Tibet. The Chinese authorities tactic of intimidation, restriction of religious activities and movements of monks and nuns in religious institutions ensures the steady decline in the quality of religious education. The continued stringent enforcement of patriotic re-education campaign ensures a bleak and dark future for Tibetan Buddhism. In order to achieve stability, the authorities continue to primarily target the monastic community under various government campaigns to reform and bring the community under control and inculcate love for the motherland. The infamous patriotic reeducation campaign was intensified during the year resulting in widespread violation of freedom of religious worship and beliefs. In deliberate moves, the government officials order the monks to denounce their own spiritual guru, to abuse their highly respected lamas and perform acts which are otherwise prohibited under monastic vows and code of conduct, in the name of patriotic re-education initiated by the Chinese as a requisite for continuing as a monk or a nun. The religious persecution in Tibets religious institutions is evident from the fact that suicides of monks and nuns in Buddhist Tibet has been on rise since spring 2008 protests in Tibet45. The extreme psychological trauma and imposition of irreconcilable demands on the monastic community force the monks and nuns to take the ultimate step despite the fact that Tibetan Buddhists believe suicide to be one of the most heinous forms of sins that violate the cardinal precepts of the doctrine. In an ethnically exclusionary economic growth,46 the development projects do not bring direct benefit to the Tibetans. The Chinese administrators in Tibet in calculated and deliberate allocation of resources award most contracts to out-of-province stateowned enterprises rather than to locally owned and operated businesses. The state is obsessed with projects involving resource extractions rather than the development of human capacity.47 This is evident in the UN Human Development Report in where Tibets human development index is at the bottom of all of the PRCs provinces.48 The high level of illiteracy results in Tibetans being at a significant disadvantage in protecting their human rights and in enjoying the rights of citizenship.49 Making the matter worse is the fact that ethnic Han Chinese continue to hold top CCP positions in nearly all counties and prefectures making it ever difficult for Tibetans to have a say in decision making. In the name of progress, resettlement programs by the government has been uprooting and disrupting traditional Tibetan ways of life at a fast pace. In violation of international laws on development, these displacements occur without compensation and consent of the affected population.50 Also of utmost concern is the unavailability of affordable health care for the Tibetans. This is particularly problematic in Tibets predominantly rural areas. Ever mindful of presenting a positive image of Tibet to the outside world, PRC focuses its resources and attention on the cities that attract the most tourists. Under the rule of government of PRC, education in Tibet has deteriorated immensely as it has been treated as a vehicle to propagate and strengthen CCPs grip on Tibet. The poor condition of the schools, low quality of teaching and designing of a curriculum to brainwash the children in socialist ideologies and discouragement of children from speaking their own language and learning their own history triggers the painful decision to flee into exile where there is an opportunity of receiving broadbased modern education. Under such painful circumstances parents send their children, oftentimes 9

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 never to see them again, trusting strangers and guides to make the treacherous journey across the Himalayas where they will be admitted in the network of schools run by the exile Tibetan government. In accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and as a member state to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)51, the PRC is obligated to ensure that the rights contained in the international instruments are upheld. The constitution of the PRC calls for the duty as well as the right to receive an education and Education Law stipulates that the citizens have the right to education regardless of their nationality, race, sexor religious belief 52. Despite the mandates from the domestic as well as international laws, the state maintains policies and programs that functionally deny Tibetan children access to adequate education. This denial has serious consequences for the Tibetan population and the preservation of their culture. Disparities and inequality in education has resulted in the further economic marginalization of Tibetans and they are precluded from employment opportunities on account of inferior education forced upon them. Since the Chinese settlers possess advanced education and Chinese language abilities, many Tibetans are unable to compete with them in getting jobs. Unless the government ensures to meet its obligations to provide the Tibetan children with their fundamental right to an education, children will continue to risk their lives by making the dangerous journey over the Himalayas to receive education in exile. Despite the fact that the government of PRC continues to maintain an iron-fist rule over Tibet, the Dalai Lama has expressed his genuine faith and sincerity in the Chinese people.53 Over 100 Chinese and Tibetan delegates consisting of intellectuals, 10 scholars, lawyers and human rights workers met in Geneva, Switzerland, in August 2009 to promote understanding between the two communities and to find ways for a peaceful solution of the Tibetan issue. This Sino-Tibetan conference Finding Common Ground concluded that the root cause of the Tibetan issue is not a conflict between the Chinese people and the Tibetan people, but rather the autocratic rule of the Peoples Republic of China in Tibet and its cultural genocide in Tibet and strongly proposed that the resolution of the Tibetan issue is closely related to the democratization of China.54 The Chinese intellectuals, scholars, lawyers and human rights defenders proved extremely bold in showing their integrity and professionalism. In stark defiance of the government position regarding the uprising of the Tibetan people as being criminal activities of looting, burning and smashing, Beijingbased lawyers organization and think-tank Gongmeng (Open Constitution Initiative) published a groundbreaking report in May 2009 which boldly refuted the official position and put forward policy failings by government as reason for the Tibetan peoples uprising against the government.55 The authors of the report stated we deeply sensed the popular discontent and anger behind the incidents [of the spring 2008 protests], and the complexity of their social roots An important perspective for interpreting the 3.14 incident [March 14, 2008, when protesting turned to violence in Lhasa] is that it was reaction made under stress by a society and people to the various changes that have been taking place in their lives over the past few decades. The notion that appears impossible to understand is the implication that reasonable demands were being vented, and this is precisely what we need to understand and reflect upon. As expected the authorities quickly reacted to the report and shut down the organization alleging tax evasion and calling it illegal. Beijing Justice Bureau revoked the licenses of 53 lawyers associated with the group.

Executive Summary 2009 was the year when the United Nations focused strongly on the issue of racism worldwide. The High Commissioner for Human Rights, Ms. Navinatham Pillay, in her statement on the International Human Rights Day on the theme of concept of non-discrimination reckoned that Minorities in all regions of the world continue to face serious threats, discrimination and racism, and are frequently excluded from fully taking part in the economic, political, social and cultural life available to the majorities in the countries or societies where they live.56 During the year Tibetan voice over racism in Tibet was effectively gagged by the Chinese government both directly and indirectly. In April 2009, China made sure that the Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy (TCHRD) was not allowed accreditation to the UN Durban Review Conference through effective wangling of procedural tactics57. In August 2009, the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) met to scrutinize Chinas compliance to the Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. While the Secretariat of the CERD included Chinese government sponsored NGO reports on its official webpage, it made inclusion of TCHRDs alternate report conditional by directing the Centre to remove mention of Chinas occupation of Tibet and the phrase cultural genocide mentioned in the conclusion of TCHRDs alternate report.58 The Centre expressed its inability to comply with the directive thereby maintaining its position that Tibet is a land under foreign occupation and racism is inherent in a colonized land. In light of the worsening human rights condition in Tibet, during the 12th session of the UN Human Rights Council, the High Commissioner for Human Rights called on the Chinese authorities to respect human rights in upholding the lawalso encourage them to reflect on the underlying cause of such incidents, which include discrimination and the failure to protect minority rights.59 The High Commissioners message for China to end the human rights violations of the minorities and to address the root causes of the problem rather than suppressing rights of the people must be heeded and put into action through good faith by the government of PRC. China should exhibit qualities of moral uprightness and compliance to human rights standards in view of its controversial reelection to the Human Right Council for a second term in May 2009.60 In February 2009, while accepting some recommendations, China rejected most of the substantive recommendations made by the UN member states through the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) system to advance human rights in China.61 Abolition of death penalty, implementation of Committee against Tortures recommendations, reform of state secret laws, abolishment of reform through labour and black jails, abolishment of various systems of arbitrary detention, establishment of national human rights institutions and guarantee of religious freedom were some of the strong recommendations which were rejected absolutely by China. The UPR system as a state driven process to improve human rights among UN member states is a failure with regard to China. US President Barack Obamas visit to China was one of the most important events in 2009 for China watchers and human rights watch dogs. While President Obama reiterated the United States of Americas position on Tibet as a part of China, he also supported the early resumption of dialogue between the Chinese government and representatives of the Dalai Lama to resolve any concerns and differences that the two sides may have62. During the year there was no meeting between the envoys of the Dalai Lama and the Chinese leadership since talks broke down in late 2008.63 The former Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs and Special Coordinator on Tibetan issues, Ms. Paula Dobriansky, noted that the Obama administration should call for substantive dialogue between Beijing and the Dalai Lamas envoys. President Obama should meet with the Dalai Lama when he

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 comes to Washington in February [2009] and publicly appeal to Chinas leaders to let the Dalai Lama make a pilgrimage to China. 64 Taking cue from the precedent set by the US administration, Australia65 and New Zealand66 have followed suit in not meeting the Dalai Lama.67 Last year the British government withdrew its position of Chinese suzerainty over Tibet68 and this year Denmark changed its position on Tibet on the eve of UN Summit on Climate Change in Copenhagen69. These latest developments in change of approach and positions by governments are worrisome and indicate strongly to western governments appeasement strategy in light of newly rich and strong China. The First Working Action Plan on Human Rights Protection 2009-2010 released by the Information Office of Chinas State Council on 13 April 2009 was a welcome initiative70. This document promised citizens more legal protection, better livelihoods, greater civil and political rights, including rights of detainees and the right to a fair trial. While it is encouraging to note that the government put forward a benchmark document, it is equally unfortunate to see that its implementation is not considered seriously especially in the light of the summary executions carried out in Tibet and East Turkestan. The document lists the theoretical improvements along with age-old rhetoric on remarkable achievements made in the field of human rights protection and enjoyment of human rights and freedom in accordance with law at an opportune time, the international community waits for China to prove that it is not the same wine in a different bottle. The year 2009 has been a year of legal convictions in the wake of pan-Tibet spring 2008 Uprising in Tibet. High arbitrariness in the sentencing of numerous Tibetans clearly exposes the summary and arbitrary nature of judiciary in Chinese administered Tibet. It brings forward the focus that judicial apparatus in China is politically motivated and hence the extreme harshness in dealing with peoples aspi12 ration for fundamental human rights. Irrespective of the governments strategy of cracking down harshly on political dissidence, the Tibetans continue to show defiance in pursuit of human rights and freedom. Despite the governments iron-fist rule, the Chinese intellectuals, scholars, lawyers and human rights workers have remained undeterred. This positive energy in the intellectual community in China raises hope for change in the Peoples Republic of China.

(Endnotes)
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The government of China has acknowledged the execution of two Tibetans, Lobsang Gyaltsen and Loyak, although human rights monitors including the Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy have reported a higher number of executions. China Executes Four Tibetans In Lhasa Over Spring 2008 Protest, TCHRD Press Release, 22 October 2009, available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20091022.html China: Overturn Death Sentences for Tibet Protesters, Amnesty International, 9 April 2009, available at the url http:/ /www.amnesty.org.hk/html/node/10260 US based Human Rights Watch in a letter to President Obama released on 9 November 2009 raised issues in Tibet and Xinjiang, particularly the executions of Tibetans alleged to have been involved in the March 2008 protests there, and of Uighurs for involvement in the July 2009 protests in that region.Available at the url http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/11/09/letterpresident-barack-obama-trip-china Death Sentences and Executions in 2008", Amnesty International, Index Number: ACT 50/003/2009 Date Published: 24 March 2009, available for download at http:// www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ACT50/003/2009/en GENERAL ASSEMBLY ADOPTS LANDMARK TEXT CALLING FOR MORATORIUM ON DEATH PENALTY, UN Department of Public Information, 18 December 2007, available at http://www.un.org/News/Press/ docs/2007/ga10678.doc.htm Nine executed over Xinjiang riots, BBC, 9 November 2009, available at the url http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8350360.stm British anger at China execution, BBC, 29 December 2009, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/ 8433704.stm Tibet sets Serfs Emancipation Day, Xinhua, 19 January 2009, available at the url http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/

Executive Summary
2009-01/19/content_7410293.htm The three traditional provinces of UTsang, Kham and Amdo have been divided and incorporated into five administrative divisions; Tibet Autonomous Region, Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces. The Chinese references to Tibet invariably mean the Tibet Autonomous Region which includes only one traditional province, UTsang This total of 1542 does not include Tibetans having been released after their detention or died. The list is available at the end of this report. This figure is as per the record of Tibetan Refugee Reception Centre in Dharamsala, north India. Beijing Intensifies People s War Against Splittism as Nationalism Rears its Head, JAMESTOWNFoundation, 28 April 2008, available at http://www.jamestown.org/single/ ?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=4885 The list of prisoners is at the end of report. Chinas legal wrangle of Tibetan popular uprising: A Critique, TCHRD Press Release, 3 May 2008, available at http:// tchrd.org/press/2008/pr20080503.html Tibetan living Buddha Phurbu Tsering jailed by China, BBC, 1 January 2009, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/ hi/asia-pacific/8436865.stm After initially allowing two Chinese civil rights lawyers to represent Rinpoche, they were stopped from attending further legal proceedings. Statement by lawyer Li Fangping from the Beijing Municipality Ruifeng Law Office and lawyer Jiang Tianyong from the Beijing Municipality Gaobo Longhua Law Office on the case of Phurbu Rinpoche is available on the website of International Campaign for Tibet published on 27 April 2009 at http://savetibet.org/media-center/ict-newsreports/verdict-tibetan-lama-deferred-chinese-lawyersstatement-charges-against-phurbu-rinpoche China sentenced two Tibetans to death, TCHRD Press Release, 5 December 2002, available at the url http://tchrd.org/ press/2002/pr20021205.html A detail account of the incident with an English translation of the appeal letter originally written in Tibetan language is available on the website of International Campaign for Tibet published under the title Tibetans defy security crackdown to demonstrate in support of imprisoned Tibetan lama on 17 December 2009 available at the url http://savetibet.org/mediacenter/ict-news-reports/tibetans-defy-security-crackdowndemonstrate-support-imprisoned-tibetan-lama Kungas essay Who are the real separatists? is posted on the Tibet Writes website at the url http://tibetwrites.org/?Who-are-the-realseparatists A website proprietor arrested in Gansu Province, TCHRD Press release, 7 March 2009, available at the url http:// tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090307b.html Four Tibetan writers jailed for criticising Chinese government, Reporters Without Borders, 4 August 2009, available at the url http://www.rsf.org/ spip.php?page=article&id_article=34071 Bad News- Tibetan bloggers report the arrest of Tibetan writer Therang, 3 August 2008 as reported by high peaks pure earth website; http://www.highpeakspureearth.com/ 2009/08/bad-news-tibetan-bloggers-report-arrest.html Tibetan Singer Tashi Dondrup arrested over subversive CD, Jane Macartney, Times Online News dated 4 December 2009 available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/ asia/article6943997.ece China arrests eleven Tibetans in Golog over subversive VCD, TCHRD Press Release, 8 December 2009, available at http:/ /tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20091208.html China re-arrests monk who exposed Chinese crackdown to foreign media, TCHRD Press Release, 4 November 2009, available at http://www.tchrd.org/press/2008/ pr20081103b.html Video is available at the website of Voice of America News , A Voice from Tibet, 3 September 2008, http://www.voanews.com/tibetan/archive/2008-09/200825

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09-03-voa1.cfm?CFID=60281078&CFTOKEN=98883722 The video documentary and related materials are available at their official website http://leavingfearbehind.com/ A video appeal from a Tibetan inside Tibet to the International Community, TCHRD Press Release, 28 August 2009, available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090828.html The video is available at the website of TibetOnline.tv under the title Appeal about the plight of Tibetans at the url http:/ /www.tibetonline.tv/videos/71/appeal-about-the-plight-oftibetans New Video Reveals Chinas Repression in Tibet, Tibet.Net, 25 September 2009, available at http://www.tibet.net/en/ index.php?id=1131&articletype=flash&rmenuid=morenews&tab=1The video is available at TibetOnline.tv under the title Unveiling the Truth, at the url http://www.tibetonline.tv/videos/77/ unveiling-the-truth Chinas Brutality in Tibet Exposed, Tibet.Net, 20 March 2009, available at http://www.tibet.net/en/ index.php?id=759&articletype=flash&rmenuid=morenews&tab=1 Video footage available at http://footage.tibetanbridges.com/ A Tibetan monk died from torture whilst in Chinese detention, TCHRD Press Release, 10 September 2009, available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090910.html Kardze nun protestor died under mysterious circumstances in Chengdu Hospital, TCHRD Press Release, 7 December 2009, available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20091207.html The Committee Against Torture, CAT/C/CHN/CO/4, available at the url http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/ cat/cats41.htm Special Rapporteur on Tortures report, A/HRC/10/44/Add.4, pg.64, Tenth session of the UNHRCdated 17 February 2009 and Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Killings report, A/ HRC/11/2/Add.1, pg.49, Eleventh session of the HRC dated 29 May 2009 The Committee Against Torture (CAT) during its Forty-first session in its concluding observations (CAT/C/CHN/CO/4, dated 12 December 2008) called for PRC to conduct a thorough and independent inquiry into the reported excessive use of force, including against peaceful demonstrators and notably monks, in Kardze county, Ngaba county and Lhasa.

13

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009


The Committee also requested information from the government on the Committees recommendations within a period of one year. Tongkor shooting survivor reaches exile with a harrowing tale, TCHRD Press Release, 27 November 2009, available a t h t t p : / / t c h r d . o r g / p r e s s / 2 0 0 9 / pr20091127.htmlTESTIMONY OF TONGKOR DORJEE RINCHEN, TCHRD, 27 November 2009, available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20091127a.html The Will to Survive: One Mans Harrowing Escape from Tibet, The Huffington Post, 30 July 2009, available at the url http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rebecca-novick/the-willto-survive-one-m_b_246755.html China Adds to Security Forces, in Tibet Amid Calls for a Boycott,Edward Wong, New York Times, 19 February 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/19/world/asia/ 19tibet.html China Expects Tibet to Celebrate, or Else, Barbara Demick, Los Angeles Times, 23 February 2009, available at http://articles.latimes.com/2009/feb/23/world/fgtibet-newyear23 The local authorities may have been complying orders from the higher authorities to make Tibetans celebrate New Year in the usual manner. Responding to a question during a press conference on 10 February 2009, the Vice Chairman of the TAR Peoples Standing Committee, Nyima Tsering, called the movement an underground campaign by some secessionists to boycott the festival to mourn the dead of 2008" Tibetans refuse State Dance Troupes, Radio Free Asia broadcasted on 5 March 2009Three more Tibetans arrested in connection with Farming Boycott Movement, TCHRD Press Release, 23 March 2009, available at http://tchrd.org/ press/2009/pr20090323.html Drango farmers arrested and beaten by the Chinese security police, 1 April 2009, TCHRD Press Release, available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090401.html "A Tibetan Monk Beaten to Death by Chinese Security Police, TCHRD Press Release, 30 March 2009, available at http:// www.tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090330.html Chinese Police Open fire in eastern Tibet, 9 Arrested and several injured, Tibet.Net, Press Release, 22 April 2009. A Tibetan monk beaten to death by Chinese Security Police, TCHRD Press Release, 30 March 2009, available at the url http://www.tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090330.html Testimony of Tongkhor Dorjee Rinchen, TCHRD, 27 November 2009, available at http://www.tchrd.org/press/ 2009/pr20091127a.html Monk suicides on the rise in Buddhist Tibet, TCHRD, 7 June 2009, available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090607.html Perversities of Extreme Dependence and Unequal Growth in the TAR, Andrew Martin Fischer, 25 August 2007, Tibet Watch Special Report, available at ir.iss.nl/ eserv.php?pid=iss:90&dsID=TibetWatch.pdf Environment and Development in Tibet, a Crucial Issue, Department of Information and International Relations, 2008, Mining and Resource Extraction, pg 18, available at http:// w w w. t i b e t . n e t / e n / p d f / d i i r p u b / e n v i r o n m e n t / 5 / crucialIssue2008.pdf Human Development Report: China 2007/08", United Nations Development Programme, 17 November 2008, available for download at http://www.un.org.cn/cms/p/ resources/30/877/content.html Education Index for Tibet at 0.554 (page 139), Illiterate in the population aged 15 and above at 45.65% (page 142) is lowest among all the provinces in China according to the Human Development Report: China 2007/08", United Nations Development Programme, 17 November 2008, available for download at http://www.un.org.cn/cms/p/ resources/30/877/content.html No One Has the Liberty to Refuse Tibetan Herders Forcibly Relocated in Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, and the Tibet Autonomous Region, Human Rights Watch, June 2007, available for download at http://www.hrw.org/reports/2007/ tibet0607/ The PRC voted in favor of adopting the UDHR in 1948, ratified the CRC in 1992, and ratified the ICESCR in 2001. Article 9, Education Law of the Peoples Republic of China, available at http://www.moe.edu.cn/english/laws_e.htm An Appeal to the Chinese People, Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, 28 March 2008, available at http:// dalailama.com/messages/tibet/appeal-to-the-chinesepeopleAn Appeal To All Chinese Spiritual Brothers And Sisters, Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama , 24 April 2008, available at http://dalailama.com/messages/tibet/appealto-all-chinese Final Document of the 2009 Sino-Tibetan Conference Finding Common Ground in Geneva, 8 August 2009, available at http://www.tibet-china-conference.org/content/news.htm#3 A translation of the report is available at the website of International Campaign for Tibet published under the title Bold report by Beijing scholars reveals breakdown of Chinas Tibet policy , 1 June 2009, available at http://savetibet.org/ media-center/ict-news-reports/bold-report-beijing-scholarsreveals-breakdown-china%E2%80%99s-tibet-policy Statement by the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay on Human Rights Day 10 December 2009, available at http://www.ohchr.org/EN/AboutUs/Pages/ StatementHCHRDay2009.aspx Communications between the Permanent Mission of the Peoples Republic of China and the TCHRD over the accreditation is made public at Tibetan voice gagged at the Durban Review Conference, TCHRD, 20 April 2009, available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090420a.html Secretariat of the UN committee against discrimination censors TCHRD report, TCHRD, 7 August 2009, available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090807.html Statement of Ms. Navanethem Pillay United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights at the 12th session of the Human Rights Council, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), 15 September 2009, available at http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/ huricane.nsf/0/2DD5A4BD46C13CEFC1257631002D5

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Executive Summary
B6B?opendocumentExact quote - I followed with concern the recent disturbances in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region and those previously in the Tibetan Autonomous Region and surrounding areas. While condemning such violence and urging the Chinese authorities to respect human rights in upholding the law, I also encourage them to reflect on the underlying causes of such incidents, which include discrimination and the failure to protect minority rights. Chinas possible re-election to the UN Human Rights Council, a question of credibility, TCHRD Press Release, 8 May 2009, available at the url http://tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090508.html China Rejects UN Recommendations for Substantive Reform to Advance Human Rights; HRIC Summary, Human Rights in China, 11 February 2009, available at the url http:// www.hrichina.org/public/contents/128130 Obama says US reiterates Tibet is part of China, Global Times, 17 November 2009, available at the url http:// china.globaltimes.cn/diplomacy/2009-11/485782.html Hope and Encouragement in times of hardship and adversity, Tibet-Envoy.Europe, Website of the Envoy of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, 29 December 2009, available at the url http:/ /tibet-envoy.eu/content/?p=198 The Realist Case for Tibetan Autonomy : Paula Dobriansky, Phayul.com, 7 January 2009, available at the url http:// w w w . p h a y u l . c o m / n e w s / article.aspx?article=The+Realist+Case+for+Tibetan+Autonomy+ %3A+Paula+Dobriansky&id=26358 No Dalai Lama meeting for PM, The Australian, 3 October 2009, available at the url http://www.theaustralian.com.au/ news/no-dalai-lama-meeting-for-pm/story-e6frg6t61225782330346 Government clearly boycotting Dalai Lama visit, Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand, 18 November 2009, available at the url http://www.greens.org.nz/press-releases/governmentclearly-boycotting-dalai-lama-visit In March 2009, South Africa imposed a controversial ban on the Dalai Lama from attending a peace conference linked to the 2010 Football World Cup. South Africa bans Dalai Lama trip, BBC, 23 March 2009, available at the url http:// news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7958881.stm UK recognises Chinas direct rule over Tibet, Telegrah.co.uk, 5 November 2008, available at the url http:// www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/tibet/3385803/ UK-recognises-Chinas-direct-rule-over-Tibet.html Copenhagen: Tibet is integral part of China, Peoples Daily, 11 December 2009, available at thr url http:// english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90883/ 6839016.html Denmark seeks to pacify China over Tibet, AFP, 10 December 2009, available at http://www.google.com/ h o s t e d n e w s / a f p / a r t i c l e / ALeqM5h0NQ3F0kcoXTlTV3ipqxyGDqN7jg National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009-2010), Peoples Daily Online, 13 April 2009, available at http:// english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90785/ 6635641.htmlTCHRD urges China to Overturn death sentences, TCHRD welcomes Chinas First Working Action Plan on Human Rights Protection 2009-2010", TCHRD Press Release, 17 April 2009, available at http:// www.tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090414.html

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CIVIL AND POLITICAL LIBERTIES


Introduction:
For Tibetans inside Tibet its been yet another year of heightened security, repression, isolation and suppression. The year encapsulated with numbers of highly sensitive anniversaries in Chinese calendar was dealt with an iron fist. The government and the Communist Party (from hereon referred to as Party) crackdown on Tibetans following the series of Tibetan protests that began on 10 March 2008 in the Tibet Autonomous Region (thereafter referred to as TAR) and Tibetan-populated areas in neighboring provinces, continued during the year 2009 and led to arbitrary arrests and other human rights violations including prolonged detention and imprisonment, death, torture and other ill-treatment. Security measures were intensified with sharp early warning in many Tibetan areas during a month long before and during a series of sensitive anniversaries and observances in February of Tibetan New Year and March anniversary in 2009. The number of political protests in the year were smaller and of briefer duration than a series of protests that took place last year. On the cusp of the first anniversary of a mass revolt on the Tibetan Plateau that marked the worst ethnic unrest in China in nearly two decades, many Tibetans still seethe at living under Chinas thumb. Reports of Tibetan protests are matched by those of tightened security measures and calls to crush any demonstrations of support for the Dalai Lama, especially during the run up to major anniversaries in Tibet. Despite this, popular Tibetan protests have 17 continued across the region. Some engage in smallscale civil disobedience movements. Others, including monks, brazenly display photographs of the Dalai Lama, the exiled leader they revere as a Godking but whom China maligns as a wolf in monks robe1 Nearly all protestors gripe about a lack of religious and political freedom. China on 11 February made an utter mockery of the United Nations Human Rights Council and its Universal Periodic Review (UPR) process, dismissing all allegations of violations offhandedly and rejecting all specific recommendations, namely that it abolish capital punishment, adopt international norms against torture, abolish illegal detention and respect religious and minority rights, for substantive reform and improvement.2 China accepted some recommendations on the promotion of human rights in general, but rejected most of the recommendations made by UN member states to implement specific measures and reforms to advance genuine human rights in China. It specifically rejected recommendations for ensuring respect for the Rule of Law, right to counsel and due process in criminal trials, judicial independence, reform of state secrets system and definitions of crimes such as incitement to subversion of state power which are abused when used against human rights defenders, and other human rights issues raised by different countries. China played down recommendations and ensured that 70 of 119 recommendations made were excluded from the final draft. She rejected the recommendation to take immedi-

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 ate measures to implement the November 2008 recommendations of the Committee Against Torture, particularly on the inadmissibility in court of statements made under torture.3 The explanation given in the UPR report was that these recommendations did not enjoy the support of China. China made it clear that it considered issues such as unrest and repression in Tibet political4 and so unfit for discussion at the Geneva meeting. The Chinese government tried to whitewash its human rights record in the hope that the UN will just look the other way. At 11 June Human Rights Council during an Outcome Report on China meeting, a required process for all member states whose human rights situation was reviewed, the Chinese government rejected without exception 70 recommendations on the human rights abuses in China.5 This includes many of the fundamental human rights.6 China as a member of the UN Human Rights Council has an obligation to uphold the highest standards in the promotion and protection of human rights7 and to fully cooperate with the Council. If the present working methods of the rich and powerful nations continue, the new UN reform would remain redundant. While rejecting many pressing human rights issues, China on 13 April 2009, published the First Working Action Plan on Human Rights Protection 20092010.8 Although it has brought theoretical improvement and added to the age-old rhetoric on remarkable achievements made in the field of human rights protection and enjoyment of human rights and freedom in accordance with law at opportune time but the ground reality of the situation speaks completely different stories. The recent information filtering out of Tibet through various channels has confirmed that all is not well in Tibet and Tibetans still continue to reel under constant fear and trepidation of authorities while exercising their fundamental human rights. Freedom of religion, expression and association continue to be severely restricted and arbitrary arrests and detention continue. Many still continue to remain behind the bars where they are at risk of torture and ill-treatment. There is a deep seated and widespread zero-tolerance level on activities or viewpoints that are deemed or suspected as challenge to the Communist Partys control over aspects of society. Finally a terse message was delivered by the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, MS. Pillay, during the 12th Session of the UN Human Rights Council, on the human rights violations of the minorities and called to address the root causes of the problem rather than suppressing rights and freedoms of the people. She condemned violence and called on the Chinese authorities to respect human rights in upholding the law and also encourage them to reflect on the underlying causes of such incidents, which include discrimination and the failure to protect minority rights9

Anniversaries and Clampdown in Tibet:


Judging from last years massive protests across the Tibetan plateau, the Chinese authorities were quick to step up more security measures during periods that bracketed a series of sensitive anniversaries and observances in February, March and October 2009. The Chinese government and security officials sought either to pressure Tibetans to participate in a publicly visible event such as the Tibetan New Year when Tibetans preferred not to celebrate or to prevent Tibetans from participating in a publicly visible event such as a political protest coinciding with anniversary when some Tibetans may have wished to rise up. The Chinese state mouthpiece Xinhua on 4 February 2009 released a report concerning the stepping up of security restrictions in TAR and non TAR regions of Tibet.10 According to Xinhua re18

Civil and Political Liberties port, the Security Department of the Central Government of China released an official paper titled The Key Task To Improve the Overall Security Situation in 2009.11 The paper spelled out 33 Points to combat security threats. Out of the 33 Points, 15 points dealt with security concerns in the TAR and Non-TAR regions. Under such measures the state security forces transgress on many of the fundamental human rights of the Tibetan people. The paper listed Three Categories of People as the most potent threat to overall social stability and security inside Tibet. They are as under: 1) Those individuals who took part in the last years protests and who were later released 2) Those individuals who illegally left and re-entered Tibet 3) Those monks and nuns who were expelled from monasteries and nunneries According to Xinhua report, close surveillance, restriction and inspection were to be maintained on those Tibetans who fell under the Three Categories of People in all parts of Tibet. The paper endorsed the continuation of Strike Hard (Ch: Yanda) campaign in Lhasa city for an indefinite period of time. On the most significant note, TAR and non -TAR regions of Tibet were singled out as the principle target of the Key Task in the drive to maintain a high level of security presence and social stability in China. Similarly on 4 February 2009, the Security Department of the Central government in Beijing issued terse orders to the regional government of TAR to step up unprecedented security restrictions and clampdown on any kind of untoward protest or demonstration should they take place. The order issued by the Central government was significant as the first anniversary of the last years pan Tibet protests and demonstrations drew near. Numerous check posts were installed on major roads, highways, streets and alleyways. There was intense restriction on the movement of Tibetan people. According to many sources, temporary police and military bases mushroomed up at important and strategic locations inside Tibet where protests and demonstrations previously took place.

Tibetan New Year & Civil Disobedience Movement


The year 2009 coincides with numerous anniversaries and observances beginning with Tibetan New Year (Losar) which was on 25 February (Tibetans follow the lunar calendar) and 10 March 2009, which marks the 50th anniversary of the National

No Losar Poster: Courtesy Lhuboom RFA

Uprising and the first anniversary of an unprecedented wave of overwhelmingly peaceful protests that swept across the Tibetan plateau. These were to be met by a brutal crackdown. In the weeks prior to the anniversary and the Tibetan New Year, the Chinese government stepped up levels of intimidation and adopted an increasingly harsh and systematic approach in silencing Tibetans and suppressing dissent, with the authorities calling upon officials, security forces and the general public to crush any signs of support for the Dalai Lama. Prior to the Tibetan New Year which was on 25 February this year, when some Tibetans chose to forego traditional celebration of the Tibetan New 19

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 Year12 to express their grief and dissatisfaction with the Chinese handling of the peaceful protests since March 2008, especially the death and imprisonment of Tibetan protesters and to show solidarity with the Tibetans who are suffering inside Tibet,13 the Chinese government officials pressed Tibetans to celebrate the New Year in the usual manner.14 As Losar approached the movement to boycott the celebration of Losar gained momentum and reached various parts of Tibetan areas and was matched by significant increase in the number of security forces sent to the Tibetan areas.15 For instance, on 2 March 2009, the central government in Beijing issued 63 combat vehicles to Lhasa Public Security Bureau (PSB) Department with a directive that the 63 combat vehicles were to be distributed amongst the most sensitive and protests prone areas inside TAR.16 Earlier the Chinese government issued special combat equipments to Lhasa Security personnel such as special gloves with sharp nails, tear gas, batons and laser torch to deal with protesters and demonstrators on the streets. In addition, a stipulated 42-day winter Strike Hard campaign was declared from 18 January 2009 in Lhasa city.17 Similarly, the non-TAR regions of ethnographic Tibetan areas such as Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan and Qinghai reeled under an intense clout of security restrictions and repression. Unprecedented numbers of security and military check posts had been set up on major cross roads, highways and important streets.18 The call for a boycott of Losar Celebration began several months before the New Year and gained footing among the younger Tibetans, intellectuals and dissidents as well as Tibetans living overseas. In order to match the grassroots movement gripping the Tibetan areas, the Chinese government officials pressured Tibetans to celebrate the Losar in the usual manner. Nyima Tsering, Vice Chairman of the TAR Peoples Standing Committee, at a February 10 press conference in Lhasa responded to an underground campaign by some secessionists to 20 boycott the festival to mourn the dead of 2008 by advising that Tibetans proceed with Losar celebrations.19 He further said that, Tibetans are enjoying a good life now, there is no reason for them to forgo celebrating their traditional holiday this year.20 The authorities linkage of Losar boycott movement to a campaign by some secessionists put Tibetans in a difficult situation whereby they had to choose between celebrating Losar or face the possibility of punishment for what officials characterized as splittism, a serious crime under the Chinese Criminal Law. Following are a few known incidences from where Losar Boycott was reported: About 20 days prior to the Tibetan New Year, Tibetans in Kardze County held meritorious religious prayers such as reciting Mani and Tara mantras as a gesture of sincere grief and mourning for those Tibetans who gave up their lives for human rights, freedom and justice in Tibet.21 In most parts of Tibet, the Tibetan New Year was not celebrated in the customary fashion. The meritorious prayers and rituals were intended to help and guide the deceased Tibetans for their safe and happy passage into their future re-births in accordance with the Tibetan Buddhist beliefs. However, just a few days before the Tibetan New Year, the Chinese government officials visited villages, townships, monasteries and nunneries to extort the local Tibetans to celebrate the Tibetan New Year in grand style. The Chinese officials even lured monks and nuns to celebrate usual Losar with monetary rewards.22 However, none of the monks and nuns celebrated the Tibetan New Year. According to the traditional Tibetan custom, on the third day of the Tibetan New Year, the local Tibetans in all parts of Kardze Prefecture used to celebrate the Tibetan New Year with various festivities, amusements and sports such as Horse racing competitions, dances, revelries, incense burning rituals and hoisting flags on mountain tops to please the local dei-

Civil and Political Liberties ties. However, during this New Year, none of such traditional festivities and celebrations was observed by the Tibetans, something unheard of and unprecedented in Kardze region.23 In a sheer mockery, the Chinese government directed the retired government officials and cadres to perform songs and dances during the Tibetan New Year day. However, not a single Tibetan spectator turned to watch the songs and dance at Kardze County Headquarter staged by the higher Chinese authorities. In embarrassment, the County officials later brought the singers and dancers to Townships for performance and entertainment. Once again not a single spectator came out to watch the performance at Kardze Township Headquarter.24 On the other hand, for the first time in their cultural history, the local Tibetans went on with normal routines and works on the first day of the Tibetan New Year. Such display of non-co-operation was unprecedented. As a mark of a strong defiance and resistance against the Chinese government, on 28 February 2009, (fourth day of the Tibetan New Year) a huge banned Tibetan National flag was seen being hung on the wall of a police station in Lhoba Township, Kardze County, Kardze Prefecture, Sichuan Province. In addition, a huge graffiti in red paint carrying a slogan, Independence for Tibet was written just below the Tibetan National flag.25 Despite intense repression, Tibetans still managed to hold protests in Kardze County in what has been seen as a continuous case of dissidence and pro-independence movement inside Tibet. On 1 March 2009, Kardze County witnessed three protest demonstrations in a single day. The protest demonstrations called for Independence for Tibet. The first protest took place at 10 am in the morning at Sungo Township Headquarter, Kardze County, Sichuan Province.26 It was led by two nuns, Pema Yangtso and another nun whose identity still remains yet to be ascertained. The two nuns were from Shi-lus Hermitage Nunnery, which was located three kilometers away from Kardze County Headquarter. The first protest, was followed by another protest at 1 pm at Kardze County Headquarter. This time it was led by two students and a monk. They were identified as Rinchen Phuntsok, age 15, Tsering Drakpa, age 17 and a monk named Achoe, age 22. The two teenage students were Chinese language students at the Chinese Middle School in Kardze County. According to the Chinese Constitution, juvenile below the age of 18 are not liable to be arrested and placed under custodial detention. However, when it comes to the actual implementation, these laws are often violated and ignored by the Chinese authorities. Sources told TCHRD that the third protest of the day was carried out by a girl whose identity still remains unknown. There was also an unconfirmed report of a man who staged a solo protest in Kardze County on 6 March 2009.27 Local monasteries in Kardze TAP refused government offers of money to pay for Losar celebrations.28 Radio Free Asia reported that when governmentsponsored dance troupes visited Kardze villages for Losar performances, protest posters urging local residents not to attend appeared, and few Tibetans turned up for the performances.29 Whereas in Lhasa City, a resident told an oversea radio station that just prior to Losar, [The traditional pilgrimage route and market area of ] Barkhor was packed with soldiers as Losar and March approached.30 One of the callers told that, Ramoche temple area is packed with soldiers. Usually the Jokhang [temple] is packed with pilgrims prostrating in front, now there [is] barely anyone doing prostrations at the Jokhang.31

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 In Sangchu (Ch:Xiahe) County, Gansu Province, TAP, it was reported that in early February Riot police marched through Xiahes tense main street at regular intervals. A monk in Xiahe, the location of Labrang Monastery, told Reuters, Last year, because of the Olympics, people were confident China could not be too harsh with us. But this year, nothing much will happen because people are much more afraid.32 Because of last years persistent protests in Xiahe County, government significantly increased security forces across Tibet in the face of a grassroots movement to boycott festivities during the coming Tibetan New Year.33 In Rebkong (Ch:Tongren) County, Malho TAP Qinghai Province, locals told a reporter that they would quietly show their unhappiness by marking their traditional New Year, or Losar, bereft of celebration.34 One local told the New York Times reporter that there is nothing to celebrate after what happened last year.35 In Lithang County, Sichuan Province: Lobsang Lhundup, a monk of Nekhor Monastery staged a solo protest on 15 February36 which set off a substantial political unrest in Kardze in the following days,37 where protesters were shouting slogans calling for Tibetan independence, the Dalai Lamas long life and return to Tibet, and for Tibetans to skip celebration of Losar.38 Police detained and beat Lobsang Lhundup after he had protested for 15-20 minutes. 39 Many Tibetans joined Lobsang Lhundups protest and later many were arrested while others sustained serious injuries after PSB officials beat and manhandled the protesters. The total number of Tibetans known to have been detained, since 15 February solo protest by Lobsang Lhundup of Nekhor Monastery and subsequent peaceful protests on 16 February, reached 21.40 There is no information on their current condition and status. In Mangra County in Tsolho (Ch: Hainan) Qinghai Province. More than 100 monks from Lutsang Monastery marched towards government offices in 22 the early morning and staged a peaceful candlelight vigil protest.41 Monks called for officials to understand the aspirations and views of the younger Tibetan generation and allow the Dalai Lamas return to Tibet.42 The monks returned to the monastery after Tibetan community leaders urged them to do so.43 Later security officials began detaining the monks on 27 February and eventually detained, interrogated, beat or tortured about 120 monks.44 Later in April, a local court sentenced four of the monks to two years imprisonment.45 In many ways, Tibetan people were not able to celebrate a normal New Year, in what appears to be an anticipatory clampdown on all kinds of protest demonstrations on the anniversary of the last years protest demonstration inside Tibet. The State repression and the hardening of its position on the Dalai Lama have created deepening tensions in Tibet, contrary to the genuine stability and harmonious societies that President Hu Jintao claims to be seeking. China admitted that it had deployed security forces in the TAR but maintained that this accorded with the regions current needs. Xinhua quoted Kang Jinzhong, political commissar of the TAR Armed Police Division, as saying the deployment of armed police in Tibet is no exceptional practice, as they are deployed in all other Chinese provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities.46 AFP cited the Chairman of the TAR Government Qiangba Puncog as saying the troop deployment was a usual and necessary security measures for the upcoming 50th anniversary of the Tibetan uprising. Although Puncog disputed a link with the unrest of 2008, circumstantial evidence indicates that most security troops who came then to Tibet are still stationed there. There appears to be no clear evidence that additional troops were brought up more recently to the plateau.

Civil and Political Liberties

March 10th Uprising Anniversary & heightened Security Measures:


This anniversary was of a key event as the day marked the 50th anniversary of the popular Tibetan peoples uprising of 195947 and signaled the potential for renewed Tibetan protests - a possibility the Chinese security officials were determined to prevent.48 The day also marks the first anniversary of the start of Tibetan protests last year. Official acknowledgment of possible Tibetan protests was evident but officials sought to portray the situation as stable in most Tibetan areas.49 The Chairman of the TAR government TAR, Jampa Phuntsog (Ch: Qiangba Puncog), referred on March 6 to special days50 referring to the month of March and acknowledged that some individuals might make reckless moves.51 He further said, No extraordinary measures like the martial law will be enforced in Lhasa but the city will take usual, necessary security measures during the anniversaries of the riots last year and the democratic reform that emancipated millions of serfs and slaves 50 years ago.52 The government officials blamed security risks and the possibility of disturbance from the Dalai Lamas group and western groups of Tibet Independence.53 Days prior to the 10 March anniversary, Chinese government officials publicly called for putting security measures in place to maintain stability in the TAR. Chinese President Hu Jintao while joining a panel discussion with the TAR deputies to the National Peoples Congress called for the building of a Great Wall of stability in Tibet prior to the 50th anniversary. He said that Central and local government must reinforce the solid Great Wall for combating separatism and safeguarding national unity.54 This call for a Great Wall of Stability came days prior to several sensitive dates in Tibet.55 Leqog, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the TAR Peoples Congress confirmed the increase in the strength of the Peoples Armed Police (PAP) in some parts of Tibet because of the intensified 23

secessionist activities by the Dalai clique.56 The TAR PAP political commissar, Major General Kang Jinzhong said on 9 March that his troops were ready to handle any infiltration and sabotage activities by the Dalai Lama clique and other hostile forces.57 Ahead of the anniversary the Chinese security forces across Tibet conducted extensive searches for suspicious characters.58 Mobile phone networks and internet servers were shut down so that activists could not organize any protest. According to the South China Morning Post, police have not spared a single hotel, guesthouse or local home in the city.59 Westerners, residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan had been banned, and even Tibetans from other parts of the region outside Lhasa. It was reported that anyone whose identification had not issued by the local government was interrogated and even detained, according to local hotel and restaurant owners.60 Major monasteries had been sealed and armed police were on patrol night and day. Roadblocks and checkpoints had also been set up across the city. Locals reportedly told that a protest involving dozens of monks broke out on 09 March 2009 around the Sera monastery. At least half the monastery was cordoned off and two military vehicles with up to 100 armed police deployed outside.61 Fearful of a spasm of new unrest, the Chinese government shut off many ethnic Tibetan areas to foreign journalists and made scattered arrests of organizers of resistance campaigns. For instance Ragya Monastery, the most important Gelugpa monastery in the Golog region in Qinghai Province had been locked down and sealed by security forces since 10 March, after political leaflets were circulated and a huge Tibetan national flag was hoisted atop the main prayer hall of the monastery.62 Several monks of the monastery were detained and the monastery had since been completely locked down. On 21 March security forces claimed to have found a Tibetan national flag and political leaflets

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 in the room of a 28 year old monk, Tashi Sangpo,63 who was among the monks who had earlier raised the banned Tibetan flag. The young monk escaped arrest by throwing himself into the Machu River, one of Tibets largest rivers which flow past the monastery, in an apparent suicide. 64Security forces arrested 95 people, nearly all of them monks including the monastery prefect (Tib: Gekoe), Palden Gyatso. It was reported that seven military troop trucks arrived in Ragya, with more having been called in from Xining.65 And on 27 January, Chinese police reportedly opened fire on a group of protesting monks at Derge Gonchen Monastery (western Kardze Prefecture) after Chinese government staff partied on the monastery campus (with women dancing around in monks robes) over the Chinese New Year. The incident occurred at a facility normally used for performance of the ritual Cham dances, which are a usual part of Monlam Chenmo.66 Earlier in March, more small protests were reported in Kardze, Lithang and Nyarong Counties.67 Three teenaged girls protested with leaflets and freedom slogans on March 11 and were arrested by around 50 security police. On March 12, two boys identified as Sonam and Dawa Tsering mounted similar protests in Kardze town. In Nyarong County, three men in their twenties, identified as Sonam Gonpo, Thok Thok and Pema Yeshe, were arrested after publicly setting fire to a pile of documents belong ing to local authorities. Following the solo protest of nun Pema Yangzom in Kardze on 3 March, three more people staged a similar protest the same afternoon. Rinchen Phuntsok, 15, Tsering Dakpa, 16, and a monk named Choenyi Gyatso, 18, all were arrested.68 In Nyima town in Nagchu County, Tibetan freedom slogans were written in bold blue letters across the wall of a government building.69 PSB officials suspected monks of Drong Ngu and Tana monasteries, subsequently rounding up monks from these institutions to compare their handwriting. A manhunt was being conducted to find more suspects. On 12 March, a group of Tibetans in Nyarong County raised freedom slogans, distributed leaflets, pasted protest letters at the front of the government office, and raised the banned Tibetan national flag at a school. Three men were reportedly arrested, along with the inevitable severe beatings with the PSB officers breaking one mans leg. The three were later paraded through the local market by the police, who issued a cash prize offer for information leading to the other protesters.70 Ngangrong Tashi Choephel Monastery in Chentsa County, Malho TAP Qinghai province marked March 10 with a Sangsol incense-burning ceremony. Six young monks were reported to be detained by Public Security Bureau police.71 On the same day, youths from two nearby villages performed Sangsol in recognition of the fiftieth National Uprising Day. A number of them are known to have been arrested, but further information is not yet available. In a similar incident, youths from the nearby Nyenmo Village and Lu Gyal Village performed Sangsol to mark the uprising day. Reports of the arrest of some youths were made. However, identities of the detainees could not be provided due to restriction.72 Serfs Emancipation Day: March 28 was officially announced as a public holiday in TAR73 which the exile Tibetan government termed as offensive and provocative.74 Chinas state media heralded Serf emancipation day as the commemoration of one of the 20th centurys greatest human rights and anti-slavery milestones. The Chairman of the Standing Committee of the TAR Peoples Congress, Legqog described the setting of Serfs Emancipation Day as an important move to wage a tit-for- tat struggle against the Dalai clique.75 Many Tibetans sought to avoid partici24

Civil and Political Liberties pating in an official holiday that celebrated Chinas dissolution by proclamation of the former Tibetan government in Lhasa in 1959, but the Chinese officials staged closely-managed ceremonies anyway. The Chinese government and Party officials without judging the sentiment of Tibetans acted in a provocative manner at the time when Tibetans were yet to recover from the wound of last years crackdown by pressuring Tibetans to celebrate Serfs Emancipation Day and the end of the Dalai Lamas government whereas most of the slogans used by Tibetan protesters were a call for the return of the Dalai Lama to his rightful place. Contrary to the wishes of many Tibetans inside Tibet, Legqog said that Serfs Emancipation Day would strengthen Tibetans patriotism.76 The TAR government announced grand celebrations of the day in Lhasa and Beijing.77 According to a media report, heads of all counties met prior to the formal announcement of the holiday and were forced to observe the day and to ensure that all people mark the occasion with festivities,78 but Tibetans were unwilling to celebrate the anniversary.79 There were a few reports on Tibetans protesting against the celebration of Serfs Emancipation day. Around 300 Tibetans, including monks of Den Choekorling Monastery in Jomda (Ch: Jiangda) County, Chamdo Prefecture, TAR, led a protest demonstration at the government administrative office on 10 January in Jomda County, in an attempt to stop the local authorities from taking a Tibetan dance troupe to Lhasa to participate in the celebration of the Serf Emancipation Day on 28 March 2009. It was reported that two explosions had occurred near the government administrative building in Choekhor Township on 05 January 2009 causing damage to property but no casualties were reported. The authorities investigating were not able to arrest anyone in connection with the explosions. however, on 24 January Chinese authorities forcibly arrested and detained at least 7 monks80 from Den Choekhor Monastery on suspicion of their involvement in the explosion and held them at Jomda county detention centre.81 The abbot of the monastery, Tenzin Gyaltsen, also went missing and his whereabouts still remain unknown. 82 It was described by the source of the report that government pressure to celebrate the day was a deliberate attempt to humiliate the Tibetans who are not completely recovered from last years military crackdown.83 Later six out of the seven monks arrested were sentenced to varying prison terms by Jomda County Intermediate Peoples court on 22 May 2009.84

Farming Boycott Movement in Kardze:


Let it be, if we died of hunger and starvation, but for those of our brothers and sisters who were tortured, injured, detained and killed in the last years peaceful demonstration, we must forgo planting crops in fields as a gesture of respect, mourning and to express out solidarity with them. Those who had already planted crops in the fields must not tend and reap the harvest. This is a request for all of you. If anyone who still goes on to plant crops in fields and harvest them, I will come with a black scarf to greet them.85 Above is a part of the message written by Phuntsok in a leaflet pasted around Drango County, Kardze TAP on 25 March 2009 calling for people to boycott farming. Phuntsok, a 27 years old monk of Drango Monastery, was beaten to death by the Chinese security forces. Beginning March this year, Tibetan farmers in Kardze region led a civil disobedience movement of farming boycott86 thereby refraining from tilling

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 their land and planting crops at the usual cropping time in defiance of the prevalent repressive policies being initiated and implemented by the Chinese authorities against the Tibetans and as a solemn gesture of mourning for Tibetans who were tortured, detained and imprisoned by the Chinese authorities. The farming boycott gained momentum in Kardze prefecture87 as a form of civil disobedience and non-cooperation movement with Tibetans as they adopted the same passive strategy for the Losar boycott movement attempting to address the grievances that the No Losar did: the death and imprisonment of Tibetan protesters and ongoing crackdown since the protests in 2008. This non-violent movement of boycotting farming was active especially in Kardze region of the Sichuan Province. Officials in Kardze, Drango, and Nyarong Counties in Kardze TAP issued notices warning farmers to resume normal farming activities88 or face serious consequences like the confiscation of lands of those who refused to till their farms,89 in some areas the Chinese authorities issued an ultimatum to the farmers to till their farmlands.90 Meanwhile, the exile Tibetan governments prime minister, appealed to the people of Kardze to cooperate with the authorities and resume farming activities91 and many Tibetans complied with the request, went back to their field to till their land though it had been late by one month of entire cultivation season.92 Due to the late start, some cash crops failed to yield properly and incurred loss on the farmers. For defying the calls by the Chinese government to till their land, Tibetan farmers were arrested, in some cases beaten so severely that they required hospitalization, some even paid the ultimate price for boycotting farming in their areas.93 A Tibetan monk, Phuntsok, died from beating on 25 March after officials arrested him while pasting leaflets urging Tibetans to forego farming their farmlands to support the farming boycott movement.94 On 15 April 26 2009, armed Chinese security forces of Nyarong County opened fire on Tibetans protesting peacefully against a court verdict, and against the crackdown that followed the farming boycott which resulted in the arrest of 9 Tibetans, including a woman and 8 men and injuries to several from police firing..95 Similarly, Chinese authorities arrested a 27-year-old monk Jampa Dhondup96 of the Tse-Tsang Monastery on 19 March, alleging his involvement in the boycott. The civil disobedience movement was intended to oppose the oppressive Chinese policies against Tibetans, according to posters which proliferated in the streets of Kardze towns. Counter threats were issued, including land confiscation.97 Dhunka Dorjee, 40, Tsering Wangrak, 40, and Pachen, 30, all from Lhoe-pa Township in Kardze County, were taken away by PSB forces for having allegedly participated in the farming boycott.98 Another unidentified Tibetan fled towards the mountains and escaped when PSB forces came to arrest him. Many of the young people in Kardze region had already been detained for protesting last year, leaving few capable hands to do farm work in any case. On 27 March 2009, the PAP arrested 11 Tibetans from Da-do Village for defying the Chinese authorities order to till their farm lands. Following their arrest arrestees were paraded in the village to intimidate others from following suit. In what has been seen as desperate move by the authorities to reign in the protesting farmers, on 26 and 27 March 2009, a contingent of Chinese security forces came to Drango Township, carrying sacks full of fertilizers to extort the locals to plant and till their farmlands. On 1 April, several numbers of farmers were arrested and severely beaten by the Chinese security forces who defied the authorities order to till their farmlands. As recorded earlier, a large contingent of PAP forces was deployed in Drango County to crush any kind of dissidence and protest. A total of fourteen

Civil and Political Liberties Tibetans sustained injuries, some seriously and relatives of the injured Tibetans were not allowed to visit them in the hospital. Khethar, a lady from Kyalam Village in Drango County became mentally unstable after receiving severe beatings at the hands of the security forces. The victims of the police abuses were identified as Pema Lhamo, Yali, Palchen and Choekyi- all from Drango County.99 Strike Hard Campaigns and Mass Detention In a move to tighten its grip on the Tibetan people in Tibet and intensify its hard-line policies prior to any major events, the Chinese authorities in Lhasa city had rounded up and interrogated 5,766 Tibetans in the first three days of its stipulated 42-day winter Strike Hard Campaign beginning 18 January 2009. 100 Although the primary objective of the campaign was cited as to ensure public security and stability in the Lhasa city, however, the Centre believes the sole objective was the authorities attempt to detain those Tibetans suspected to be involved in the March 2008 protests and target former political prisoners and Tibetans from outside the city without a permit.101 According to the information given in the official newspaper, Lhasa Evening News (Ch: Lasa Wen Bao) dated 23 January 2009, Within three days of the launch of Winter Strike Hard Campaign beginning 18 January 2009, Lhasa City Public Security Bureau (PSB) office had deployed 600 officers, around 160 police vehicles and conducted raids on 7 housing blocks, 2,922 rented houses, 14 guest houses and hotels, 18 bars and 3 internet cafs in Lhasa. After conducting the raid on these locations, the PSB were able to round up 5,766 suspects and questioned them. This figure highlights the result of the launch of the Strike Hard campaign in Lhasa since it was launched three days ago.102 At least 81 suspects were detained and 5,766 Tibetans were rounded up, including two for having reactionary songs and opinions on their mobile phones.103 27 The report given in the official newspaper further stated that the city police had recently issued a notice, requiring all Tibetans from outside the Tibetan capital wishing to stay there for more than three days, and up to a month, to obtain a temporary permit from the office of city police. This new development had severe repercussions on Tibetans settled from outside the capital especially from Kham and Amdo regions and who were mostly engaged in business or were on a long term pilgrimage to the holy city of Lhasa. The fate of those rounded up remains unknown. The Chinese authorities in TAR decided to relaunch the Strike Hard campaign ahead of the 60th Anniversary of the National Day Celebration according to the official report posted on Xizang Ren bao (Tibet Daily) dated 8 September 2009.104 The official report stated that the TAR Communist Party headed by TAR Party Secretary, Zhang Qingli held a videoconference with other Party members, government officials and security forces of the region. The primary goal of the video conference was cited to be proper delegation of roles of the concerned officials at all levels to strengthen cooperation, work closely together to maintain stability in the region and to ensure the smooth operation of the National Day celebration.105 Mr. Zhang lauded the Party members and security forces on the success in suppressing riots and securing stability post March 14, 2008 and to take heed from last years success in putting more efforts in checking and defeating the Dalai clique and separatists forces outside. The Strike Hard campaign was first launched in China in 1983 to fight corruption and other crimes. However, in Tibet, under the guise of fighting crimes, securing stability and security, State law enforcement agencies abuse the fundamental human rights of the Tibetan people by enforcing arbitrary arrest, detention, interrogation, the targeting and forced expul-

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 sion of former political prisoners from the capital prior to the anniversary, targeting Tibetans from outside Lhasa city who do not have official temporary stay permits (Ch: Zan Zhu Zheng) and activities that oppose or criticize the Chinese government or its policies. State law agencies also keep close surveillance on the monastic populations and impose restrictions on the movement of monks and nuns. The campaign timing and motive raised more questions than answers given the sensitivities of major anniversaries that follow the campaign. action to contain and detain the protesters. There were many instances where security forces used excessive forces on peaceful protesters.111 The Peoples Republic of China on 5 October 1998 signed the ICCPR, which binds them in principle to the provisions therein, including the protection of citizens from arbitrary arrest and detention. Arbitrary arrests and detentions are commonplace in Tibet of those suspected of being involved in political activities that China terms endangering state security. The existence of a right to freedom of speech and expression is rendered redundant by the harsh crackdown on people exercising these rights peacefully. The expression of any view that contradict Chinese government policies are deemed anti-national and the consequences include arbitrary arrests and detention. All forms of expression contrary to the policies of the Chinese Communist Party are grounds for detention in Tibet. The arbitrary nature of these arrests is reflected both by the reason for the arrests as well as the disregard of procedural safeguards. Once detained, their rights in the areas of pre-trial detention, fair trial guidelines and appellate procedure are violated. The surge in the political detention of Tibetans since March 2008 far outweigh the number of information available about the detainees. There had been no information at all from the Chinese government about Tibetans who were detained for peaceful protest or for a peaceful expression of their views through means other than staging peaceful political protests. The human rights watchdogs are confronted with huge obstacles in finding accurate account of the number of people detained, sentenced, released, imprisoned or died. However, the Centre over the past couple of years had compiled a list of known Tibetans, who were detained, released, sen-

A Year of Sustained Protests Followed by Arbitrary Arrests and Detentions:


Over the past twelve months many cases of arbitrary arrests or detentions of Tibetans that the Centre has documented stemmed mostly from their peaceful protests in groups or as a sole protester calling for or shouting slogans in support of the Dalai Lama, freedom or independence for Tibet or for the release of those arrested.. This process of arbitrary arrests and detentions was accelerated by the launch of campaigns such as strike hard and Patriotic Education. A stipulated 42-day winter Strike Hard Campaign106 was launched at the beginning of this year to secure public security and stability. Nearly 6,000 Tibetans were rounded up for questioning and detained atleast 81 during the campaign.107 Tibetans faced the presence of well entrenched security forces ensuring social stability.108 With China stepping up its rhetoric against the Dalai Lama saying it is a life and death struggle109 and a political battle between separatists and anti separatists, it is linked to the political foundation of the Communist Party, the unity of the motherland (and) the maintenance of social stability.110 Equipped with the approval stamp from the government, PSB officials and PAP forces carried all out operations to thwart Tibetan political protests, and took swift

28

Civil and Political Liberties tenced and died since March 2008 protests across the Tibetan areas, from various sources. A total of 1,542 Tibetans still continue to remain in detention or serving prison sentences since 2008. The Centre believes the figure certain to be far short of the true figure registered during two years. For the sake of clarity we have not included here 43 Tibetan political prisoners who continue to remain in detention prior to 2008 March protests that would make the grand total of 1,585 political prisoners. tests in 2008 and in the following year. Whereas 307 or 19.90% of people were from Gansu Province and 139 or 9.01% of the detention and sentenced were registered from Qinghai Province. Likewise Tibetans from TAR constitute 273 or 17.70% and 3 Tibetans or 0.19% was from Yunnan Province who were detained or sentenced. The Centre this year recorded a high number of Tibetans having been arbitrarily arrested and detained

Gr aph s how ing Tibe tans ar r e s te d or s e nte nce d fr om var ious r e gions be tw e e n 2008-20

REGIONS Sichuan "TAR" Gansu Qinghai Yunnan TOTAL

NO 820 273 307 139 3 1542

PERCENTAGE 53.17% 17.70% 19.90% 9.01% 0.90% 100

900 800 700 600

Sichua

"TAR"

Gans u 500 400 300 200 100 0 Yunnan Qingha

The total number of 1,542 does not include Tibetans having been released after their detention or died since 2008. Out of this figure, 820 people or 53.17% were from Sichuan Province which witnessed one of the most sustained and persistent pro-

for their peaceful protests or non-compliance with the authorities orders or for peaceful protest during farm boycott movement in Kardze Prefecture and ahead of major anniversaries etc. The figure does not include reports of a large number of Tibetans having arrested or detained in group without their 29

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 identification112 or arrested and later released after detention. There are still 145 known Tibetans who were arrested this year and continue to remain in detention or serving prison sentences. Of the total known cases of detention and sentenced this year, 90 or 62.06% were from Sichuan, 6 or 4.13% from Gansu and 20 or 13.79% from Qinghai Province, 2 Tibetans or 1.37% from Yunnan Province and 27 Monastery was arrested after staging a solo protest at the main market square of Lithang town. He is known to have been detained at the Lithang PSB Detention Centre.113 21 Tibetans114 from Lithang, all known to be from nomadic families shifted from different villages to Lithang town,115 were arbitrarily detained for staging a peaceful protest on 15116 and 16 February

Graph depicting Tibetans arrested or sentenced in 2009 Sichuan 90 "TAR" 27 Qinghai 20 Gansu 6 Yunnan 2 TOTAL 145 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Sichuan "TAR" Qinghai Gansu Yunnan

or 18.62% of Tibetans were from TAR. Following are a few known cases of Tibetans having been detained arbitrarily in the last 12 months or known this year for their peaceful exercise of the freedom of expression guaranteed in the Chinese constitution and international covenants. Lobsang Lhundup, a 38-year-old monk of Nekhor

2009. The arrested include the head of Dekyi village, Lithang County, and two Tibetan nomad women from Sako village in Lithang County.117 Detainees were severely beaten by the security forces at the time of their arrest and two of them, Sonam Tenpa, 29, and Lobsang Tenzin, 23, in particular suffered serious injuries. The whereabouts of Gelek Kunga still remains unknown.118

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Civil and Political Liberties Tibetan Civil Servant Arrested: Tashi Dhondup, 27 year old Tibetan civil servant was arrested by the security forces at his home on suspicious grounds on 12 March 2009. His personal computer and mobile phone were seized and he was forcibly taken away by the security personnel for further investigation. Tashi Dhondup is a Chinese government civil servant in Mangra County, Tsolho TAP Qinghai Province.119 His younger brother Jinpa Gyatso, aged 25, from Sum-dho Township, Mangra County had disappeared a few days before Tashis arrest on 12 March 2009. Jinpa was a student at a higher college in Xining city, the provincial capital city of Qinghai Province.120 Jigme Gyatso a.k.a Golog Jigme, 40, a monk of Amdo Labrang Monastery was re-arrested by Sangchu County Public Security Bureau (PSB) somewhere around 10 March 2009 from his residence in Sangchu County, Kanlho (Ch: Gannan) TAP, Gansu Province. He was released on 3 May 2009.121 Jigme was previously arrested on 23 March 2008 and then later released on 15 October 2008 for assisting Dhondup Wangchen, a Tibetan from Bayen, Tsoshar TAP in making the film Leaving Fear Behind (Tib: Jigdrel). Dhondup Wangchen was arrested on 26 March 2008 by the Chinese authorities in Tong De in Qinghai Province. Dhondup was first detained at Ershilipu Detention Centre, in Xining city for three months and later taken to Gongshang Hotel in the middle of July 2008.122 Lobsang Khandro, aged 21, from Gema Dra-wok Nunnery in Thingka Township, Kardze County was arrested on 6 March 2009 after a few minutes of solo protest in Kardze. She was subjected to severe beatings at the site of the protest before being taken away to a detention center.123 On 11 April 2009, Nagchu PSB arbitrarily arrested Khensur Thupten Thapkhey, 47, a former abbot of Shapten Monastery and 34-year-old scripture master, Geshe Tsultrim Gyaltsen, for unknown reasons. Similarly, another monk, Tsundue, 30, a head of 31 the Shapten Monasterys Democratic Management Committee (DMC) was misled by Chinese authorities that he had to attend a meeting but was escorted to the Nagchu PSB Detention Centre.124 Around sixty local Tibetans from Nyagchuka County (Ch: Yajiang Xian), Kardze TAP, Sichuan Province were arrested by local PSB while appealing for an immediate release of a well known local spiritual figure, Tulku Tenzin Delek Rinpoche on 5 December 2009.125 Tenpa, 30-year-old and his younger brother, Jamdo, 25, both farmers from Rapa Village, Zakhog Township, Kardze County, Kardze TAP who were actively involved in last years 18 March protest in Kardze County and were on the run for months were finally arrested by the security forces at the beginning of May 2009 in Jyekundo, Qinghai Province. There is no information as to where the duo was held and how their current condition is. 126 Two monks of Labrang Monastery; Tsundue Gyatso, 35 years old and 38-year-old Sonam Gyatso were earlier arrested and released thrice by the Chinese security forces for their participations in a series of protests that took place in Labrang last year. They were arbitrarily arrested during a raid on Labrang Monastery monks residences by Chinese security forces on 14 May 2009. There is no information on their current whereabouts and conditions. No family members and close associates were told of their whereabouts despite their approaching the local Public security office.127 Two Tibetan women - a nun named Pema Yangzom, and a girl whose name and age were unavailable staged separate protests in front of Kardzes Public Security Bureau (PSB), and quickly taken away by Chinese police, Radio Free Asia reported.128 Two monks and three laymen were arrested on 06 and 07 March for staging protests in Kardze (Ch: Ganzi) county, in Sichuan province, reported Oslo-

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 based Voice of Tibet (VoT) radio service. The report did not name the two monks nor gave details about their protest action, which it said took place on 06 March. It named the three teenagers who staged a protest on 07 March as Tsering Dakpa 16; Chonyi Gyaltsen, 18, and Rinchen Phuntsok, 15. It said they were severely beaten after their arrest.129 A 36-year old monk, Kelsang Gyatso, of the Labrang Tashikyil Monastery was arrested by the police on 13 April 2009. Kelsang was part of a group of monks who defiantly briefed a state managed media tour to the area on 9 April 2008. He was lifted by a group of police officers waiting in a vehicle while he was traveling from Labrang to Tsoed City on the morning of 13 April 2009. Two monks, Thabkhey and Tsundue of Labrang Monastery who were also part of the monks briefing the media tour last year and who disappeared soon after the daring act are still reported to be missing.130 On March 14, four young Tibetans131 shouted freedom slogans in Kardze County. Namsel Dorjee, 28, Karma Norbu, 17, Rinchen Wangsel, 16, and Sangye Tsering, 17, were immediately arrested and are currently locked up in the new detention centre near the Kardze Peoples Hospital. Relatives who attempted to offer them food and clothing were denied access by PSB authorities. Jamyang, the father of Karma Norbu, was arrested last year for participating in peaceful protests. He remains in prison and is known to be in poor health. Two other sons of Jamyang are currently serving three year prison sentences for protesting Chinese policies. Two nuns; Yulshey and Tseten Lhamo were arrested in Kardze for what was described as shouting slogans calling for the return of the Dalai Lama and human rights for Tibetans and carrying a bag containing political pamphlets. The nuns belong to Lama Ladrakrak Monastery in Kardze. Both were severely beaten before being arrested by the security forces. The nuns are reportedly being held at a new detention centre in Kardze.132 On March 6 at around 10 am, nun Lobsang 32 Khandro, 21, of the Gema Dra-wok Nunnery in Kardze County, staged a solo protest march from the Takchu Bridge to Kardze government headquarters.133 She carried pamphlets and other political literature on Tibet, some prayer flags and shouted slogans. Five police vans with security forces rushed to the scene and severely beat her before taking to detention center. Chinese Police in Nyarong (Ch: Xinlong) County, Kardze TAP, Sichuan Province, opened fire on a crowd of Tibetans, leaving several injured and arresting nine of them, including a woman.134 The Tibetan radio news service VOT reported that the protesters were calling for the release of three Tibetans who had been arrested for earlier protests. On 28 June Chinese police in Chamdo arrested an 18 year-old Tibetan schoolboy for opposing Chinese rule and expressing loyalty to the Dalai Lama.135 Lobsang Nyandak, a student of Guru Gewa School, draped himself in a white cloth on which was written Tibetan independence, Long Live Dalai Lama, China out of Tibet. He also carried a cloth painted with the colours of the Tibetan flag. He then stood in the local market and shouted the slogans: Tibet is independent; tsampa eating Tibetans, wake up, before walking to the local police station where he was detained. The above cases seem to indicate that the authorities have termed nonviolent expression of political opinion as shouting reactionary slogans that aim to split the nation and violent protests under the label of criminal separatist activities. On several occasions, the TAR Communist Party and Government officials have called for a swift and quick judicial process to strike back at the separatists and the Dalai clique.136 Failure on the part of the authorities to differentiate between the two raises serious doubts about the validity of characterizing as criminals an unknown proportion of protesters who are detained, tortured and sentenced. These are clear-cut human rights violations if nothing else.

Civil and Political Liberties

Judicial System and Political Interference:


China seeks to guarantee judicial independence and fair administration ofjustice through continued reform and improvement of its judicial system.137 Ambassador Li Baodong, Palais Des Na tions, Geneva, 9 February 2009 In the prevailing atmosphere where the State muffle the freedom of expression, opinion and restrict peaceful assembly, the temples of justice are virtually handicapped in delivering justice- with a series of political instructions given to the courts that practically nullify the possibility of a court adjudicating fairly and impartially in cases of Tibetans involved in protests. Zhang Qingli, the TAR Party Secretary on 17 March 2008, urged that there be quick arrests, quick hearing and quick sentencing138 of the people involved in last years protests that shook the entire Tibetan plateau. Under such circumstances where political directives to the court take precedence become inherent circumvention of guarantees for a fair and impartial trial. The criminal justice system remained highly vulnerable to political interference. The courts, (procuratorate) the prosecuting organ, and the police remained under the supervision of the Chinese Communist Party. The authorities continued to use broad and vaguely defined provisions of criminal law relating to state security and state secrets to silence dissent and punish human rights defenders. The government of the PRC should reform its procedures as recommended by the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) Working Group in February this year that calls for numerous reforms including reform in the state secret law and definitions of crimes such as incitement to subversion of state power or leaking state secret.139 Under the prevalence of such broadly ambiguous law provisions, the state law enforcement agencies abuse the law by harassing, detaining and arresting of human rights defenders who exercise their fundamental rights in a peaceful 33

manner. Many Tibetans charged under subversion to state power or espionage, leaking state secrets etc. received unfair trial and were not given the protections afforded to other criminal suspects as stipulated in criminal procedure law provisions such as access to legal counsel, family and open trials. The government failure to distinguish between peaceful protesters and those committing acts of violence is highly regrettable. Article 103 of the Criminal Law sets forth the crime of inciting separatism and harming national unity, which is overtly interpreted by the authorities as precluding any written or oral advocacy of self-determination, including, in the case of Tibet, calls for the return of the Dalai Lama, and display of the Tibetan flag. The centre has recorded cases which indicate that the authorities have clubbed non-violent expression of political opinion and violent protests under the label of criminal separatist activities. Such failure to differentiate between the two raises serious doubts about the validity of the characterization of criminals of an unknown proportion of protestors detained and sentenced and suggests clear-cut human rights violations in a number of cases. In the past there was sufficient evidence that proved that the right of the defendants to be represented by the lawyers of their choice was ignored by the judicial authorities. For instance, a group of prominent Chinese civil rights lawyers issued an open letter offering to provide legal assistance to the Tibetan detainees.140 As professional lawyers, we hope that the relevant authorities will handle Tibetan detainees strictly in accordance with the constitution, the laws and due process for criminal defendants, the letter said. We hope that they will prevent coerced confessions, respect judicial independence and show respect for the law. It was shocking what happened after lawyers volunteered to provide legal assistance. The judicial authorities in Beijing threatened to discipline these lawyers and suspend their professional licenses unless they withdrew their offers of assis-

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 tance. The Chinese authorities claimed that the Tibetan protesters were not ordinary cases, but sensitive cases and asked law firms to dissociate themselves from the individual signatories or to terminate their employment. With such high politicized background, Tibetan defendants accused of having participated in the protests stand little chance of benefiting from meaningful legal representation and the due process of law to which they are entitled under Chinese Criminal Law. Similarly a Chinese organization consisting of lawyers and academics called Gongmeng referred to in English as the Open Constitution Initiative that advocates the rule of law and greater constitutional protections published a report in 2009. The report criticised the Chinese governments policy towards Tibet, alleging that propaganda is being used to mask failings in its Tibet policy, such as ethnic inequality and creating an aristocracy of corrupt and abusive government officials141 It has been regarded as a more balanced view of the situation in Tibet and has had approval circulating through discussion websites in China, though the Chinese government has yet to comment.142 On 14 July 2009, the organization was fined at a stunning 1.46 million RMB. On 17 July 2009, officials from Beijings Civil Affairs Bureau declared the organization illegal and shut it down.143 The week before, the Beijing Justice Bureau had posted on its website a notice revoking the licenses of 53 lawyers associated with the group. On 29 July 2009 Xu Zhiyong was arrested on charges of tax evasion144 and subsequently released on bail on 23 August 2009. 145 His administrative assistant, Zhuang Lu is reported to have disappeared, possibly held in a detention house in Beijing.146 Regarding Chinas claim of guaranteeing legal rights and representations for Tibetan detainees, China fails to provide full information, including of those Tibetans outside the TAR who have been sentenced. The direct threats imposed on Chinese lawyers who 34 volunteered to defend Tibetan detainees show the very discriminatory nature of the legal system of Communist China. It should be understood that this legal system is politically motivated against Tibetans who engage in political activities, because the system is maintained to safeguard the interests of the Communist Party of China. In fact in all cases, there was absence of due process as required under international laws in a state with a rule of law such as filing of documents, engaging independent lawyers, case verification, consultation from both parties, non-extraction of confession through torture, etc. The purpose and nature of courts in Tibet obviously is only to provide a legal rubber stamp on pre-concluded convictions without the basic concept of innocent until proven guilty. For example, in July 2009, in two independent cases the Chinese authorities have blocked Beijing based lawyers from representing a Tibetan filmmaker147 and two Tibetan monks.148 In Qinghai province, court officials told lawyer Li Dunyong that he would not be allowed to defend Tibetan documentary producer Dhondup Wangchen who is currently awaiting trial in Xining. Wangchen had interviewed Tibetans on their political views for the film Leaving Fear Behind and was arrested in March 2008. In a separate case, lawyer Li Fangping was prevented from representing two Tibetan monks from Labrang Monastery in Gansu province who were arrested after taking part in a political protest. Tsultrim Gyatso149 and Thabkey Gyatso,150 were recently sentenced to prison terms of life and 15 years respectively for splitting the country. The lawyer Li said that, The authorities not only refused my request to meet those two men, they also refused my involvement in the case by saying they already had lawyers. They effectively denied the families rights to independently hire attorneys.151

Civil and Political Liberties

Targeting Influential Personalities to Subdue Disciples:


Over the past years the Chinese government has employed every possible tactic to target and subdue prominent and revered religious figures who have a large number of followers. It is appalling and condemnable that many highly revered religious personalities who have contributed so much in uplifting the masses were arbitrarily detained, imprisoned and framed on untenable charges. This was not a new thing rather it serves as a dark reminder of Chinas persistent vilification and demonizing campaign against the prominent religious figure inside Tibet who have been viewed as a direct challenge to their authority. In addition, Chinese authorities in order to give a different dimension to the mostly peaceful protests last year are distorting facts with fabricated evidence extracted through torture so as to label the prominent religious leader as someone instigating violence. It is something the authorities have been working so hard over the past years. Such acts are disparagingly worrisome as numerous human rights are violated in the process. In the past, many of prominent Tibetan religious figures such as Khenpo Jigme Phuntsok of famed Sertha Buddhist Institute, Geshe Sonam Phuntsok152 of Dargay Monastery in Kardze, Trulku Tenzin Delek Rinpoche,153 the founder of Kham Nalanda Monastery, who championed the welfare of Tibetan people and Bangri Rinpoche,154 the founder of Gyatso orphanage in Lhasa were all arrested under false and fabricated charges. Many of them are serving lengthy prison sentences whereas few have passed away after their releases.155 A recent case is that of Tulku Phurbu Tsering Rinpoche (Buronglang). It is appalling and highly condemnable that Tulku Phurbu Tsering Rinpoche was framed on weapon charges related to the last years peaceful protests in Kardze. His case is the first known case of a senior Buddhist leader being 35

tried in court with a serious charge linked to last years protests and accused of illegally possessing ammunitions and embezzlement,156 his Beijing based lawyer Li Fangping said.157 Tulku Phurbu Tsering Rinpoche, 52, is a highly regarded reincarnated Tulku (Living Buddha) of Tehor Kardze Monastery in Kardze County, Kardze TAP, Sichuan Province. He is the chief spiritual preceptor and the head of Puruna and Ya-tseg Nunneries in Kardze. A charismatic figure who was a source of inspiration and hope he had constructed an old age peoples home and opened two chemist shops for the local Tibetans.

Tulku Phurbu Tsering Rinpoche

The arrest of Phurbu Tsering is more likely connected to an incident that had occurred on 14 May 2008,158 four days before his arrest, when around 80 nuns from the abovementioned nunneries took to the streets to carry out a peaceful protest against the Chinese governments patriotic education campaign, which pressured Tibetans to denounce the Dalai Lama, Tibets spiritual leader159 and their teacher, Phurbu Tsering Rinpoche.160 There was no information on Tulku Phurbu Tsering since his arrest last year until the case of his trial emerged on 21

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 April 2009 when one of his Beijing based Chinese lawyers, Li Fangping said in an interview with the Associated Press that the Ganzi Intermediate Peoples Court in Dartsedo (Ch: Kangding) had put Tulku on trial on the charge of illegally possessing weapons. Prosecutors say a pistol and more than 100 bullets and cartridges were found under a bed in Phurbu Tsering Rinpoches living room during a police raid. However, the defense lawyer described the charge as untenable as the police didnt ask him about the source of the weapons or check for fingerprints.161 Security arrangements were stepped up in the area during the trial to prevent local Tibetan monks and lay people from protesting outside the courtroom. Seven members of his family, including his wife and son, were allowed inside the court, some crying throughout the trial. Speaking in Chinese, Tulku denied the alleged crimes, arguing in particular that the weapons and ammunition found at his home had been planted there to frame him. Tulku was reportedly tortured for four days and nights upon detention and forced into making a confession after police interrogation. Police even threatened his wife and son of detention if Tulku did not comply, according to his lawyer as cited by the AP report.162 On 25 April, Jiang Tianyong,163 the other lawyer defending Tulku said in a telephonic interview that the court would pronounce a verdict on 28 April, and that Tulku faced a second criminal charge of illegal occupation of the state land embezzlement164 involving a home for the elderly he had set up. On 27 April, one of the judges contacted Jiang Tianyong to inform him that the court would not announce the verdict the following day, and that the court had postponed the verdict setting a new date.165 The latest information coming out of Tibet indicates that Tulku was sentenced to 8 years and six months in jail by Kardze Intermediate Peoples Court on 23 December 2009.166 There is no information on what charges Tulku was sentenced. But to other reports 36 his lawyer told that Phurbu Tsering Rinpoche was charged with illegal possession of ammunition and embezzlement, but he denied all charges.167 He is currently known to be detained at Dartsedo PSB Detention Centre. There are some flaws in the governments case against Tulku as the Tulku had been coerced to confess with torture while in detention at Drango (Ch: Luhuo) County Detention Centre: He was handcuffed by an alternating hand each day to an iron pillar in the interrogation room and with arms outstretched and unable to sit down he was interrogated continuously for four days and four nights by a team of six people in three units of two people; at the same time the defendant was told that if he did not confess that the weapons and explosive[s] were his, then his wife and son would be detained.168 Such confession extracted through torture is not admissible in the court against the suspect as it violates the fundamental international norm and violates article 43 of the revised Criminal Procedure Law that states, the use of torture to coerce statements and the gathering of evidence by threats, enticement, deceit or other unlawful methods are strictly prohibited.. On the second allegation of illegally occupying state property, the defense lawyer held that Tulku had legally acquired the right to use state-owned land, that the old age peoples home was registered as a civic private non-enterprise and was neither a collective work unit nor state-owned. The defense lawyer produced a series of factors including financial transactions and registrations in order to bring about the operation of an old aged peoples home. According to the defense lawyers statement to the Court, the facts are unclear and there is insufficient evidence in this case to charge Living Buddha Buronglang with the crime of illegal occupation of state property. At the same time, to define Living Buddha Buronglangs management of the Buronglang old peoples home as the crime of occupying state property is a failure of common sense also inhuman and irrational!169

Civil and Political Liberties The defence lawyer considered the allegations of illegal possession of weapons and explosive and occupying state property as lack of factual clarity and insufficient evidence and a serious violation of law. On the allegation of illegally possessing weapons and explosive the defense lawyers statement pointed out the failure on the part of the law enforcement agency to conduct test investigation pertaining to the origin of the gun, checking finger prints that would conclusively show the gun and explosives police found in Tulkus residence were his or not and that he was not framed by someone who put gun in his home. Such lapses in investigation process and the evidence did not meet the standard required under the Chinese Criminal Procedure Law170 and the witness and the expert failed to appear in court for cross examination, and it was impossible to ascertain the reason why. According to the Criminal Procedure Law and relevant legal opinions, witnesses and expert witnesses, aside from those with legal reasons to be excluded, should appear in court for cross-examination, otherwise their testimony and expert opinion could not be accepted. The trial of Tulku Phurbu Tsering Rinpoche was reported widely in the international media. These reports show just how important such attention and pressure can be for the convict. Judgment and sentencing had been postponed indefinitely. 171 TCHRD learnt about the court sentence on 23 December. While analyzing the case of Tulku, detrimental as well as potential positive aspects of the legal systems function in China come clear. The usual trend shows the government as adamant and in its questionable application of criminal charges to achieve an apparent political mileage. However; the new trend indicates a new avenue being explored by Tibetan defendants to access a competent and vigorous legal defence. In addition, Tibetans inside Tibet began to call for the court to conduct fair judicial proceedings in accordance with the law. For instance, six Tibetans monks staged a peaceful sit-in protest on 37 2 April 2009 in front of the Xining City High Peoples Court,172 Qinghai, holding a large banner appealing for fair trial in accordance with the law. The monks were reportedly led away by the local PSB officers and their whereabouts remain unknown. Given the various lapses highlighted by Tulkus defense lawyers, China should seriously and strictly respect its constitution and other laws to the fullest and all related bodies and individuals must act within the confines of the Constitution and the laws. Rights of all individuals must be respected; thorough and effective protections must be guaranteed to all citizens including those of minorities.

Execution of Tibetans:
Judging from the State media reports over the series of protests last year in Tibet that portrayed the entire events in a bad light and the death sentences passed on Tibetans in April173 this year and their execution in October174 it was shocking to hear the statement made by the court officials that the call for the execution of two Tibetans for committing extremely serious crime and have to be executed to assuage the peoples anger.175 Despite repeated calls by the international human rights groups176 and exiled government and parliament177 to commute these death sentences, China went ahead with the execution of Tibetans on 20 October this year.178 The victims were: Lobsang Gyaltsen, 27, from Lhasa, Loyak, 25, of Tashi Khang, Shol Township, Lhasa, Penkyi and an unidentified Tibetan were executed in Lhasa on Oct 20. The Chinese state media confirmed the execution of only two Tibetans179 whereas the Centre had earlier received information on the execution of four Tibetans. A report indicates that Lobsang Gyaltsen was allowed a visit by his mother before he was executed. I have nothing to say, except please take good care of my child and send him to school, he was quoted as

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 telling her mother.180 According to sources, the dead body of Lobsang Gyaltsen, from Lubug on the outskirt of Lhasa city, was handed over to his family and it was later known to have been immersed in Kyichu River.181 State media, sentenced three Tibetans (Penkyi of Nyemo County and Penkyi of Sakya County and Chime of Namling County) to suspended death, life and 10 years imprisonment respectively for setting fires that allegedly killed six people in Lhasa last year.185 The Centre is highly concerned about the fate of Tibetans who were on suspended death sentences. There is no official information on whether they were adequately represented by a defense of their choice, whether they had an opportunity to challenge the evidence produced against them, or whether the defense could produce their own witnesses during the procedures. The Centre is aware that death sentence passed on Tibetans have been carried out without adequate legal oversight that the convicts were denied access to family and legal counsel and held incommunicado for a long period of time violating many basic human rights. Such violations of basic due process rights are chronic in Tibet. There is no information on whether the defendants appealed their sentences to the Supreme Peoples Court after Lhasa Municipal Intermediate Peoples Court sentenced Lobsang Gyaltsen and Loyak to death on 8 April 2009.186 The secretive nature of the trial is particularly hard to justify for a number of reasons, not least that under Chinese law all trials are supposed to be open. One would have expected the presence of domestic and international observers, not to mention relatives. Yet, absolutely no information has been made public on the proceedings, leaving many fundamental questions about these important cases unanswered. Despite official restrictions on information, judging from the events from various sources it was clear that protests in some pockets did turn violent resulting in deaths, injury, damages to properties and lives. The Centre condemns such attacks and acknowledges the authorities right and duty to protect all individuals against violence; however, the

Loyak produced before in Lhasa Intermediate Poeples Court

In mid April of the year, the National Human Rights Action Plan (2009-2010) of China released by the Information office of Chinas State Council stated that death penalty shall be strictly controlled and prudently applied.182 In December last year, Chinas Supreme Peoples Court issued a new regulation with 7 articles clarifying the conditions and procedure used to halt execution of death penalty.183 However, the death sentences passed on Tibetan convicted in last years protest were denied even the basic due process although the Plan boasts of following stringent judicial procedures for death sentences and review procedure. According to the Chinese official mouthpiece dated 8 April 2009, Lhasa Municipal Intermediate Peoples Court sentenced two people to death (Lobsang Gyaltsen and Loyak), two to suspended death penalties (Tenzin Phuntsok and Kangtsuk) and another (Dawa Sangpo) to life imprisonment on charges of arson causing death.184 The five were convicted of torching five shops in Lhasa, killing seven people, during the March 14 riot. On 21 April 2009 the same court, according to the 38

Civil and Political Liberties more concerning issue here is that while restoring order the Chinese authorities resorted to measures, which violate international human rights law and standards. These include unnecessary and excessive use of force, intimidation, arbitrary detentions and enforced disappearance. While such measures may help to quell a protest in the short-run but such violations will only stoke up further hostility, compromising any future effort to address legitimate grievances held by many Tibetans over the Chinese governments policy. The PRC government currently sentences more people to death each year than any other nation in the world. TCHRD condemns the executions of four Tibetans and urges PRC government to show restraint and to grant its citizens fair trials and to abide by the basic human rights of all of its peoples, regardless of their ethnicity. The Centre expresses its unconditional opposition to the use of the death penalty as it is a violation of the fundamental right to life and the right not to be subjected to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. It should also be noted that the death penalty has never shown to have a special deterrent effect nor should state use it to justify the wrong done by the defendant. For instance, in the case of two Tibetans (Lobsang Gyaltsen and Loyak) the state media earlier reported that both have to be executed to assuage the peoples anger.187 Such eyeball for eyeball approach is in no way a justification of giving death sentence. The execution of Tibetans is a further proof of Chinas unwillingness to abide by the United Nations Global Moratorium on the Death Penalty, adopted in 2007,188 which establishes a suspension on executions with a view to abolish the death penalty. On 18 December2007, the UN General Assembly adopted a ground breaking resolution calling for a moratorium on the use of the death penalty. The resolution was adopted by an overwhelming majority; however, China voted against the resolution calling for a worldwide mora39 torium on executions.189 Snubbing of such an important resolution, although nonbinding, raises serious concern over the fate of other Tibetans with suspended death sentences.190

The Year of Court Sentencing:


Despite much restriction on the flow of information from Tibet to the outside world, quite an information regarding Tibetan people having been sentenced by courts at various levels has emerged or reached the outside world. The official statistics on the number of Tibetans having sentenced so far are sketchy and few. The Vice-Chairman of the regional government of the TAR, Pema Tsewang, in a remark during a meeting with visiting members of the Australian House of Representatives on 4 November 2008, said that 55 Tibetans had been handed down with sentences ranging between three years to life imprisonment for their involvement in the March 14 riot in the Tibetan Capital.191 However, it was not known whether this figure included the total of 42 Tibetans sentenced earlier on 29 April and 20-21 June.192 The bald comment was devoid of any details about names, charges, jail terms, dates of court trials and other details. But late in November last year, the figure was raised to 69193 by the Permanent Representative of China to the UN at Geneva during response to CAT experts. The harshest of the prison sentences having been passed on the Tibetans arrested since last year came on 8 April 2009 and 21 April this year with Lhasa Municipality Intermediate Peoples Court sentencing two Tibetans to death, three to death with twoyear reprieve, two others to life imprisonment and one to 10 years imprisonment.194 On 21 April 2009, Lhasa Municipal Intermediate Peoples Court sentenced one man to death with a two-year reprieve and two others to long jail terms for setting fire that allegedly killed six people in Lhasa last year. Penkyi, of Sakya County, Shigatse Prefec-

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 ture (Ch:Xigaze) TAR was sentenced to death with a two-year reprieve, whereas Penkyi, from Nyemo County, Lhasa Municipality, TAR was sentenced to life imprisonment and Chime, from Namling County, Shigatse Prefecture TAR was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment on charges of arson, setting fire to clothing stores last year during the Lhasa unrest. While the official mouthpiece, Xinhua, report states that trials had been open and strictly abided by the Criminal Procedure Law of the Peoples Republic of China and provided with Tibetan interpreters for the defendants during the trial,195 the right of defendants to be represented by the lawyer of their choice had been ignored by the judicial authorities in other earlier cases, due to the politicized nature of the process.
"TAR" Gansu Sichuan Qinghai Yunnan TOTAL

Kardze region in the eastern parts of Tibet in particular which witnessed one of the most sustained and innovative protests and the highest number of arrests. However, the official Chinese newspaper, Ganze Daily, dated 15 May 2009 acknowledged only 28 Tibetans having been sentenced so far in Kardze197 by the Kardze Intermediate Peoples Court. In ad-

Pie Chart showing Tibetans sentenced in 2008-2009


125 17 161 29 1 334

48.20% 5.08%

"TAR" Gansu Sichuan

Political patronage in judicial trial is evident from past experiences. Pema Trinley, Executive Vice Governor of TAR, who was also a Deputy Secretary, Standing Committee of the TAR Communist Partys Political and Legal Affairs, called on judiciary bodies to act fast and strike hard on Dalai clique during a meeting on 2 April 2008 in Lhasa. He further said that stringent legal action should be taken in tune with the Party policy so that the final verdict would gain political, legal and social dividends, referring to achieving social and political stability in the region. The recent Chinese official report stated that 76 people196 had been sentenced in connection with the 2008 unrest only in the so called Tibet Autonomous Region, ignoring reports on Ngaba, Sangchu,

37.42%

Qinghai Yunnan 0.29% 8.68%

dition the Ganze Daily on 12 April reported the arrest of 73 Tibetans on alleged charges of leaking state secret, gathering, procuring or illegally providing state secret or intelligence outside of the country.198 The reported started that cases of 34 Tibetans had been sent to the respective county courts for hearing. There has been no information on the detail of the court trials ever since. The last two official reports citing sentencing of Tibetans were on 8 April199 when 5 Tibetans were sentenced and 3 more sentenced on 21 April 2009200 making up a total 81 Tibetans officially sentenced.

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Civil and Political Liberties According to our database, out of 334 known cases of Tibetans having been sentenced since 2008,201 161 Tibetans (or 48.20%) were from Ngaba and Kardze TAP under Sichuan Province. whereas Tibetans from TAR constituted 125 of the total or 37.42% and a total of 29 or 8.68% were Tibetans from Qinghai, and 17 Tibetans or 5.08% were from Gansu Province, one Tibetan from Yunnan202 the origin of one Tibetan sentenced remains unknown. Those convicted have received sentences ranging from fixed jail terms to life, as well as to death or death with a two-year reprieve. Most of the Tibetans from TAR were sentenced for crimes such as arson, looting, picking quarrels and provoking troubles, assembling a crowd to storm state organs, disrupting public service, and theft. But the official report rarely elaborates on what the sentences were, what charges they faced, or what happened to those detained. Over the past couple of years, the Centre has documented the known cases of 334 Tibetans sentenced but to its astonishment the cumulative year of sentences (excluding death sentence, suspended death sentence and life imprisonment) of all the known cases of prison sentences between 2008-09 are 1717.5 years and the average mean year of prison term is 5.3 years for each prisoner. There are 11 known Tibetans serving life sentences203 and their prison sentence is not calculated in finding the mean average prison sentence. Following are a few cases of Tibetans having been sentenced this year: The Lhoka Intermediate Peoples Court sentenced nine monks to varying terms between 2 -15 years in jail for their participation in the 15 March 2008 protest which took place at Samye government administrative headquarters in Dranang County (Ch: Zhanang), Lhoka (Ch: Shannan) Prefecture, TAR. Although the court trial happened in May-June 2008, the information of their sentences reached only this year.204 41 Out of 55 nuns of Pangri-Na Nunnery in Kardze, six nuns; Soe Lhamo (35) and Bhumo (36) were sentenced to 10 years and 9 years in jail205 whereas Tashi Lhamo, Serka and Youghal Khando to 2 years each in prison and Rinzin Choetso was sentenced to 3 years206 in prison respectively for their participation in last year protest in Kardze on 14 May 2008. Similarly, two men from Kardze; Ngawang Tashi (18) and Dorjee Tashi (18) were both sentenced to 3 years in prison for their participation in the 18 March protest last year in Kardze.207 Two nuns Tashi Tso (26) and Dhungtso (20) from Draggo Nunnery were sentenced by Kardze Intermediate Peoples Court to 2 and 2 years jail term respectively for their involvement in18 June 2008 protest in Kardze County.208 Similarly, Jampa Dickyi from Kardze County was sentenced to 2 years in jail.209 Two Tibetan monks from Labrang Monastery in Gansu province were arrested after their taking part in a political protest on 15 March 2008. Tsultrim Gyatso210 and Thabkey Gyatso,211 were recently sentenced to prison terms of life and 15 years respectively for the crime of splitting the country. On 22 May 2009, Jomda County Peoples Court sentenced six monks to varying prison terms ranging between 12 to 15 years212 The prime reason for the monks arrest was their suspicious role in the bomb blast which occurred on 5 January in Choekor Township, Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture, TAR. The court trial commenced in Jomda County Peoples Court on 22 May 2009, the court convicted monks with various offenses of the bomb blast, taking part in protests, committing political crimes and the refusal to sign documents denouncing the Dalai Lama as a separatist and anti-China force.213 In June, Gonpo Tserang, a well-respected expedition guide was sentenced to three years in prison for inciting splittism after the March 14 riots in

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 Lhasa.214 He was involved in a series of emails and text messages sent over three days to acquaintances outside of China. These messages, which prosecutors claim distorted the facts and true situation regarding social stability in the Tibetan area following the March 14 incident were considered by the court to be deserving of severe punishment.215 However, the charge of inciting separatism was not at all applicable as the content of the messages was never specified. According to Dui Hua Foundation, it appears that Gonpo Tserang was not represented by a counsel-very likely a result of the reluctance of most lawyers to take on criminal defense work in political cases and the threat of consequences for lawyers who volunteered to defend Tibetans. Jamyang Tenzin, a 35-year-old monk of Yonru Geyden Rabgayling Monastery was sentenced to three years in jail by the Kardze Intermediate Peoples Court around 3 July 2009.216 He was arrested for his involvement in a protest against the Patriotic Education campaign launched in Lithang in 2007. The Peoples Court of Machen County, Golog TAP, Qinghai Province on 13 August 2009 sentenced six monks and two lay Tibetans217 to varying prison terms for taking part in a peaceful protest on 21 March 2009. The court found them guilty of inciting protests and demonstrations against the Chinese government following the suicide of Tashi Sangpo, who took his own life by drowning into the Yellow River [Tib: Machu River] on 21 March 2009. Monks after hearing the news of Tashi Sangpos suicide,218 stormed the local PSB office to demand answer for Tashi Sangpos death. Three monks from Sera Monastery, who in a group with eleven other monks staged a protest in Lhasa on 10 March 2008,219 were sentenced to jail terms of up to ten years by a Lhasa court.220 Another monk, Sonam Dakpa, arrested while returning to Tibet from India around the time of the March protests, was jailed for ten years. Lodoe, a monk is serving a ten-year sentence at the Chushul Prison near Lhasa. Two of his Sera colleagues, Lobsang Ngodup and Mangay Soepa, were each sentenced to five-years.221 In June, a Chinese court in Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture, TAR, sentenced three Tibetans to twoyear prison terms each for their role in a disturbance at Kyabje Monastery, Jomda County in which initially over 30 Tibetans were detained.222 The reason for the sentences was not made publicEven their relatives had little information about their charges, a source reported. The three men - identified as Gyaltsentsang Jampa, Buluk and Mutsatsang Tseten - had been moved to Chamdo detention centre from Jomda County prior to their sentencing. Around 3 August 2009, a Chinese court in Kardze sentenced Sangay Tashi, 38, from Kardze to five years imprisonment and deprivation of political rights.223 He was charged with the crime of inciting separatism for staging a protest in Kardze County on 21 June 2008 when the Beijing Olympic torch was being paraded in Lhasa. He was among the fifteen Tibetans prisoners, who were paraded on 5 April 2009 in Kardze town by the Chinese authorities to intimidate other Tibetans. According to a report the Tibetan prisoners had their heads shaven, and their hands and legs chained. The authorities announced through a loudspeaker that anybody who protested against the Chinese government would face similar treatment. Four Tibetan men who took part in demonstrations in Lhasa in 2008 were sentenced to imprisonment with terms ranging from two-and-a-half to fifteen years by a Lhasa court in the beginning of 2009.224 The four were identified as Wangchuk or Lobsang Wangchuk who received 15 years jail term while Tsultrim and Choephel who received two and a half years jail term and Lhakpa Tsering who was sentenced to five years in jail. Three of them joined a peaceful protest in Takste (Ch: Dazi) County, Lhasa Municipality, while one protested in Lhasa in March

42

Civil and Political Liberties 2008. They are believed to be serving their jail terms in Chushul prison near Lhasa.225 role in one of the biggest protests that took place in Labrang on 14 March 2008. He was released on medical grounds after months of detention. He gave his testimony on air through recorded video to the outside world. Following this act he went into hiding for almost two months. Finally, on 4 November 2008, scores of PAP and PSB officials in several military trucks came to Labrang and arrested Jigme from a Tibetan home and took him away to an undisclosed location where he was detained until his release on 3 May 2009. He looked very frail upon reaching his home after the release.230 Most of the Lutsang Monastery monks who were arrested in February this year and taken away for severe patriotism re-education have been released.231 The monks had held a candlelight procession and vigil at Mangra County headquarters on February 25, the first day of the Tibetan New Year. Of the 109 monks taken away for re-grooving, only six Jamyang Sherab, Jamyang Ngodup, Jamyang Khenrab, Lungtok, Lobsang Thabkhey and Kunsang are still being held.232 The six are senior monks involved in monastic education, and are not part of the monasterys administration. Chinese authorities have ordered all monks who originate from outside Mangra County to leave the monastery and return to their home areas, and these reportedly comprise nearly half of the Lutsang monks. Most of the monks suffered severe beatings as part of re-education process, with one reported to have gone deaf in one ear as a result of the instructors patriotic fervor. Seven Tibetans arrested earlier on 5 December for holding protest demonstration to petition the release of a jailed Tibetan religious figure in Tibets Nyagchuka County had been released on 15 December.233 These seven Tibetans were beaten up severely in detention, and the condition of one of them was described as extremely serious with a head injury and he was receiving treatment in a hospital at a place called Gara. The seven are Tsering Sangpo, Jinpa, Lhamo Choedup, Tsagey Atha, Jamdrel and two others. 43

Prisoner Release:
International attention to specific cases can have a positive effect on the treatment of political prisoners as in the case of the recently released monk / filmmaker Golog Jigme Gyatso,226 who first became aware of the international pressure on his Chinese interrogators by the relatively better treatment he received as compared with other prisoners. Of the thousands of Tibetans who were detained last year227 the Chinese authorities stated that they had released more than 1,200 Tibetans who were detained in connection with the Protests228 throughout Tibet in 2008. The United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination published a review of the human rights situation in China on 7 August 2009. Beijings response was a statement saying, 1,231 people (Tibetans) have been released by the administration of justice with conducting of punishments, presenting repentance and acceptance of units of re-education campaigns in Tibet. But this number doesnt elaborate on the detainees like whether they were only from the TAR or include Tibetans from non-TAR which registered one of the highest numbers of arrest, detention and sentenced post March unrest in Tibet. The Centre over the past couple of years had recorded the release of only 483 known cases of Tibetans having been released since March 2008.229 Following are few cases of Tibetans who were known to have released after detention: Jigme a.k.a Jigme Guri of Labrang Monastery who exposed Chinese brutality to the outside world was released on 3 May 2009. Jigme, a 42-year-old monk was first arrested on 22 March 2008 by four armed personnel while retuning to his monastery from a market. He was later detained and tortured for two months in the detention Centre for his suspected

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

Tightening Chokehold on the Freedom of Expression:


Freedom of Expression is a fundamental human right, which is a prerequisite to the enjoyment of all human rights. Article 35 of the Constitution of the PRC guarantees freedom of expression, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession and of demonstration.234 Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights establishes freedom of opinion and expression as fundamental human rights. It states, Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. Article 20 establishes the right to freedom of peaceful assembly. Article 35 of Chinas Constitution also guarantees freedom of expression, publication, demonstration and assembly. These rights, among others in the Universal Declaration, have become binding as customary international law. Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which China has signed and committed to ratify, provides: everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference. 2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.235 Although the 1982 constitution guarantees freedom of speech,236 the Chinese government often uses the subversion of state power and sharing of information as leaking state secret clause to imprison those who are critical of the government.237 There is also very heavy government involvement in the media with the largest media organizations being run directly under the aegis of government such as Xinhua or Peoples Daily or be it CCTV.

The Chinese authorities continued to suppress the Tibetan peoples basic rights to freedom of speech, expression and opinion. Internet users, bloggers and journalists were at risk of harassment and imprisonment for addressing politically sensitive issues. TCHRD has recorded scores of new confirmed cases of Tibetans who were arrested for their political beliefs, openly expressing their opinions and thoughts, initiating civil disobedience movement such as farming boycott and No New Year-Losar celebration, possession of items deemed reactionary by Chinese authorities such as the Dalai Lamas photo, banned Tibetan national flag and literature from exile, speaking or demonstrating in support of the Dalai Lama, printing or distributing leaflets or posters. Almost all Tibetan political prisoners languishing in various prisons in Tibet were arrested solely for peacefully expressing their political views. They may have called for the swift return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet, freedom for Tibetans or they may have made a sign reading Free Tibet. Such acts can result in lengthy detentions and possible torture. All prisoners of conscience who hold a distinct political and religious belief imprisoned for peaceful activities or dissent should be released immediately and unconditionally and further arrests on such grounds should cease. The authorities continued to prevent information from leaving the Tibetan areas on the abuse, detention, and punishment of peaceful Tibetan protestors; detention of Tibetans for non-political activities.238 In the past one-year, the authorities have added new legal, technological and political measures of monitoring, controlling, and restricting the free flow of information and expression in various media. The recent wave of detentions and sentencing of Tibetans based on ambiguously worded charges including illegally leaking state secrets, disturbing public order, subversion among others for the peaceful exercise of their fundamental right of free 44

Civil and Political Liberties expression sends an unmistakable message to Tibetans inside Tibet of the risks they run in exercising their rights. There was not let-up in the relaxation over the press, investigative reporting, personal blog, the internet, radio and other forms of broadcasting in Tibet. China justified its repression of free speech under a broad interpretation of national security. Over the year Chinese judicial officials have sentenced many Tibetans to lengthy prison terms for sharing information about Tibetan protests with individuals or groups outside of China.239 In the aftermath of the series of protests in Tibet, international media organizations reported that Chinese authorities took measures to close Tibetan areas to foreign travelers including foreign journalists in advance of the sensitive dates this year. There were several reports of foreign reporters having been kicked out of Tibet from unspecified Tibetan areas during the first week of February.240 Similar stringent security measures of closing Tibetan areas to foreign tourists were taken by the Chinese authorities prior to the 60th Anniversary of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC)241 The Tibetan capital which witnessed a large number of protests remained under tight security with huge military presence of soldiers and armored vehicles patrolling the streets and alleyways of Lhasa City. Tibetan residents were reportedly afraid more of the invisible secret police than the police patrolling the streets.242 Theyve been doing a lot of cleaning up, which means people have gone missing,243 one Tibetan shopkeeper told the reporter. Both soldiers and police officers were reported to operate checkpoints along roads throughout the TAR. publishers who did not engage in overt protest activity, but who sought to explore and express Tibetan views on issues that affect Tibetan peoples rights,244 culture, religion and Tibets fragile environment.245 Following are the few known cases of individuals arrested for their exercise of the freedom of expression and opinion. The Chinese authorities have adopted a harsh and systematic approach of silencing Tibetans and suppressing dissent, and many artists and writers have been detained, disappeared and sentenced. A Website proprietor arrested and sentenced: on 26 February 2009: the Chinese security officials in Machu County arrested 246 Kunchok Tsephel Gopeytsang, a resident of Nyul-ra Township, Machu County, Gannan TAP Gansu Province who ran a Tibetan language and culture website-Chomei (Eng: Lamp) (http://www.tibetcm.com/index.html). His house was ransacked, his computer confiscated, and rooms searched for other incriminating materials. In collaboration with a young Tibetan poet Kyabchen De-drol, Tsephel had started a website on Tibetan arts and literature in 2005 called Chomei. The website was self funded with a mission to protect and promote the Tibetan arts and literature inside Tibet. Their website was under official supervision for many years, and was shut down many times between 2007 - 2008, but they remained undaunted. On 12 November 2009, Kanlho Intermediate Peoples court sentenced Kunchok Tsephel to 15 years in jail on charges of distributing state secret.247 He is known to be in poor health after nine months of detention and interrogation and his family members fear for his welfare. Until his detention, he provided the main source of income for his family; his wife, who is also a government worker, is currently caring for their sick daughter.248 Kunga Tsayang, a monk from Amdo Labrang Tashikyil Monastery was arrested by the Public Security Bureau personnel on 17 March 2009 from his living room during a midnight raid on Labrang 45

Targeting Tibetan intellectuals, Photographers and artistes


The Chinese authorities over the years have targeted, detained and sentenced Tibetan writers, bloggers and

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 Monastery, in Sangchu County, Gannan TAP Gansu Province. He was arrested on alleged charges of posting political essays on Tibet to a website known as Jotting (Tib: Zin-dris). He was a passionate writer, essayist, chronicler and an amateur photographer who wrote under a pen name Sun of Snowland (Tib: Gang Nyi). His travelogues dealt with the special characteristic features of Tibetan topographical landscapes, culture, customs, habits and religious heritage.249 In a closed door trial on 12 November 2009, Kunga Tsayang was sentenced to 5 years in prison by the Kanlho Intermediate Peoples Court in Gannan TAP Gansu Province on charges of disclosing state secret.250 Kunga had traveled widely in Tibet and documented the environmental degradation on the Tibetan plateau with his camera. He also worked for Nyenpo Yutsae Kyekham environmental protection group. He has authored several brave and compelling essays on Tibet including, Who Is the Real Splittist?, Who Is the Real Disturber of Stability? and Who Is The Real Instigator of Protests? Fate of Tibetan Filmmaker Dhondup Wangchen grim: Dhondup, 35, has been in detention since March 26, 2008, for filming interviews with ordinary Tibetans on their views on the Olympic Games, the Dalai Lama and Chinese government policies in Tibet. His film was first shown to journalists in Beijing two days before the start of the Olympics in August 2008. In the past more than a year since his detention, he was known to be in very poor health suffering from Hepatitis-B and has not received any medical treatment,251 was denied the right to be represented by the Beijing based lawyer hired by his family in June this year. 252 Dhondup Wangchen was formally arrested in July 2008 under suspicion of inciting separatism and stealing, secretly gathering, purchasing, and illegally providing intelligence for an organisation, institution, or personnel outside the country.253 Li Dunyong, from the Beijing Gongxin law firm, was blocked from taking on the case by the Xining judicial authorities, who informed Dhondup Wangchens family that the court would designate a government-appointed lawyer for the trial,254 a clear violation of Chinas Criminal Procedure Law and its obligations under international human rights law, which guarantee criminal defendants the right to choose their own defense counsel and to meet their counsel while in detention. The calls by rights groups and the exile parliament255 for fair trial and his unconditional release remain unheeded. According to the latest information, Dhondup Wangchen was sentenced to six years in jail256 but there is no clear information on which court and on what charges he was sentenced or whether he was adequately represented by counsel of his choice. Disappearance of young Tibetan writer: A Tibetan writer and university student, missing since 26 July 2009, was known to have been detained by the authorities in Sichuan province.257 Tashi Rabten who writes under the pen name of Therang (theu rang) was editor of the banned literary magazine that focused on issues of democracy and on the last years protest in Tibet, and author of a new collection called Written in Blood. He has not been seen by friends since 26 July, the beginning of the summer holiday at the Northwest Nationalities University in Lanzhou where he is a student. Rabten, is a native of Dzoge (Ch: Ru ergai) County in Ngaba (Ch: Aba) prefecture. Another Tibetan writer, Dokru Tsultrim (Ch: Zhuori Cicheng) thought to be from Mangra County in Tsolho TAP Qinghai Province was jailed on 2 April 2009 for writing articles that allegedly incited separatism.258 He was the founder and editor of the literary magazine Life of Snow (Tib: Khawei Tsesok) which has been banned. He studied in Loktsang Monastery in Chabcha County in Tsolho TAP, and at Ditsa Monastery in Bayan (Ch: Hualong) County in Haidong Prefecture, Qinghai. 46

Civil and Political Liberties He was arrested on 2 April from Gemo Monastery in Ngaba County in Sichuan Province where he was studying. Kang Kunchok (Ch: Kang Gongque), the editor of the newspaper Gangsai Meiduo was arrested on 20 March 2008259 when protesting against the killing of Tibetans by security forces, and was sentenced to 2 years in prison. He is from Drotsang village in Ngaba County, and studied at Barkham Nationalities Teachers college. Kang Kunchok had edited Gangsai Meiduo, the Kirti Monastery magazine. An earlier unreported case of suicide by a young Tibetan student from a nomadic family studying at the Number One Middle School in Chentsa (Ch: Jianza) County in Malho TAP Qinghai Province surfaced only this year as he committed suicide by jumping from the third floor of the schools teaching block on 18 October 2008.260 Woeser, a Tibetan writer and blogger wrote in Chinese, Its said that in his final testimony left behind, he said his death would bring awareness to the plight of Tibetans and prove to the world the Tibetan peoples situation of having no rights. He hoped that Tibetans would unite and strive for the cause of the peoples freedoms until they had those freedoms; he hoped that Tibetan students and teachers would actively use the Tibetan language and strive for the protection and continuation of the peoples culture.261 Tashi Dondrup, a 30 year old popular Tibetan singer was arrested on 3 December 2009 while hiding in the western city of Xining, the provincial capital of Qinghai, where he had taken refuge.262 The Chinese authorities banned his music and the officials in Central Henan province, where the singer is a member of the Henan Mongolian Autonomous Region Arts Troupe issued a warrant for his arrest. He was accused of composing subversive songs after the release of his album titled Torture without trace in November 2009 which became very popular in the region. The banned album consisted of 13 songs expressing nostalgia for the exiled Tibetan leader His Holiness the Dalai Lama and it also reminded of the crackdown that followed an antiChinese unrest across Tibet in March Last year. Dolma Tashi a.k.a. Dolta (21) and Dolma Bum a.k.a. Dolbum,(22) hailed from Sangkhok Township, Sangchu County, Kanlho TAP Gansu Province and were students of Kanlho Tibetan Middle School. They were expelled from their school on 19 June 2009 for their involvement in a peaceful protest on 24 April 2009.263 The students protested over alleged malpractices in allocating reserved seats of Tibetan students to Chinese students in higher education by the school authorities and the smear campaign carried out against the Dalai Lama in a local newspaper. Another 13 students from Sangchu Tibetan Nationality Elementary School were arrested for their peaceful demonstration on 30 April 2009 but subsequently released after brief detention for protesting against the smear campaign against the Dalai Lama.264 Gyaltsen, 25, and Nyima Wangdu, 24, were among the four Tibetans arrested on Chinese National Day on 1 October 2009, for posting the exile Tibetan leader Dalai Lamas pictures and speeches on their profiles on the famous Chinese chat site qq.com.265 The abovementioned Tibetans were sentenced to 3 years imprisonment. They were from Sog County, Nagchu Prefecture TAR. The other three Tibetans: Yeshi Namkha; 25, Anne (a pseudonym) and Thupten who were arrested for similar reasons are not yet sentenced. It is not known where they are being held.266 According to Reporters San Frontiers, several bloggers and other Internet users have been arrested in Tibet for viewing online photos of the Tibetan flag and the Dalai Lama. Pasang Norbu267 was arrested from a cyber caf called Zhijian Wang, on the Tsangral Road in Lhasa for surfing reactionary websites on 12 August. 47

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 On 4 December 2009, eleven Tibetans mostly monks from the monasteries of Tsakho and Khakhor in Matoe County, Golog TAP Qinghai Province, were arrested by the county PSB officials over the production and distribution of subversive songs on video compact disc (VCD) titled Chakdrum Marpo (Translation: Bloody Omen ).268 Although six of the distributors of VCD were released on a bail amount and fine of 20,000 Yuan, five monk producers continued to remain in detention. Despite stipulations and guarantees for the right to freedom of expression in the constitution and various international covenants that China has signed, regretfully the Chinese authorities have in practice restricted the ability of the Tibetan people to fully enjoy freedom of expression and opinion. The gulf between the laws and their application remains significant as authorities continue to place a higher priority on so-called stability than on adhering to national and international laws and norms. In addition, the above few cases illustrate both the extent to which the Chinese security forces were engaged in monitoring communications between Tibetans and outsiders during the past year and the risk involved in sending anything remotely as incriminating materials through arrest, detention, torture and jail term. Such persecution of individuals for the peaceful expression of political views is inconsistent with internationally recognized norms of human rights. Moreover, intense monitoring and the potential consequences of being caught saying wrong things to outsiders help to elucidate the wariness of many Tibetans to report what they witnessed. To a large extent, this wariness has allowed the official Chinese narrative of events to become dominant. But TCHRD has recorded numerous cases of Tibetans seeking newer and innovative ways of communicating to the outside world what they witnessed and experienced. 48 The relevant Chinese authorities in almost all the known cases said that the charges brought against alleged convicts were in accordance with the law,269 but, by definition, those laws restrict free speech, and until the government of PRC brings its law in conformity with international human rights norms, Tibet will continue to witness more cases of its people incarcerated for the alleged crime of separatism, espionage, endangering national security or treason while exercising the fundamental human rights.

Chinas directives, Nepal compliance and Tibetan suffering at transit point:


Every year, hundreds of Tibetans transit through Nepal hoping to seek asylum in a third country or in Nepal. Many having to undergo tremendous physical as well as psychological hardships undertake this arduous journey across the Himalayas to seek a better life, education facilities in exile and many come here to seek an audience with the Dalai Lama. Arrest, brief detention, imprisonment, rape, harassment, threat of deportation, monetary fines etc are a few of the common hardships faced by the Tibetans setting off from Tibet into exile. The clampdown last year in Tibet had a direct effect on the flow of the number of Tibetans escaping into exile and made a dramatic impact on the situation for Tibetans across the border in Nepal; partly it could be due to the new restrictions being imposed on the movement of people, posting more border security forces at prominent escaping routes270 and sometimes on stern measures undertaken after Maoist government took the helm of power in Nepal which leaned more towards China. While the gentlemens agreement to guarantee safe transit of Tibetans escaping from Tibet through Nepal is still largely implemented, the Nepalese government over the years has adopted a harder line against expression of Tibetan identity by Tibetan refugees living in Nepal.

Civil and Political Liberties The Nepalese government aligning more towards China on Tibetan issues is characterized by many new developments such as continuing harassment of and extortions from Tibetans staying in Nepal, arbitrary arrest and detention, unlawful threats to deport Tibetans to China to deter them from any future demonstrations, restriction on freedom of movement in the Katmandu valley thereby contributing to a widespread sense of fear, insecurity and vulnerability. There is harassment of Tibetan and foreign journalists and other human rights defenders; crackdown on peaceful expression of Tibetan identity such as the cancellation of a peaceful celebration of the Dalai Lamas birthday and commemoration of Tibetan uprising day; pre-emptive arrests and detention of community leaders; ID checks; the house searches and large deployment of security forces in the Tibetan communities etc. Since last year, Tibetan refugees living in Nepal have staged some of the most sustained and regular antiChina protests after unrest against Chinese rule in Tibet faced brutal Chinese military crackdown. The Nepalese authorities adopted a zero tolerance approach towards Tibetan protesters, and the Nepalese police on many occasion used excessive force against the protesters.271 Following last years events, border control has been tightened in Tibet for what China termed as possible sabotage activities by the Dalai Lama clique.272 Fu Hongyu, Political Commissar of the Ministry of Public Security Border Control Department told that, we have made due deployment and tightened controls at border posts, and key areas and passages along the border in Tibet.273 On average every year, the Tibetan Reception Centre in Katmandu usually receives 2,500 to 3,000 Tibetans who are registered by the UNHCR as person of concern and provided assistance at the Tibetan Reception Centre but that number dropped to 627 last year.274 At the end of this year only 691 Tibetan refugees had arrived.275 This dwindling number in the outflow of refugees over the past couple of years can be directly attributed to the Nepalese governments complying fully to its giant Asian neighbors call for the Great Wall of Stability in Tibet to combat separatism276 by checking the flight of illegal Tibetans across the border and anti-Chinese activities by Tibetan dissidents. According to Article 322 of the Chinese Criminal Law, such Tibetans are subjected to imprisonment for secretly crossing the national border277 and could face detention for months. In February, Chinese Deputy Foreign Minister Hu Zhengyue met the then Nepali Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal, Defence Minister Ram Bahadur Thapa and other Nepali security officials in Katmandu and stressed that 2009 was a sensitive year for his country and urged increased surveillance to curb anti-China activities on Nepali soil.278 Following the talks, Nepali Prime Ministers Press Advisor Om Sharma reiterated his governments intention to control anti-China activities. 279 Nepals defence minister said that Nepal would tighten controls on the border to prevent Dalai Lama supporters from entering the country280 while its Home Ministry intended to deploy for the first time full-fledged new armed security forces at some key border entry points along the Tibet-Nepal border281in a bid to prevent anti-China activities. Chinese forces on the other hand have tightened border controls between the TAR and neighboring countries ahead of expected secessionist and sabotage activities by supporters of the Dalai Lama.282 Kang Jinzhong, the political commissar of the regions paramilitary forces, said his troops were ready to handle any infiltration and sabotage activities by the Dalai Lama clique and other hostile forces. 283 Similarly, Fu Hongyu, the political commissar of the public security ministrys Border Control Department said, We have made due deployment and tightened controls at border ports, and key areas 49

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 and passages along the border in Tibet.284 The tightening of Tibets long Himalayan border with India, Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar was to ensure stability during the National Peoples Congress session in Beijing, and to guard against expected sabotage activities by the Dalai Lama clique. In the interview on 03 October, Nepals Home Minister Rawal specified that the plan to deploy Armed Police Forces (APF) along the Tibet border was to make our border secure and free from infiltration from any criminal activities. We do not want to allow any elements to carry out activities in Nepali soil against any of our friendly countries, he added. Given the political situation in Nepal, he said, We have to put our utmost efforts to make our border secure and efficient [sic] to control any type of violent activities.285 Nepals Minister of Foreign Affairs, Koirala while on a visit to China in September has pledged that the Nepali government would tighten security measures on checkpoints along the borders to prevent illegal entries.286 The illegal entries mentioned refer to the Tibetans who come to visit relatives in Nepal or India, or to see the Dalai Lama, or to go on pilgrimage to India. Many of these cross the border illegally because the Chinese authorities effectively refuse to issue them with valid papers. Tibetans caught en route to Nepal were mostly held at Shigatses new detention centre euphemistically called by Tibets New Reception Centre. This centre holds Tibetans caught attempting to flee into exile as well as Tibetans who are returning to Tibet after completing school or visiting family members in Nepal or India. Most Tibetan detainees serve from three months to five months or longer, and face severe beatings and hard labour. In almost all cases they must sign a document stating they will never again attempt to leave the Peoples Republic of China to go to India Two Tibetan youths, Dagah and Tsultrim originally from Dechen (Ch: Deqin) TAP in Yunnan province while returning to Tibet from exile were reportedly tortured by the Chinese police after their arrest at the border near Nepal in April this year. They were arrested and taken to a detention centre in Shigatse where the police interrogated them for many days. The two were subjected to torture during the interrogation sessions. The report added that the two Tibetans were beaten with electric batons causing severe damage to their abdomen and genitals. The families of the two located them at the Shigatse detention centre and were reportedly shocked to see the condition they were in.287 Members of the Young Communist League (YCL), the youth wing of Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) which last year headed Nepals government detained five Tibetans and handed them over to local police accusing them of crossing into Nepal illegally in a bid to take part in campaigns against the Chinese government. The group, including two Tibetan women, was detained in Sindhupalchowk district in north Nepal, near the Tibetan border. This was the first time that the youth cadres were known to have handed Tibetans, often traveling through Nepal to India, over to the authorities.288 It has been a very tough year for nearly 20,000 Tibetan refugees living in Nepal as well as for those crossing Himalayas to seek freedom, better education and opportunities.

Torture unabated in Tibet


Torture, inhuman and ill-treatment of prisoners are common and widespread in Tibet and China. Numerous torture methods like kicking, beating, hanging prisoners by the wrists, ankles, and thumbs for hours, or even days, and attacks by trained guard dogs, depriving food, exposing to extreme temperature, hard labour, electric shocks, cuffing and solitary confinement etc. are among the forms of tor-

50

Civil and Political Liberties ture employed by the Chinese officials at various stages of detention and imprisonment. Such abuses are most prevalent at the initial stage of detention when the intention is to extract confessions from detainees or suspects.289 Those held in detention are particularly vulnerable as they are questioned without the presence of lawyers, are denied the right of an accused to remain silent during the investigation phase and at trial and suspects are frequently held incommunicado for long periods of time. The existence of this cruel practice is in many ways the result of a tyrannical system that persecutes those who exercise their fundamental human rights in a peaceful manner. Although the PRC has signed and ratified the Convention Against Torture, yet the Chinese government has made use of the provision under article 28 of the Convention to declare that they do not recognize the competence of the Committee Against Torture to investigate allegations of widespread torture within their boundaries. And the PRC government does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of article 30 of the Convention. Also in the article 43 of the revised Criminal Procedure Law states that, the use of torture to coerce statements and the gathering of evidence by threats, enticement, deceit or other unlawful methods are strictly prohibited. Yet the recent testimonies290 have exposed a stark contrast to the prevailing laws. Torture is still used for the purpose of extracting confessions, defeating Tibetan prisoners nationalist spirit, intimidating prisoners and causing humiliation and mental trauma to affect the prisoners for the rest of their lives. Despite recommendations by the UN Committee Against Torture, which made a damning assessment of Chinas record on torture last November,291 China has made no clear and discernable improvement in prohibiting the use of torture, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment as is evident from the number of testimonies that the TCHRD has received over the past twelve months. The UN Committee recommendation regarding China ensuring that all persons detained or arrested in the aftermath of the Spring 2008 events to have prompt access to an independent lawyer, independent medical care and the right to lodge complaints free from official reprisal or harassment292 remains unheeded. Over the past year, since the protest broke out on 10 March 2008, the Chinese government has engaged in a comprehensive cover-up of all information on the torture, disappearances and killings that have taken place across Tibet, to the outside world. On the international stage, China has subverted and politicized international forums where its human rights record has been challenged and refused to answer legitimate questions from governments and civil societies about the use of lethal force against unarmed protestors, or about the welfare of individual detainees. There is also rampant misuse of administrative detention, lack of fair trials, torture and mistreatment of prisoners, and coerced confessions. Of the numerous reports of torture of Tibetans, a few prominent cases of death as a result of being subjected to excessive brutality in custody have reached the outside world. These are not isolated incidents; many other deaths following torture have occurred, but full details are often not known. A Monk committed suicide after torture: Tashi Sangpo, 28, hailed from Gyulgho Township, Machen County, Golog TAP, Qinghai province committed suicide on 21 March 2009 by plunging into Machu River and drowned himself out of sheer desperation and frustration.293 He had been severely subjected to harsh beatings inhuman torture and long interrogation in a local detention centre since his arrest on 10 March 2009. Prolonged torture and interrogation finally took its toll on Tashi Sangpos mental state, which eventually forced him to take his own life by drowning in the Machu River. Following his death, Some 95 Tibetan monks were ar-

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 rested or surrendered after hundreds of Tibetan protesters attacked the local police station in Gyala Township, Golog TAP.294 Angry Tibetan protesters clashed with the police after Tashi Sangpo tried to escape police custody by jumping into the Machu (Yellow) river and was drowned.295 Contingents of PSB and PAP security forces completely sealed off and encircled the monastery with telephone, mobile and postal service cut off. Tashi Sangpos family was offered monetary compensation of 200,000 Yuan.296 Following the incident, a disciplinarian of Ragya Monastery, Palden Gyatso and four other monks were arrested by the Chinese authorities.297 Tabey, a monk from Kirti Jepa Monastery in Ngaba County, Sichuan Province attempted self immolation. He was seen by eyewitnesses falling down after hearing three gun shots. He sustained severe gun injuries on both of his legs, apart from severe burnt injuries. While nursing his injuries, the Chinese officials explained to his mother about the need to amputate his legs, which was strenuously resisted by Tabey himself. This move was considered as authorities attempt to hide and cover up the irreversible injuries inflicted on his legs by bullets. The official Chinese news agency, Xinhua, confirmed that a protest took place298 and that a monk was taken to a hospital to be treated for burn injuries. The Chinese authorities later denied the shooting.299 There has been no further information available on the condition of Tabey and his whereabouts.300 It is extremely rare getting video footage on Chinese brutality caught on tape from Tibet. However, the recent videotapes smuggled out of Tibet show violent scenes from the March 2008 unrest in Lhasa, Tibet. These footages are the clearest evidence of how Tibetans were subjected to police brutality. In the seven-minute video it shows extremely rare and shocking footages that confirm the worst fear about the horrific pain and suffering of Tibetans inside Tibet. Chinese police kick, drag and throw the defenseless Tibetan protesters and monks with hands 52 tied behind their backs and they can only curl in an attempt to resist beatings and growl in pain as police beat them. The treatment of the captives violates international norms and amounts to torture. Such visible evidence amply proves the use of brutal and excessive force against Tibetan protesters and it flies in the face of the Chinese government statement that disproportionate force was not used on unarmed protesters. 301 China has repeatedly denied any brutality in Tibet or that any disproportionate force was used on unarmed protesters and it has angrily rejected a call from the United Nations last November302 to clarify the measures it took in the wake of the riots in March. It accused the UN of prejudice against China303 and of fabricating evidence to deliberately politicize the issue.304 Another segment of the video shows gruesome images of a young Tibetan by the name of Tendar, a staff of China Mobile Company who was brutally beaten and later suffered inhuman treatment at the hands of Chinese authorities on 14 March 2008. . He was reportedly fired at, beaten with an electric baton, burned with cigarettes, and his right foot was pierced by a nail. The wounds and the bruise marks visible on his body are a testimony of the brutality he was subjected to by the Chinese authorities. He died due to injuries sustained from torture on 19 June 2008. The video shows him after being brought to the TAR Peoples Hospital. His body is covered with rotting wounds from lack of proper treatment. The hospital removed 2.5 kg of decaying flesh. When his corpse was offered to the vultures (sky burial) according to tradition, a nail was found in his right foot. Following the release, the video footages were uploaded on popular video-sharing website YouTube. Three days after the official release of the video footage,305 YouTube was blocked in China, apparently to block the footages appearing on the site showing

Civil and Political Liberties brutal beating of Tibetan protesters by Chinese police officers in Tibet. Google confirmed that its YouTube video-sharing website had been blocked in China.306 This blockage was not for the first time. China routinely filters Internet content and blocks material that is critical of its policies. Two nuns from Lamdrag Nunnery who staged a peaceful protest on 24 March 2009 at the Kardze County main market by distributing handwritten pamphlets were beaten indiscriminately with rods and electric batons before bring thrown into and driven away in a security vehicle.307 One of the nuns, Yangkyi Dolma later died under mysterious circumstances on 6 December 2009 at Chengdu hospital months after their detention.308 Phuntsok, a 27-year old monk of Drango Monastery, hailed form Zongpa Village, Drango County, Kardze TAP was beaten to death by the Chinese PSB personnel in a ghastly manner for pasting leaflets on the office of Drango PSB headquarters and other places in Drango County. 309 Phuntsoks defiant protest was not a coincidence but deliberately timed to remember, mourn, and express solidarity with those Drango monks who were tortured, illtreated and imprisoned during last year protest. While pasting leaflets on the walls of an automobile service center in Drango County, he was detected by Drango PSB personnel who came straight to arrest him. He fled on a motorbike and PSB forces pursued him until his bike couldnt climb any further. He was arrested and severely beaten on the spot with batons. He died shortly after receiving inhuman beatings at the hand of PSB personnel. In an attempt to conceal the circumstance of his death, the PSB personnel dropped his corpse at the base of a hill to conjure up a suicide scene. The Chinese authorities maintained that Phuntsok died after committing suicide while the local Tibetans were not convinced. Pema Tsepak died on 23 January from injuries he suffered at the police detention centre when he was arrested on 20 January 2009.310 He was detained with two other men. He was so severely beaten that his kidneys and intestines were badly damaged. He was initially taken to Dzogang County hospital, but they could not treat him, and they took him to Chamdo hospital instead where he succumbed to his injuries sustained from beatings by Chinese authorities. A monk of Drepung Monastery, Kalden (32), who participated in 10 March 2008 protest led by monks of the monastery died in mid August 2009 allegedly from torture.311 His whereabouts remained unknown to his family members as well as to close associates for more than a year until his death in August. He died in a detention centre in mid-August 2009, due to a prolonged period of confinement, torture and maltreatment. His corpse was handed over to his distant relatives in Lhasa City in mid-Aug 2009. 33-year-old Choephel from Meruma Township in Ngaba County was detained by the Chinese security forces during a raid on his home following a massive protest in the county on 17 March 2008. He was beaten black and blue with rifle butts resulting in serious injuries to his left eye and head. He was sentenced to 4 years in jail for his participation in the protest last year. His family members during a meeting in January this year came to know that his left eye had gone blind from the injuries he sustained during the police beating.312 Around fifteen Tibetans protesters313 were brutally beaten, manhandled and forcibly loaded into military trucks by the Chinese PSB and PAP forces. Many were badly bruised and injured with blood dripping from their nose, head and arms. All were detained by Lithang County security forces after they staged a peaceful protest in Lithang County on 16 February 2009.

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 Police in Nangchen (Ch: Nangqian) County, Jyekundo (Ch: Yushu) TAP, Qinghai province, severely beat up four school children for allegedly filming a demonstration that took place during a musical event. The report said that the protesters, all Tibetans, were apparently not locals. They suddenly appeared when the musical event was going on, shouting anti-China slogans, with one of them climbing a tree and tying a Tibetan national flag there before taking off on a waiting motorbike. The other protester ran off into the crowd to avoid arrest. There is no information as to whether the four children were arrested or not and their whereabouts remain unknown.314 Suicides resulting from unbearable mental torture have also been recorded in the past. As a direct consequence of relentless oppression by the Chinese security forces, many anguished Tibetans attempted to and others took the drastic step of committing suicide to rid themselves of persistent physical and mental torture.315 In the last couple of years the Centre recorded a disturbing trend of suicide even by monks who were known for their patience and resilience in the face of adversity. Such cases are a clear indication of Tibetan monks being pushed to the extreme limits of endurance and helplessness in the face of oppression and repression by the Chinese authorities in Tibet. One such instance was on 19 March 2008, when a visiting scholar from Dorjee Drak Monastery to the Samye Monastery called Namdrol Khakyab from Nyemo County, Lhasa Municipality, TAR, committed suicide leaving a note that spoke of unbearable suppression by the Chinese regime.316 Fearing arrest by the Chinese security forces, a Tibetan monk identified as Shedup, committed suicide at a monastery in Rebkong (Ch: Tongren) in Malho TAP around 2 April this year.317 He was known to have been arrested earlier for his alleged role in a protest in Rebkong in March last year and he was released after undergoing torture in custody. His name appeared on the wanted list to be arrested sometime before the Tibetan uprising anniversary in March. It was reported that he killed himself to escape arrest and torture by Chinese security forces. Officials from the Chinese Communist Party have repeatedly denied that torture was used in Tibet. In November 2008 when the U.N. panel released a report on the use of torture on Tibetans by Chinese police, the Chinese Foreign Ministry called the reports untrue and slanderous and accused the committee members of being prejudiced against China.

Detainee released after severe torture:


A Tibetan arrested for taking part in a protest in Kardze (Ch: Ganzi) County, Kardze TAP, Sichuan Province, on 13 March last year was released on medical parole on 2 January 2009.318 Guru Dorjee, aged 49 and father of four children was arrested on 28 March 2008 from his home by officials of the Public Security Bureau and armed personnel on charges of involvement in peaceful protests in Kardze. His wife, Sherab Yangtso, turned mentally unstable as a result of enormous grief following the arrest and later died. Although the Intermediate Peoples Court in Kardze had sentenced Guru Dorjee to 3-year imprisonment, severe torture during the detention left him physically debilitated and officials shifted him to a hospital in Dartsedo. As there was no one except his two children, he was handed over to some local Tibetans after they were compelled to sign an agreement which barred Guru to take part in any demonstrations. He is currently undergoing treatment at his home and could not visit a hospital on his own due to very poor health. Nyima Tenzin, arrested in March last years protest in Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality was critically injured after he was torturef in deten54

Civil and Political Liberties tion. Although he was paroled in 2008 after paying a fine of 5,000Yuan, he was known to be in critical condition because of authorities allegedly not allowing him to seek medical treatment at a hospital in Lhasa. He became bed-ridden and vomited blood in early June 2009.319 major international human rights instruments. This can involve serious violations of the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, approved by the United Nations Economics and Social Council in 1957, as well as the Code of Conduct for Law for the Protection of All Persons under Any Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment, adopted by the General Assembly in 1979 and 1988 respectively. Disappearance violates the right to a family life as well as various socio-economic and cultural rights. The government of the PRC should affirm and respect the right of every person to life, liberty and dignity and the right not to be subjected to enforced disappearance. The essential value of ones existence is to live freely without discrimination, prejudices and harm. Enforced disappearance does not only violate these basic human rights by physically removing a person from the protection of the law but it also denies the families of the disappeared persons the right to know the truth and to seek justice. In Tibet there are people who are made to disappear for exercising their rights and for protesting against human rights violations. This act of enforced disappearance was done mostly in the context of a widespread and systematic way under a climate of impunity. The Centre has over the years recorded numerous cases of enforced disappearance of persons whose whereabouts and status remain completely unknown to their family members and close associates. In many cases the family members and close associates were only informed of their loved one during the final court sentencing which occurred months after their disappearance. Following are a few of the known cases of Tibetans having disappeared and having been never seen or heard.

Enforced Disappearance:
Apart from court sentences, arbitrary arrest and death of Tibetans, the Centre had documented numerous cases of enforced disappearance of Tibetans following mass protests across the Tibetan plateau since 10 March last year. In many cases, people were picked up from their residences in the middle of the night to avoid public glare, in other cases people were detained from the site of the demonstration and never has been heard about their whereabouts and conditions by their immediate family members or close associates. The cases of enforced and involuntary disappearance are surfacing from Tibet despite enormous restrictions put on the flow of information. According to the UN Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance,320 an enforced disappearance occurs when persons are arrested, detained or abducted against their will or otherwise deprived of their liberty by officials of different branches or levels of Government, or by organized groups, or private individuals acting on behalf of, or with the support, direct or indirect, consent or acquiescence of the Government, followed by a refusal to disclose the fate or whereabouts of the persons concerned or a refusal to acknowledge the deprivation of their liberty, which places such persons outside the protection of the law.321 This heinous act322 of enforced disappearance of persons infringes upon an entire range of human rights embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and set out in both International Covenants on Human Rights as well as in other 55

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 Two monks of Labrang Monastery; Tsundue Gyatso, 35 years old, from Gyengya Village, Labrang County (Ch: Sangchu/Xiahe xian), and Sonam Gyatso, 38, from Sangkok Village, Labrang County, Kanlho TAP, Gansu Province were earlier arrested and released thrice by the Chinese security forces for their participation in a series of protests that took place in Labrang last year. Their arrest came at a time when a sudden raid was carried out inside Labrang Monasterys residential quarter by PSB and PAP officials on 14 May 2009. The duo continues to face detention without any knowledge of their status to the family members.323 Yigha, a 27-year-old, originally from Rongtsa, Kardze County in Sichuan Province and a resident of Karma Kusang area of Lhasa city had disappeared since 14 March 2008 unrest in the capital. There has been no information on his whereabouts and condition.324 Gelek Kunga from Lithang County who along with 14 other Tibetans staged a peaceful protest on 16 February 2009 went missing following their detention from the site of the demonstration. Samdup from Drepung Monastery arrested by Lhasa PSB officials on 10 March 2008 remains incommunicado since and his whereabouts are unknown to his associates.325 His brother Kalden was also arrested on the same day but he succumbed to torture suffered while in detention in August this year.326 A monk of Sertha Larung Ngarig Buddhist School in Serthar County, Kardze TAP was arrested on 8 July last year on charges of leaking information about the situation in Tibet to the outside world. His current whereabouts and wellbeing is not known to his family members.327 The head of Onpo Monastery in Kardze County, Ari Rinpoche, was taken into police custody after many monks from his monastery took to the streets 56 in Lhasa on 10 March to protest against the Chinese rule. The security forces took him into police custody under suspicion of his involvement in the monks protest. His whereabouts remain unknown till date.328

Conclusion:
The human rights situation in Tibet for the year 2009 can be described as serious, appalling and dismal given hoards of violations of basic human rights recorded despite Chinese authorities enormous restrictions to check the flow of information to the outside world. China no matter how hard it tries to cover up and reject its dismal record on human rights in various international fora remains one of the worst and leading violators of rights and such acts will continue to remain a dark blot on the rosy image that China is projecting to the outside world. The upsurge in the protests in its occupied territories of Tibet since March 2008 and Xinjiang in July this year have triggered an international community call to address the policy provocations underlying them. However, China is bang with vengeance, issuing a white paper on the ethnic issue on 27 September.329 The unrest clearly shows that Chinas policy in these regions has been an utter failure, upheld only by the harshness of the brute force used to man the communist Chinese rule there. The White paper is blunt in asserting the sanctity and correctness of Chinas policy there. The paper is also directed especially at the international community whose media China routinely accuses of being biased and anti-China whenever they cover news about large-scale disturbances in the country. Also, China is particularly annoyed with the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Ms N Pillay who on 15 September urged it, while addressing the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva,330 to reflect on the underlying causes of the recent disturbances in Tibet and Xinjiang, including in particular, discrimination and the failure to protect minority rights.

Civil and Political Liberties Neither is China happy about the concluding observations of the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) which ended its 75th session from 3 28 August in Geneva by urging China to carefully consider the root causes of such events (namely recent disturbances in Tibet and Xinjiang), including inter-ethnic violence, and the reasons why the situation had escalated.331 China therefore, should take into account the root causes of recent unrests in various ethnic regions while formulating its ethnic policies and, in addition, should first put her house in order by respecting and upholding basic rights if she wanted to play an important global role. Over the past year, Tibet witnessed restrictions in every sphere of Tibetan lives. The Centre called on the Chinese authorities to account for all those who have been killed, injured or gone missing, and for all those arbitrarily detained in Tibet, including their names, whereabouts, and the charges against them. The Centre also called for a prompt and impartial investigation into the allegations of torture and other ill-treatment of Tibetan detainees, with a view to bringing those responsible to justice; a prompt and impartial investigation into the deaths of individuals detained in official custody over the past two years and the immediate and unconditional release of all those detained solely for peacefully exercising their rights to freedom of expression, opinion, association and assembly. As a matter of urgency, China as a state party to the UN convention against torture, should take immediate steps to prevent any acts of torture and illtreatment under any circumstances. The Centre remains deeply concerned about the continued allegations, corroborated by Chinese legal sources, of routine and widespread use of torture and ill-treatment of suspects in police custody, especially to extract confessions or information to be used in criminal proceedings and further the Centre notes with concern on the lack of legal safeguards for detainees such as failure to bring detainees promptly before a 57 competent judge, thus keeping them in prolonged police detention without charges and making them vulnerable to further ill-treatment. And there is lack of an effective independent monitoring mechanism on the situation of detainees, including restriction on access to lawyers and failure to notify detainees about their rights at the time of detention, including their rights to contact family members. China should take the measures necessary to ensure that, both in legislation and in practice, statements that have been made under torture are not invoked as evidence in any proceedings, except against a person accused of torture, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention. After the execution of Tibetans for their alleged role in last years unrest in Tibet, China should immediately abolish the death penalty and commute all death sentences to terms of imprisonment and should not use this despicable act to justify or use as way of revenge332 for the crimes committed like what it did in the case of Tibetans and other ethnic minorities. In May this year, China got re-elected for another three-year term to the 47-members UN Human Rights Council with the promise of promoting and protecting human rights. In addition, the Information Office of Chinas State Council on 13 April 2009 published the First Working Action Plan on Human Rights Protection 2009-2010, promising citizens more legal protection, better livelihoods and greater civil and political rights that include rights of detainees and the right to a fair trial. The Centre finds it encouraging that the government of the PRC made an effort to put the document out but Chinas failure to implement the protection enshrined in its law routinely is matter of great concern. Therefore, it is high time China make sincere effort to respect, follow and implement all the pledges made in the Action Plan which includes action plan on death penalty and improvement in judicial procedures for review.

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 As the country review of Chinas human rights record through the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is over with Beijing making mockery of the system, TCHRD calls for the rules and practices to be amended. Chinas human rights policy will not be examined again until 2013 under this framework. Several other mechanisms are still available at the UN to promote fundamental human rights; the treaty bodies and the special procedures. Such opportunities should not be missed and revised strategies should be crafted in the light of UPR experience. On the future of Tibet, the international communities should urge the Chinese authorities to open dialogue leading to negotiations with the representatives of the Dalai Lama that can lead to a mutually agreeable solution to the Tibetan issue, on the basis of Memorandum on Genuine Autonomy333 previously presented to the Chinese Government. After carrying out nine rounds of talks since 2002, China put a resounding brake to it all late last year by saying there never was anything to discuss between the two sides. It then launched a flurry of tirades and vilification campaigns against the Dalai Lama, the exile government headed by him, accusing them of seeking nothing but independence all along. China also initiated provocative celebrations such as serf emancipation day when people were yet to recover from earlier wounds. Such constant vilification campaigns and provocative act have backfired with Tibetan people openly rejecting them thereby resulting in protests, arrests, expulsions, sentences and even death. This vicious cycle can be broken if China scrap those campaign and adhere to the laws and respect the rights of the people. Its sad reality that we have entered a period of time when China wields significant influence over the economies and internal policies of many nations around the world and even powerful nations are no exception. As a consequence human rights of Tibetans have taken a real beating with overriding economic imperatives pushing core human rights issues to the fringes, especially in the post Olympics era and the times of world economic recession.

Endnote
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China brands Dalai Lama wolf in monks robes as struggles deepen, Christopher Bodeen, 20 March 2008; The Scotman; http://news.scotsman.com/world/Chinabrands-DalaiLama.3896802.jp CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 19 OF THE CONVENTION, Concluding observations of the Committee against Torture, CHINA, 41st Session, 3-21 November 2008, Geneva, Pg No. 8 http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/ cat/docs/CAT.C.CHN.CO.4.pdf Committee Against Torture hears response of China, United Nations Office, Geneva, 10 November 2008. Also available at h t t p : / / w w w. u n o g . c h / 8 0 2 5 6 E D D 0 0 6 B 9 C 2 E / ( h t t p N e w s B y Y e a r _ e n ) B2DAD5A2D673AA85C12574FD0049F039?OpenDocument China comes up for scrutiny at a U.N meeting in Geneva from Monday to Wednesday. Here are some facts about the meeting and Chinas human rights record. Reuters, 8 February 2009 Summary chart of UPR recommendations rejected by the People s Republic of China, Human Rights in China. This includes all recommendations related to freedom of expression and freedom of association, independence of the judiciary, guarantees for the legal profession, protection of human rights defenders, rights of ethnic minorities, reduction of the death penalty, abolition of reeducation-through-labor, prohibition of torture, media freedom, and effective remedies for discrimination UN General Assembly Resolution A/RES/60/251 dated 3 April 2006 Chinese Official hails nation s first Human Rights Action Plan, Xinhua New, dated 14 April 2009 Statement of Ms. Navanethem Pillay United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights at the 12th session of the Human Rights Council, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), 14 September 2009 China to step up unprecedented restriction in Tibet , TCHRD Press Release dated 4 March 2009 available at http:/ /www.tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090304.html Ibid and Xinhua News dated 4 February 2009 available online at http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2009-02/04/ content_10762894_1.htm (In Chinese language) China Arrests a solo protestor in Lithang, TCHRD Press Release dated 16 February 2009; Fifteen Tibetans arrested in Lithang after a peaceful protest, TCHRD Press Release dated

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16 February 2009, The peaceful Tibetan protesters took to the street of Lithang main market chanting slogans, Long Live the Dalai Lama, Independence for Tibet, Swift return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet and No Losar (Tibetan New Year) celebration this year. China Adds to Security Forces, in Tibet Amid Calls for a Boycott, By Edward Wong, New York Times (Online) dated 19 February 2009, The campaign for the boycott of Losar, the Tibetan New Year, has spread via test and e-mail messages and fliers. China Expects Tibet to Celebrate, or Else, Barbara Demick, Los AngelesTimes, 23 February 2009. Even among Tibetans, there is a vigorous debated about the campaign to boycott Losar. Tibetan monks in protest march, Radio Free Asia (online) dated 26 February 2009. Tibetan have largely boycotted traditional Losar festivities this year in memory of Tibetans killed and jailed in protests against Chinese rule throughout the region last year. China Expects Tibetto Celebrate, or Else, Barbara Demick, Los AngelesTimes, 23 February 2009. The tactic appears to be driving Chinese authorities crazy. They re countering with their own campaign of forced merriment, organizing concerts, pageants, fireworks, horse races, archery competitions. China Adds to Security Forces to Tibet Amid calls for a boycott, Edward Wong, The New York Times, 19 February 2009. China to step up unprecedented restrictions in Tibet, TCHRD Press Release dated 4 March 2009 (online) available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090304.html China grills 5766 Tibetans under Winter Strike Hard Campaign in Lhasa, TCHRD Press Release dated 23 January 2009 China Adds to Security Forces to TibetAmid calls for a boycott, Edward Wong, The New York Times, 19 February 2009. 76 People Convicted Over LhasaViolence, Xinhua (online) dated 11 February 2009 available at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-02/11/ content_10798392.htm Ibid Tibetans protest in Kardze during the Tibetan New Year, TCHRD Press Release dated 7 March 2009, available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090307a.html Tibetans Skip New Year, Radio Free Asia (Online) dated 25 February 2009 Ibid Ibid Ibid Tibetans protest in Kardze during the Tibetan New Year, TCHRD Press Release dated 7 March 2009, available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090307a.html Ibid Tibetans Skip New Year, Radio Free Asia (Online dated 25 February 2009 Tibetans refuse State Dance Troupes, Radio Free Asia (Online) 5 March 2009
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Clampdown in Tibet, Radio Free Asia(online) 24 February 2009. Ibid Security forces patrol TibetanTown in NW China, Nir Elias, Reuters, dated 7 February 2009 China Adds to Security Forces to TibetAmid calls for a boycott, Edward Wong, The New York Times, 19 February 2009. (The four crucial areas named in the report where government officials significantly increased security forces were: Lhasa, the capital; Xiahe, a town in Gansu Province that is home to a large and restive monastery; Tongren, a monastery town in Qinghai Province; and Lithang, a town in Sichuan Province that has been locked down this week. Tibetans mark somber New Year after unrest, Ben Blanchard, Reuters, dated 25 February 2009 (Online) available athttp://uk.reuters.com/article/ idUKTRE51O0X620090225?feedType=RSS&feedName=worldNews Ibid China arrests a solo protestor in Lithang, TCHRD Press Release dated 16 February 2009 available at http://tchrd.org/ press/2009/pr20090216.html More cases of detention and disappearance emerges after Lithang protest, TCHRD Press Release dated 17 February 2009 available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090217.html Ibid Chinaarrests a solo protestor in Lithang, TCHRD Press Release dated 16 February 2009 available at http://tchrd.org/ press/2009/pr20090216.html More cases of detention and disappearance emerges after Lithang protest, TCHRD Press Release dated 17 February 2009 available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090217.html The Lithang County Public Security Bureau (PSB) and Peoples Armed Police (PAP) detained five more Tibetans along with 15 other known Tibetans who staged a peaceful protest demonstration in Lithang on 16 February 2009 and were brutally beaten, manhandled at the site of the demonstration before being forcibly loaded into military trucks. Hundred of Tibetans protest over two days in restive Lithang County, Free Tibet Campaign, Press Release dated 17 February 2009 available at http://www.freetibet.org/ newsmedia/170209 ( Based on these reports, the following Tibetans are some of the persons detained on Feb 16 and 17; Lobsang Phande, Jamyang Palden, Tenzin Sanggye, Lobsang Wangchug, Lobsang Tashi, Jampa Yonten, Jampa Tsering, Ado Gyaltsen, Geleg Kunga, Gedun Jamphel, Gedun Choephel, Lobsang Dhargyal, Jampa Jogme, Lobsang Tenzin and Sonam Tenpa.) Tibetan Monks in Protest March, Radio Free Asia (Online), 26 February 2009; available at http://www.rfa.org/english/ news/tibet/tibet-march-02262009163337.html Ibid Ibid Amdo monks taken for study after peaceful protest, International Campaign for Tibet (ICT) dated 16 March 2009

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Court sentences 4 Tibetans to 2 years in jail, Voice of Tibet (Online Radio) report dated 28 April 2009; According to another report based on this story, Lutsang monks Jamyang Sherab, Jamyang Ngodrub, Jamyang Khyenrab, Lungthog, Thabkhe Gyatso, and Kunsang were released early in April, whereas Thabkhe Gyatso was subsequently rearrested in April) Additional troop deployments confirmed Tibetan Review quoted AFP; Xinhua reports dated 10 March 2009 March 10, 1959 marked the popular Tibetan Peoples Uprising in Lhasa when thousands of Tibetans hold the biggest ever protest demonstration against the Chinese rule in Tibet. China Daily Newspaper dated 7 March 2009; In the report the Chairman of the TAR Government Qiangba Punco cited Puncog as saying the troop deployment was a usual and necessary security measures for the upcoming 50th anniversary of the Tibetan uprising. I cannot swear that some individuals wont make reckless moves next week, but riots like those seen last March wont happen again.; South China Morning Post (online) 20 May 2009, Choi Chi-yuk, Almost 70,000 [PAP] were reportedly sent to Tibet in the run-up to the first anniversary of the crackdown in March. Tibet remains stable despite repeated secessionist attempts, Xinhua (Online) dated 8 March 2009. Available at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/08/ content_10967427.htm; Legqog, the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Tibet Autonomous Regional Peoples Congress stated that Most parts of Tibet are stable. People live a life as normal as usual. Religious activities, including major rituals, are also going on as usual. No Martial Law in Lhasa on Special days, Xinhua News Report (online) dated 6 March 2009 available at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/06/ content_10958195.htm Ibid. Mr. Jampa Phuntsog said, I cannot swear that some individuals wouldnt make reckless moves next week, but riots like those in last March wont happen again, Ibid Tibet remains stable despite repeated secessionist attempts, Xinhua (Online) dated 8 March 2009. Available at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/08/ content_10967427.htmAccording to the report, Legqog described the increased in security enhancement as defensive against possible disturbance from the Dalai Lamas group and some Western groups of Tibet independence. Hu Calls for Great Wall of Stability in Tibet, Xinhua News (online) dated 9 March 2009 available at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/09/ content_10977938.htm Ibid Tibet remains stable despite repeated secessionist attempts, Xinhua (Online) dated 8 March 2009. Available at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/08/ content_10967427.htm Hu Calls for Great Wall of Stability in Tibet , X i n h u a News (online) dated 9 March 2009 available at

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http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/09/ content_10977938.htm Chinese police search houses in Lhasa for non-Tibetans, By Malcolm Moore, The Telegraph, dated 13 March 2009. Available online at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/ worldnews/asia/china/4984659/Chinese-police-searchhouses-in-Lhasa-for-non-Tibetans.html ibid Ibid The South China Morning Post dated March 16, 2009(Online) Dozens of monks staged a protest around the Sera Monastery in Lhasas outskirts on Mar 9, the eve of the 50th anniversary of the Tibetan national uprising day, citing locals. As a result, at least half the monastery was now cordoned off and two military vehicles with up to 100 armed police were deployed outside. And Lhasa city was reported to be under severe crackdown ahead of the first anniversary of last years Mar 14 uprising protests. Monk kills self in Ragya, residents protest, Phayul.com (online) dated 21 March 2009; China detains 95 Tibetans who protested in the aftermath of Tashi Sangpos suicide in Machu River, TCHRD Press Release dated 23 March 2009. Thousands clash with Chinese police over death of Tibetan monk; Central Tibetan Administration, Tibet.net report dated 21 March 2009 http://www.tibet.net/en/ index.php?id=761&articletype=flash China detains 95 Tibetans who protested in the aftermath of Tashi Sangpos suicide in Machu River, TCHRD Press Release dated 23 March 2009. China arrests monks after protest over missing lama; Times Online, Jane Macartney ; 22 March 2009; http:// w w w. t i m e s o n l i n e . c o . u k / t o l / n e w s / w o r l d / a s i a / article5954977.ece Voice of Tibet (Online Radio) report dated 27 January 2009. Initial reports suggested five or six monks from Gonchen monastery in Derge (Chinese: Dege) county in Kardze (Chinese: Ganzi) prefecture staged a protest on January 27, 2009 calling for Tibetan independence, and were detained by police who opened fire with live ammunition at some point in the process of detaining the monks. However, later reports suggest the protest was a response to a demand by local officials that monks at the monastery perform ritual dances to welcome senior visiting officials. Accounts vary, with one RFA source saying that monks at the monastery were angered and protested when some other monks agreed to dance, despite a popular understanding that had spread throughout Tibet that there would be no activities to mark the Tibetan new year in memory of the people killed during the Chinese authorities response to protests the previous year. Tibetans protest in Sichuan, Radio Free Asia report dated 15 March 2009; http://www.rfa.org/english/news/tibet/protest03152009131528.html Tibetans protest in Kardze during the Tibetan New Year, TCHRD Press Release dated 7 March 2009 Tibetans stage peaceful protests in Kardze, Nagchu, Mangra and Ngapa, 16 Arrested, Central Tibetan Administration,

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Tibet.net dated 15 March 2009 Update on Tibet Demonstration: Protest in Nyarong, Kardze, Central Tibetan Administration, Tibet.net report dated 16 March 2009 Protesters call for United Stand Against Chinas Wrong Policy in Tibet: Update Tibet.net (online) dated 18 March 2009, Central Tibetan Administration. Ibid Deputies to the TAR Peoples congress endorsed a motion on 19 January 2009 designating March 28 as the Serfs Emancipation Day, to commemorate the emancipation of millions of serfs and slaves in Tibet 50 years ago. Chinas serf emancipation day hides repression in Tibet, Kashag Press Statement as given in Tibet.net, 27 March 2008; Central Tibetan Administration. Setting of Serfs Emancipation Day major Move to fight Dalai clique, Xinhua News dated 6 March 2009 available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/06/ content_10957431.htm Tibet proposes setting of serfs emancipation day, Xinhua News dated 16 January 2009 available at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-01/16/ content_10668257.htm Official: Grand Celebration To be Held on Serfs Emancipation Day in Beijing, Lhasa, Xinhua News dated 5 March 2009; http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/05/ content_10948661.htm Tibetans plan subdue New Year, Radio Free Asia (online) dated 16 January 2009 available at http://www.rfa.org/english/ news/tibet/tibetansubduednewyear-01162009120152.html Ibid 7 Monks arrested and abbot missing in Chamdo, Phayul.com report dated 09 February 2009; The seven monks are Chant leader Nima Tsering, disciplinarian Lhundup, Nyichey, Tsering Palden, Ngawang Tashi, Tado and Tashi Dawa. Ibid Ibid and Tenzin studied from 1995 to 2003 at Drepung Loseling monastery in south India. He returned to Tibet and taught dialectics at Denchoekhor Monastery before being appointed the abbot in November 2008. Ibid Chinese court sentences six monks in Chamdo, TCHRD Press Release dated 27 May 2009. A Tibetan monk beaten to death by Chinese security police, TCHRD Press Release dated 30 March 2009 Drango Farmers Arrested and Beaten by the Chinese Security Police, TCHRD Press Release dated 1 April 2009. China arrest Tibetan in Kardze over farming boycott movement, TCHRD Press Release dated 21 March 2009; Three Tibetans arrested in connection with farming boycott movement, TCHRD Press Release dated 23 March 2009; Chinese Police Open fire in eastern Tibet, 9 Arrested and several injured, Tibetan Government-in-exile Press Release dated 22 April 2009. China arrest Tibetan in Kardze over farming boycott movement, TCHRD Press Release dated 21 March 2009; China arrested two nuns of Dragkar Nunnery in Kardze, TCHRD Press Release dated 3 April 2009 Ibid Ibid Tibetans Farmers in Kardze Stop Farming in Protest, Authorities Issue Warning, Tibetan Government-in-exile, www.tibet.net; Central Tibetan Administration dated 22 March 2009. TESTIMONY OF TONGKOR DORJEE RINCHEN, TCHRD 27 November 2009 Drango Farmers Arrested and Beaten by the Chinese Security Police, TCHRD Press Release dated 1 April 2009; A Tibetan monk beaten to death by Chinese security forces, TCHRD Press Release dated 30 March 2009 A Tibetan monk beaten to death by Chinese security police, TCHRD Press Release dated 30 March 2009. Chinese Police Open fire in eastern Tibet, 9 Arrested and several injured, Tibetan Government-in-exile Press Release dated 22 April 2009. China arrest Tibetan in Kardze over farming boycott movement, TCHRD Press Release dated 21 March 2009 available online at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090321.html; According to the report, Several members of Jampa Dhondups family were involved in peaceful protests last year, including his elder brother Tashi Namgyal, who has been on the run since a peaceful protest in Serthar County on 17 March 2008 resulted in a warrant for his arrest. An elder sister, Lhagha, was arrested after a peaceful protest in Kardze County on 14 May 2008 with her fellow nuns from Pangri-Na Nunnery. She was later released, but must report to the Public Security Bureau every week. At least 28 incidents of peaceful protest have been reported from Kardze in March, resulting in more than 60 arrests. China arrest Tibetan in Kardze over farming boycott movement, TCHRD Press Release dated 21 March 2009 available online at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090321.html Three more Tibetan arrested over Farming boycott movement; TCHRD Press Release dated 23 March 2009 available online at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090323.html Drango Farmers arrested and beaten by the Chinese security police, TCHRD Press Release dated 1 April 2009 China grills 5766 Tibetans under Winter Strike Hard Campaign in Lhasa, TCHRD Press Release dated 23 January 2009 China grills 5766 Tibetans under Winter Strike Hard Campaign in Lhasa, TCHRD Press Release dated 23 January 2009. Ibid Chinese launch raids, detentions in Tibet; The Washing Post, By Maureen Fan dated 29 January 2009 Online at http:/ /www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/01/ 28/AR2009012801176.html China launches the Strike Hard Campaign in Tibet ahead of major anniversary, TCHRD Press Release dated 9 September 2009.

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Ibid China grills 5766 Tibetans under Winter Strike Hard Campaign in Lhasa, TCHRD Press Release dated 23 January 2009 107 Ibid 108 Tibets Armed Police Chief Says Ready to Handle Incident, Xinhua Net News dated 9 March 2009 109 China warns of life and death struggle over Tibet, Reuters, By Lindsay Beck and Benjamin Kang Lim, dated 19 March 2008; available online at http://www.reuters.com/article/ idUSPEK334594 110 China in Life, death struggle against Dalai Lama: Media The China Post report dated 17 February 2009 available at http://www.chinapost.com.tw/china/national-news/2009/02/ 17/196382/China-in.htm 111 China Arrests Two Nuns of Dragkar Nunnery in Kardze, TCHRD Press Release dated 3 April 2009 Chinese peoples Armed Police (PAP) immediately detained both the Tibetan nuns from the site of protest and they were beaten indiscriminately with rods and electric batons before being thrown into and driven away in a security vehicle. Tibetans Stage Farm Boycott, Radio Free Asia (online) dated 25 March 2009; Hundreds of Tibetans Protest Over Two Days in Restive Lithang County, Free Tibet Campaign Press Release dated 17 February 2009; Drango farmers arrested and beaten by the Chinese security police, TCHRD Press Release dated 1 April 2009 some of the victims became unconscious after being subjected to inhumane beatings. A woman named Khethar from Kya-lam Village is currently said to be in an unable mental state after receiving severe beatings at the hands of Chinese security police. 112 China detains 95 Tibetans who protested in the aftermath of Tashi Sangpos suicide in Machu River, TCHRD Press Release dated 23 March 2009 OR SIXTY TIBETANS DETAINED IN KARDZE FOR PETITIONING, TCHRD Press Release dated 8 December 2009; More cases of detention and disappearance emerges after Lithang Protest, TCHRD Press Release dated 17 February 2009.
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China arrests a solo protester in Lithang, TCHRD Press Release dated 16 February 2009 More cases of detention and disappearance emerges after Lithang Protest, TCHRD Press Release dated 17 February 2009. Fifteen Tibetans arrested in Lithang after a peaceful protest, TCHRD Press Release dated 16 February 2009 Ibid; The identities of all those detained are; Sonam Tenpa, 29 years old, Jampa Thokmey, 30, Gelek Kunga, 26, Lobsang Tenzin 23, Lobsang Phendey, 37, Jampa Yonten, 30, Sanggey, 29, Jampa Tsering, 28, Lobsang Wangchuk, 30, Lobsang Tashi, 21, Gendun Choephel, 30, Dargye, 37, Gedhun, 29, Jampa, 40 and Amdo Gyaltsen, 41 More cases of detention and disappearance emerges after Lithang Protest, TCHRD Press Release dated 17 February 2009 More cases of detention and disappearance emerges after

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Lithang Protest, TCHRD Press Release dated 17 February 2009 China arrests a Tibetan civil servant in Mangra County, Qinghai Province, TCHRD Press Release date 16 March 2009 Tashi Dhondups younger brother disappeared, TCHRD Press Release dated 16 March 2009 International support led Golog Jigme free; The Association of Tibetan Journalists, Press Release dated 22 April 2009; http://www.tibetanjournalists.org/pressreleases/20090422pressrelease.html Chinese authorities re-arrest Jigme Gyatso, TCHRD Press Release dated 17 March 2009 A Solo nun stages protest march in Kardze, TCHRD Press Release dated 17 March 2009 China detains three Tibetan monks in Nagchu County, TCHRD Press Release dated 28 April 2009 Sixty Tibetans detained in Kardze for Petitioning, TCHRD Press Release dated 8 December 2009 China arrests brothers who were on the run, TCHRD Press Release dated 21 May 2009 Two monks disappeared after raid in Labrang Monastery, TCHRD Press Release dated 3 June 2009 Two arrested in Kardze, Radio Free Asia report dated 05 March 2009 Two monks and three laymen arrested in Kardze, Voice of Tibet Radio Service report dated 07 March 2009 School students demonstration in Labrang County, TCHRD Press Release dated 24 April 2009 Protesters Call for United Stand Against Chinas Wrong Policy in Tibet: Update, Central Tibetan Administration, Tibet.net dated 17 March 2009 http://www.tibet.net/en/ index.php?id=755&articletype=flash Nuns arrested in Kardze, Voice of Tibet (VOT) Tibetan Radio service broadcasted this report on 25 March 2009 A solo nun stages protest in Kardze, TCHRD Press Release dated 17 March 2009 Troops fire into Nyarong protesters, arrest nine, Voice of Tibet (VOT) Tibetan Radio news service reported on 15 April 2009. Radio Free Asia Report dated 28 July 2009 China jails 17 Tibetans in a swift and quick court proceeding; TCHRD Press Release; 29 April 2008; http:// www.tchrd.org/press/2008/pr20080429a.html Permanent Mission of the Peoples Republic of China to the United Nations Office at Geneva and other International Organizations in Switzerland. http://www.china-un.ch/eng/ gjhyfy/2009/t536333.htm h t t p : / / w w w. x z e d u . c o m . c n / d o n g t a i / p n e w s / 20080317173436.shtml Online Report dated March 17, 2008 (Translation from the original text in Chinese language) Summary Chart Of UPR Recommendations Rejected by the Peoples Republic of China, Human Rights in China. (Online) Available at http://hrichina.org/public/PDFs/ S u b m i s s i o n s / Summary_Chart_of_Rejected_UPR_Recommendations.pdf China: Rights Lawyers Face Disbarment Threats: Intimidation

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Overshadows Reforms to Law on Lawyers, International Campaign for Tibet, 30 May 2008 Chinese tell of Tibetfailures; The Age, By John Garnaut, 22 May 2009 (online) available at http://www.theage.com.au/ world/chinese-tell-of-tibet-failures-20090521-bh1x.html; The Editorial: The KMT and Chinese Democracy; Taipei Times dated 23 May 2009 (Online) available at http:// www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2009/05/23/ 2003444327 Special Brochure available at http://tchrd.org/publications/ brochures/trulku_tenzin_delek-brochure.pdf Death Sentence For Bangri Rinpoche Commuted to Life Imprisonment ,TCHRD Press Release dated 16 December 2004. Available at www.tchrd.org/press/2004/ pr20041216.html Geshe Sonam Phuntsok from Kardze passed away in 2008; A popular Tibetan religious figure, Geshe Sonam Phuntsok, passes away on 5 April 2008 in Kardze, TCHRD Press Release dated 15 April 2008; available at http://www.tchrd.org/press/ 2008/pr20080415.html; Khenpo Jigme Phuntsok , founder of famed Sertha Buddhist Institute passed away on 6 January 2004, TCHRD Press Release dated 7 January 2004 available at http://www.tchrd.org/press/2004/pr20040107.html Senior Tibetan Cleric faces prison in China, The New York Times, By Edward Wong, 25 April 2009 Tibetan Lama on trial for weapons charge in China, Christopher Bodeen, The Associated Press, 21 April 2009 China arrests 55 nuns of Pangri-Na Nunnery for Protesting, TCHRD Press Release dated 17 May 2008 available online at http://tchrd.org/press/2008/pr20080517.html Ibid Tibetan nuns play key role, Radio Free Asia (online) 21 May 2008. According to Tibetan lama on trial for weapons charge in China, The Associated Press dated 21 April 2009 Tibetan lama on trial for weapons charge in China, The Associated Press dated 21 April 2009 Chinas civil rights lawyers: The new enemies of the state, The Huffington Post, By Rebecca Novick, dated 20 July 2009 available online at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rebeccanovick/chinas-civil-rights-lawye_b_240759.html; Mr. Jiang was one of 21 Chinese lawyers who signed a public statement on 1 April 2008, offering to provide legal defense to Tibetans who were arrested in connection with protests that broke out in March 2008 in Tibetan areas. The Chinese government has threatened to close the law firms, or revoke individual lawyers licenses, if these lawyers involve themselves in the Tibet issue. Senior Tibetan Cleric faces prison in China, The New York Times, By Edward Wong, 25 April 2009 Chinese court postpones judgment on Tibetan Living Buddha, Times Online, By Jane Macartney, 27 April 2009 China sentences Tulku Phurbu Tsering Rinpoche to jail, TCHRD Press Release dated 29 December 2009. Tibetan Living Buddha Phurbu Tsering jailed by China, BBC News 1 January 2010. Available online at http:// news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8436865.stm Verdict on Tibetan Lama Deferred: Chinese Lawyers statement on charges against Phurbu Rinpoche, International Campaign for Tibet (online) 27 April 2009 The Translation of the lawyers statement on behalf of Phurbu Tsering Rinpoche to the Ganzi Intermediate Peoples Court was given in ICT report. Verdict on Tibetan Lama Deferred: Chinese lawyers statement on Charges Against Phurbu Rinpoche, International

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Chinese report on Tibet reveals the roots of unrest, The Telegraph, By Malcolm Moore in Shanghai, dated 22 May 2009 143 China Blocks Tibet Lawyer, Radio Free Asia, dated 20 July 2009 available online at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/tibet/ lawyer-blocked-07202009165943.html 144 Chinese public-interest lawyer charged amid crackdown, The New York Times, By Michael Wines, dated 18 August 2009 available online at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/19/ world/asia/19china.html?_r=2 145 Lawyer Released, Assistant Missing, Radio Free Asia report dated 24 August 2009 (online) available at http://www.rfa.org/ english/news/china/LawyerReleased-08242009100808.html 146 Assistant to pioneering Chinese rights lawyer disappears, Guardian, By Tania Branigan, 21 August 2009 available online at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/aug/21/chinarights-activist-assistant-disappears
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China Blocks Tibet Lawyer, Radio Free Asia, dated 20 July 2009 available online at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/tibet/ lawyer-blocked-07202009165943.html Ibid China sentences a monk to life imprisonment term, TCHRD Press Release dated 21 May 2009 available at http:// www.tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090521a.html; Also Chinadenies family access to two Labrang Monks serving lengthy prison sentence, TCHRD Press Release dated 27 May 2009 available at http://www.tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090527a.html China denies family access to two Labrang Monks serving lengthy prison sentence, TCHRD Press Release dated 27 May 2009 available at http://www.tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090527a.html China Blocks Tibet Lawyer, Radio Free Asia, dated 20 July 2009 available online at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/tibet/ lawyer-blocked-07202009165943.html Geshe Sonam Phuntsok from Kardze passed away in 2008; A popular Tibetan religious figure, Geshe Sonam Phuntsok, passes away on 5 April 2008 in Kardze, TCHRD Press Release dated 15 April 2008; available at http://www.tchrd.org/press/ 2008/pr20080415.html; and Look for all related information at the link given at the end of the press release. Unjust Sentence:A Special Report on Trulku Tenzin Delek, 2004, available online at http://tchrd.org/publications/topical_reports/ unjust_sentence-trulku_tenzin_delek-2004/trulku.pdf and

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Campaign for Tibet, Press Release dated 27 April 2009 Ibid. Chinese court postpones judgment on Tibetan Living Buddha, Times Online report dated 27 April 2009. http:// www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article6180748.ece Tibetan monks stage sit-in protest in front of Chinese court,TCHRD Press Release dated 3 April 2009 Chinese court sentences two to death starting fatal fires in Lhasa riot, Xinhua News dated 8 April 2009. China Executes Four Tibetans in Lhasa Over Spring 2008 Protest, TCHRD Press Release dated 22 October 2009. Chinese court sentences two to death starting fatal fires in Lhasa riot, Xinhua News dated 8 April 2009. China: Overturn Death Sentences for Tibet Protesters, Amnesty International (Asia Pacific) Press Release dated 9 April 2009 available at http://www.amnesty.org.hk/html/node/ 10260 The Asia-Pacific Director, Sam Zarifi of the Amnesty International stated Amnesty International condemns the death sentences handed down to Losang Gyaltse and Loyar. We have recorded a pattern of unfair trials leading to death sentences in China. Under these conditions its very unlikely that these sentences stand up. We urge the death sentences to be overturned.China: Hundreds of Tibetan Detainees and Prisoners Unaccounted For, Human Rights Watch Report dated 9 March 2009 concluded that the process of trials and imprisonment in Tibet over the past year has been politically motivated and that the principle of independence of the judiciary is thoroughly undermined by leaderships demand that court and police tailor their actions to political requirements. Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile Calls on International Community to free Tibetans from Death Penalty, Tibetan Parliament-in-exile Press Release dated 10 April 2009 available online at http://www.tibet.net/en/ index.php?id=94&articletype=press&tab=2&rmenuid=morepress, CTA Condemns Tibet Sentences, Central Tibetan Administration Press Release dated 22 April 2009 available online at http://www.tibet.net/en/index. China Executes Four Tibetans in Lhasa Over Spring 2008 Protest, TCHRD Press Release dated 22 October 2009. China says two executed for Tibetriots, Reuters, 27 October 2009; Two people have been executed in China for their involvement in deadly riots in Tibet last year, the Chinese Foreign Ministry said on Tuesday, the first officially confirmed to have been carried out. Tibetans Trial Detailed, Radio Free Asia report dated 16 November 2009 (Online) China Executes Four Tibetans in Lhasa Over Spring 2008 Protest, TCHRD Press Release dated 22 October 2009. Death penalty to be strictly controlled and prudently applied in China Xinhua report dated 13 April 2009 available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-04/13/ content_11177838.htm New Supreme Peoples Court Regulations Issued Governing Death Penalty Procedure, Dui Hua Foundation Human Rights Journal dated 25 December 2008. "Death penalty to be strictly controlled and prudently applied in China Xinhua report dated 13 April 2009 available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-04/13/ content_11177838.htm TCHRD condemns China sentencing of three Tibetans, TCHRD Press Release dated 21 April 2009 available online at http://www.tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090421.html; Court Sentences 3 for arson in Lhasa riot, Xinhua Report dated 21 April 2009 as given in http://www.china.org.cn/china/ news/2009-04/21/content_17643102.htm Chinese court sentences two to death on starting fatal fires in Lhasa riot, Xinhua News report dated 8 April 2009 (Online) available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-04/08/ content_11151158.htm Chinese court sentences two to death on starting fatal fires in Lhasa riot, Xinhua News dated 8 April 2009, (Online) available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-04/08/ content_11151158.htm GENERAL ASSEMBLY ADOPTS LANDMARK TEXT CALLING FOR MORATORIUM ON DEATH PENALTY, Adopts 54 Resolutions, 12 Decisions Recommended by Third Committee, UN General Assembly, GA/10678, Department of Public Information News and Media Division New York dated 18 December 2007 UN General Assembly resolution 62/149, Country Vote. Amnesty International. The list of Countries voted for, against and abstained were given. Available at http://www.amnesty.org/ en/death-penalty/international-law/moratorium/votingrecords Chinese court sentences two to death on starting fatal fires in Lhasa riot, Xinhua News dated 8 April 2009, Online available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-04/08/ content_11151158.htm Sentences for 55 people handed down so far over Lhasa violence, Xinhua report dated 4 November 2008, Also available on http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-11/04/ content_10307184.htm No death penalty handed down so far over Lhasa violence. Xinhua report, Lhasa, dated 11 July 2008. Available on http:/ /news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-07/11/ content_8527795.htm After judicial proceedings, 69 had been sentenced to imprisonment for committing crimes of arson, robbery, theft, obstructing government functions, trouble-making in the streets, gathering to disrupt public order or attacking State organs; seven had been sentenced for committing crimes of treason or illegally offering information to people outside China, and eight were still under investigation by the judicial organs. Committee Against Torture hears response of China, United Nations Office, Geneva, 10 November 2008. Also available at h t t p : / / w w w. u n o g . c h / 8 0 2 5 6 E D D 0 0 6 B 9 C 2 E / ( h t t p N e w s B y Y e a r _ e n ) / B2DAD5A2D673AA85C12574FD0049F039?OpenDocument Chinese court sentences two to death on staring fatal fires in Lhasa riot,Online available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/

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english/2009-04/08/content_11151158.htm; TCHRD strongly condemns the Lhasa court verdicts, TCHRD Press Release dated 8 April 2009; Chinese court sentenced two to death on starting fatal fires in Lhasa riot, Xinhua, 8 April 2009 AND TCHRD condemns China sentencing of three Tibetans, TCHRD Press Release dated 21 April 2009 available online at http://www.tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090421.html; Court Sentences 3 for arson in Lhasa riot, Xinhua Report dated 21 April 2009 as given in http:// w w w. c h i n a . o r g . c n / c h i n a / n e w s / 2 0 0 9 - 0 4 / 2 1 / content_17643102.htm Chinese court sentences two to death on starting fatal fires in Lhasa riot, Online available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/ english/2009-04/08/content_11151158.htm 76 people convicted over Lhasa violence, Xinhua News Report, 11 February 2009, (online) available at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-02/11/ content_10798392.htm; 76 sentenced so far over Tibet riots: China report, The China Post dated 12 February 2009 (online) available at http://www.chinapost.com.tw/china/local-news/ tibet/2009/02/12/195728/76-sentenced.htm; 76 sentenced for taking part in riots, The New York Times, By Andrew Jacobs, dated 1 November 2009; available at http:// www.nytimes.com/2009/02/11/world/asia/11ihttibet.3.20110700.html; TCHRD fears for the fates of two Tibetans sentenced to death, TCHRD Press Release dated 16 May 2009. Ganze Daily dated 12 April 2009 Chinese court sentences two to death on starting fatal fires in Lhasa riot, Xinhua News dated 8 April 2009, Online available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-04/08/ content_11151158.htm Chinese court sentences 3 for Arsons in Lhasa Riot, Xinhua News reprinted in China Tibet News, 21 April 2009 Reference for the Total number of Tibetans sentenced is given at the list at the end of the Annual Report. Tibetan Guides Incitement Case Surfaces: 3-Year Sentence for Emails, Text Messages, Dui Hua Foundation Human Rights Journal dated 22 June 2009 Refer to the List of Political Prisoners at the end of the report. Nine monks sentenced, another committed suicide in Tibet, TCHRD Press Release dated 10 February 2009 (Online) available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090210.html; According to the source the name and affiliation of the sentenced monks are as follows: According to the source, Of the nine Tibetans sentenced, four were visiting Buddhist scripture masters to the Samye Monastery from other monasteries, and other five were monks of the Samye Monastery. Five monks are: 1)Gyaltsen of Tsona (Ch: Cuona) County, Lhoka Prefecture was sentenced to 15 years in jail; 2)Nyima Tashi, of Gongkar County (Ch: Gongga Xian), Lhoka Prefecture was sentenced to 13 years in jail; 3) Phuntsok (One name only) born in Kongpo, Nyingtri Prefecture TAR and his parent were known to have shifted their home to Kyiray in Lhasa, was sentenced to 13 years in jail; 4) Tenzin Dawa, of Tsome County (Ch: Cuomei xian), Lhoka Prefecture, was sentenced to two years in jail; 5)Rigden, of Dranang County, Lhoka Prefecture, was sentenced to 2 years in jail. The visiting Buddhist scripture masters were identified as: 1) Tenzin Bhuchung of Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality and monk of Langthang Monastery was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment term; 2)Tenzin Zoepa, of Tsome County, Lhoka Prefecture and monk of Jowo Monastery, was sentenced to 13 years imprisonment term; 3)Gelek of Lhodrag County (Ch: Luozha xian), Lhoka Prefecture and monk of Sang Ngag Choekor Monastery was sentenced to 2 years jail term; 4) Ngawang Tenzin of Nagartse County (Ch: Lianggarze xian), Lhoka Prefecture and monk of Khathok Monastery was sentenced to 2 years in jail. 205 China sentences four Tibetans in Kardze, TCHRD Press Release dated 19 February 2009 (Online available at http:// tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090219.html 206 China sentences four Puru-na nuns in Kardze County, TCHRD Press Release dated 7 March 2009 available at http://tchrd.org/ press/2009/pr20090307.html 207 China sentences four Tibetans in Kardze, TCHRD Press Release dated 19 February 2009 (Online available at http:// tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090219.html 208 Four Tibetans sentenced, another missing, TCHRD Press Release dated 20 January 2009. 209 Ibid 210 China sentences a monk to life imprisonment term, TCHRD Press Release dated 21 May 2009 available at http:// www.tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090521a.html; Also China denies family access to two Labrang Monks serving lengthy prison sentence, TCHRD Press Release dated 27 May 2009 available at http://www.tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090527a.html 211 China denies family access to two Labrang Monks serving lengthy prison sentence, TCHRD Press Release dated 27 May 2009 available at http://www.tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090527a.html 212 Chinese court sentences six monks in Chamdo, TCHRD Press Release dated 27 May 2009; Six monks were identified as abbot Tenzin Gyaltsen, 37, Nyi-chig, 50, ex-treasurer Ngawang Tashi, 51, Tashi Dorjee, 30, all received 15 years of rigorous imprisonment. Chant Master Jamyang Sherab, 42 was sentenced to 13 years and Tsering Palden, 36, was sentenced to 12 years of rigorous imprisonment 213 Chinese court sentences six monks in Chamdo, TCHRD Press Release dated 27 May 2009 available at http://tchrd.org/ press/2009/pr20090527.html 214 Tibetan Guides Incitement Case Surfaces: 3-year sentence for Emails, Text Messages, Dui Hua Foundation, Dui Hua Human Rights Journal dated 22 June 2009. and More Tibetans arrested in connection with Internet Activities, Reporters Without Borders, 22 October 2009 (Online) available at http://www.rsf.org/More-Tibetans-arrestedin.html 215 Ibid 216 A Tibetan monk sentenced to 3- years in jail for opposing patriotic education campaign, TCHRD Press Release dated

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China Sentences eight Tibetans to varying prison terms in Tibet; TCHRD Press Release dated 14 August 2009; The eight indicted Tibetans were identified as: 1. Monk Palden Gyatso, a disciplinarian at Ragya Monastery, sentenced to seven years rigorous imprisonment; 2. Monk Tsultrim, a former disciplinarian of Ragya Monastery was given four years of rigorous imprisonment. He was also a former Chant master, well trained in performing ritual prayers and a scholar on vinaya teachings (monastic code of conduct);3. Monk Sangpo was given three-year prison sentence. He was a former treasurer of Ragya Monastery; 4. Monk Jamyang Khedrub was sentenced to two-year prison term. He was the secretary of the Board of Directors of Ragya Monastery; 5. Monk Gendun was given one-year prison sentence; 6. Monk Sherab Sangpo, 27, was sentenced to two-year prison term; 7. Hu-lo from GyasaVillage (lay person) was given one-year prison sentence; 8. Yang-kyab from Gya-sa Village (lay person) was given sixmonths prison sentence. China detains 95 Tibetans who protested in the aftermath of Tashi Sangpos suicide in the MachuRiver, TCHRD Press Release dated 23 March 2009 TCHRD fears torture and inhumane treatment on the arrestees from Barkhor protest on Tibetan Uprising Day, TCHRD Press Release date 12 March 2008 available at http:/ /www.tchrd.org/press/2008/pr20080312.html Monks jailed for up to ten years for March 2008 Protests, Voice of Tibet Radio service (online), dated 20 August 2009 Picture identities of visiting monk students of Sera Monastery arrested on 10 March from Barkhor street, Lhasa, for their pro-Tibet protest, TCHRD Press Release dated 12 March 2008 available at http://www.tchrd.org/press/2008/p001.html Three Tibetans sentenced, Radio Free Asia (Online) dated 12 August 2009 available at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/ tibet/threetibetans-08122009164030.html Tibetan sentenced to five years in Kardze, Voice of Tibet Radio Service report dated 10 August 2009. Tibetan man gets 15 years imprisonment for 2008 Tibet protest, www.tibet.net, Central Tibetan Administration, Press Release dated 27 August 2009 Ibid International support led Golog Jigme free; The Association of Tibetan Journalists, Press Release dated 22 April 2009; http://www.tibetanjournalists.org/pressreleases/20090422pressrelease.html Refer to the details of the Prisoners List compiled by the Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracys Annual Report 2008, Human Rights Situation 2008 China frees 1,200 in Tibet, holds 700 over Xinjiang, AFP report dated 10 August 2009. Refer to the list of people released since March 2008 protest at the back of the Annual Report 2009 A monk who exposed Chinese brutality released, TCHRD Press Release dated 6 May 2009

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103 Lutsang monks arrive home, 6 still held updated, Phayul.com dated 20 March 2009 Voice of Tibet Radio News Service report dated 20 March 2009 Seven released in Nyagchuka, situation tense, Phayul.com cited Voice of Tibet Radio Service News on 18 December 2009 Constitution of the PRC Article 35. Article 51, however, states: The exercise by citizens of the Peoples Republic of China of their freedoms and rights may not infringe upon the interests of the state, of society and of the collective, or upon the lawful freedoms and rights of other citizens. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, adopted by General Assembly resolution 2200A(XXI) of 16 December 1966, entry into force 23 March 1976, article 19 [hereinafter ICCPR]. In March 2008, Premier Wen Jiabao reiterated Chinas commitment to ratify the ICCPR, saying we are conducting inter-agency coordination to address the issue of compatibility between Chinas domestic laws and international law so as to ratify the Covenant as soon as possible. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Online), Premier Wen Jiabao Answered Questions at Press Conference,18 March 2008 Citizens of the Peoples Republic of China enjoy freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession and of demonstration.Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China available online at http://english.people.com.cn/ constitution/constitution.html A Tibetan writer-photographer sentenced, TCHRD Press Release dated 19 November 2009; Founder of Tibetan cultural website sentenced to 15 years in closed door trial in freedom of expression case, 16 November 2009, International Campaign for Tibet.; A Tibetan writer-photographer arrested in Gansu Province, TCHRD Press Release dated 25 March 2009; A Tibetan writer-photographer sentenced, TCHRD Press Release dated 19 November 2009; Available at http:// tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20091119.html; China: Ensure Fair Trails for Tibetan Filmmaker, Human Rights Watch, 3 August 2009 China tightens grip as Tibet Revolt hits 50-year mark, Maureen Fan, Washington Post (online) dated 16 March 2009. The Article cited Tibetan blogger Woeser who had written that in at least 17 counties of the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province, cell phone messaging and Internet service were cut off in mid-February, and that phone calls foreign countries to Tibetan areas cannot get through. Chinas show of force keeps Tibet quiet; Audra Aung, Associated Press dated 10 March 2009 as given in abc online news, Lhasa residents received notice on their cell phones Tuesday from carrier China Mobile that voice and text messaging services many face disruptions from March 10 to May 1 for network improvements. China sentences 14 Tibetans for March Unrest in Tibet; TCHRD Press Release dated 3 November 2008; The Lhasa intermediate Peoples court in late October and early November sentenced Tibetans to seven Tibetans to terms of imprisonment ranging from 8 years to life imprisonment on

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charges of espionage (Criminal Law, Article 110) or unlawfully providing intelligence to an organization or individual outside of China (Criminal Law, Article 111). The information (intelligence) allegedly provided to the outside organizations based in Indiaare part of what the Chinese government and Party refer to collectively as the Dalai Clique. ANDChinese court sentences seven Tibetans between 8 years to life imprisonment; TCHRD Press Release dated 16 December 2008 Lithang Under Siege Day After the Protest, TCHRD Press Release dated 20 February 2009, Available at http://tchrd.org/ press/2009/pr20090220.html; Official: Tibetan Area Closed to Foreigners, Associated Press, as given in the Washington Post, 12 February 2009, Several foreign journalists have reported being expelled from Tibetan-populated areas in China in the past week. China bans tourist entry into Tibet till October 8" ANI report dated 22 September 2009; China bans entry into Tibet; MountEverest.net (Online) dated 22 September 2009 saying, Today the Tibetan Tourist Board (TTB) announced that they will not be issuing any more permits to foreigners until 8th Oct. The announcement, such as it was, was made only to travel agents in Lhasa. Available at http:// www.mounteverest.net/news.php?id=18735 On Chinas 60th Anniversary, Tibet wants quiet; By Stephen Kruczy, Christian Science Monitor report dated 30 September 2009 (Online) Ibid A video appeal from a Tibetan inside Tibet to the International Community, TCHRD Press Release dated 28 August 2009 available online at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090828.html China arrests eleven Tibetans in Golog over subversive VCD, TCHRD Press Release dated 8 December 2009 available online at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20091208.html A website proprietor arrested in Gansu Province, TCHRD Press release dated 7 March 2009 available at http://tchrd.org/ press/2009/pr20090307b.html ; Kunchok Tsephel came into exile in 1989 and studied Tibetan and English languages for three years. He returned to Tibet after completion of his studies in 1994. Tsephel was arrested in 1995 by PSB officials on suspicious ground and kept under custodial detention for two months and subjected to torture and forced interrogation. A Tibetan writer-photographer sentenced, TCHRD Press Release dated 19 November 2009 Founder of Tibetan cultural website sentenced to 15 years in closed door trial in freedom of expression case, 16 November 2009, International Campaign for Tibet. A Tibetan writer-photographer arrested in Gansu Province, TCHRD Press Release dated 25 March 2009 A Tibetan writer-photographer sentenced, TCHRD Press Release dated 19 November 2009; Available at http:// tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20091119.html Crackdown on lawyers: legal think-tank shut down, fears for Leaving Fear Behind film-maker Dhondup Wangchen, International Campaign for Tibet, 17 July 2009
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Tibetan Filmmaker and 2 monks denied legal representative, Phayul (Online) 18 July 2009 Dhondup Wangchen faces trial: New information on charges, International Campaign for Tibet, 17 September 2009 China: Ensure Fair Trails for Tibetan Filmmaker, Human Rights Watch, 3 August 2009 Tibetan Parliament-in-exile calls on UN to help release of arrested Tibetan filmmaker, www.tibet.net, Central Tibetan Administration, 1 August 2009. Filmmaker Dhondup Wangchen sentenced to 6 years in prison, Phayul.com dated 6 January 2010 Bad News- Tibetan bloggers report the arrest of Tibetan writer Therang, 3 August 2008 as reported by high peaks pure earth website; http://www.highpeakspureearth.com/ 2009/08/bad-news-tibetan-bloggers-report-arrest.html China arrests Tibetan writer in Ngaba, TCHRD Press Release dated 20 April 2009 And Online Woeser blog Invisible Tibet http://woeser.middle-way.net/2009/08/blogpost_03.html Ibid Woeser Online Blog Invisible Tibet available at http:// woeser.middle-way.net/2009/08/blog-post_04.html Ibid Tibetan Singer Tashi Dondrup arrested over subversive CD, Jane Macartney, Times Online News dated 4 December 2009 available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/ asia/article6943997.ece Students expelled from School in Kanlho, TCHRD Press Release dated 30 June 2009 available online at http:// tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090630.html Ibid 3 years imprisonment for 2 Tibetans for Dalai Lama contents on chat site Phayul (Online) dated 3 December 2009; More Tibetans arrested in connection with Internet Activities, Reporters Without Borders, 22 October 2009 (Online) available at http://www.rsf.org/More-Tibetans-arrestedin.html Three years in jail for posting Dalai Lama photos online, Reporters without Border, 4 December 2009 (Online) available at http://www.rsf.org/More-Tibetans-arrestedin.html Tibetan web-surfer detained, Radio Free Asia (online ) dated 24 August 2009 available at http://www.rfa.org/english/ news/tibet/tibetanwebsurfer-08242009154122.html; More Tibetans arrested in connection with Internet Activities, Reporters Without Borders, 22 October 2009 (Online) available at http://www.rsf.org/More-Tibetans-arrestedin.html China arrests eleven Tibetans in Golog over subversive VCD, TCHRD Press Release dated 8 December 2009 available online at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20091208.html Chinese Court Sentences two to death on starting fatal fires in Lhasa riot, Xinhua News, 8 April 2009; the court had given open trials strictly abiding by the Criminal Procedure Law of the Peoples Republic of China. The court also provided

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009


Tibetan interpreters for the defendants. Their lawyers fully voiced their defenses. The litigious rights of the defendants were fully safeguarded and their customs and dignity were respected. A reminder to China that the world has not forgotten Tibet; The Independent, By Clifford Coonan, Wednesday, 12 March 2008. Lhasa Evening News (Ch: Lasa Wenbao) dated 8 November 2008; can be read at http:// www.lasa-eveningnews.com.cn/epaper/uniflows/02/ 20081108/02_30.htm (In Chinese language); The translated version of the report can be found at http:// www.highpeakspureearth.com/2008/12/tibetan-ngo-workergiven-life-sentence.html Nepal to tighten Tibet border area to please China, IANS report (Online) 2 October 2009 Nepal: Abuses Against Tibetans Protesting Chinas Tibet Crackdown China Leans on Nepal to Stifle Demonstrations, Human Rights Watch Report dated 24 July 2009 available at h t t p : / / c h i n a . h r w. o r g / p r e s s / n e w s _ r e l e a s e / nepal_abuses_against_tibetans_protesting_china_s_tibet_crackdown Chinas Hu Calls for Great Wall of Stability in Tibet, Xinhua News dated 9 March 2009 available online at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/09/ content_10977938.htm Ibid Tibetan Reception Centre, Dharamsala Tibetan monks tell tale of Escape from China, Edward Wong, The New York Times dated 21 June 2009 Chinas Hu Calls for Great Wall of Stability in Tibet, Xinhua News dated 9 March 2009 available online at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/09/ content_10977938.htm The Criminal Law of the Peoples Republic of China Article 322 states, Whoever, in violation of the laws or regulations on administration of the national border (frontier), illegally crosses the national border (frontier), if the circumstances are serious, shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than one year, criminal detention or public surveillance and shall also be fined. Ekantipur.com Online Nepalese News Portal dated 26 February 2009 Beijing warns Kathmandu against pro-Tibet rallies in Nepal, By Kalpit Parajuli, Asianews.it (Online) available at AsiaNews report dated 27 February 2009 Beijing warns Kathmandu against pro-Tibet rallies in Nepal, By Kalpit Parajuli, Asianews.it (Online) available at AsiaNews report dated 27 February 2009 Govt mulls security deployment to Nepal-China border, NepalNews.com online news report dated 16 July 2009 available online at http://www.nepalnews.com/main/ index.php/news-archive/2-political/463-govt-mulls-securitydeployment-to-nepal-china-border.html; According to the report, Border security bases will be established in Tatopani of Sindhupalchok, Lomanthang of Mustang, Kimathanka of Sankhuwasabha, Limi of Humla and Tinker of Darchula in the first phase. Each base will have an Armed Police Force (APF) squad under the command of a Superintendent of Police (SP).
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Chinas Hu Calls for Great Wall of Stability in Tibet, Xinhua News (online) dated 9 March 2009 available at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/09/ content_10977938.htm China tightens TAR border controls: Xinhua News dated 09 March 2009. Hu Calls for Great Wall of Stability in Tibet, Xinhua News (online) dated 9 March 2009 available at http:/ /news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/09/ content_10977938.htm Chinas Hu Calls for Great Wall of Stability in Tibet, Xinhua News (online) dated 9 March 2009 available at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/09/ content_10977938.htm Nepal To Deploy Cops at Border, The Straits Times report dated 4 October 2009 (Online) available at http:// www.straitstimes.com/Breaking%2BNews/Asia/Story/ STIStory_437997.html China, Nepal Vow to Enhance Co-op on Border Security, Xinhua News given in Chinas Tibet Online dated 11 September 2009 (Online) available at http://chinatibet.people.com.cn/ 6754679.html Originally reported in Boxun.com.cn and later reported in Phayul.com date 15 July 2009 Two Tibetans returning to Tibet face immense torture. IANS Report dated 23 February 2009 Ragya Monastery Encircled, Reeling Under Severe Restriction, TCHRD Press Release dated 23 March 2009. Police subjected Tashi Zangpo to harsh beatings, inhumane torture and long interrogation, Refer to TCHRD Publication Kuxing: Torture In Tibet Tibetan lama on trial for weapons charge in China, The Associated Press dated 21 April 2009; Tulku was reportedly tortured for four days and nights upon detention and forced into making a confession after a police interrogation. Police even threatened his wife and son of detention if Tulku did not comply, according to his lawyer; A monk who exposed Chinese brutality released, TCHRD Press Release dated 6 May 2009; Jigme Gyatso or Jigme Guri of Labrang Monastery was released on medical ground after months of detention and torture in the police custody. He was arrested few times and finally released on 3 May 2009. Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under Article 19 of the Convention, Concluding observation of the Committee against Torture, CHINA, 41stSession, 3-21 November 2008, Geneva, Pg No. 8 http://www2.ohchr.org/ english/bodies/cat/docs/CAT.C.CHN.CO.4.pdf Ibid China detains 95 Tibetans who protested in the aftermath of Tashi Sangpos suicide in Machu River, TCHRD Press Release dated 23 March 2009 Ibid Ibid Voice of Tibet Radio News service report dated 23 March2009 Ibid China confirms monk immolation in Tibetan town: Xinhua, AFP News dated 28 February 2009

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China tensions high after Tibet monk sets self on fire in Protest, AFP, By Marianne Barriaux, 1 March 2009. Self-immolated man asked to amputate his legs, TCHRD Press Release dated 13 March 2009 Consideration of Reports submitted by states parties under article 19 of the Convention, UN Committee Against Torture, Forty-First Session Geneva 3-21 November 2008, CAT/C/ CHN/CO/4 available online at http://www2.ohchr.org/ english/bodies/cat/docs/CAT.C.CHN.CO.4.pdf Ibid China protests against prejudiced U.N. torture report, Reuters, 23 November 2008 available at http:// uk.reuters.com/article/idUKTRE4AM0CX20081123 Ibid and Statement by Counsellor ZHANG Dan, the Chinese Delegation at the Third Committee of the 64th Session of the GA at the Dialogue with the Chairman of the Committee against Torture and the Special Rapporteur on Torture, Permanent Mission of the Peoples Republic of China to the UN Website (Online) available at http://www.china-un.org/ eng/lhghyywj/ldhy/64th_unga/t621595.htm dated 20 October 2009 Chinas brutality in Tibet Exposed, www.tibet.net, Central Tibetan Administration, Press Release dated 20 March 2009 available online at http://www.tibet.net/en/ index.php?id=89&articletype=press&rmenuid=morepress&tab=2 YouTube Being Blocked In China, Google Says, The New York Times, By Miguel Helft, dated 24 March 2009 (Online ) available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/25/ technology/internet/25youtube.html; YouTube Blocked In China, CNN News dated 26 March 2009 China arrests two nuns of Dragkar Nunnery, TCHRD Press Release dated 3 April 2009 (Online) available at http:// tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090403b.html Kardze nun protestor died under mysterious circumstance in Chengdu hospital, TCHRD Press Release dated 7 December 2009 (Online) available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20091207.html A Tibetan monk beaten to death by Chinese Security Police, TCHRD Press Release dated 30 March 2009 Tibetan youth dies in custody, Radio Free Asia (Online) report dated 30 January 2009. A Tibetan monk died from torture whilst in detention, TCHRD Press Release dated 10 September 2009 (Online) available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090910.html A Tibetan man blinded and sentenced to four years in jail in Ngaba, TCHRD Press Release dated 31 January 2009 (Online) available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090131.html Fifteen Tibetans arrested after a peaceful protest, TCHRD Press Release dated 16 February 2009 (Online) available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090216a.html;The identities of all those detained are; Sonam Tenpa, 29 years old, Jampa Thokmey, 30, Gelek Kunga, 26, Lobsang Tenzin 23, Lobsang Phendey, 37, Jampa Yonten, 30, Sanggey, 29, Jampa Tsering, 28, Lobsang Wangchuk, 30, Lobsang Tashi, 21, Gendun Choephel, 30, Dargye, 37, Gedhun, 29, Jampa, 40 and Amdo

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Gyaltsen, 41. All the detainees were known to be from nomadic families who have shifted their residences from different villages to LithangTown. Voice of Tibet Radio service (Online) dated 16 September 2009. Monk suicides on the rise in Buddhist Tibet, A report submitted by TCHRD to the UN Special Rapporteur on the Freedom of Religion or Belief on the factors and circumstances leading to the occurrences and increase of suicides by Tibetan monks and nuns in Chinese occupied Tibet since 10 March 2008, 7 June 2009 Nine monks sentenced, another committed suicide in Tibet, TCHRD Press Release dated 10 February 2009 (Online) available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090210.html Fear of arrest and torture causes Tibetan monk to commit suicide in Tibet, www.tibet.net, Central Tibetan Administration dated 21 April 2009 China reinforces Patriotic education in Drepung Monastery: Report, Tibet.net, Central Tibetan Administration, 15 January 2009 Updates on Repression in Tibet, tibet.net, Central Tibetan Administration dated 8 July 2009 UN General Assembly Declaration on the Protection of all Persons from Enforced Disappearance, GA Resolution 47/ 133 dated18 December 1992. Available online at UNHCHR website http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/ %28Symbol%29/A.RES.47.133.En?Opendocument Declaration on the Protection of all Persons from Enforced Disappearance, UN General Assembly resolution 47/133 of 18 December 1992; Details of the resolution can be found at http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/ A.RES.47.133.En?OpenDocument United Nations Working Group on Enforced and Involuntary Disappearances, Fact Sheet No 6 (Rev 2), Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances (2006) Two monks disappeared after raid in Labrang Monastery; TCHRD Press Release dated 3 June 2009 Four Tibetans sentenced, another missing, TCHRD Press Release dated 20 January 2009,(Online) available at http:// tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090120.html A Tibetan monk died from torture whilst in Chinese detention, TCHRD Press Release dated 10 September 2009 (Online) available at http://tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090910.html Ibid Updates on repression in Tibet, www.tibet.net , Central Tibetan Administration dated 8 July 2009 Monks jailed for up to ten years for March 2008 Protests, Voice of Tibet Radio service (online), dated 20 August 2009 China issues white paper on ethnic issues, Xinhua News dated 27 September 2009 made available in Global Times online at http://china.globaltimes.cn/chinanews/2009-09/ 472441.html Statement of Ms. Navanethem Pillay United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights at the 12th session of the Human Rights Council, United Nations Office of the High

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Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), 15September 2009 Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention : concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination : China (including Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions) as given in the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees website : http://www.unhcr.org/ r e f w o r l d / publisher,CERD,CONCOBSERVATIONS,CHN,4adc35852,0.html Chinese court sentences two to death starting fatal fires in Lhasa riot, Xinhua News dated 8 April 2009; statement made by the court officials that call for execution of two Tibetans for committing extremely serious crime and have to be executed to assuage the peoples anger. Memorandum on Genuine Autonomy for Tibetan People, Central Tibetan Administration, (Online) available at http:// w w w . t i b e t . n e t / e n / index.php?id=109&articletype=press&rmenuid=morepress&tab=2

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EDUCATION
Everyone has the right to education . . . Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. -The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 261 Tibetans mainly try to cross [into India or Nepal] in the winter, because there are less Chinese border guards then. The Tibetans try to take advantage of this opportunity, but this is when the weather is very harsh. Most students cross in a group, but out of a group of ten children usually only five will make it. Some children are caught, and are either sent back or put in prison, but others simply die.3

Introduction
Every year, hundreds of school-aged children leave Tibet to make the treacherous journey over the Himalayas in pursuit of furthering their education.2 Under Chinese rule, education in Tibet has been allowed to deteriorate and is oftentimes treated as a propaganda vehicle aimed at strengthening the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). The poor condition of the schools, the inferior quality of instruction, and a curriculum designed to prevent Tibetan children from speaking their own language and learning their own history prompts the painful decision to flee into exile where the hope of receiving an adequate education awaits them. Many of these children leave behind their entire families, knowing that this sacrifice is the best chance for their future. The trek from Tibet to asylum in India or Nepal is long, difficult, and dangerous, with most groups setting out in the winter months to avoid being intercepted by Chinese border guards. As explained by an employee at the Tibetan Childrens Village Suja School: 71

International and Domestic Legal Obligations


Education is a vital component of human development and is a cornerstone to achieving and maintaining an acceptable quality of life. Acquiring an education is fundamental to the realization of other basic human rights, such as the freedom of thought and religion,4 the freedom of opinion and information,5 the right to participate in the governmental process,6 and the right to work.7 For a society to advance and make progress against social challenges, the state bears the responsibility of ensuring that an adequate educational system is established. In recognition of educations vital importance, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaimed the right to an education in 1948.8 This right was later codified by the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights,9 and is also recognized in the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 The Convention on the Rights of the Child states that primary education should be compulsory and free for all students,10 and goes on to say In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practice his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language.11 (emphasis added) This clause holds particular importance for Tibetans, as this year marks the 50th Anniversary of the Dalai Lamas flight into exile in 1959 following the Chinese invasion and subsequent religious and cultural persecution of those remaining in Tibet.12 The PRC voted in favor of adopting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948,13 ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1992,14 and ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in 2001.15 As a member state to these UN Declarations and Conventions, the PRC is obligated to ensure the rights contained within those international instruments are respected and upheld. Additionally, the PRC has enshrined the duty as well as the right to receive [an] education in its Constitution,16 and has reiterated in its Education Law of the Peoples Republic of China that citizens right to be educated exists regardless of their nationality, race, sex . . . or religious belief.17 Despite mandates from these various sources of law, the PRC persists in maintaining policies and programs that functionally deny Tibetan students access to adequate education. This denial violates international norms and the PRCs domestic laws, and has serious consequences for the Tibetan population and the preservation of Tibetan culture.

Education: Compulsory Education


The Education Law of the Peoples Republic of China was first adopted in 1986,18 and its purpose was to eventually establish nine years of compulsory education nationwide.19 The Education Law indicated the PRC would also implement a progressive series of programs with the ultimate aim of providing full tuition for all students. In 2006, the Education Law was revised and amended to add the requirement that rural schools be brought to the same educational standard as urban schools.20 The PRC takes great pride in publicizing the amount of education funding it claims to invest in education for Tibetans, and claims that the funding has meant [t]he rate of population receiving six-year compulsory education was 100 percent and that for nine-year compulsory education, 96 percent [sic]. 21 The United Nation Development Programme does indicate in its 2007/2008 Human Development Report that the PRCs education spending in Tibet is among the highest in the entire country, reporting that the PRC provides between 300 to 400 Yuan per student.22 In terms of substantive results for Tibetans, however, this spending appears to have had little effect on the quality and accessibility of education, particularly for rural students. Despite the PRCs spending, interviews with recent refugees from Tibet conducted by the Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy (TCHRD) uncovered near-universal reports of an educational system that persistently fails to deliver adequate education to Tibetan students. School education continues to be both prohibitively expensive and sub-par in instruction, which either results in many students dropping out or prevents children from attending school at all. While the PRC claims that compulsory education has led to an astronomical school enrollment of 98.5% of all school age children in Tibet,23 the United Nations Development Programme provides a more sobering estimate. According to the

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Education UNDP report, Tibets combined school enrollment ratio is a mere 57.41%, the lowest enrollment rate in the entire country.24 This lowest of enrollment rates indicates the PRC has failed to live up to its obligation of compulsory education for all, a failure with serious consequences for Tibetans. The harm resulting from this lack of access to education is reflected most strikingly in Tibets overall literacy rate. In the recently released White Paper, Fifty Years of Democratic Reform in Tibet, the PRC claims that it now provides free six-year compulsory education throughout Tibet, and that this achievement has basically wiped out illiteracy.25 If true, this would truly be an impressive feat; sadly, numerous sources and statistics (including news outlets based in the PRC)26 maintain that fully half of the Tibetan population in fact remains illiterate. Given the amount of money the PRC says it provides for Tibetan education, it might be possible that the educational system could be moving towards a compulsory model in the urban centers, and that this might be having some effect on literacy rates in the larger cities. For Tibets rural majority, however, there is no consistency in the availability of education, resulting in Tibets persistently alarming rate of illiteracy. In stark contradiction to the PRCs claim, both the United Nation Development Programmes 2007/2008 Human Development Report for the PRC and the U.S. Department of State 2008 Human Rights Report: China show unacceptable literacy rates in Tibet. The U.S. State Department estimates illiteracy levels in Tibet are more than five times higher . . . than the national average 27 and the United Nations Development Programme report clearly shows the adult literacy rate in Tibet remains at 54.35% of the population (as compared to 90.69% nationally).28 International observers have noted the incongruity of Tibets low school enrollment and high illiteracy rates in the face of the PRCs claims of massive capital investment in education.29 These statistics sug73 gest Tibetan students are not receiving the quality instruction they need to acquire invaluable literacy skills or to make the financial burden a worthwhile investment for the students. At the very least, such significant government spending would be expected to translate into the free and universal education the PRC boasts of providing to all students in Tibet. It is unclear what all of the PRCs education spending is actually paying for, as it certainly does not seem to be helping Tibetan students to acquire an adequate education. The lack of literacy and overall education is resulting in the further marginalization of Tibetans who enter the job market unable to compete with Chinese migrants who have had access to a more substantial education.

Cost of Attendance
The Convention on the Rights of the Child requires that primary education be made compulsory and available free to all.30 In accordance with this mandate, the PRC claims that the Tibet Autonomous Region was the first province in China to enjoy free compulsory education for both rural and urban students.31 The PRC has also recently stated that free education is now offered in neighboring Tibetan provinces,32 yet these claims were completely unsubstantiated in interviews conducted by the TCHRD. Contrary to Chinese reports that [t]uition and accommodation for Tibetan students up to high schools [sic] are fully paid for by the government and that families do not have to pay a penny until their children graduate from high school,33 not one person interviewed for this report indicated that he or she had experienced free education.34 Tsering Dolma, a 17-year-old Tibetan female from Lhasa, spoke with the TCHRD on 20 June 2009 at the Reception Centre in McLeod Ganj, India. She says she left Tibet to pursue a better education in India, and further reports:

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 I had to pay 500 Yuan per semester, 1,000 Yuan per year. This tuition fee did not cover any costs for room and board, as I lived at home while attending school. In some cases, the cost of this tuition prevented families with many daughters from sending them all to school. I have heard that the government did issue ration cards for poor people, and that students with these ration cards did not have to pay tuition fee, but I did not have this ration card so I had to pay the full tuition.35 The ration card reported by Ms. Dolma would be consistent with the Education Law of the Peoples Republic of Chinas stipulation that education receivers have the right to [obtain] scholarship, loan for education and stipend [sic],36 yet further testimony casts doubt upon the accessibility or even the existence of the ration card program. Tenzin Sangmo, a 23-year-old female from Lhoka Prefecture, TAR, spoke with the TCHRD at the Tibetan Transit School in Dharamsala, India on 22 June 2009. She reports: The Chinese claims of financial assistance for education are all fake the Chinese offer a ration card, but the procedure for obtaining this card is so difficult that the ration card is never implemented. The Chinese say this program existed, but it was never a reality.37 A financial aid program that in actuality operates to prevent intended beneficiaries from accessing needed assistance does not constitute a meaningful effort on the part of the administrative government, and should not be claimed as such. Furthermore, even if the program did exist, a ration card that eliminates tuition for only a select number of students cannot be celebrated as universal and free education for both rural and urban students. Additional interviewees voiced their doubts surrounding the PRCs claims of financial assistance for students. Palden, a 17-year-old male from Ngocha Village, Chentsa County, Malho TAP Qinghai Province was interviewed at the Tibetan Childrens Village School in Suja, India on 23 June 2009. He told TCHRD that to the best of his knowledge, [u]nder the Chinese government, there was no special assistance for poor families and poor students. There were some Western NGOs that assist Tibetans, but that was all.38

Condition of Facilities, Rural/Urban Disparity


It is difficult to find current reports from international observers and outside sources on the condition of school facilities in Tibet, which suggests this is an area the international community should return its attention to in the future.39 According to those who have recently arrived from Tibet, however, there continues to be a significant development gap between urban and rural schools despite the PRCs claims to the contrary. As described previously, the PRC has invested enormous sums of money in Tibets educational system, and boasts that much of this money has been used to improve educational facilities in both the urban centers and rural areas. An article in China Tibet News recently made the following claim: Since 1985, free food, clothing and accommodation have been provided for rural Tibetan students in Tibetan primary and middle schools, and the standard is keeping increasing. Conditions of primary and middle schools also represent a great improvement from experimental equipment, library capacity to desks and chairs.40 More personal testimony from recent arrivals from Tibet absolutely refutes the claims made in that article. Tenzin Sangmo, a 23-year-old female from Lhoka Prefecture, TAR, spoke with TCHRD at the Tibetan Transit School in Dharamsala, India on 22 June 2009. She reports: The main difference is 74

Education the rural schools are cheaper, but the facilities are much worse. They are much smaller, with worse furniture. 41 Sonam Tenzin, a 27 year-old male from Kardze, Sichuan Province, spoke with the TCHRD at the Tibetan Reception Center on 20 June 2009, and echoed this description: My primary school was in a rural setting, and it was very underdeveloped. There was also not enough space for the students.42 Tsering Dolma, a 17-year-old female who attended school in Lhasa spoke with TCHRD at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj on 22 June 2009. She suggested a possible explanation for this urban/rural development disparity when she told TCHRD: I am from an urban area, therefore my school facilities were nice. Tourists and outsiders often visited my school, so China had a reason to make sure the school was nice.43 These first-hand accounts expose the lingering disparity between urban and rural education in Tibet and reveal the PRCs lack of commitment and follow-through on the promise offered by the 2006 Amendment to the Education Law. The stated purpose of the Amendment was to offer equal education to children no matter whether they live in the city or in the countryside.44 This promise was particularly significant for Tibet since most of its population is still considered nomadic or rural,45 and as a result the majority of Tibetans suffer the widespread consequences of this unfulfilled promise. there were many more Tibetans than Chinese students. This is because special schools have been built to separate Chinese and Tibetan students.49 These statements suggest that in Tibet, Chinese immigrants refuse to send their children to Tibetan schools due to the poor quality of education provided there. Instead, the Chinese choose to build separate schools where their children can receive superior education, Palden explained, significant consequence of segregated education is that it perpetuates the divide between Tibetans and the Chinese, maintaining both a physical and linguistic difference between the two groups. As explained by Palden: My middle school was 99% Tibetan. There were Chinese Muslims in my area, but they go to their own school. My school had a Tibetan language class, but the Chinese never attended this class so they never learn Tibetan.50 Even when Tibetan students attend the same schools as Chinese students, they are segregated and subjected to different treatment and curricula. Tsering Dolma experienced this at her school in Lhasa. She relayed the following to TCHRD: Classes in my school were kept in different categories: Chinese and Tibetan. Chinese and Tibetan students are kept separate, and are taught in separate languages. Starting in middle school, Tibetan students take a special Tibetan language class; all other classes are taught in Chinese.51 When permitted to attend integrated schools, Tibetans are placed at an additional disadvantage due to the controlling influence of the Chinese guanxi system. The term guanxi describes the Chinese system of interpersonal relationships, often predicated on favors and bribes, that an individual must cultivate in order to advance herself or himself within the social order.52 A persons accumulation of guanxi can provide a tremendous advantage when sitting for school entrance exams or when submit-

Chinese/Tibetan Disparity Chinese/Tibetan Disparity


Tibetans continue to report that Tibetan and Chinese students remain largely segregated, either in separate classrooms or in different schools altogether.46 Sonam Tenzin told TCHRD that [t]here were no Chinese students in my school, only Tibetan,47 and Tenzin Sangmo reported My school had a bad reputation, so the Chinese didnt send their children there.48 Gonpo Tsephel described a similar situation when he told TCHRD: In my high school

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 ting applications to Universities. Tibetans, however, often lack the connections within Chinese society as well as the Chinese language proficiency necessary to compete in this nepotistic system. gual education has prompted the PRC to release recent articles and reports claiming its educational policies in Tibet honor and employ extensive Tibetan language instruction. In a recent article, China Tibet News claimed Tibetan language is a major component of primary school education . . . Tibetan language education is widespread in primary and secondary school throughout the autonomous region . . . Lobsang Tumei, Deprtry Director of Office of Tibetan Language Committee [sic], said, Tibetan language education is thriving. Tibetan education was never so widespread in old Tibet. 57 Similar assertions are presented in the report released by the China Tibetology Research Center located in Beijing. Citing deceptive statistics, they claim that By the end of 2006, a total of 880 primary schools and 1,351 teaching institutions offered bilingual courses in Chinese and Tibetan, with 310,000 students, accounting for 95.60% of the total number of students in Tibets primary schools. Moreover, 117 secondary schools offered bilingual courses, with over 110,000 junior high school and 28,000 senior high school students, accounting for 94.62% and 85.96% of the total number of junior and senior high school students, respectively. In the local teaching force, 15,523 teachers are bilingual.58 Closer examination reveals the misleading nature of this report. The description implies an equal number of Tibetan and Chinese students are taught together in the classroom, and that both Tibetan and Chinese are used equally in educational instruction. First-hand testimony, however, paints a very different picture of the bilingual nature of education in Tibet. Contrary to the PRCs assertion that it pro-

Instruction/Administration
There is further evidence that the quality of instruction in Tibetan schools is inferior and damaging to the Tibetans. The main complaints voiced by recent refugees are that the Chinese educational administrators tightly control and restrict both the language used and the subject matter taught in the schools. TCHRD has received reports that contrary to the PRCs claims,53 the Tibetan language is not mainstreamed into the general curriculum, and subjects concerning Tibetan history and culture are strictly prohibited and supplanted by the PRCs revisionist version of the regions history.

i. Language
Protecting and maintaining the Tibetan language is vital to the perpetuation of Tibetan culture, and the use and instruction of the Tibetan language in schools is a key component to its preservation. The importance of protecting traditions and cultures through preservation of native languages is a concept well recognized by the international community. The Convention on the Rights of the Child contains protections ensuring that children belonging to a minority population or speaking a minority language shall not be denied the right . . . to enjoy his or her own culture . . . or to use his or her own language.54 The PRCs Constitution contains similar provisions protecting minority languages,55 and the Education Law expressly states that schools or other educational institutions which mainly consist of students from minority nationalities may use in education the language of the respective nationality or the native language commonly adopted in the region.56 Cognizance of its legal obligations regarding bilin-

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Education vides textbooks written in the Tibetan language,59 Gonpo Tsephel, a 20-year-old male from Ngaba County, Ngaba TAP Sichuan Province, told TCHRD: Back home, I was not free to learn the Tibetan language. There were many restrictions on its use. I wanted to be able to learn freely, so I left Tibet. I speak Chinese, because that is what Im used to now. All of my textbooks were in Chinese. The teachers and staff ignored the Tibetan language and only spoke Chinese.60 Sonam Lhamo, a 17-year-old female from Lhasa, confirmed this description of the exclusive use of Chinese language textbooks in Tibet when she told TCHRD that [i]n my primary school, teachers spoke Chinese except for our special class in Tibetan. Also, all of our textbooks were in Chinese.61 Tashi, a 19-year-old male from Shigatse Prefecture explained Only one class was taught in Tibetan language at my school. All other classes were taught in Chinese. The teachers only taught about Chinese subjects, Chinese history. They are trying to brainwash Tibetans.62 The PRC has attempted to present a very different image of the language instruction in Tibetan schools, boasting that [t]he Tibetan language is a major component of . . . education,63 with school teaching . . . mainly conducted in the Tibetan language and [that] the majority of teachers at schools and colleges in Tibet are ethnically Tibetan.64 Sonam Tenzin revealed the disingenuous nature of the PRCs claim when she reported: [It is true that] I had only Tibetan teachers, but they taught only in Chinese.65 There are systemic and long-term consequences of the near-exclusive use of the Chinese language in Tibetan school. The exclusionary practice marginalizes native Tibetan speakers and undermines the legitimacy of the Tibetan language and culture. The practice also has serious repercussions for the educational goals of Tibetan students. The China Tibetology Research Center maintains that [i]n the college entrance exam, the two languages [Chinese and Tibetan] are also subjects of examination, whose scores are taken 50% respectively into the final score,66 yet numerous interviews with recent refugees contradict that claim. Tenzin Sangmo, a 23year-old female from Lhokha Prefecture, TAR, reports [t]he Chinese administer tests in the Chinese language. If you dont do well on these exams you automatically fail the class. If you dont do well, then you dont go on to further study.67 Compounding the difficulty for Tibetan students in achieving their full academic potential is the fact that many Chinese teachers in Tibet indiscriminately employ regional forms of Chinese. Continuing her testimony, Tenzin Sangmo went on to report that Different teachers speak different dialects. When teachers would speak in standard Chinese I had no problem understanding them, but some teachers didnt care if their students could understand them or not; so they just spoke in their own dialect. Teachers who did not perform well in their home province are sent to Tibet. Tibet is like a dustbin for these low-quality teachers.68 There is also a social stigma attached to the use of the Tibetan language. Palden, a 17-year-old male from Ngocha village, Chentsa County, Malho TAP Qinghai Province, recounted the following story: One of my best friends used to study in Tsongul. In that school, there are about 1,000 students, but only 40 Tibetans. The 40 are not allowed to speak in Tibetan. If Chinese students catch them speaking in Tibetan, they

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 scold them Why are you here if you want to speak Tibetan? The Tibetan students feel humiliated.69 The preference for and near exclusive use of the Chinese language in schools has serious consequences for the advancement of human development in Tibet. Otherwise qualified students are being kept from advancing their studies, which has life-long ramifications for the nature of work available to Tibetans already underserved by the educational system. Dawa Sangmo, a 21-year-old female from Meldrogonkar County, told TCHRD about her personal experience of being disadvantaged by the current educational system in Tibet: I studied until the 6th grade, and then I took the big exam. Students who do well on the exam are sent for further study in China, but I failed because I dont speak Chinese. Instead, I had to work in a restaurant for many years washing dishes, and I also worked cleaning laundry. I wanted a chance to continue my education, so I left Tibet and came here.70 organs of self-government of the national autonomous areas independently administer educational [and] cultural . . . affairs . . . and protect the cultural legacy of the nationalities and work for the development and prosperity of their cultures [sic].73 It is clear that the PRC has the legal responsibility to promote educational policies and curriculum that support the Tibetan language and culture. Numerous accounts, however, indicate that Tibetan students are being taught a fabricated version of their history, a version that undermines their cultural heritage and autonomy by celebrating the PRC as the great liberator of a feudal Tibet.74 The PRC is aware of its international and domestic obligations to provide culturally sensitive education in Tibet, and has expressly addressed criticisms and accusations that it is attempting to brainwash Tibetans by releasing reports emphasizing Tibetan cultural instruction in the schools.75 Yet, in some schools the teaching of Tibetan history and culture is reportedly banned outright, while at other schools a revisionist version of Tibetan history is disseminated instead. Palden reports that in his experience, [i]n Tibet, people dont have an opportunity to learn Tibetan history and culture.76 Tashi gave consistent testimony, explaining that in his school, Teachers are not allowed to teach Tibetan history, only Chinese. In Chinese history, they teach their own version of Tibetan history. They change the history of Tibet.77 Gonpo Tsephel described the version of Tibetan history he was provided with at his school: In my school, the Chinese would lecture about early Tibetans, how we had a serfdom, a feudal system, and they would show videos of the Dalai Lama that said he treated people badly. Rather than attend schools that profane their history and religion, many students choose instead to drop out of school. Tsultrim Gyaltso shared his familys story with TCHRD: 78

Subjects ii. Subjects Taught


In addition to prohibiting native language instruction, Chinese educational authorities also tightly control the subject matter disseminated in the schools. Such restrictive policies operate in contravention of both international norms and the PRCs domestic law. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights expressly protects the rights of parents and families to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children,71 and the Convention on the Rights of the Child provides the education of the child shall be directed to . . . the development of respect for the childs parents, his or her own cultural identity, [and] language and values.72 Of particular significance to the Tibet Autonomous Region, the PRCs Constitution plainly states The

Education In my township, the Chinese have forced families to send students to Chinese schools. If families refuse, the Chinese punish and fine them. In these schools, students are just taught Communist ideology, songs praising Mao. My brother dropped out of this school, and my parents told the authorities that he went to Lhasa, but instead he was hiding at home. My parents heard of school opportunities in India provided by the grace of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, so they sent me here.78 education of their children in conformity with their own convictions.85 While the PRC has signed but not ratified this Covenant, it is a significant indicator of the importance of the rights enshrined therein that the majority of UN member states have ratified it.86 Political education programs such as the PRCs do not allow Tibetan students or parents to fully exercise their right to a religious and moral education . . . in conformity with their own convictions,87 constituting what is internationally recognized as a violation of Tibetans civil and political rights. Many of those interviewed by TCHRD shared their personal experiences of patriotic education, and when combined with the variety of regions these reports originated from there appears to be a widespread infringement of Tibetan students civil and political rights. Recent arrivals from Tibet provided the following accounts of their experiences with political education policies and programs. Sonam Tenzin, originally from Kardze, described his experience with a facet of patriotic education TARgeting the unifying power of traditional Tibetan dress: In my school, every Friday we would wear the Tibetan dress, the chupa, instead of our school uniform. The Chinese authorities implemented a political re-education program and we had to stop wearing our traditional dress. Any teachers that expressed patriotic or nationalistic views for Tibet were sent away. They were sent away to other schools.88 Sonam Lhamo, originally from Lhasa, described the program implemented at her school that required students to denounce the Dalai Lama. It is important to note that when asked why she made the difficult decision to leave Tibet, her first response was to audience the Dalai Lama. Her deep respect for His Holiness indicates the level of coercive tactics employed at her school in the course of administering its patriotic education program. She relayed the following: 79

Education Patriotic Education


There are clear indications that Chinese authorities in Tibet are now implementing patriotic education programs in the primary and secondary schools. The programs were previously concentrated in the monasteries and nunneries,79 but even prior to the protests of March 2008 the U.S. State Department had noted that [a]uthorities in Tibetan areas required professors and students at institutions of higher education to attend political education sessions in an effort to prevent separatist political and religious activities on campus.80 In response to the March 2008 protests, the PRC has re-launched its patriotic education campaign and appears to have expanded the reach of the program into the lower grade levels.81 Patriotic education programs had long been used by the PRC to promote stability within Tibet,82 with a particular emphasis on undermining the influence of His Holiness the Dalai Lama.83 The program often includes instruction on opposing splittism, propaganda films that misrepresent Tibets history, and frequently requires that Tibetan attendees denounce the Dalai Lama.84 The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights demands that State Parties to the present Covenant undertake to have respect for the liberty of parents . . . to ensure the religious and moral

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 In my school, the Chinese authorities try to divide Buddhists into two groups: those that follow the Dalai Lama, and those that follow Chinese Buddhism. The school authorities ask students which Buddhism they believe in, and students are required to sign a paper saying which one. Tibetan students dont have the guts to say they follow the Dalai Lama, most of then say they follow Chinese Buddhism. If students say they follow the Dalai Lama, I think these students might be in danger of dismissal, or their families might be in trouble. I was afraid, so I signed the paper saying I follow Chinese Buddhism even though I follow the Dalai Lama.89 Gonpo Tsephel from Amdo, described the effort by Chinese authorities to censor and restrict students freedom of expression when interacting with the media: People from the media would visit my school, and the teachers would warn students about how they should answer questions about the Dalai Lama. This happens a lot before the media arrives the people are prepared on how to answer. In my school, we were not allowed to hang rosaries or portraits of His Holiness.90 Jamyang Nyima from Lithang told TCHRD about the PRCs increased restrictions following the March 2008 protests, as well as the fear tactics employed by Chinese authorities to ensure compliance and conformity to Chinese rule: After the uprising on 14 March 2008 the Chinese regularly held meetings in my school. They threatened the students: Any students trying to work with politics would be arrested, and their families would be in danger.91 In addition to the gross infringement of civil and political rights, the PRCs obsessive need to maintain stability in Tibet through these patriotic education programs comes at a serious educational cost to Tibetan students. There are reports that students accused of participating in political activities have been forced to drop out of school, and that schools with a reputation for breeding political activism have been forced to close. Lhektso Dolma, a 16-year-old girl from Sichuan province provided this account of Chinese retribution resulting in the denial of education to hundreds of students. During an interview with TCHRD on 23 June 2009, she reported: In Kardze, there are separate Tibetan and Chinese schools. One day local authorities accused Tibetan students of breaking government rules. They dismissed the student, and as a result there was a clash between Tibetan and Chinese teachers. The Tibetan teachers were all transferred. Before this incident, there were 500 students in the school, and the Chinese offered financial assistance to poor students. They stopped this [financial assistance] after the incident, and the poor students had to stop going to school. There were other schools they could attend, but they were very expensive; so many of the poor students didnt go to school at all. They also stopped allowing new students to enroll. Now there are only 200 students at the school. I think the authorities were trying to close the school. I think this was because of the politics the Chinese authorities believe students are too involved in politics, and they are afraid of that.92

Children with Disabilities


Tibetan children that experience mental or physical disabilities are not receiving the full educational support they are entitled to from the Chinese authori-

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Education ties. The Convention on the Rights of the Child requires that signatories recognize that a mentally or physically disabled child should enjoy a full and decent life, in conditions which ensure dignity, promote self-reliance and facilitate the childs active participation in the community.93 This right to a full and decent life necessarily includes effective access to . . . education, training . . . [and] preparation for employment.94 The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, ratified by China in 2008,95 articulates the requirement that Persons with disabilities [must not be] excluded from the general education system on the basis of disability, and that children with disabilities [must not be] excluded from free and compulsory primary education, or from secondary education, on the basis of disability.96 Domestically, the PRC in its Constitution provides [t]he state and society [must] help make arrangements for the work, livelihood and education of the blind, deaf-mute and other handicapped citizens.97 The Education Law states the government shall support the development of educational undertakings for disabled people,98 and that in doing so the government shall organize education in consideration of the physical and mental characteristics and requirements of the disabled people and offer them with assistance and convenience.99 Furthermore, the amendment to the Education Law passed in 2006 supposedly secured additional educational rights for children with disabilities.100 The PRCs responsibility to provide a full array of educational opportunities and accommodations is inescapable in the light of so many sources of law protecting the educational rights of people with disabilities. Unfortunately, there are numerous reports that the PRC is not living up to its obligation to provide education and employment training for children that experience disabilities. Tashi lived in Shigatse Prefecture and also reported that No, there were no special education or training programs for children with disabilities. They were just kept at home with their families.101 Sonam Tenzin, a 27-year-old male from Kardze, Sichuan Province, told the TCHRD that There were no special education programs for children with disabilities. The Chinese authorities recently started giving a little money to families with disabled children every month, but there were no training or educational opportunities for such people.102 Tsering Dolma attended Lhasa Municipality Public School of Tsanri, and provided singularly unique testimony that at her school, there actually was a program for students that experience disabilities and that these students were integrated into regular classes. She stated, In my class, there was a girl with only one leg and she could not write. Those students that cannot write, or who were blind, were offered special training.103 The discrepancy in educational opportunities for children experiencing disabilities appears to be due in part to the rural/urban disparity discussed previously, and many Tibetans believe the PRC has only provided disability-support programs in the cities to appease and impress foreign visitors. Tenzin Sangmo expressed this suspicion, stating: I heard there was a program implemented to assist people with disabilities, but this program only existed near large cities. In my village, there were no [education, training, or public assistance] programs for people with disabilities. There are many people with disabilities, with no programs. People with disabilities simply stay home.104

Gender Disparity
It is important to examine the difference in literacy levels between men and women in Tibet, as the disparity is both shocking and unacceptable. Women

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 comprise more than 50% of the population,105 yet the Asian Development Bank reports that in Tibet, the illiteracy rate is 60.47% for females and 34.38% for males.106 Recalling Tsering Dolmas statement that financial constraints persist in preventing some females from poor families from obtaining an education107 provides a troubling explanation for this disparity, and reveals Chinas failure to comply with both an international treaty and its own domestic law. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, ratified by China in 1980,108 requires that state parties to the Convention ensure to [women] equal rights with men in the field of education, including providing [t]he same opportunities to benefit from scholarships.109 Furthermore, the Convention prescribes [t]he reduction of female student drop-out rates110 and contains specific protections for the education of rural women.111 Dual provisions of the Education Law state that [s]chools and relevant administrative departments shall guarantee that the female enjoy equal rights with male in going to school [sic],112 and that the government shall provide with different forms of financial aids to children, juveniles and youths who are eligible for schooling but in poor families [sic].113 TCHRD received reports that due to the significant tuition burden placed on families in Tibet, many female students are either precluded from attending school114 or are forced to drop out before they have finished their studies. Tenzin Sangmo stated that Girls from poor backgrounds dont finish school, they drop out,115 an occurrence echoed in interviews with other refugees. An educational system that forces females to drop out due to the financial burden of tuition cannot be permitted to persist, and the PRC is perpetrating a serious injustice against Tibetan women by avoiding its legal obligation of ensuring educational equality. A lack of education has life-long consequences for women as individuals, but also has serious ramifica82 tions for the entire Tibetan community. An obvious consequence of a gender imbalance in education is that women with low levels of education . . . are the lowest paid of all members of the workforce. Tibetans already face a significant disadvantage in employment opportunities, 116 and women who have been forced to leave school due to the financial burden of tuition placed on their families are in an even worse position economically. Women who are provided with educational opportunities, however, can play a vital role in improving the overall condition of the Tibetan community since they are more likely to send their own children boys and girls to school.117

Conclusion
Disparities in education caused by the conditions of school facilities, the quality of instruction, and cultural discrimination have created an ever-widening gulf between Chinese and Tibetan students. This ongoing inequality has resulted in further economic marginalization of Tibetans with every successive generation, as Tibetans are precluded from employment opportunities on account of the inferior education forced upon them.118 Many Tibetans find they are unable to compete against Chinese migrants who are hired over Tibetans because of their advanced educational opportunities and Chinese language abilities. Unless and until the PRC fulfills its obligation of providing Tibetan children with their fundamental right to an education, more and more children from Tibet will continue to risk their lives attempting the journey into exile for education.

Endnotes
1

Article 26, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, available at http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/(Last accessed 18 June 2009) In 2009, 691 Tibetans arrived at the Tibetan Refugee Reception Centre in Dharamsala. In the wake of uprising in

Education
Tibet in spring 2008, this figure is consecutively the lowest in several years. Interview with Tashi Topgyal, Headmaster at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Article 18, Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 19, Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 21, Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 23, Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was proclaimed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 10 December 1948. The rights to education are addressed expressly in Article 26. More information available at http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/(Last accessed 18 June 2009) Article 13(1), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an education. Available at http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/ a_cescr.htm (Last accessed 18 June 2009) Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child, available at http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/k2crc.htm(Last accessed 18 June 2009) Article 30, Convention on the Rights of the Child For a history of Chinas illegal invasion and occupation of Tibet, please see The Tibetan Government in Exiles piece, Invasion and illegal annexation of Tibet: 1949 1951, available at http://www.tibet.net/en/index.php?id=146&rmenuid=11 (Last accessed 24 December 2009) Please see the United Nations Yearbook Summary for 1948, available at http://www.udhr.org/history/yearbook.htm (Last accessed 18 June 2009) Please see status of ratifications provided by the UN Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights, http:// www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/a_cescr.htm(Last accessed 18 June 2009) Please see the United Nations Treaty Collection, available at h t t p : / / t r e a t i e s . u n . o r g / P a g e s / V i e w D e t a i l s . a s p x ? s r c = T R E AT Y & m t d s g _ n o = I V3&chapter=4&lang=en(Last accessed 09 July 2009) Article 46, Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China For a translation in English, please see h t t p : / / e n g l i s h . p e o p l e d a i l y. c o m . c n / c o n s t i t u t i o n / constitution.html(Last accessed 16 June 2009) Article 9, Education Law of the Peoples Republic of China, available at http://www.moe.edu.cn/english/laws_e.htm (Last accessed 16 June 2009) Xinhua News Agency, China Adopts Amendment to Compulsory Education Law, released 30 June 2006, http:// china.org.cn/english/MATERIAL/173281.htm, (Last accessed 17 June 2009) Article 18, Education Law of the Peoples Republic of China Xinhua News Agency, China Adopts Amendment to Compulsory Education Law, released 30 June 2006, http://china.org.cn/ english/MATERIAL/173281.htm, (Last accessed 17 June 2009)
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Xinhua, Tibet to spend 3.4 billion yuan on education in 2009, released 13 April 2009, available at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-04/13/ content_11179113.htm(Last accessed 14 June 2009) The statistics provided include both primary and junior middle school funding. The report by the United Nations Development Programme uses data from 2005 and 2006 in its analysis; it is assumed to be the most current data available at this time. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report: China 2007/08, page 85, released 17 November 2008, available at http://www.un.org.cn/cms/ p/resources/30/877/content.html(Last accessed 10 June 2009) China Tibet Online, Tibet reports 98.5% enrollment rate of school-age children, released 1 June 2009, available at http:// chinatibet.people.com.cn/6668805.html(Last accessed 14 June 2009) United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report: China 2007/08, page 140, released 17 November 2008, available at http://www.un.org.cn/cms/p/ resources/30/877/content.html(Last accessed 10 June 2009) White Paper, Fifty Years of Democratic Reform in Tibet, released 2 March 2009, available in English at http://www.china.org.cn/ government/news/2009-03/02/content_17359029.htm (Last accessed 19 June 2009) As recently as 3 November 2008, China Tibet News reported that 44 percent of the Tibetan population remains illiterate. China Tibet News, Education changes Tibet, released 3 November 2008, available at http:// english.chinatibetnews.com/Culture/2008-11/03/ content_169089.htm(Last accessed 30 June 2009) The illiteracy rate for Tibetans is calculated at 47.6%, compared to only 9.1% nationally. These literacy statistics provided in the report are derived from data contained in the 2000 census, but it is the most current measurement available at this time. Quote taken from the U.S. Department of State, 2008 Human Rights Report: China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau), released 25 February 2009, available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2008/eap/119037.htm (Last accessed 16 June 2009) United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report: China 2007/08, page 140 As noted by the International Campaign for Tibet: Despite years of investment under the Western Development Strategy, the vast majority of Tibetans in Tibet are severely disadvantaged both socially and economically by the inadequate provision of education. Tracking the Steel Dragon, page 62, released 20 February 2008, available at http://www.savetibet.org/ documents/reports/tracking-steel-dragon (Last accessed 8 July 2009) Article 28(a), Convention on the Rights of the Child Peoples Daily Online, Tibet is Chinas first place to enjoy free compulsory education, released 13 March 2009, available at http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90785/ 6613314.html(Last accessed 16 June 2009) Peoples Daily Online, Free compulsory education universal in Tibetan areas in Qinghai, released 31 March 2009, available at

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http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90782/90872/ 6626154.html(Last accessed 24 June 2009) Beijing Review, A Tibetan Education, released 30 August 2007, available at http://www.bjreview.com.cn/special/txt/2007-08/ 27/content_73973.htm(Last accessed 2 July 2009) Reports of the amount required for tuition varied amongst respondents, but everyone interviewed stated they had had to pay at least some tuition. For example, in interviews conducted at the Tibetan Childrens Village in Suja/Bir India on 23 June 2009, Tenzin Woeden reported his primary school tuition in Lhasa was 460 Y per semester, Palden stated his middle school tuition in Morcha/Ngocha village (Amdo) was 450 Y per semester, and Sonam Lhamo stated her high school in Lhasa required an initial enrollment fee of 2,000 Y, in addition to regular tuition of 1,200 Y per semester. Each student reported these tuition fees did not cover room and board. Interview with Tsering Dolma at the Tibetan Reception Center, McLeod Ganj, 20 June 2009 Article 42(2), Education Law of the Peoples Republic of China, available in English at http://www.moe.edu.cn/english/ laws_e.htm(Last accessed 18 June 2009) Interview with Tenzin Sangno at the Tibetan Transit School, Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 Interview with Palden at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 For an excellent yet out-dated report providing a comparison of the rural/urban disparity of school facilities in Tibet, please see the Tibet Justice Centers 1997 report, A Generation in Peril: The Lives of Tibetan Children Under Chinese Rule. The Education section of the report can be found at http://www.tibetjustice.org/reports/children/education/ d.html(Last accessed 25 June 2009) China Tibet News, Tibets education investment reaches 22 billion since Chinas reform, released 29 December 2008, available at http://english.chinatibetnews.com/news/ Education/2008-12/29/content_188322.htm (Last accessed 29 June 2009) Interview with Tenzin Sangmo at the Tibetan Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 Interview with Sonam Tenzin at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, India, 20 June 2009 Interview with Tsering Dolma at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, India, 20 June 2009 Xinhua News Agency, China Adopts Amendment to Compulsory Education Law, released 30 June 2006, available at http:// china.org.cn/english/MATERIAL/173281.htm(Last accessed 25 June 2009) Phayul, Overview of the Tibetan population in the PRC from the 2000 census, released 4 October 2003, available at http:// www.phayul.com/news/article.aspx?id=5158&t=1(Last accessed 1 July 2009) The Tibet Justice Centers report, A Generation in Peril: The Lives of Tibetan Children Under Chinese Rule, stated that [w]ith respect to school facilities, a number of Tibetan children in mixed schools reported that school administrators segregated Tibetan from Chinese students. In a few cases, accounts suggest that the classrooms were, in effect, separate but equal. This report was released in 1997, but over 10 years later Tibetan students are reporting no improvement in this kind of treatment. The Education section of the report can be found at http://www.tibetjustice.org/reports/children/education/ d.html (Last accessed 25 June 2009) Interview with Sonam Tenzin at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, India, 20 June 2009 Interview with Tenzin Sangmo at the Tibetan Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 Interview with Gonpo Tsephel at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Interview with Palden at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Interview with Tsering Dolma at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, India, 20 June 2009 For a rudimentary explanation of how guanxi (or the lack thereof ) can affect a persons educational and career opportunities in Chinese-dominated cultures, please see GCiS China Services, China Characteristics Regarding Guanxi, available in English at http://www.gcis.com.cn/China/ CharacterGuanxi.htm (Last accessed 9 July 2009) This article claims that the Tibetan language is widely used in the schools in Tibet, and that there is a particular focus on Tibetan folk songs, and playing traditional Tibetan musical instruments. China Tibet New, Tibetan education thriving in Tibet, released 17 April 2008, available at http:// english.chinatibetnews.com/news/Education/2008-04/17/ content_105838.htm(last accessed 29 June 2009) Article 30, Convention on the Rights of the Child Article 121, Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China, states: In performing their functions, the organs of selfgovernment of the national autonomous areas, in accordance with the autonomy regulations of the respective areas, employ the spoken and written language or languages in common use in the locality. (Emphasis added) Article 12, Education Law of the Peoples Republic of China China Tibet News, Tibetan education thriving in Tibet, released 17 April 2008, available at http://english.chinatibetnews.com/ news/Education/2008-04/17/content_105838.htm(last accessed 29 June 2009) China Tibetology Research Center, Report on the Economic and Social Development of Tibet, released 30 March 2009, full text available from Peoples Daily Online at http:// english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90785/6625577.html (Last accessed 25 June 2009) China Tibet News, Tibetan education thriving in Tibet, released 17 April 2008, available at http://english.chinatibetnews.com/ news/Education/2008-04/17/content_105838.htm(last accessed 29 June 2009) Interview with Gonpo Tsephel at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009. Interview with Sonam Lhamo at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Interview with Tashi at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009

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China Tibet News, Tibetan education thriving in Tibet, released 17 April 2008, available at http://english.chinatibetnews.com/ news/Education/2008-04/17/content_105838.htm(last accessed 29 June 2009) Beijing Review, A Tibetan Education, released 30 August 2007, available at http://www.bjreview.com.cn/special/txt/2007-08/ 27/content_73973.htm (Last accessed 2 July 2009) Interview with Sonam Tenzin at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, India, 20 June 2009 China Tibetology Research Center, Report on the Economic and Social Development of Tibet, released 30 March 2009, full text available from Peoples Daily Online at http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90785/ 6625577.html (Last accessed 25 June 2009) Interview with Tenzin Sangmo, at the Tibetan Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 Interview with Tenzin Sangmo, at the Tibetan Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 Interview with Palden at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Interview with Dawa Sangmo at the Tibetan Transit School, Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 Article 23(3), Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 29, Convention on the Rights of the Child Article 119, Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China In addition to propagating this version of a pre invasion Tibet in school curricula, the PRC systematically promotes this portrayal the invasion of Tibet through media and statesponsored events. It recently established Serfs Emancipation Day in response to the March 2008 protests. The commemorative day was intended to promote stability in the region, and date chosen to mark the day was set to coincide with the 50th Anniversary of the Dalai Lamas flight into exile. China maintains that prior to its invasion, Tibet operated under a repressive feudal society. The Tibetan exile community has roundly criticized this political move by the PRC. For diametrically opposed reports of the response to Serfs Emancipation Day in Tibet, please see Xinhua, Tibetans hail Serfs Emancipation Dayreleased on 21 January 2009, available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-01/21/ content_10692785.htm(Last accessed 9 July 2009) and Thaindian News, Tibetan exiles criticize China for Serf Liberation Day, released 27 March 2009 and available at http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/politics/tibetan-exilescriticise-china-for-serf-liberation-day_100172179.html (Last accessed 9 July 2009) As reported by China Tibet News: Student of Number One Primary School, Lhasa, said, I like Tibetan classes because there are a lot of poems and stories in our Tibetan textbooks. . . . They also learn [sic] Tibetan folk songs, and playing traditional Tibetan musical instruments. China Tibet News, Tibetan education thriving in Tibet, released 17 April 2008, available at http://english.chinatibetnews.com/news/ Education/2008-04/17/content_105838.htm (last accessed 29 June 2009) Interview with Palden at the Tibetan Childrens Village School,

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Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Interview with Tashi at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Interview with Tsultrim Gyaltso at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Phayul, China launches renewed Patriotic Education Campaign across all sections in Tibet, released 24 April 2008, available at http://www.phayul.com/news, (Last accessed 29 June 2009) U.S. Department of State, 2008 Human Rights Report: China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau), released 25 February 2009, available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2008/ eap/119037.htm(Last accessed 16 June 2009) Phayul, China launches renewed Patriotic Education Campaign across all sections in Tibet, released 24 April 2008, available at http://www.phayul.com/news (Last accessed 29 June 2009) There are, however, indications that these coercive programs have had the opposite effect of increasing resistance to Chinese rule, and have instead led to a rise in Tibetan nationalism. Phayul, Chinas patriotic education campaign strengthening Tibetan Nationalism, released 15 April 2008, available at http://www.phayul.com/news/article.aspx?id=20666 (last accessed 8 July 2009) The oft-quoted remarks of Party Secretary Chen Kuiyuan during the Fifth Tibetan Conference on Education 1994 are indicative of Chinas attitude towards education in Tibet: The success of our education does not lie in the number of diplomas issued. It lies, in the final analysis, in whether our graduating students are opposed to or turn their hearts to the Dalai clique and in whether they are loyal to or do not care about our great motherland and the great socialist cause. This is the most salient and most important criterion for assessing right and wrong and the contribution and mistakes of our educational work in Tibet. To successfully solve the problem, we must improve political and ideological work at schools and have political and ideological work run through all the teaching, study and work at schools. - Party Secretary Chen Kuiyuan Please see the Department of Information and International Relations 2007 report, Tibet: A Human Development and Environment Report, page 52, for an extensive explanation of the history of patriotic education programs in Tibet. Id. Article 18(4), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, available at http://www2.ohchr.org/English/law/ ccpr.htm (Last accessed 21 June 2009) Please see the status of ratifications provided by the UN Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights http:// www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/a_ccpr.htm (last accessed 29 June 2009) Article 18(4), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Interview with Sonam Tenzin at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, India, 20 June 2009 Interview with Sonam Lhamo at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Interview with Gonpo Tsephel at the Tibetan Childrens Village

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School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Interview with Jamyang Nyima at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Interview with Lhektso Dolma at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Article 23(1), Convention on the Rights of the Child Article 23(2), Convention on the Rights of the Child China ratified this Convention on 1 August 2008, according to the UN Treaty Collection, available at http:// t r e a t i e s . u n . o r g / P a g e s / V i e w D e t a i l s . a s p x ? s r c = T R E AT Y & m t d s g _ n o = I V3&chapter=4&lang=en (Last accessed 9 July 2009) Article 24, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, available at http://www.un.org/disabilities/ convention/conventionfull.shtml (Last accessed 09 July 2009). China ratified this Convention on 1 August 2008, according to the UN Treaty Collection, available at http:// t r e a t i e s . u n . o r g / P a g e s V i e w D e t a i l s . a s p x ? s r c = T R E AT Y & m t d s g _ n o = I V3&chapter=4&lang=en (Last accessed 09 July 2009) Article 45, Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China Article 10, Education Law of the Peoples Republic of China Article 38, Education Law of the Peoples Republic of China Xinhua, China Adopts Amendment to Compulsory Education Law, released 30 June 2006, available at http://china.org.cn/english/MATERIAL/173281.htm (Last accessed 2 July 2009) Interview with Tashi at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Interview with Sonam Tenzin, at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, 20 June 2009 Interview with Tsering Dolma, at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, 20 June 2009 Interview with Tenzin Sangmo, at the Tibetan Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 According to the United Nations Development Programme, for every 100 female Tibetan births there are only 95.76 male births. This gender distribution is uncommon in most of China where the gender ratio overwhelmingly favors male births. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report: China 2007/08, page 143, released 17 November 2008, available at http://www.un.org.cn/cms/p/ resources/30/877/content.html (Last accessed 10 June 2009) Asian Development Bank, Country Gender Assessment: Peoples Republic of China, page 26, released December 2006, available at http://www.adb.org/Documents/Reports/Country-GenderAssessments/prc.asp (last accessed 9 July 2009) Id. at note 33 China ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women on 4 November 1980. Please see the United Nations Treaty Collection, available at http:// t r e a t i e s . u n . o r g / P a g e s / V i e w D e t a i l s . a s p x ? s r c = T R E AT Y & m t d s g _ n o = I V8&chapter=4&lang=en (Last accessed 9 July 2009) Article 10, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, available at http://www2.ohchr.org/English/law/cedaw.htm (Last accessed 9 July 2009) 110 Article 10(f ), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 111 Article 14(d), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: (d) To obtain all types of training and education, formal and non-formal, including that relating to functional literacy, as well as, inter alia, the benefit of all community and extension services, in order to increase their technical proficiency. 112 Article 36, The Education Law of the Peoples Republic of China 113 Article 37, The Education Law of the Peoples Republic of China 114 Tsering Dolma provided the following statement in her interview with TCHRD: In some cases, the cost of this tuition prevented families with many daughters from sending them all to school. Id. at 33 115 Interview with Tenzin Sangmo, at the Tibetan Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 116 For a more extensive explanation of this situation, please see the Labor and Employment section of the Development chapter contained in this report. 117 Asian Development Bank, Country Gender Assessment: Peoples Republic of China, page 15, released December 2006, available at http://www.adb.org/Documents/Reports/Country-GenderAssessments/prc.asp (last accessed 9 July 2009) 118 The relationship between inferior education and the cycle of poverty is succinctly explained by the United Nations Development Program: Poor education limits capacities and pushes offspring into the vicious circle of low income leading to low investment in education, leading to the poor capacity to make a livelihood, and leading back to low income. Human Development Report: China 2007/08, page 49

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DEVELOPMENT
The right to development is an inalienable human right by virtue of which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized. The human right to development also implies the full realization of the right of peoples to self-determination, which includes, subject to the relevant provisions of both International Covenants on Human Rights, the exercise of their inalienable right to full sovereignty over all their natural wealth and resources. - UN Declaration on the Right to Development, Article 11

reports, and first-hand accounts describe living conditions in Tibet as being well below acceptable levels. This disparity, ever growing between Tibet and the PRCs other provinces, occurs despite the large sums of development money the PRC allocates to the region year after year. This anomaly has resulted in hardship and devastation for hundreds of thousands of Tibetans, and has led many to wonder about the true motives behind the PRCs development plans for Tibet.

Human Dev evelopment Emphasis on Human Development and Human Dev evelopment Index the Human Development Index
The broad concept of development includes the vital areas encompassed by both economic and human development, such as education, labor and employment, healthcare, housing, and infrastructure projects. The Declaration on the Right to Development clearly provides the human person must be of central importance in any development plan,4 which should facilitate the creation of an environment in which all members of society can fully take advantage of their potentials, live lives they wish to live and have more choices.5 To achieve this, governments must take measures to ensure that programs operating in areas central to human development are adequately funded and supported. These areas include, but are certainly not limited to, [b]asic public services, [such as] compulsory education, public health and basic medical care, basic social security and public employment services.6

Introduction: Introduction
As proclaimed by the United Nations in 1986, development is a basic human right. It encompasses the development of a countrys personnel and infrastructure, and requires steady progress in both areas to maintain an acceptable standard of living for a countrys inhabitants. The international community has long recognized the importance of promoting development, as evidenced by the protections contained in various U.N. treaties and declarations, 2 and the PRC has likewise indicated recognition of the importance of development in its Constitution.33 When it comes to the development and administration of Tibet, however, the PRC unfortunately falls far short of its international and domestic obligations. Numerous expert studies, international

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 To track international development levels, the Human Development Index (HDI) was created as a means of comprehensively measuring individual countries achievements in these areas of health, knowledge and income.7 Through the use of the index, a countrys progress in key development areas can be monitored over time, making it is possible to analyze whether or not development efforts are succeeding. The index is determined by combining measures of life expectancy, adult literacy and gross school enrolment ratios, and the countrys per capita GDP.88 Regarding Tibet, the United Nations Development Programme indicated in its Human Development Report: China 2007/08 that Tibets HDI continues to rank at the bottom of all of the PRCs provinces. According to the calculations contained in that report, Tibets life expectancy index is 0.656, its education index is 0.554, and its GDP index is 0.652. These low statistics combine to factor into Tibets overall HDI of 0.621, far below any other province in China.9 Development money is ordinarily beneficial for the human and economic well being of any region, but it is the manner in which this money is being administered that works a detriment to the Tibetan people. Rather than conferring benefits on the Tibetans, this development money mostly aids ethnic Chinese migrants and laborers through a calculated and deliberate allocation of resources. Dubbed ethnically exclusionary growth,15 the Chinese administrators in Tibet award most contracts to out-ofprovince state-owned enterprises rather than locally owned and operated businesses.16 Instead of re-investing their profits in the local Tibetan economy, these outside contractors frequently repatriate this money by applying it to further development projects back in Mainland China.17 There are also reports that Chinese contractors on these projects are more likely to employ Han Chinese migrants over local Tibetan laborers. In the rare cases where Tibetans are granted employment, it is often for menial tasks or for positions fetching a lower wage than that paid to Chinese employees for identical work.18 Not only are Tibetans precluded from the benefits of the PRCs development spending, there are numerous indications that the influx of this money may actually be harming them. In providing large sums of development money, the PRC has enacted policies and projects that work against the best interests of the local Tibetan population. The PRC has focused the majority of its attention on urban centers, and has prioritized programs inconsistent with Tibets primarily agrarian society. The extent of the PRCs attention to the rural areas appears to be limited to the development of the exploitive mining operations and the construction of environmentally tenuous hydroelectric dams. These largescale projects in rural areas of Tibet have led to the rampant displacement of nomads and farmers due to poorly conceived and executed resettlement programs.

Paradox of Development
Tibets low level of development persists despite the enormous amount of development money the PRC reportedly spends in the region.10 Compared to Tibets per capita GDP of 13,861 Yuan in 2008,11 the PRCs alleged investment of over 60 billion Yuan per year in Tibet is rightfully regarded as astronomical.12 The China Tibetology Research Center released a recent report suggesting that 90 percent of Tibets yearly spending comes from the Chinese central government,13 which claims this spending is being used for hundreds of development projects within Tibet.14 Unfortunately, along with statistics of how much money is being spent in the region there are substantial indicators that these development projects are not conferring any benefit on the Tibetan people.

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Development The PRC asserts the urbanization of Tibet is being promoted to facilitate delivery of social services and raise income levels, but this is inconsistent with the actual needs of the Tibetan people. It is true that some Tibetans have benefited from improved infrastructure and increased revenue stemming from the numerous on-going development projects in the region, but these minority benefactors exist in stark contrast to the majority of Tibetans, who [due in part to an inadequate educational system] are poorly equipped to access new economic opportunities [and as a result] have been marginalized.19 One of the many instances of this marginalization is seen in the recent development efforts to revitalize Lhasa. The PRC has directed large sums towards a modern redesign of the city with the alleged aim that it will become an economically prosperous, socially harmonious, and eco-friendly modern city with vivid cultural characteristics and deep ethnic traditions.20 Reports indicate, however, that this revitalization effort has further marginalized and disadvantaged Tibetan residents. Gonpo Tsephel, a 20-year-old-male from Amdo, reported the following observations from his numerous visits to Lhasa: Lhasa is divided into two parts: Chinese and Tibetan. The Chinese area has big supermarkets, shops, showrooms and hotels, but not the Tibetan part. There is a big gap in development between the Chinese part and the Tibetan part.21 Development efforts with such disparate effects are widespread throughout Tibet as the PRC launches more and more projects, and the motives behind the PRCs aggressive approach to development are not difficult to discern. Tibet is a land rich in natural resources, resources that the central government is eager to acquire for the benefit of Mainland China. The investment percentages indicating these goals are telling, with most of the PRCs development dollars paying for roadways and infrastructure 89 projects aimed at facilitating extraction of resources from Tibet. As reported by Tibet Watch, [T]he largest sector of investment in the TAR was, logically, that of transport, storage and post, which received 35% of total investment in 2005 . . . More worrisome is the fact that agriculture only accounted for less than 7% of total investment [and] most worrisome of all is the same issue over and over again; public management (i.e. government and party administration) accounted for 13% of total investment in the TAR in 2005 (second after transport), versus only 6% in education and 1% in health, social security and social welfare. Again, this was the exact inverse of every other province in China; for instance, in Sichuan investment in education was double investment in government administration.22 Through excessive state funding of key development projects (such as roadwork, the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, and various mining and hydroelectric dam projects), the PRC has made it easy to exploit Tibets resources while maintaining tight control of the region. The PRC has taken pains to insulate itself from external criticisms under the guise of undertaking a humanitarian campaign to improve the standard of living in Tibet, yet cracks in this faade are readily apparent. President Hu forthrightly stated that promoting stability in the region is the central governments main goal; yet he made clear this stability was to be distinctly premised on the PRCs hegemony in the region. In a statement released to coincide with the 50th Anniversary of the Dalai Lamas flight into exile, President Hu stated Tibet must stick to the development road with Chinese characteristics and Tibetan features,23 plainly revealing the PRCs underlying efforts towards increased sinicization24 of the region and the steady erosion of Tibetan autonomy.

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 The PRC plainly values development projects that extract resources from Tibet, rather than projects that support the development of human capacity. These priorities run counter to the importance of human-centered development and capacity building, and have wide-ranging consequences for the future of Tibet. For a more thorough analysis of the current state of education in Tibet, including the numerous and varied root causes of the inadequate condition of Tibets educational system, please see the Education chapter of this report.

Labor and Employment


The labor and employment situation in Tibet continues to lack a fundamental fairness that results in a significant economic advantage for ethnic Chinese migrants and laborers over Tibetans. This inequity operates in defiance of both international and domestic provisions safeguarding against such injustice. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights expressly provides that [e]veryone has the right to work [in] just and favourable conditions . . . [with] protection against unemployment, and mandates that all laborers receive equal pay for equal work.29 Both the Declaration on the Right to Development and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights reaffirm the importance of equality in employment and compensation, and the Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China likewise contains provisions claiming great respect for the equal rights of all workers.31 Despite these protections, however, there are numerous reports of unfair labor practices and employment discrimination occurring against the local Tibetan workforce, suggesting a widespread failure by the PRCs administrators to uphold these legal obligations. There are numerous factors contributing to these employment problems, such as the previously described educational disparities and basic ethnic tensions between the predominantly Chinese managers and the Tibetan labor force. Tibetans are systematically excluded from the local economy by the nepotistic hiring practices of Chinese business owners as well as by discriminatory compensation policies that provide higher wages for ethnic Chinese laborers over similarly situated Tibetans. The recent massive influx of ethnic Han Chinese migrant work-

Elements of Human Development Education: Education


Education, or the lack thereof, has had a profound effect on the level of human development in Tibet. The opportunity to acquire an adequate education confers enormous benefits, as it expands the choices available to [an] individual by creating necessary skills to function productively in social and economic settings, [and also increases] ones awareness and capacities to take advantage of choices.25 Conversely, insufficient educational preparation can result in a lower lifetime earning capacity, making it more difficult for people to invest in education for their children. In this way, an inadequate educational system often carries long-term consequences by perpetuating a societys cycle of poverty. Illiteracy rates in Tibet are the highest of all provinces in the PRC, with the United Nations Development Programme reporting a 45% illiteracy rate for adult males and a 62% illiteracy rate for adult females.26 This lack of literacy has profound economic consequences, as Tibetan producers, farmers and pastoralists currently have neither the literacy, real-time market information nor the capital to be fully informed . . . placing Tibetans at a significant disadvantage [in economic matters].27 The PRC claims to have invested billions of Yuan in Tibetan education every year,28 yet this investment, if true, has not resulted in the kind of successful educational system Tibetans need to thrive as a people and to compete in a modern economy dominated by Chinese migrants.

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Development ers into the region has facilitated and aggravated this already serious discrimination against the local Tibetan work force. a continual replacement for those migrants that may be returning to Mainland China.35 Furthermore, the migrants present in Tibet at any given time can be assumed to be employed,36 and likely in positions that might otherwise have been filled by Tibetan employees. The U.S. State Department has further noted that ethnic Han continued to hold the top CCP positions in nearly all counties and prefectures,37 making it difficult for ethnic Tibetans to voice grievances and participate in policy decisions affecting their rights as workers. The grievances facing Tibetan workers are substantial, and largely without recourse. Refugees recently arriving from Tibet testify that the predominantly Chinese employers frequently discriminate against Tibetans through unfair hiring practices and through compensation schemes that favor ethnic Chinese migrant workers. A 50-yearold woman from Lhasa currently residing at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, India, spoke with TCHRD about this situation on condition of anonymity. She stated frankly: When Tibetans apply for positions, they are offered less money than the Chinese.38 The TCHRD documented this practice several years ago,39 and this recent testimony suggests this unfair and illegal labor practice persists in Tibet. Ngawang, a 30-year-old male from Phenpo Lhundup County, spoke with TCHRD about his experience during an interview at the Tibetan Transit School in Dharamsala, India. He reports: I have a lot of experience with discrimination because of Chinese immigration. The head officials of all construction projects in Tibet are Chinese no Tibetans. The Chinese authorities assist Chinese businessmen, but not Tibetans. If there is a dispute between a Tibetan and a Chinese person, the Chinese authorities favor the Chinese. They can tell by the way people speak. If you speak Chinese with an accent, you are not treated well. If 91

The Effects of Chinese Immigration


It is difficult to obtain reliable information from inside Tibet, making it impossible to accurately gauge the ethnic ratio between the Tibetans and Chinese. Many Tibetans living in exile report Tibetans are now outnumbered in their own land. The PRC, meanwhile, continues to vigorously insist Tibetans continue to make up 90 percent of the regions population.32 The PRCs 2000 Census indicated Tibetans made up the majority of the population, but outside analysts have exposed the flawed methodology used to derive conclusion. The U.S. State Department revealed the under-inclusive nature of the census in its 2008 Annual Report: Although TAR census figures show that Tibetans made up 92 percent of the TARs permanently registered population, official figures did not include a large number of long, medium-, and short-term Han residents, such as cadres, skilled workers, unskilled laborers, military and paramilitary troops, and their dependents. Chinese social scientists estimated the number of this floating population, including tourists and visitors on short-term business trips, for Lhasa alone was more than 200,000 (nearly half the population of Lhasa and more than 10 percent of the TARs population) during the May to November high season for tourism and migrant workers.1 (Emphasis added) Even if the numbers reported in the 2000 census were accurate, the bare statistics do not reflect the circular nature of the Chinese migrants presence in the Tibetan economy.34 These migrant workers may be temporary, but they are arriving in Tibet in steady and consistent numbers, thereby [assuring]

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 youre discriminated against, you cant hire a lawyer to fight for your rights.40 Compounding the effects of this racial discrimination is the detrimental effect the substandard educational system has had on Tibetans. Inadequate education generally leads to decreased employment opportunities, as it is difficult for many Tibetans to acquire the skills necessary to compete in a job market predisposed to favoring the Han Chinese. Tibetans who have only had access to an inadequate education are less likely to be fluent in Chinese, and are most certainly without the knowledge and understanding of the ever important Chinese work cultures and connections to government or business networks in China.41 In an economic environment dominated by the Chinese, Tibetans lacking an understanding or accumulation of guanxi (the Chinese system of interpersonal relationships)42 are frequently precluded from full engagement in economic endeavors. Regarding unemployment, the PRC boasts that its efforts have achieved a remarkably low unemployment rate, with claims that the Chinese administration in Tibet has taken actions to help unemployed [sic] find jobs in different areas, providing financial support, encouraging the self-employed, independent entrepreneurs, to avoid zero-employment [sic].43 The testimony of a fifty-year-old woman, who requested to remain anonymous, cast serious doubts on the widespread existence of these employment services in her statement to TCHRD at the Tibetan Reception Center on 20 June 2009: There are unemployment programs that provide jobs in cleaning roads, also, the government does provide a little bit of money to poor people who are out of work, but its mainly propaganda.44 The PRC announced its 15-Year Tibet Tourism Master Plan in 200545 and claims that the resultant rise in tourists has play[ed] an increasingly significant role in increasing employment and tax revenues, and raising the living standards of both urban and rural residents.46 There is evidence that these claims are simply not true, however, as Tibetans rarely enjoy any tangible benefits of the tourist dollars being spent there. The employment discrimination Tibetans face when applying for jobs in other sectors of the economy also occurs within the tourist industry, and as a result Tibetans are often precluded from any benefits of increased tourist revenue. In its 2008 report, the U.S. State Department revealed the TAR tourism bureau continued its policy of refusing to hire Tibetan tour guides, a policy the government administrators employ in the hope that it will ensure that all tour guides provide visitors with the governments position opposing Tibetan independence and the activities of the Dalai Lama.47 Even if Tibetans are not discriminated against outright, an overriding problem with the Tibetan tourism industry is that much of [it] is controlled by out-of-province businesses, meaning [a] large share of tourism revenue therefore simply leaves the region after a short circulation.48 To combat inequity stemming from tourism, outside visitors are urged to make reasonable efforts to ensure their tourist dollars are spent at Tibetanowned businesses and operations. The anonymous 50-year-old woman from Lhasa discussed her views regarding the tourism situation with TCHRD. She explained how tourist dollars can be of benefit to Tibetans, and how outsiders can ensure their money is spent responsibly: I think the increase in tourists could be really good, really helpful for Tibet, but I request that tourists that go to Tibet seek out hotels owned by Tibetans, and use Tibetan guides.

Tourism
A surge in tourism in recent years has further contributed to the numbers of ethnic Chinese in Tibet.

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Development When Tibetans earn money from tourism, they donate a lot to the poor people. Otherwise all the money goes straight to the Chinese. I request that the tourists buy goods from Tibetan shops. Its difficult to tell which are the right shops, because some Chinese owners hire Tibetans to work in their shops for them. Tourists need to ask local people where to go. Most Western tourists arrive on government tours, and the government requires them to stay in government-owned hotels. It is best to ask the local people which businesses they think are best.49 In addition to spending their money responsibly, visitors can further serve the Tibetan cause by bearing witness to the human rights situation in Tibet. The PRC is eager for the international community to perceive its occupation of Tibet as something that has benefited the Tibetan people, yet travel outside the urban centers can provide a vital opportunity to expose this fallacy. Tsewang Dhondup, a 39 yearold male from Adu Ganru, Drango County, Kardze Prefecture, addressed this possibility, and he made the following request to foreign visitors: I want to request outsiders to go to the rural areas [of Tibet] to see how rural people really live. The Chinese have mainly developed the cities to show to the tourists, to show them that the buildings are well built and designed. The Chinese want to show to the world that they have developed Tibet well. Tibetans in urban areas need to say good things about China or they will be punished. In tourist centers the Chinese have built nice buildings for the Tibetans, but its all propaganda. [Urban] Tibetans cannot let their tongues slip or they will be punished.50 It is important to note, however, that visitors should not interact with locals in ways that could put Tibetans in danger of reprisal from Chinese authorities. There are still many reports of Chinese spies in the region, and outsiders must be aware that their actions could potentially carry serious consequences for locals once the visitors have gone. For more detailed information, and for recommendations on how to visit Tibet responsibly, please see the Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracys publication, Briefing Paper for Travelers to Tibet.51

Military Purposes
Adding to the numbers of Han Chinese is the burgeoning presence of the Chinese military in Tibet. The PRC responded to the protests of March 2008 by further increasing military personnel and roadblocks in the area,52 but the PRCs efforts toward a military buildup in the region began long before the recent protests extends far beyond matters of internal security. Sharing borders with India, Nepal, Myanmar, and Bhutan, Tibet is seen by the PRC as a vital component of its national security campaign, and there are reports of military training camps and armaments being surreptitiously manufactured throughout Tibet. The recent opening of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway has facilitated the latest increase in military personnel. Gonpo Tsephel described what he saw when he stumbled upon a military base in Labrang: I visited Labrang in Amdo, and came across a place where the Chinese had set up a military training ground. I saw tanks and heavy artillery weapons. I saw the Chinese were practicing military exercises.53 Ngawang reiterated these allegations in his interview with TCHRD on 22 June 2009, when he reported: The Chinese have sent a lot of people, taking our resources. Theyve set up military camps. Theyre trying to set Tibet up as a military base to defend China against military/foreign aggression.54

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 Regardless of the governments justification for this military presence in Tibet, a build-up of security forces in the region is a great cause for concern. The violent suppression of the 2008 uprising demonstrated the PRCs willingness to use lethal force against the Tibetans. The Chinese army may officially be in Tibet to secure the PRC from outside aggression, but this military presence certainly increases the danger that the PRCs military forces may be turned on the Tibetans in the event of any future unrest. The Chinese have built a lot of buildings and factories, and displaced villagers to build these things. Chinese workers came to build, and then they stayed. The Chinese say they gave big compensation [to the displaced people], but in reality they were only given small, temporary houses. The displaced villagers are in debt, they have had to take many loans.60 Tibets problems with involuntary relocation were made worse in 2006 when the PRC launched a massive 5-year resettlement campaign61 designed to maintain tight control over Tibets population in the run-up to the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Disingenuously dubbed the Comfortable Housing Program,62 nearly one million Tibetans have been up-rooted and relocated without being compensated in the past couple of years. Those affected by the programs have very little recourse to dispute their fate, and face accusations that they pose a threat to national security if they resist. As stated by Ngawang: The village people have no right to say they dont want to move, or say they want compensation. If they resist, they are accused of working against national safety and security. They are accused of being splittists. Once the authorities order you to move, you have absolutely no rights. You have to do it.63 The consequences of these policies in human terms are very real. Tibetans subject to relocation face a disrupted ability to earn a livelihood,6464 as formerly nomadic herding families are forced to give up their livestock and settle into permanent homes. During a recent interview with TCHRD, Tsultrim Gyaltso, a 17 year-old male from Gonjo County, Chamdo Prefecture TAR described the impact of and official justification for these programs: The Chinese have announced resettlement plans, also the authorities say the number of

Resettlement And Displacement


The influx of ethnic Chinese laborers, tourists, and military personnel has added to the numbers of Tibetans currently being displaced. Resettlement programs are programs that amount to little more than deliberately crafted policies aimed at uprooting and disrupting traditional Tibetan ways of life under the guise of securing stability in the region. The PRC is notorious for inflicting serious injury on its populace by displacing large numbers of people in the name of progress,55 and the resettlement programs launched in Tibet have had equally disastrous consequences for Tibetans. In violation of international norms, this displacement occurs without compensation and without the consent of those affected. The right to housing is protected by both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights56 and the Declaration on the Right to Development,57 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights expressly protects the right of people to self-determination.58 Forced relocation is an obvious violation of these fundamental human rights. Frequently, those forced out of their homes by relocation programs must bear the expense themselves,59 despite the PRCs contrary claims of providing a stipend to those displaced. Ngawang explained the effects of displacement in the urban centers of Tibet:

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Development animals [belonging to the nomads] should be reduced. The authorities want to fence in the nomads. The explanation [from the Chinese authorities] is that in early times there were wars amongst nomads, because of limited space, but theres no war between nomads these days. There is no need at all for these resettlement programs.65 Palden, a 17 year-old male from Ngocha village, Chentsa County, Malho TAP Qinghai Province, offered his perspective, shared by many in the international arena and the community-in-exile, regarding the purpose of these resettlement programs: The Chinese have implemented resettlement in my area in Tibet (Qinghai Province, Chentsa County). The nomads are the ones that really continue to practice Tibetan traditions. The nomads really practice our religion, prayers, festivals, clothing, marriage, and lifestyle; they are very indigenous. Through their forced resettlement, the Chinese are trying to eliminate pure Tibetan traditions.66 Ngawang went on to voice concerns about what many believe to be a deliberate campaign of cultural genocide67 intended to further marginalize Tibetans in their native land. He reports: The more Chinese are coming, the more Tibetans are becoming a minority. The Chinese are not coming to help the Tibetan people, they are only coming to help themselves. Theyre just coming to eradicate Tibetan people. Theyre trying to dilute Tibetan culture, theyre trying to eradicate our cultural differences, language differences, and make us all Chinese. 68 Resettlement programs aimed at eradicating Tibetan culture pose a clear violation of human rights. Yet even if the ultimate aim of these relocation programs is not the eradication of Tibetan culture, the fact remains that these programs are being conducted without consent or compensation. As such, the PRCs resettlement programs constitute a serious and on-going violation of Tibetans basic human right to housing69 and self-determination.

Health Care
Tibetans, particularly rural residents and those living in poverty, are not receiving the medical they are entitled to under both international conventions and domestic law. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recognizes the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical health, a right requiring [t]he creation of conditions which would assure to all medical service and medical attention in the event of sickness.70 Implicit in achieving such conditions is the requirement that State Parties . . . recognize the right of everyone to social security, including social insurance.71 Within its Constitution, the PRC asserts that [t]he state develops medical and health services,72 made available through material assistance from the state and society when they [the citizens of the PRC] are old, ill or disabled.73 Despite these mandates, the reality for most Tibetans is that affordable medical care simply does not exist. The PRC boasts of subsidized medical care in the cities and free medical care for rural residents,74 but numerous testimonials refute these claims absolutely. Sonam Tenzin, a 27-year-old male from Kardze described the ineffectiveness of the existing medical system in delivering services to impoverished Tibetans: There is a public hospital, a government hospital, but no special services for poor people. People need a special card to go to the hospital and it costs 10 Yuan per year. The card is 95

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 used for in-patient services, and people can pay 60% less if they have this card. The card only applies to local services. There is no free healthcare for anyone, even if they have this card, and the card does not apply towards discounts on medication.75 This lack of affordable health care is particularly problematic outside of Tibets main cities. Prohibitively high costs discourage many rural people from seeking medical care in existing hospitals and clinics, and most people turn first to traditional Tibetan doctors before resorting to the financial burden associated with established hospitals.76 Rural residents are further disadvantaged by the lack of adequate medical services outside of the urban centers.
Tenzin Choetso a 16-year-old female from Sog County in Nagchu Prefecture described this problem during her interview with TCHRD on 22 June 2009:

medicine to Tibet. Then they hold a press conference to say that they are providing free medicine to the Tibetan people.

Disability Services
Notwithstanding numerous international and domestic protections, people that experience disabilities continue to live in unacceptable conditions in Tibet. The Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities promotes empowerment, dignity, and independence for people that experience disabilities through provisions addressing matters of accessibility,78 community life,79 education,80 health,81 and employment.82 The PRC recently ratified this Convention,83 and had previously addressed its responsibility to provide assistance to people with disabilities in its Constitution,84 yet it has thus far failed to adequately meet its domestic responsibilities or treaty obligations. Many first-hand accounts testify to the lack of adequate government services and programs for people experiencing disabilities in Tibet. The PRC ostensibly claims that it does in fact provide disability assistance, such as rehabilitation services . . . prosthetic limbs and sign language training,85 and further brags of providing this assistance with astonishing speed.86 It claims that upwards of 60,000 people receive services presently, often for free or very little cost, and that plans are in place to help all the disabled [people] in the region with access to rehabilitation services by 2015.87 As described by recent refugees, however, the true picture of life for people with disabilities in Tibet is bleak. Many people that experience disabilities are left to fend for themselves, without any kind of government assistance. Tenzin Choetso, a 16-year-old female from Sog Country in Nagchu Prefecture told TCHRD that in her area, [t]here are no special programs to assist people with disabilities. Those that can afford it try to go to school; otherwise they just stay home.88 Additional testimony suggests that in

There is a hospital in my area (Sog County), but if the patient is very sick and needs an operation, such facilities are not available. Patients need to go to Lhasa. Most counties dont have facilities for these problems.77 Tsewang Dhondup described both the fallacy of free health care as well as deliberate actions by the PRC to deny Tibetans their basic right to medical treatment: There were no health facilities in my village. The Chinese have never set up health facilities for poor people in my village; the sun will rise in the south before this will happen. Health facilities are mainly developed in urban areas, not in rural areas. There was no facility for injections in my village. If my family got sick, we had to travel to a hospital and pay. When we could not afford to go to the hospital, we would go to the monastery instead, to pray. The Chinese medical factories produce a lot of medicine, but they bring out-dated 96

Development areas where some assistance programs do exist they are only selectively and inconsistently administered. Tenzin Sangmo shared this story with TCHRD: Im aware of one girl with disabilities that received rice rations from the government once a year, but only on special occasions like the New Year. She had no parents, so the government gave her this small subsidy. People with disabilities who did have parents received nothing from the government.89 As with all other matters of human development, the situation for people with disabilities outside of the urban centers is far worse than for those who live in the cities. The PRC, ever mindful of presenting a positive image of its occupation of Tibet to outside visitors, focuses its resources and attention on the cities that attract the most tourists. Tibets predominantly rural population is therefore excluded from the majority of the PRCs social service efforts. Sonam Lhamo, a 17 year-old girl from Lhasa, reported: In Lhasa, there is a special school for people with disabilities. Many western tourists come to see it, but it is just propaganda. Otherwise they [people with disabilities] have no assistance, receive no money. Outside of Lhasa, there is nothing, no government assistance. The people with disabilities are taken care of by their families.90 has spent 953 million Yuan on safe water projects in the region,91 allegedly benefiting hundreds of thousands of Tibetans.92 Conflicting reports from those recently in Tibet throw suspicion on the necessity or even the existence of such projects. Sonam Tenzin told TCHRD that [t]here was no problem with the water in my area. There was no need for these clean water stations in Kardze.93 Tsewang Dhondup provided the following explanation for the PRCs claims of providing clean water facilities in Tibet: In main markets in the center of town, there is a charge for water. I am unaware of any clean water facilities. I have traveled all over Tibet; I have never seen any such facilities. The Chinese authorities [claiming there are thousands of clean water stations] are exaggerating, its just exaggerated propaganda.94

Qinghai Railway
Much has been written by international observers regarding the new Qinghai-Tibet Railways largely negative environmental, economic, and cultural impact. The PRC claims the railway was built to promote economic growth in Tibet, and that the project was undertaken with strict ecological oversight ensuring plateau vegetation . . . protection of wild animals, and three wastes (waste gas, waste water and industrial residue) control fully into consideration [sic].95 These claims, however, have been called into question by numerous outside groups. As pointed out by the Central Tibetan Administration, the environmental consequences of the railway can be seen in areas such as grassland degradation, endangerment of wildlife, and in the negative effects visible on the Tibetan plateaus permafrost.96 There are also accusations that the railway was built solely to facilitate resource extraction from Tibet.

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS Clean Water


Clean water is of vital importance to any society, and the PRC consistently emphasizes the amount of development money it has allegedly spent on clean water systems throughout Tibet. Reports originating from within Mainland China claim the PRC

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 Previously, Tibet was sufficiently isolated to avoid such exploitation, but the railways long-haul, bulk freight capacity has dramatically reduced the costs of [resource] extraction97 from Tibet to Mainland China. Ngawang, a 30 year-old male, and Topjor, a 36 year-old male, both from Phenpo Lhundup County spoke with TCHRD at the Tibetan Transit School on 22 June 2009, and related their experience of witnessing Tibets resources being loaded on to trains bound for Mainland China: We used to work as truck drivers, and on the road we would see trucks go from the mines to Lhasa. There the material from the mines would be loaded onto trains. If China was using the resources from Tibet to help the Tibetans, we would all be richer. As the late 10th Panchen Lama said; China says theyre spending billions in Tibet, but where is it? I think theyre dumping it in the water, in yellow rivers where it cant be seen.98 The advent of the railway has also contributed significantly to social and cultural marginalization of Tibetans. The railway provides a much more efficient and convenient means of reaching Tibet than previous methods of overland travel, and the resultant increased arrival of ethnic Chinese migrants continues to dilute the composition of Tibets population. The effects of growing numbers of ethnic Chinese in Tibet have been detailed in the Chinese Immigration and Tourism sections of this chapter, and a manifold increase in these effects is feared due to the railways facilitation of increased numbers of visitors and migrant workers to Tibet.99 The development and construction of the railway line could never have been intended as a benefit to Tibetans, as Tibetans were not consulted in the planning stages of its conception. As pointed out by the International Campaign for Tibet, Tibetans neither initiated nor directed the planning of the railroad, and generation of wealth as a result of the railroad is likely to be concentrated in urban areas and resource extraction centers whose main beneficiaries will be Chinese.100 It is no wonder then that most Tibetans fear the future affects the railway line will have on both the economy and on the natural environment.

Mining
The resources most readily exploited and extracted by the PRC are Tibets vast mineral and metal deposits. Tibet is a land rich in natural resources, such as copper,101 gold, asbestos, coal, potash, zinc, and oil,102 yet the PRCs proprietary treatment of these resources has led many to view Tibets vast endowment as a resource curse.103 The contentious establishment and operation of large mines throughout Tibet has served as the flashpoint for recent protests, as Tibetans struggle to resist displacement and the appropriation of their natural resources. Tibetans are well aware that the PRCs development of large mining projects does not serve their best interests; as stated by Dawa Sangmo, the Chinese start mining projects, and they say it is to help the Tibetan people, but really it is only to help their own people.104 Tibetans fearful of the economic and environmental ramifications of these mines have spoken out against such mines, but their efforts to prevent exploitation and environmental degradation are very often met with persecution and repression. Ngawang described this experience of Tibetans living in Phenpo Lhundup County: In 2007, the Chinese started a mining project in the near mountains to my village. There was nearly a clash between the Chinese and the local people. There was a crackdown by the Chinese authorities, and every family had to pay a 2000 Yuan fine. Tibetan people are not allowed to go on the land near the mines. They are not allowed to graze their

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Development animals on their former lands. Also, the rivers are becoming polluted [from the mines] and the animals are dying. The Chinese completely own the area and no one knows how they are conducting the extractions.105 Tibetans have not simply acquiesced to the PRCs exploitation. People living near the gold mine located at the sacred site of Ser Ngul Lo have courageously resisted religious persecution and the Chinese appropriation of their resources by engaging in active protests against the project. Several hundred Tibetans protested for months against the mine to preserve the sacred site, to prevent attendant environmental pollution, and to demand that local residents receive just compensation from the project.106 After months of unrest, in May 2009 a settlement agreement between local residents and the controlling business interests resulted in a cease of mining operations, and a pledge by the Chinese business authorities that concrete barriers would be build to block the poisonous residue of earlier mining in the area so that [the residue] would not filter down into the drinking water.107 It is impossible to savor victories such as that occurring at Ser Ngul Lo for long. Despite obvious public opposition, the PRC persists in developing further mining projects in Tibetan areas that threaten to deliver the same consequences. Largely untapped deposits of gold, silver, and copper still exist throughout much of Tibet,108 and numerous mining projects, particularly those with foreign investment capital, are continuously being proposed and implemented.109 human and environmental consequences of large dams, such as human displacement, water pollution, and landslides.111 Tibetans are generally afforded no say in the matter of where large dams are located, and likewise rarely receive any economic benefit from the construction of a dam in their area. Jamyang Nyima described the impact of a large dam constructed near his village, detailing the displacement and the discrimination experienced by local Tibetans: In 2006, the Chinese started construction of tunnels and bridges in the Nagchu area. They were preparing to build a dam. Most villagers were farmers, and the Chinese authorities ordered families to move. The Chinese provided just a little bit of money as compensation. The main problem is that all of the villagers were uneducated. The Chinese authorities came and told the villagers the project would have many benefits for them. Sometimes villagers would protest, but there was no way for them to win. The head of the construction programs were all Chinese. Sometimes there were a few Tibetans hired for 1-2 days, but they only worked in low-level positions doing manual labor.112 There are reports that the PRC relies mainly on Chinese military personnel for labor and to ensure the steady pace of construction continues uninterrupted by complaints from Tibetan officials or protests by local villagers. Ngawang described the environment in which a dam was constructed in Drekung village: The Chinese have built a lot of hydropower dams. In Drekung village, they built a dam. I went to visit my friend there, and I saw a lot of Chinese Army laborers. It looked like a military camp. Even if the high official of TAR wanted to interfere and stop the 99

Hydroelectric Dams
The PRC has invested 2.9 billion Yuan in hydroelectric dams in the past decade, and has recently indicated a desire to increase the pace of construction.110 This acceleration has been proposed despite international criticism of the well-acknowledged

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 construction of the dam, he could not.113 Desperate to avoid the forced relocation of thousands of people prior to a proposed dam project in Yajiang, Kardze, Tawu County, Tibetans staged a protest in May 2009. It is reported that the Chinese authorities coerced the residents into signing a relocation agreement, and that Chinese security forces subsequently shot six Tibetan women in the course of suppressing the unrest.114 Information regarding the incident was tightly controlled, with only the names of the women leaking into alternative news sources, and details of the present condition of the injured women have been suppressed. The situation is not entirely without hope. There have been a number of reports that Chinese officials have suspended the construction of hydropower dams due to environmental concerns and fears that by inundating historical sites the dams are irreparably damaging local cultures. It was reported that in 2004, the PRC unexpectedly suspended plans for 13 dams in Mainland China that [passed] through a UNESCO World Heritage site,115 and that recently Chinas environment ministry . . . suspended construction of two ambitious hydropower dams in the upper Yangtze River region [of Tibet], saying the projects were illegal because they were started without necessary environmental assessments.116 While PRCs willingness to resort to violence during the protests in Tawu County is intensely troubling and deserves international scrutiny, these construction suspensions by PRC officials suggest that peaceful victories might be possible in the future. ing of Tibetan farming and grazing communities was not only to promote economic development but also to counteract the Dalai Lamas influence.117 This deliberate restructuring has frequently taken the form of resettlement programs and campaigns to limit and reduce the number of livestock nomadic families are allowed to raise, with the PRCs official explanation for these policy changes being environmental preservation. Outside experts have exposed the harm these drastic policy changes are inflicting on Tibetans, however, pointing out that the tough new environmental laws restricting traditional practices such as grazing [and] hunting have all [cut] sharply into Tibetan incomes. 118 Tsewang Dhondup, a 39-year-old male from Adu Ganru village, Drango County, Kardze Prefecture in Sichuan province described the impact these policies have had on traditional nomads, and also voiced his opinion regarding the reason for these disruptive policies: Resettlement programs have been implemented in many places in Tibet. Nomads are forced to become farmers. The Chinese have put fences around the green pastures and the animals are very limited. The authorities want to eradicate the nomads, want to change their history. The nomads have done nothing wrong to the Chinese, but the Chinese dont like Tibetan traditions.119 There are various reports of Chinese officials imposing arbitrary agricultural restrictions on rural Tibetan farmers. Tsewang Dhondup went on to report the following : I was a farmer, growing various kinds of grains such as wheat, peas, and tsampa. Back in 2007 the Chinese authorities started causing big problems for the farmers, and forced us to change our crops. They forced us to grow something with thorns instead of our usual grains. I dont know

Agricultural Policies
Agricultural policies factor significantly into the PRCs development plans for Tibet, but there is evidence that these policies have been devised with decidedly mixed motives. According to the 2008 U.S. State Department Report, TAR Party Secretary Zhang Qingli frankly admitted that the restructur-

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Development why they did this. I think China was trying to turn the ground into a desert, so that the rainwater would not absorb in Tibet and instead would flow directly to China. If theres no vegetation, if the soil is not fertile, the water will flow directly to China. This made the farmers in my village angry for many years. In 2009, farmers in my village staged a boycott to show solidarity with the protesters and the people that had been imprisoned following the large protests of 10 March 2008. At that time, there were 60 farming families in my village. The Chinese authorities held a meeting for three days, where they decided they would force the families to farm or they would confiscate our farms. They held a lottery to determine which fifteen families would have to break the boycott first. The fifteen families refused; so the Chinese authorities called in the army and the army took over the farms. At first the army men tried to farm the land themselves but they did not know how so they forced the families to farm the land. The families could not express their disagreement with the authorities; you have no way to justify your rights in China. Now that I have left Tibet I can speak freely about these things. I could never speak this freely back home.120 is very high in Tibet compared to the other provinces of PRC resulting in placing Tibetans at a significant disadvantage. Moreover, ethnic Han continues to hold top CCP positions in nearly all counties and prefectures making it difficult for Tibetans to voice grievances and participate in policy decision makings. Resettlement programs are taking place at fast pace thus uprooting and disrupting traditional Tibetan ways of life in the name of progress. The displacements occur without compensation and without the consent of those affected. Affordable medical care simply does not exist. This lack of affordable health care is particularly problematic outside of Tibets main cities. As with all other matters of human development, the situation for people with disabilities outside of the urban centers is far worse than for those who live in the cities. The PRC, ever mindful of presenting a positive image of its occupation of Tibet to outside visitors, focuses its resources and attention on the cities that attract the most tourists. Tibets predominantly rural population is therefore excluded from the majority of the PRCs social service efforts.

Conclusion
The development projects does not have direct benefit to the Tibetans as the economic growth is ethnically exclusionary. In calculated and deliberate allocation of resources, the Chinese administrators in Tibet award most contracts to out-of-province state-owned enterprises rather than locally owned and operated businesses. The state gives high value to development projects involving resource extractions rather than the development of human capacity. The United Nations Human Development Report list Tibets human development index at the bottom of all of the PRCs provinces. Illiteracy rate 101

Endnotes
1

UN Declaration on the Right to Development, adopted by the UN General Assembly on 4 December 1996, text available at http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/74.htm(Last accessed on June 16, 2009). The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights was ratified by the PRC in 2001. Amongst the many safeguards contained within the Covenant, there are provisions relating specifically to development. For example, Article 6 protects the right to work, and Article 11 protects [t]he right of everyone to an adequate standard of living . . . including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions. Text available at http:// www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/a_cescr.htm (Last accessed 18 June 2009) All nationalities in the Peoples Republic of China are equal. The state protects the lawful rights and

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009


interests of the minority nationalities and upholds and develops the relationship of equality, unity and mutual assistance among all of Chinas nationalities. Discrimination against and oppression of any nationality are prohibited; any acts that undermine the unity of the nationalities or instigate their secession are prohibited. The state helps the areas inhabited by minority nationalities speed up their economic and cultural development in accordance with the peculiarities and needs of the different minority nationalities. Regional autonomy is practised in areas where people of minority nationalities live in compact communities; in these areas organs of selfgovernment are established for the exercise of the right of autonomy. All the national autonomous areas are inalienable parts of the Peoples Republic of China. The people of all nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages, and to preserve or reform their own ways and customs. (emphasis added) For a translation in English, please see http:// english.peopledaily.com.cnconstitutionconstitution.html (Last accessed 16 June 2009) Article 2(1), UN Declaration on the Right to Development, states: The human person is the central subject of development and should be the active participant and beneficiary of the right to development. Available at http:// www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/74.htm (Last accessed on June 16, 2009) United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report: China 2007/08 , page 2, released 17 November 2008, available at http://www.un.org.cn/cms/p/ resources/30/877/content.html (Last accessed 10 June 2009). Id. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report: China 2007/08 , page 3, released 17 November 2008, available at http://www.un.org.cn/cms/p/ resources/30/877/content.html (Last accessed 10 June 2009) The life expectancy index, education index, and the GDP index are all calculated using separate formulae. Please see the UN Development Projects Human Development Reports website for examples and an explanation of the calculations used to determine each component of a countrys HDI. Website: http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/data/calculator/ (Last accessed on June 18, 2009) United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report: China 2007/08 , page 139, released 17 November 2008, available at http://www.un.org.cn/cms/p/ resources/30/877/content.html (Last accessed 10 June 2009) Note: The analysis in this section is based largely upon this 2007 2008 report. The Human Development Report: China 2009 is scheduled for release later this year, and any change in statistical measures will necessarily affect the analysis and conclusions contained within this report. There are conflicting reports regarding the exact amount the PRC allocates for development in Tibet, but sources indicate such spending reached a minimum of 60 billion Yuan last year and is estimated to be increasing 12 percent annually. China Tibet News, Central governments investment in Tibet grows year after year, released 24 March 2009, available at http:// english.chinatibetnews.com/news/Acheivements/2009-03/24/ content_219312.htm (Last accessed 24 June 2009) 11 China Daily, China publishes report on Tibet Development , released 30 March 2009, available at http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/ china/2009-03/30/content_7629540.htm (Last accessed 29 June 2009) Ben Hillman, Rethinking Chinas Tibet Policy, featured in The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus, released following the protests of March 2008, available at http:// www.japanfocus.org/-Ben-Hillman/2773 (Last accessed 15 June 2009) China Tibetology Research Center, Report on the Economic and Social Development of Tibet, released 30 March 2009, full text available from Peoples Daily Online at http:// english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90785/6625577.html (Last accessed 25 June 2009) The China National Peoples Congress recently released a statement specifying that as of 2007, [t]he region planned 180 projects with a total investment of 77 billion Yuan. The National Peoples Congress of the Peoples Republic of China, Facts and Figures of Tibetan Development, released 18 March 2009, available at http:// www.npc.gov.cnenglishnpcSpecial_NPC_Delegation2009-03/ 18/content_1493953_2.htm (Last accessed 12 July 2009) Andrew Martin Fischer, Perversities of Extreme Dependence and Unequal Growth in the TAR, page 3, released 25 August 2007 as Tibet Watch Special Report August 2007, available a t h t t p : / / w w w. t i b e t . c a / e n / n e w s r o o m / w t n / archiveold?y=2007&m=8&p=25_2 or in Portable Document Format at ir.iss.nl/ eserv.php?pid=iss:90&dsID=TibetWatch.pdf (Last accessed 15 June 2009) Id. Andrew Martin Fischer, Urban Fault Lines in Shangri-La: Population and Economic Foundations of Inter-Ethnic Conflict in the Tibetan Areas of Western China, released in June 2004 by Crisis States Programme, available at http://www.crisisstates.comPublicationspublications.htm or in Portable Document Format at ir.iss.nl/ view.php?pid=iss:93 (Last accessed 15 June 2009) Please see the photographic evidence contained in the Tibetan Centre for Human Rights Briefing Paper for Travelers to Tibet 2009, available at http://www.tchrd.org/publications/ topical_reports/ (Last accessed 8 July 2009). Ben Hillman, Rethinking Chinas Tibet Policy , featured in The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus, released following the protests of March 2008, available at http:// www.japanfocus.org/-Ben-Hillman/2773 (Last accessed 15 June 2009) Tibet News Digest, China approves modern redesign of Lhasa, released 17 March 2009, available at http:// www.tibetinfonet.net/content/news/10973 (Last accessed 30 June 2009) Interview with Gonpo Tsephel at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009

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Andrew Martin Fischer, Perversities of Extreme Dependence and Unequal Growth in the TAR, page 10, released 25 August 2007 as Tibet Watch Special Report August 2007, available at http:// www.tibet.caennewsroomwtnarchiveold? or in Portable Document Format at ir.iss.nl/ eserv.php?pid=iss:90&dsID=TibetWatch.pdf (Last accessed 15 June 2009). While this report is from 2005, further research revealed no indication that the allocation of development dollars has shifted substantially. Chinese Governments Official Web Portal, President Hu stresses stability in Tibet, released 9 March 2009, available at http:// english.gov.cn/2009-03/09/content_1255162.htm , (Last accessed 18 June 2009) The Free Dictionary provides the following on-line definition of sinicize: To make Chinese in character or to change or modify by Chinese influence. Available at http:// www.thefreedictionary.com/Sinicization (Last accessed 15 July 2009) United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report: China 2007/08, page 30, released 17 November 2008, available at http://www.un.org.cn/cms/p/ resources/30/877content.html (Last accessed 10 June 2009) United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report: China 2007/08 , page 140, released 17 November 2008, available at http://www.un.org.cn/cms/p/ resources/30/877/content.html (Last accessed 10 June 2009) International Campaign for Tibet, Tracking the Steel Dragon, page 28, released 20 February 2008, available at http:// www.savetibet.org/documents/reports/tracking-steel-dragon (Last accessed 8 July 2009) China Tibet News, Tibets education investment reaches 22 billion since Chinas reform, released 29 December 2008, available at http://english.chinatibetnews.com/news/Education/2008-12/ 29/content_188322.htm (last accessed 30 June 2009) Article 23, Universal Declaration of Human Rights The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of just and favourable conditions of work which ensure, in particular: (a) Remuneration which provides all workers, as a minimum, with: (i) Fair wages and equal remuneration for work of equal value without distinction of any kind, in particular women being guaranteed conditions of work not inferior to those enjoyed by men, with equal pay for equal work; Available at http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/ b/a_cescr.htm (Last accessed 10 June 2009) As a nation founded on the principles of socialism, the Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China is infused with language celebrating the importance of the working class. Xinhua, Report: Tibetan population grows fast, language education stressed, released 1 April 2009, available at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-04/01/ content_11112488.htm (Last accessed 12 June 2009) U.S. Department of State, 2008 Human Rights Report: China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau), released 25 February 2009, available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2008/ eap/119037.htm (Last accessed 16 June 2009) Andrew Martin Fischer, Urban Fault Lines in Shangri-La:

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Population and Economic Foundations of Inter-Ethnic Conflict in the Tibetan Areas of Western China, page 21, released in June 2004 by Crisis States Programme, available at http:// www.crisisstates.com/Publications/publications.htm or in Portable Document Format at ir.iss.nl view.php?pid=iss:93 (Last accessed 15 June 2009) Andrew Martin Fischer, Urban Fault Lines in Shangri-La: Population and Economic Foundations of Inter-Ethnic Conflict in the Tibetan Areas of Western China, page 22, released in June 2004 by Crisis States Programme, available at http:// www.crisisstates.comPublicationspublications.htm or in Portable Document Format at ir.iss.nl view.php?pid=iss:93 (Last accessed 15 June 2009) As pointed out by Andrew Martin Fisher, logically, Chinese migrant workers would return home were they in gainful employment in Tibet. Urban Fault Lines in Shangri-La: Population and Economic Foundations of Inter-Ethnic Conflict in the Tibetan Areas of Western China, page 22, released in June 2004 by Crisis States Programme, available at http://www.crisisstates.comPublicationspublications.htm or in Portable Document Format at ir.iss.nl/ view.php?pid=iss:93 (Last accessed 15 June 2009) U.S. Department of State, 2008 Human Rights Report: China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau), released 25 February 2009, available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2008/ eap/119037.htm (Last accessed 16 June 2009) Interview with Anonymous at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, India, 20 June 2009 Please see the photographic evidence contained in the Tibetan Centre for Human Rights Briefing Paper for Travelers to Tibet 2009, available at http://www.tchrd.org/publications/ topical_reports/ (Last accessed 8 July 2009). Interview with Ngawang at the Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 International Campaign for Tibet, Tracking the Steel Dragon, page 60, released 20 February 2008, available at http:// www.savetibet.org/documents/reports/tracking-steel-dragon (Last accessed 8 July 2009) The following explanation of guanxi is provided by Academic dictionaries and encyclopedias, available on-line at http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/31370 (Last accessed 1 July 2009) Definition of Guanxi: Gunxi describes the basic dynamic in the complex nature of personalized networks of influence and social relationships, and is a central concept in Chinese society . . . At its most basic, gunxi describes a personal connection between two people in which one is able to prevail upon another to perform a favor or service, or be prevailed upon. The two people need not to be of equal social status. Gunxi can also be used to describe a network of contacts, which an individual can call upon when something needs to be done, and through which he or she can exert influence on behalf of another. In addition, gunxi can describe a state of general understanding between two people: he/she is aware of my wants/needs and will take them into account when deciding her/his course of future actions which concern or could concern me without any specific discussion

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or request. China Tibet Information Center, Tibet registers 4.3% for unemployment rate in past five years, released 9 April 2008, available at http:// eng.tibet.cnnewstoday20080t20080409_375704.htm (Last accessed 22 July 2009) Interview with Anonymous at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, India, 20 June 2009 United Nations Development Programme, Tibet Development and Poverty Alleviation Programme, page 5, released 2006, Project Document available at http://www.undp.org.cn/ map.php?province=Tibet (Last accessed 12 June 2009) The China Tibetology Research Center, Report on the Economic and Social Development of Tibet, page 6, released 30 March 2009, full text available from Xinhua Net at http:/ /news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/30/ content_11098770.htm (Last accessed 25 June 2009) U.S. Department of State, 2008 Human Rights Report: China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau), released 25 February 2009, available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2008/ eap/119037.htm (Last accessed 16 June 2009) Andrew Martin Fischer, Perversities of Extreme Dependence and Unequal Growth in the TAR, page 13, released 25 August 2007 as Tibet Watch Special Report August 2007, available at h t t p : / / www.tibet.caennewsroomwtnarchiveold?y=2007&m=8&p=25_2 or in Portable Document Format at ir.iss.nl/ eserv.php?pid=iss:90&dsID=TibetWatch.pdf (Last accessed 15 June 2009) Interview with Anonymous at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, India, 20 June 2009 Interview with Tsewang Dhondup at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, India, 20 June 2009. Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracys publication, Briefing Paper for Travelers to Tibet 2009 , available at http://www.tchrd.org/publications/topical_reports/ (Last accessed 8 July 2009). Freedom House, The Worst of the Worst 2009 - Tibet [China], released 3 June 2009, available at http:// www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4a38a665c.html (Last accessed 13 July 2009) Interview with Gonpo Tsephel at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Interview with Ngawang at the Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 For a particularly compelling story describing the Nail House phenomenon and one Han Chinese familys battle against resettlement, please see the BBC article, Woman Defies Chinese Developers, released 23 March 2007, available at http:// news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6483997.stm (Last accessed 20 July 2009) Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides Everyone has the right to . . . housing. The PRC voted in favor of adopting the Declaration in 1948. Please see the United Nations Yearbook Summary for 1948, available at http://www.udhr.org/history/yearbook.htm (Last accessed 18 June 2009). The full text of the Declaration is available at http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/ (Last accessed 18 June 2009) Article 8 of the Declaration on the Right to Development provides States should undertake, at the national level, all necessary measures for the realization of the right to development and shall ensure, inter alia, equality of opportunity for all in their access to basic resources, [such as] housing. Article 1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights provides All peoples have the right of self-determination. A report released by Human Rights Watch and cited in Interview with Ngawamg at the Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 Phayul, China relocates over 300,000 Tibetans in 2008: Report, released 27 December 2009, available at http:// www.phayul.com/news/ (Last accessed 15 July 2009) Tim Johnson, McClatchy Newspapers, China orders resettlement of thousands of Tibetans, released 3 May 2007, available at http://www.mcclatchydc.com/117/story/16232.html (Last accessed 15 July 2009) Interview with Ngawang at the Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 Observers say the massive mass relocation is linked to Beijings effort, launched in 1999, to develop Chinas poor, restive west and bind it to the bustling east. Since then, human rights groups say, China has also been forcing nomadic Tibetan herders to settle in towns to clear land for development, while leaving many unable to earn living . . . In doing so, these Tibetan nomads have been forced to abandon their traditional lifestyles with many driven to frustration and despair, unable to cope up with the pressures of earning their livelihood through means alien to their traditions and upbringing. Also resettlement often involve the slaughter of animals belonging to the mostly nomadic herders, relocation to poorly built accommodation and inability to find work due to lack of skills, US-based Human Rights Watch (HRW) saidinits June 2007 report. Others are forcibly evicted to make room for public works projects, like dams and roads, the group said in the report. Phayul, China relocates over 300,000 Tibetans in 2008: Report, released 27 December 2009 Interview with Tsultrim Gyaltso at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Interview with Palden at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 His Holiness the Dalai Lama described his fear of a cultural genocide occurring in Tibet during a press conference addressing the PRCs violent crackdown following the March 2008 protests: Whether the (Chinese) government there admits or not, there is a problem. There is an ancient cultural heritage that is facing serious danger. Whether intentionally or unintentionally, some kind of cultural genocide is taking place.The Telegraph, Dalai Lama condemns Chinas cultural genocide of Tibet, released 16 March 2008, available at http:/ /www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1581875/DalaiLama-condemns-Chinas-cultural-genocide-of-Tibet.html

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(Last accessed 15 July 2009) Interview with Ngawang at the Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 The right to housing is protected in Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as Article 8 of the Declaration on the Right to Development Article 12, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Article 9, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Article 21, Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China Article 45, Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China The China Tibetology Research Center recently published its Report on the Economic and Social Development of Tibet, claiming: In cities and towns residents have personal medical insurance accounts with the individual contributing a certain percentage of his/her monthly salary to the account and his/ her employer contributing some more depending on the individuals share. In farming and pastoral areas people enjoy free medical care. Report released 30 March 2009, full text available from Xinhua Net at http://news.xinhuanet.com/ english/2009-03/30 content_11098770.htm (Last accessed 25 June 2009) Interview with Sonam Tenzin at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, India, 20 June 2009. Tsultrim Gyaltso made the following statement to TCHRDduring his interview at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009: When the nomads get sick they go to traditional Tibetan doctors. If they dont recover, they have to go to the hospital in larger cities, but its not free. Interview with Tenzin Choetso at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 To enable persons with disabilities to live independently and participate fully in all aspects of life, States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure to persons with disabilities access, on an equal basis with others, to the physical environment, to transportation, to information and communications, including information and communications technologies and systems, and to other facilities and services open or provided to the public, both in urban and in rural areas. Full text available at http:// www.un.org/disabilities/convention/conventionfull.shtml (Last accessed 14 July 2009) Article 19, Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, provides: States Parties to this Convention recognize the equal right of all persons with disabilities to live in the community, with choices equal to others, and shall take effective and appropriate measures to facilitate full enjoyment by persons with disabilities of this right and their full inclusion and participation in the community, including by ensuring that: a. Persons with disabilities have the opportunity to choose their place of residence and where and with whom they live on an equal basis with others and are not obliged to live in a particular living arrangement; b. Persons with disabilities have access to a range of in-home, residential and other community support services, including

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personal assistance necessary to support living and inclusion in the community, and to prevent isolation or segregation from the community; c. Community services and facilities for the general population are available on an equal basis to persons with disabilities and are responsive to their needs. Full text available at h t t p : / / w w w. u n . o r g / d i s a b i l i t i e s / c o n v e n t i o n / conventionfull.shtml (Last accessed 14 July 2009) Article 24, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Please see the Education chapter of this report for further discussion of issues pertaining specifically to the education of children with disabilities in Tibet. Article 25, Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities Article 27, Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities China ratified this Convention on 1 August 2008, according to the UN Treaty Collection, available at http:// t r e a t i e s . u n . o r g / P a g e s / V i e w D e t a i l s . a s p x ? s r c = T R E AT Y & m t d s g _ n o = I V3&chapter=4&lang=en (Last accessed 9 July 2009) Article 45, Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China Xinhua, 60,000 disabled people in Tibet benefit from rehabilitation services in past five years, released 9 September 2008, available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-09/09/ content_9877905.htm (Last accessed 14 July 2009) China Tibet News, Blessing Tibet: Disabled also Able,released 6 July 2009, available at http://english.chinatibetnews.com/ news/2009-07/06/content_268049.htm (Last accessed 14 July 2009) Xinhua, 60,000 disabled people in Tibet benefit from rehabilitation services in past five years, released 9 September 2008, available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/200809/09/content_9877905.htm (Last accessed 14 July 2009) Interview with Tenzin Choetso at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Interview with Tenzin Sango at the Tibetan Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 Interview with Sonam Lhamo at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Xinhua, China invests 953 min Yuan for safe drinking water, released 27 January 2009, available at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-01/27/ content_10724605.htm (Last accessed 20 July 2009) Xinhua, Tibets Xigaze Prefecture provides drinking water to 30,000 people, released 16 April 2009, available at http:// news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-04/16/ content_11195226.htm (Last accessed 20 July 2009) Interview with Sonam Tenzin at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, 20 June 2009 Interview with Tsewang Dhondup at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, 20 June 2009 Xinhua, Full Text: Report on the Economic and Social Development of Tibet, page 13, released 30 March 2009, available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/30/ content_11098770.htm (Last accessed 25 June 2009)

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For an in-depth analysis of the environmental consequences of the railway, please see Chinas Train, Tibets Tragedy,published by The Environment and Development Desk of the Department of Information and International Relations, Central Tibetan Authority, released in 2009 Central Tibetan Administration, Environmental and Development Desk, DIIR, TIBET: A Human Development and Environment Report, page 159, Dharamsala, India, 2007 Interview with Ngawang and Topjor at the Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 For an analogous case study detailing the plight of the Uyghur population in East Turkistan following the construction of the Lanzhou-Urumqi railway line, please see Railways as Imperial Tools of Control, contained in Chinas Train, Tibets Tragedy, published by The Environment and Development Desk of the Department of Information and International Relations, Central Tibetan Authority, released in 2009. International Campaign for Tibet, Tracking the Steel Dragon, page 26, released 20 February 2008, available at http:// www.savetibet.org/documents/reports/tracking-steel-dragon (Last accessed 8 July 2009) For example, the Yulong Copper Mine, located in Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture, is said to be largest mines in all of China. Dorothy Kosich, Mineweb, Chinas largest copper mine Yulong begins production next month, released 18 August 2008, available at http://www.mineweb.com/mineweb/view/ mineweb/en/page36?oid=59990&sn=Detail (Last accessed 8 July 2009). It reportedly went into operation in September 2008, despite deep concerns expressed by the Central Tibetan Administration, regarding the environmental and social implications of the project on the Tibetan plateau and its people. Tibet Environmental Watch, Yulong Copper Mine in Tibet to be operational, released 22 August 2008, available at http://www.tew.org/archived/yulong.mine.html (Last accessed 8 July 2009) For a comprehensive list of known mineral deposits in Tibet, please see the Central Tibetan Administration publication, TIBET: A Human Development and Environment Report, Table 6.2, page 158, Environmental and Development Desk, DIIR, Dharamsala, India, 2007 The resource curse concept and its application to Tibet has been described thusly: Around the world, resource curse has become a concept that identifies the paradox of wealth in resources translating into poverty of the people. The more resources are extracted, the poorer the people get, usually because the national elite is corrupted by all the wealth generated in one concentrated place, and manages to capture the stream of wealth produced by the mines, for their private consumption. The elite, in distant national capitals far from the mines, are no longer accountable to the poor of the mining districts, and instead are beholden only to the mining companies that produce the gold to be split between them, excluding the populace.In Tibet, the resource curse has certain Chinese characteristics. The outcome is familiar: the impoverishment of local communities and the enrichment of a distant elite. In China this is achieved through legal monopolies and centralized ownership of resources and of

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mining companies, in a planned economy designed to keep raw materials prices low and profitability of smelters and manufacturers far from Tibet high. Gabriel Lafitte, Special Edition on Mining in Tibet Part II,Tibet Environmental Watch, Editorial and Op Ed Articles, available at http://www.tew.org/ editorial-oped/trin-gyi-pho-nya/1007.html#4-2 (Last accessed 24 July 2009) Interview with Dawa Sangmo at the Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 Interview with Ngawang at the Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 Radio Free Asia, Mine Standoff Said Resolved, released 27 May 2009, available at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/ tibet/standoffresolved-05272009175822.html (Last accessed 12 June 2009) Tibet Info Digest, Mine Standoff Resolved, released 8 June 2009, available at http://www.tibetinfonet.net/content/news/ 11045 (Last accessed 29 June 2009) Central Tibetan Administration, Environmental and Development Desk, DIIR, TIBET: A Human Development and Environment Report, page 158, Dharamsala, India, 2007 Recently, the Canadian company Continental Minerals was reportedly awaiting final approval to open the Shetongmon copper mine in the Shigaste area of Tibet. Tibet News Digest, Shetongmon copper mine awaiting final go-ahead, released 12 November 2008, available at http://www.tibetinfonet.net/ content/news/10874 (Last accessed 29 June 2009) The Canada Tibet Committee has expressed severe concern regarding the environmental and human impact of this mine. Canada Tibet Committee slams Continental Minerals over Tibet mine , released 23 June 2009, available at http://www.tibet.ca/ en/newsroom/news_releases/171 (Last accessed 29 June 2009) There are reports that the PRC has plans to build more than 750 dams across Tibet. Malcolm Moore, The Telegraph UK, China plans dams across Tibet, released 14 October 2008, available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/ tibet/3193790/China-plans-dams-across-Tibet.html (Last accessed 12 June 2009) Jim Yardley, The New York Times, Choking on Growth, Part IV, disseminated by International Rivers, Chinese Dam Projects Criticized for Their Human Cost, released 19 November 2007, available at http://internationalrivers.org/en/node/2758 (Last accessed 20 June 2009) Interview with Jamyang Nyima at the Tibetan Childrens Village School, Suja/Bir, India, 23 June 2009 Interview with Ngawang at the Transit School in Dharamsala, India, 22 June 2009 NVO Bureau, Tibetans wounded in Protests against Chinas Hydroelectric Dam Project, released 26 May 2009, available at http://nvonews.com/2009/05/26/tibetans-wounded-protests/ (Last accessed 12 June 2009) Jim Yardley, The New York Times, Choking on Growth, Part IV,disseminated by International Rivers, Chinese Dam Projects Criticized for Their Human Cost, released 19 November 2007, available at http://internationalrivers.org/en/node/2758

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(Last accessed 20 June 2009) Tibetan Review, China suspends two hydropower dams pending environmental clearance, released 13 June 2009, available at h t t p : / / www.tibetanreview.netnews.php?showfooter=1&id=3545 (Last accessed 17 June 2009) U.S. Department of State, 2008 Human Rights Report: China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau), released 25 February 2009, available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2008/ eap/119037.htm (Last accessed 16 June 2009) Ben Hillman, Rethinking Chinas Tibet Policy, featured in The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus, released following the protests of March 2008, available at http://www.japanfocus.org/Ben-Hillman/2773 (Last accessed 15 June 2009) Interview with Tsewang Dhondup at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, 20 June 2009 Interview with Tsewang Dhondup at the Tibetan Reception Center in McLeod Ganj, 20 June 2009.

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RELIGIOUS FREEDOM
INTRODUCTION
The year 2009 has been marked by a visible rise of intense religious repression in Tibet. The year will also go down as one of the worst years of State intervention in the sacred affairs of the Tibetan people, which continue to be legally guaranteed under Chinas domestic and international laws yet remains grossly violated. This annual report is to assist human rights defenders, United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) and hosts of vital organs of the UN, civil societies and NGOs in their continuing effort to monitor, press and criticize the Chinese government in restoring the human rights of the Tibetan people, particularly their religious freedom. It gives a brief overview of how the Tibetan Buddhism has permeated the socio-politico-religious fabric of the Tibetan civilization over the last many centuries. It investigates how Tibetan Buddhism is the identity of Tibetan people, which cannot be altered by external forces of law, policies and other artificial human constructions. The report argues how definition, re-definition and interpretation of the sacred philosophy of Buddhist faith is not in the hands of outside forces or governments but left entirely in the hands of practitioners and devotees of the Buddhist Doctrine. The report highlights and deconstructs the so-called implementing measures, rules and regulations that had been externally created by the Chinese government to legitimize their regulation of religious institutions and their sovereign affairs. In doing so, TCHRD managed to obtain a few confidential documents concerning the Chinese government policies on religion and how they are currently implemented in Tibet, backed up by first hand testimonial accounts of refugee escapees who had been the victims of Chinas religious persecution inside Tibet. The report also looks at the genesis of the Communist Party policies towards Tibetan Buddhism since 1950 till now and how these policies are responsible for the deplorable state of religious violations in Tibet. The report also assesses the impact of regulation of monastic institutions and its consequences on monks and nuns, particularly the quality of religious education and the break down of the oral transmission of religious knowledge from senior monks to junior monks. In that sense, it looks at the denial of religious education or the unavailability of religious education inside Tibet due to decades of stringent control on religious affairs and its spiritual culture by the Communist Party of China. The report traces Chinas political campaign against the Dalai Lama and its reprisals on the ordinary Tibetan monks and nuns, who by virtue of their faith are the victims of Chinas growing imperial expansionism and her quest for global super power status.

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Finally, this report is an effort to tell the tale of religious persecution in Tibet from the very words of victims, through their poignant testimonies, their spirit of resilience, and to draw the support of the international community to act and end the deplorable condition of human rights situation in Tibet. Only then the universal rights of the Tibetan people and their human dignity will be restored.

Chenrezig, the patron deity of Tibet, so richly defined and narrated in the Tibetan Buddhist hagiographies throughout the last one thousand and five hundred years. This religious teacher and political head of State to whom Tibetans attribute god like qualities is His Holiness Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet, the thorn in Chinas dubious imperial expansionist rule over Tibet for the last fifty years ever since the entry of Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) into Tibet on 7 August 1950. In the light of this, Tibetan Buddhism is not simply a religion of the Tibetan people. For centuries, Tibetan national and cultural identity has merged into their religious identity to the extent that Buddhism continues influence the life of all Tibetans. It is estimated that there were over 6,000 monasteries throughout the country, accommodating around 600,000 monks and nuns before the Chinese invasion of Tibet. After the end of the frenzy Cultural Revolution in 1978, only 13 monasteries survived, and most monks and nuns had either died, of natural or unnatural causes, or had been forced to disrobe at some point by the Chinese authorities. Throughout centuries, Tibet and China had complex historical ties of invasions and long periods of no mutual diplomatic ties. It all began in 7th Century when Tibets 33rd emperor Songtsen Gampo established a strong Tibetan empire and his successors annexed and invaded a large chunk of territory from the Chinese kingdom. However, by the end of 10th Century, Tibets military power and conquests waned following the spread of Buddhism from India, which turned the militant Tibetan empire into a pacifist, dharma-loving country. Tibets complex relationship with China began in 1253 when a Tibetan priest and scholar, Phagspa, visited Kublai Khan. Kublai Khan made Phagspa as his spiritual guide and later appointed him to the rank of priest king of Tibet and made him the ruler of

Chinas Policies on Religion: An Overview


Buddhism, Tibetan Identity and Nationhood Tibetan Buddhism occupies a unique place in the civilization of the Tibetan plateau, an area almost the size of Western Europe. It is not merely a faith or religion but a driving force of Tibetan thinking, way of life, identity, philosophy, shaper of its history and identity of its political independence and sovereignty throughout its history. Not only were its preceptors and religious pontiffs of different sects at different points of times in history its supreme leaders and helmsman but it continues to be so to this day. Even the lesser-known religious figures play a highly important role in the traditional structure of Tibetan society. He is the Tibetan peoples immediate teacher, guide, confidant and prophet and also their legal council in disputes and so on. Tibetans typically describe their local Tibetan spiritual leader as tsa-wai lama (the root teacher and guru) who often looks after the well being of entire village or community. The Tibetan religious figures throughout centuries with their compassion, spiritual prowess, exemplary spiritual penance, practice and exalted spiritual feats have commanded and won the respect, trust and loyalty of Tibetan people, so much so that in many regions of Tibet there are places that derive their names from the monastery built around the charismatic religious figures. The greatest amongst all are the successive lineages of the Dalai Lamas, who have earned unprecedented faith and loyalty in the religious-political sphere of the Tibetan world, believed by the entire Tibetan people as the emanation of Buddha of Compassion,

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entire Tibet. However, unlike Tibet, China fell under direct Mongol rule for next several hundred years until it gained its independence from Mongol Khans in 1386. After the decline of Mongol Khans, China was ruled by the Ming dynasty for the next three hundred years. During this period, both Tibet and China had formal diplomatic ties on equal basis. Both Tibet and China had meaningful priest-patron relationship. In 1641, the Manchurian king invaded China, which saw the end of the Ming dynasty. The Manchurian dynasty was later to be known as Qing or Manchu dynasty of China. After gaining total control over China, it continued with the old priestpatron relationship with Tibet. Manchu or Qing dynasty led several military expeditions into Tibet to exert its influence when Tibet saw many infightings and instability during the same period. In 1727, Manchu emperor stationed the first imperial resident in Lhasa, with the task of working as intermediary between the Manchu emperor and Tibetan rulers. The representative was known as Amban, which means high official and he commanded 2000 troops. The Manchu emperors used Ambans to influence and interfere in the internal politics of Tibet and were part of a number of political intrigues in Tibet. With the fall of Manchu dynasty in 1912, Ambans and its troops were expelled from Tibet. In 1912, Tibet declared its independence and embarked on a modernization drive initiated by the charismatic thirteenth Dalai Lama but was not entirely successful. The traditional conservatives and the powerful ecclesiastical community reversed the modernization drive after the death of the thirteenth Dalai Lama. During the period between 1912-1949 Tibet was an independent country with no threats made to its political sovereignty from its powerful neighbors, the British colonial India and China. Under the leadership of the thirteenth Dalai Lama,

diplomatic relations were established with many countries, particularly with Britain and Russia. During that time, one of the earliest westerners to have a direct and intimate interaction with Tibetans was Sir Charles Bell, the British Political Officer of Sikkim. In his book on the Great Thirteenth Dalai Lama, he has observed about the indivisible and inseparable bond between Buddhism and Tibetan society. Incredible though it may seem to modern secularized Westerners, almost one quarter of Tibetan males were celibate monks. In fact, the most significant thing about the Tibetans, that which set them apart from other peoples, was the way the Buddhist religion permeated their entire lives. It is impossible to exaggerate this factor, impossible to understand the Tibetans if its importance is not appreciated, Religion was not something reserved for one particular day of the week or for the ceremonies of birth, marriage and death; it was fundamental of their very existence, as necessary to them as breathing. By some standards it could be said that the people of Tibet had barely emerged from the Middle Ages, for they were superstitious, set great store by fortune-telling and horoscopes, and believed in a bewildering array of spirits and demons. They were unable to make even the smallest decision without consulting omens. As Heinrich Harrier observed: The daily life of Tibetans is ordered by religious belief, pious texts are constantly on their lips; prayer-wheels turn without ceasing; prayer-flags wave on the roofs of house and the summits of the mountain passes; the rain, the wind, all the phenomena of nature, the lonely peaks of the snow-clad mountains, bear witness to the universal presence of the gods whose anger is manifested by the hailstorm

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and whose benevolence is displayed by the fruitfulness and fertility of the land. The life of the people is regulated by the divine will, whose interpreters the lamas are. Before anything is undertaken, they must test the omens, the gods must be unceasingly entreated, placated or thanked. What the Tibetans lacked in sophistication, they more than made up for in religious awareness. Every town or village throughout Tibet had its own religious centre, from remote caves and hermitages to monasteries the size of towns. The average village consisted of a monastery - the focal point of community life - with a few peasants houses and a market clustering at its foot. Every house, large or small, had its own domestic altar stacked with devotional pictures and sacred objects, Even the nomads erected shrines, sometimes just in one corner of their tent, but often setting aside a complete tent for the purpose. All over the country were countless small monuments (Tibetans: chorten/Sanskrit: stupa) containing sacred relics associated with holy men of the past. And from every rooftop fluttered strings of prayer-flags. Some monasteries, such as the famous Big Three of Lhasa housing several thousand monks. It was these monks who preserved the artistic and literary heritage of the land, who absorbed the vast medical knowledge of their ancestors and were skilled in the understanding and use of herbs. Boys generally entered the monastery at the age of seven, but only these brightest were admitted to the higher learning; and only these would become teachers. The rest became builders, artists, craftsmen, cooks, housekeepers or servants. Though most were sincerely holy, many were there only because 112

their parents had sent them1. Years after Sir Charles Bells departure, Tibet remained a deeply spiritual land on earth where it was the clergy who wielded all powers and ran the affairs of the state. The period after Sir Charles Bells departure saw the death of its charismatic leader, the great Thirteenth Dalai Lama. It was followed by a period of unpopular intra-regent feuds and minor civil war and the discovery of the Fourteenth Dalai Lama. Not long after Mao invaded Tibet in August 7 1950.

Religious Repression in Year 2009


Religion is an institution. And like any institution, it has certain pillars of existence, certain sine qua non aspects that are required for its smooth functioning. Beliefs and practices, symbols, ceremonies, teachings, institutes, sites and faiths are such pillars. Religious freedom encompasses more than just religious belief. Also protected is the right to practice or manifest ones religion2, which means, first, the freedom to worship or assemble in connection with a religion or beliefs34 and to practice ritual and ceremonial acts giving direct expression to belief.5 The freedom to worship includes the freedom to conduct other religious practices that are integral to such worship, meaning the freedom: 1. To establish, build and maintain places for the purposes of worship and religious assembly6; 2. To make, acquire, use and display religious symbols7 and materials related to the rites or customs of a religion8; and, 3. To observe days of rest and to celebrate holidays and ceremonies in accordance with the precepts of ones religion or belief .9 The Commission on Human Rights urged states [t]o exert the utmost efforts . . . to ensure that reli-

Religious Freedom

gious places, sites, shrines and religious expressions are fully respected and protected and to take additional measures in cases where they are vulnerable to desecration or destruction.10 Also included within the freedom to practice ones religion is the freedom to perform acts integral to the conduct by religious groups of their basic affairs11 (1) To train, appoint, elect or designate by succession appropriate leaders12; (2) To teach and establish seminaries or religious schools13; (3) To teach a religion or belief in places suitable for these purposes14; and, (4) To write, issue and disseminate [religious texts and] relevant publications in these areas15.

that has been witnessing in Tibet for sometime now. In 2008 China enforced specific Implementing Measures, first announced on September 19, 2006 by the 11th Standing Committee of the TAR Peoples Government and made effective as of 1 January 2007, as well as the Reincarnation Measures.16 These TAR-specific religious affairs regulations were introduced to implement the Regulations on Religious Affairs (RRA) earlier promulgated by the State Council in March 2005 for all of China except the autonomous regions.17 The Implementing Measures allow the Chinese state to have the control over religious practitioners, reincarnated lamas, religious practice and the places of religious worship. Despite Chinese claims of these being reforms, the measures actually codify and establish an administrative framework for the repressive tools China has used to restrict the practice of Tibetan Buddhism for over a decade.18 Further, the Implementing Measures include a legal framework for the subsequently issued Reincarnation Measures, and together the two codify a comprehensive approach to control the selection, installation and education of reincarnate lamas. International Human Rights law clearly affirms the right to freedom of religious belief and the right to manifest ones religion. The United Nations General Assembly first put forth the principle in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and subsequently the concept was officially codified in the ICCPR. Further, Chinas Constitution purports to protect religious belief, and normal religious practices. However, Chinas real intentions surface through the Implementing Measures. The Measures directly contradict every aspect of religious freedom protected under international law and violates Chinas public promises and statements made in its own Constitution to honor these very freedoms.19

Deconstruting Loop Holes in Chinas socalled Rules and Regulations and Normal Religious Practices
In recent years, the new trend in the persecution of religious freedom and regulation of Tibets religious tradition has been the amendment of strange and bizarre rules and regulations and phrases such as according to the rule of law, thereby legitimizing the blatant violation of religious freedom, as if to indicate that the monks and nuns were arrested or detained on charges of criminal offense. An important agent in this repressive policy has been the government run courts, which conduct kangaroo trials and force the monks and nuns to make confessions under duress or torture. Outsiders, human rights watchdogs, families and relatives of the victims are often denied any access to trials and prosecution in the government run courts. It also makes extremely difficult to defend the victim, those relatives or kin who speak to foreign media or seek foreign assistance would be charged with crimes of leaking of state secrets and endangering state security, putting them in a far more dangerous situation. This is the classic pattern 113

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

The predominant theme evidenced by the Implementing Measures is the connection drawn by the Chinese Communist government between splittism, or threats to the Chinese states national security, social stability and ethnic unity from Tibetan Buddhists religious beliefs and activities. Because of the close link between Tibetan Buddhism and Tibetan culture and national identity, China associates the practice of Tibetan Buddhism as a threat to Chinas state security and thus, nourishes a deep fear of any expression of religion as a cover for revolt or unpatriotic activity. The Chinese Communist state exists in a constant state of paranoia over maintaining its authority and control over the population of the Tibetan territory it has claimed as its own. Lacking legitimate populist support in Tibet due to the autocratic nature of its political authority, the Chinese government requires absolute control over all the activities of the Tibetan population; hence not a single act, which it construes as a threat to its fragile position of power, can be tolerated or sustained and this includes any act of religious freedom. The Chinese Communist Party requires its citizens to love the country - to respect the authority of the Party above all other would-be competing loyalties. TAR Party Secretary, Zhang Qingli, claimed that the Chinese Communist Party is the real Buddha for Tibetans.20 Thus, as seen in the Implementing Measures, China aims to bring a complete halt to all Tibetan nationalism and unlawful religious activities (almost all Tibetan Buddhist religious activities being linked to splittism and therefore deemed unlawful), stamp out the Dalai Lama from the hearts and minds of the Tibetan people, curb his authority, and harness the Tibetans loyalty to the state instead. Unfortunately for China, this type of totalitarian political rule, clamping down on all nature of the Tibetan citizens protected rights, violates well-established norms of international laws enshrined in international agreements with which China has publicly promised to abide by. 114

The Implementing Measures embody fears, beliefs and goals of the Chinese Communist state. By stating its concerns in the form of official governmental measures, in both the former RRA as well as the Implementing Measures, China hopes to legitimize or normalize the curtailment of religious practice to gain better or total control over religious practice and enforce compliance with already existing governmental regulations and policies on religious organizations, personnel and citizens. China claims that by such normalization, a paradigm shift is occurring of limiting state intervention in citizens religious practice and in this way its religious legislation are reforms that will reduce the arbitrariness of Chinas behavior.21 However, in reality, the Implementing Measures are an official statement of Chinas existing, comprehensive practices of religious repression, which blatantly violate all protected aspects of religious freedom under international law. As a consequence of the new Implementing Measures, religious repression in Tibet has dramatically escalated since 2007. The passing of the measures empowers the officials with legal backing to intensify restrictions and subject Tibetan religious organizations, personnel and citizens to increased state control and repression. The Implementing Measures present a stark contrast with Chinas membership of UN Human Rights Council that protects and honors religious freedom. It exposes Chinas double standards in dealing with international norms while ratifying convention on one hand and abusing human rights and religious freedoms on the other hand. For instance, the Implementing Measures use a number of regulatory laws to accomplish its goals. These include: 1. The use of vague and undefined key terms and conditions for acceptable religious practice. The use of undefined terms leaves the discretion over the exact implementation of such approval processes completely in the hands of the Chinese

Religious Freedom

government, without any accountability; they can define them however they want. An example can be found in Article 8, which requires that religious organizations accept supervision and management by the peoples government religious affairs department and civil affairs department in accordance with the law. Also, Articles 17-18 set forth the specific requirement that religious organizations establish management organizations and accept the supervision, inspection and guidance of the relevant departments of the local peoples government. The management organizations themselves are to be elected through democratic consultation. However, the language used in these Articles is entirely vague; there is absolutely no definition of the type of management or supervision required by the government that will be conducted. Similar to Article 8, in Articles 1718 there are no definitions at all given for the nature of supervision, inspection and guidance by the government or for the make-up of the management organizations. Thus, although they are to be elected democratically, it is completely left open as to how many government versus how many religious personnel shall comprise the management organization. This leaves all control in the hands of the peoples government to determine in practical application what the management organizations will look like. Accordingly, for all one knows, they could be required to be comprised of Communist Party members who are democratically elected by people in specific area, so the area can only choose from among the Party-line people. 2. The assertion of patriotism or ethnic unity as a way to curtail Buddhist practices due to Chinas linkage of Tibetan Buddhism to Tibetan nationalism which (China terms splittism). This is specifically played out in the other methods of Chinese repression: the anti-Dalai Lama campaign and the patriotic re-education

campaigns; in the former, any support shown for the Dalai Lama is deemed unpatriotic even though it is religious support in nature; in the latter, any refusal or inability by Buddhist monks and nuns to show sufficient political patriotism to the Chinese state is interpreted as splittism, even though they are in a religious institution. Provisions of the Implementing Measures that exemplify this issue are discussed in detail below in connection with how this aspect of the Implementing Measures violates the international law. 3. The implementation of heightened, or more clearly delineated, multiple layers of bureaucracy. By placing excessive administrative hurdles on religious practice to be feasible, religious freedom is inherently repressed. The Implementing Measures also utilize these types of hurdles in a discriminatory fashion, only against the TAR 4. Explicit restrictions or direct involvement and control by the government on religious sites, activities and personnel. 5. Discrimination against the TAR. There are several provisions where the repression of Tibetan Buddhism is made quite obvious due to the fact that certain measures were passed only for the TAR, but do not exist in the RRA for the rest of China.

Patriotic Education Campaign And Its Pattern


The so-called patriotic education was earlier introduced in 1996 as political and ideological counter attack on the renaissance of Tibetan nationalism and the spirit of self-determination in late 1980s spearheaded by a new generation of Tibetan people since the fall of Tibet in 1959. Tibetans popularly call the pro-independence movements of 1987, 1988, and 1989 as the birth of Tibetan conscience. As a result, the direct or indirect

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contacts between Dharamsala and Beijing collapsed and the Chinese government went back to its old ways of dealing with Tibetan people characterized by repression and silencing of open opposition to its rule. The patriotic education is the byproduct of the repressive 1990s. Over the years of monitoring and research, TCHRD has observed a pattern to patriotic education campaign implemented in Tibet as mentioned below:

Bureau (PSB) is sent to deal with the smaller monasteries and Peoples Armed Police (PAP) to deal with larger monasteries. The targeted monks and nuns would be arrested and detained. At the same time more searches would be conducted in the monastery / nunnery compound for incriminating materials such as flags, political leaflets and photos of the Dalai Lama.

Instituting Regulation And Control:


The higher Chinese authorities would issue orders to conduct the patriotic education campaign in monasteries and nunneries to educate them as to how to be law abiding, good citizens and patriotic people of the great motherland China. This would be followed by the formation of enforcement agency of the Communist Party called Democratic Management Committee (DMC) and its sub wing called work teams. These two vital organizations are formed both at government law enforcement level as well as in monasteries and nunneries. Certain senior monks of the monastery and nunnery would be made members of these two organizations, thus maintaining an absolutely fool proof regulation enforcement body. The senior monks in the monastery and nunnery would have to collaborate and become the insiders, while the local authorities and Chinese security forces would become the outside agents in dealing with rogue monks and nuns. In the case of monk/nun members of the DMC and work teams, they have no choice other than to collaborate and comply with the Chinese authority. If they refuse they risk imprisonment and expulsion from the monastery / nunnery.

Chinese securities forces cordon off the Drepung Monastery

Breaking the silence:


Demanding more freedom from the repressive yoke of Chinas rule Tibetan, the monks and nuns, as keepers of the Tibetan conscience, have been the first ones to break silence on Chinas prolonged periods of repressive environment in religious institutions, particularly its barrage of negative and venomous criticism of the Dalai Lama. They staged many protests inside and outside their monasteries. The contents of the slogans have been calling for pro-independence resolutions and a demand for more freedom. However they were quickly arrested and silenced by the Chinese government.

Raids and Arrests:


As a response to protests and demonstrations, the Chinese security forces conduct mid night raids on monasteries and nunneries. The Public Security 116

Rigorous Enforcement of Patriotic Education Campaign


Once the process of conducting thorough investigation in a monastery or a nunnery is completed, they would be subjected to rigorous and intense

Religious Freedom

patriotic education campaign with far reaching physical and psychological consequences. In early 2000s the first signs of systematic approach to patriotic education campaign emerged with the publication of books and other numerous manuals on patriotic education campaign. The four books on patriotic education are: (a) Book on the opposition to separatism (b) Book on Tibetan History (c) Book on the conducts of the citizens (d) Book on the policies of the government. The monks and nuns had to study these four books and subsequently the DMC would conduct examination on this curriculum. The monks and nuns must pass the examination; failing to do so would land them in serious trouble. The core areas of the campaign are to oppose two principle targets; (1) the Dalai Lama and (2) Separatism or Tibetan nationalism. Under these two areas, the monks and nuns must write and issue verbal denunciation of the Dalai Lama and stamp their feet on photos of the Dalai Lama. In many cases, this exercise of the campaign left deep scars on the minds of the Tibetan people and the brewing of deep-seated hatred and resentment against the Chinese government. In the past monks and nuns who refused to oblige were kept in detention centers and some of them even committed suicide to escape immense psychological pain and suffering. Some in later life developed a deep mental state of disturbances and illness. This part of the campaign had two major consequences on the traditional monastic education: (1) Breakdown of traditional monastic structure and administration (2) Breakdown of traditional monastic education (a) Breakdown of traditional monastic structure and administration: Once the DMC and work teams achieve regulation over monasteries and nunneries, they control each and every aspect of monastic life. The traditional hierarchy according to the knowledge of scriptures and other spiritual scholarships is broken down.

Every one has to abide by the patriotic education. In doing so, the administration of the monastery and the nunnery breaks down, creating confusion, chaos and disorder. (b)Breakdown of traditional monastic education: The traditional Buddhist curriculum has to take backstage once political and ideological education assumes the center stage in a monastery or a nunnery. Under these circumstances the continuation of emphasis on traditional Buddhist learning is lost and, as a result very few monks and nuns only manage to study privately in their residences. In this way the two crucial lines of transmission of knowledge and wisdom i.e. scriptural and oral teachings have ceased. As it has been repeatedly seen in the past, knowledgeable teachers and lamas tend to defect or escape to foreign countries and as for the ordinary monks and nuns, they gradually escape into exile, carrying with them harrowing tales of escape journey and its ordeals.

Ban Imposed on the Admission of New Monks and Nuns:


One aspect of the patriotic education campaign that adversely undermines the existence of Buddhist learning and practice in Tibet is the ban imposed on the admission of monks and nuns below the age of 18. This clever ploy of the Chinese government will have far reaching consequences, since to become a learned monk or nun in the traditional education, he or she has to start the training right at early age. Buddhism, unlike any other spiritual traditions, has a vast corpus of texts, commentaries and treatises on various aspects of inner science. The monks are required to study arts, literature, medicine, philosophy, metaphysics, precepts and vows, meditation and psychology. To become a full-fledged scholar or have a doctorate in Buddhist philosophy, it takes at least 30 years of rigorous and continuous spiritual training and apprenticeship. This time-honored 117

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tradition has produced thousands of illustrious Buddhist scholars and masters in the past and all of them began their spiritual pursuits right in their early age. The present Dalai Lama began his religious education at age of six and so are other religious figures and pontiffs living in exile. In the light of this, the ban will critically affect the religious education and it would be impossible for a monk or nun to undergo full training and study of Buddhist doctrine. There is a subtle thinking and strategy behind this ban. When a young man or a woman reaches the age of 18, in a laity society he or she would have already chosen a secular education or career or other pursuits. It is also the age at which man and woman take up the filial responsibility of running household affairs as a natural choice. In the light of this, the ban effectively puts a final blow on the continuation of monastic tradition and its civilization in Tibet. This has a far sinister design and a consequence too terrifying to contemplate. However, the ingenuity of the Tibetan people comes to their rescue, which allows them to still resist Chinas all out sinister designs on Tibetan cultural and intellectual civilization. Many monasteries and nunneries still defy the ban. Young monks and nuns are still being kept and educated in monasteries and nunneries. When DMC and work teams come to conduct patriotic education campaign and raids, the non-registered monks and nuns (monks and nuns without stay permit) run away and hide in the hills or return to their hometowns. They would later return to the monastery when DMC and work team vacate. Isnt this a denial of the right to monastic education, of freedom to worship and practice freely? What are these legal rules and regulations that give the mandate to these whimsical laws?

tion campaign effectively sabotages and severs the fountain of religious education and hence it adversely affects the morale of monks and nuns who stay in a monastery or a nunnery. In many instances monks and nuns opt to leave the monastery and nunnery. The trends so far have been fleeing Tibet and coming into exile to join the monastery of their sect and receive religious education. Those of religious teachers who remain behind are reduced to shepherds without sheep and the monks and nuns who stay at the monastery and nunnery are reduced to sheep without shepherds. The monasteries or nunneries lose its original image as a learning center and are reduced to mere religious sites and compounds devoid of religious education. In most cases a few monks and nuns remain behind to look after the monasteries or nunneries and attend devotees coming to offer their prayers and so forth.

Ghost Monasteries And Nunneries:


As a result, monasteries and nunneries are reduced to empty columns of structures and residential quarters with an eerie and desolate silence. All that remains of once flourishing centers of learning is nothing more than ghost monasteries and nunneries.

Museum Pieces:
However, old and ancient monasteries and nunneries that have a long history receive another kind of treatment from the Chinese government. These are branded as a Mecca of tourist destinations with a sub text that the freedom of religious belief and worship is protected and respected in Tibet. Chinese government funds are spent and earmarked for their renovation and maintenance. The local Chinese authorities collect revenues from tourism and so forth. No one knows where the income from revenue goes, but it is very certain from many testimonies that revenues are not spent on monastic education. On the other hand monasteries and nunner118

Either Face Repression or Escape:


As it is revealed in many testimonies, the regulation of religious institutions under the patriotic educa-

Religious Freedom

ies have become exotic museum pieces and relics to the outside world and the Chinese tourists. Often a few ordinary Tibetans would go for circumbulation around the monastery or a nunnery and this becomes the Chinas version of religious freedom and beliefs. These images are Chinas propaganda to the outside world that there is religious freedom, freedom of worship and of normal religious belief and normal religious practices.

End Game for China:


For centuries the religious institutions of Tibet had been the custodian of Tibetan cultural civilization. They were the literati, intellectuals, thinkers and shaper of Tibetan history. In short the religious institutions after the fall of Tibet had been the conscience keeper of Tibetan people. With the future demise of Buddhism and its cultural institutions inside Tibet, it will be the end of the conscience and the flame that lighted Tibet for centuries, the end of an opposition to China. It may signal the end of the Tibetan civilization and its unique identity. This is the end game of Chinas policy against the Tibetan people, particularly the monastic community of Tibet. NOTE: The testimonies documented by TCHRD in this annual report on religious repression reflect the aforementioned patterns of the patriotic education campaign.

curtailed in Chinese occupied Tibet. The monastic community has been the prime target of the authoritys crackdown under the pretext to reform monks to achieve the so-called stability in the region. The monastic community has come under repeated attacks through the governments various campaigns to bring them under control and to forge loyalty to the motherland. Hundreds and thousands of Tibetan people especially monks and nuns were tortured in prisons and detention centres for practicing their religion. They were required to denounce their own spiritual guru, to abuse their highly respected lamas and to perform all those acts, which are not permitted under monastic vows and code of conduct, in the name of patriotic education initiated by the Chinese authority. Though suicide is rare among the Tibetan monks and nuns since they consider human life as precious, in order to acquire merits for the next lives and eventually to attain enlightenment. However, under the ongoing persecution of monks and nuns in Tibets religious institutions, they are subjected to extreme psychological trauma and imposition of irreconcilable demands, which eventually force them to commit suicide. The incidences of suicide have been on the rise in Tibets monastic community since the Spring 2008 protests in Tibet. A Tibetan Buddhist believes that suicide is one of the most heinous forms of sins that violate the cardinal precepts of the doctrine. Buddhist monks and nuns are known for their patience and resilience in the face of adversity. The cases of suicides point to an indication of Tibetan monks being pushed to the extreme limits of endurance and helplessness in the face of oppression and repression by the Chinese authorities in Tibet. The monks and nuns are left with no option but to embrace death since the requisites laid down by the Chinese authority are beyond sanity. Sixteen out of the 17 known cases of suicides and two cases of attempt to commit suicide, documented since March 2008, can be attributed to monks and 119

Patriotic Education ducation Persecution under Patriotic Education Campaign


The anti-Dalai campaign and the growing suicides of monks in Tibet The Chinese government has imposed various unacceptable restrictions and conditions on Tibetan monasteries and nunneries in the pursuit of their religious beliefs. Freedom of religion is severely

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

nuns. This pattern is alarming and clearly indicating to the level of religious repression in Tibet. Some of the factors that caused the suicide are 1) psychological trauma during patriotic education campaign 2) heavy crackdown upon the monastic community in the aftermath of pan-Tibet protests beginning from March 2008 and 3) Anti-Dalai Lama campaign. The campaign has earned notoriety in the past for its lethality and adverse psychological traumas on monks and nuns. As a direct counter measure to the spring 2008 pan-Tibet protests, the Chinese authorities immediately unleashed a reinvigorated patriotic reeducation campaign in the monastic community. The monks were further subjected to humiliation and mental agony during the patriotic education sessions. The extreme humiliation and psychological trauma led to the suicides of several monks and nuns. Often heavily armed security forces used to storm monasteries across Tibet to crush the strong voice of freedom by the monks- a standard practice inside Tibet. Monks and nuns were brutally beaten at gunpoint in front of fellow monks to filter out the leaders and initiators of the demonstrations. It has remained the overwhelming trend inside Tibet for the last thirty years that it was the monks and nuns who challenged the draconian rule of the communist government. Hence, it was the Chinese authorities response to launch the patriotic education campaigns in religious institutions to quell and suppress the so-called separatist views. Since the days of the Third Tibet Work Forum held in 1994, the Chinese authorities identified the Dalai Lama as a serpents head and Tibetan nationalism as a snake whose head is the Dalai Lama. The Chinese government has been using a propaganda slogan that, to kill a serpent (Tibetan Issue), one must cut off its head (the Dalai Lama).

Anti-Dalai Lama campaigns were initially implemented in 1996 with monasteries and nunneries as initial targets. Monks and nuns in Tibet are subjected to political indoctrination wherein they have to denounce the Dalai Lama. The campaign later spread into the lay community as well. Of late the Chinese government has been denouncing that the Dalai Lama as a separatist and as the sole instigator behind the spring 2008 protests in Tibet.

Names of the monks who committed suicide


1) Lobsang Jinpa22 committed suicide on 27 March 2008. He was a monk at the Ngaba Kirti Monastery, Ngaba County, Ngaba TAP Sichuan Province. He hailed from Ngasib Village in Amdo Ngaba. In his signed suicide note, Lobsang stated, the Chinese government has leveled false allegations against the monks of Kirti Monastery for leaking State Secrets to the outside world, leading and organizing the protests and for keeping the dead bodies of Tibetan protesters shot dead by the Chinese security forces. However, all the charges leveled by the Chinese government were not committed by anyone in Kirti Monastery, but carried out solely by me. The note further stated, I led the peaceful protest, and I am solely responsible for the protest. The suicide note carried a poignant end line, it reads, I do not want to live under the Chinese oppression even for a minute, leave aside living for a day. 2) Legtsok23, 75 years old, committed suicide on 30 March 2008. He was a monk at the Ngaba Gomang Monastery in Ngaba County, Ngaba TAP, Sichuan Province. Legtsok accompanied by two other monks while on their way to perform prayer rituals at a house of a Tibetan family encountered a large contingent of Chinese security forces heading towards their monastery, Ngaba Gomang Monastery, to quell the protesting monks at the monastery. The forces brutally beat Legtsok and detained him for a few days. Later he was released and sent back to the monastery. 120

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3) Thoesam24, 29 years old, committed suicide on 16 April 2008. He hailed from Mehu-ru-mah Village and was a monk at the Ngaba Kirti Monastery, Ngaba County, Ngaba TAP Sichuan Province. He committed suicide for being unable to bear the pressure and repression that was being imposed by the Chinese govt. 4) Trangma25 committed suicide on 18 June 2008. He was a monk at Drapa Yangden Monastery, Minyag Township, Nyagchuka County, Kardze Tibet Autonomous Prefecture (TAP), Sichuan. During the patriotic reeducation at the monastery, the authorities made the monks denounce the Dalai Lama and perform other sacrileges against Buddhist faith. Unable to bear the circumstances, he cut short his life to escape religious blasphemy and denunciation of his spiritual guru, the Dalai Lama. The deceased monks aged mother and other monks in the monastery were threatened with consequences if they spoke to the outside world about his suicide. As part of the patriotic education campaign the Chinese authorities closed down the school under the monastery with around 30 novice monk students. 5) Thokmey a.k.a Tsangpa Thokmey26 (prefix name used of his origin place) committed suicide on 22 March 2008. He was a monk at the Ramoche Temple in Lhasa. He committed suicide following massive crackdown by the Public Security Bureau (PSB) and Peoples Armed Police (PAP) forces in Ramoche Temple. 6) Namdrok Khakyab27 committed suicide on 19 March 2008. He was a visiting scholar at Samye Monastery from the Dorjee Drak Monastery. He hailed from Nyemo County, Lhasa Municipality, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR). He left behind a suicide note that accused of unbearable suppression by the Chinese authorities and cited innocence of other monks of the monastery and took full responsibility for the demonstrations.

(7) Tashi Sangpo28 committed suicide on 21 March 2009. He was severely subjected to harsh beatings, inhuman torture and long interrogation in a local detention centre since his arrest on 10 March 2009. Extensive torture and interrogation finally took its toll on Tashi Sangpos mental state, which eventually forced him to take his own life by jumping into the Machu River. (8) Tusong29 committed suicide on 16 April 2008. He was a 19-year-old blind monk at Kirti Monastery and originally hailed from a village nearby Ngaba County, Sichuan Province. Reportedly he told his family that just as those with eyes cannot endure what is happening, even I, a blind person, cannot endure it. (9) An unnamed nun30 in her thirties from Cholung nunnery committed suicide on 12 April 2008. She was traumatized by the beatings she received from the armed security forces after a demonstration in Tashigang Township, Meldrogungkar, Lhasa. (10) Three unnamed monks 31 from Dugu Monsatery committed suicide in an act that may have been in protest against the crackdown and subsequent pressure to denounce the Dalai Lama. 11) Lobsang Tsultrim32 committed suicide on 3 July 2008. He was around 16 years old and a monk at the Kirti Dhongri Monastery in Mehu-ru-ma Village, Ngaba County, Sichuan Province. His elder brother testified that Lobsang Tsultrim came home from the monastery and said, the Chinese official work-teams have again arrived at the monastery. They have ordered the monks to assemble for the education. Again, they will not let us stay in peace. With these words, he walked out from the room. After around 15 minutes, when his brother looked for him, he was found strangled with a rope in the nearby storeroom where they kept their firewood.

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12) Shedup33 committed suicide on 2 April 2009. He was around 40 years old and was a monk at a monastery in Rebkong (Ch: Tongren) County, Malho TAP, Qinghai Province. He was first arrested for his alleged role in the protest in Rebkong in March 2008. He was then severely beaten and tortured in custody before being released. However, his name appeared in the wanted list announced by the Public Security Bureau (PSB) around March 2009. Instead of being rearrested, he killed himself to escape humiliation and torture. 13) An unnamed nun , 21 years old, from Choekhor Nunnery committed suicide 12 April 2008. Earlier in the day many monks from Pangsa Monastery, Tashi Gang township, in Balab sub-district; nuns from Choekhor (colloquially known as Choekhook) Nunnery, Sibook Township, and monks from Dhomo Monastery led a peaceful protest also joined by laypeople in Meldro Gungkar County. Numerous monks and laypeople were arrested during the protest. 14) Lobsang Tsomo35, a nun at Chokhor Nunnery, committed suicide on 12 April 2008. She hailed from Meldrogungkar County, Lhasa Municipality. 15) Attempt to Suicide- Two Drepung Monastery monks, Kelsang and Damchoe36, both originally from Kirti Monastery in Sichuan Province, in Drepung Monastery stabbed themselves in the chest, hands, and wrists in an attempt to commit suicide out of desperation amid protests on 12 and 13 March 2008 in the monastery. 16) Attempt to Suicide- Tapey37, a monk at Kirti Jepa Monastery, Ngaba County, Sichuan Province, attempted suicide by self-immolation on 27 February 2009 as a mark of protest against the ban of Monlam religious festival and the Chinese repression and rule in Tibet. Apparently when he was on fire, eyewitnesses said Tabey was fired upon three gunshots by the Chinese police. 122
34

Patriotic Education ducation Nine Patriotic Education Led to Nine Arrests and One Suicide Death38
TCHRD reported that the Lhoka Intermediate Peoples Court sentenced nine monks studying at Samye Monastery in Tibet to varying prison terms between 2-15 years in jail for their participation in the last Spring Tibet protest in Lhoka Prefecture Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) between MayJune 2008. One monk committed suicide. The monks protested against the imposition of restriction on religious freedom at Samye government administrative headquarters in Dranang County (Ch: Zhanang xian), Lhoka (Ch: Shannan) Prefecture, TAR. The protest was joined by hundreds of Tibetans of Dranang County calling for the swift return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet, religious freedom and human rights for Tibetans. Later County PSB officials along with the Work Team- (Tibetan: las don ru khag, Chinese: gongzuo dui) specially formed units of government personnel sent to conduct patriotic re-education in an institution or locality)- arrived at monasteries to question each monk regarding the protest demonstration. During one such intense interrogation on 19 March 2008, a visiting scholar from Dorjee Drak Monastery to the Samye Monastery called Namdrol Khakyab from Nyemo County, Lhasa Municipality, TAR, committed suicide leaving a note that spoke of unbearable suppression by the Chinese regime and cited innocence of other monks of the monastery and took full responsibility for the protest demonstration. Out of the nine Tibetans sentenced, four were visiting Buddhist scripture masters to the Samye Monastery from other monasteries, and other five were monks of the Samye Monastery. The five monks were:

Religious Freedom

1. Gyaltsen of Tsona (Ch: Cuona) County, Lhoka Prefecture was sentenced to 15 years in jail; 2. Nyima Tashi, of Gongkar County (Ch: Gongga Xian), Lhoka Prefecture was sentenced to 13 years in jail; 3. Phuntsok (One name only) born in Kongpo, Nyingtri Prefecture TAR and his parent were known to have shifted their home to Kyiray in Lhasa, was sentenced to 13 years in jail; 4. Tenzin Dawa, of Tsome County (Ch: Cuomei xian), Lhoka Prefecture, was sentenced to two years in jail 5. Rigden, of Dranang County, Lhoka Prefecture, was sentenced to 2 years in jail. The visiting Buddhist scripture masters were identified as 1. Tenzin Bhuchung of Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality and monk of Langthang Monastery was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment term; 2. Tenzin Zoepa, of Tsome County, Lhoka Prefecture and monk of Jowo Monastery, was sentenced to 13 years imprisonment term; 3. Gelek of Lhodrag County (Ch: Luozha xian), Lhoka Prefecture and monk of Sang Ngag Choekor Monastery was sentenced to 2 years jail term 4. Ngawang Tenzin of Nagartse County (Ch: Lianggarze xian), Lhoka Prefecture and monk of Khathok Monastery was sentenced to 2 years in jail.

Jamyang Tenzin, a 35-year-old monk of Yonru Geyden Rabgayling Monastery was sentenced to three years in jail by the Kardze Intermediate Peoples Court around 3 July, 2009. According to source, Jamyang Tenzin was arrested on 3 October 2007 for opposing the work team from conducting Patriotic re-education campaign in the Yonru Monastery in Lithang County. The lengthy detention of Jamyang Tenzin since his detention in October 2007 until his court sentence in July this year is a matter of great concern and was a clear violation of the Chinese constitution and the international laws. Almost nothing is known of the circumstances under which Jamyang Tenzin was tried. Moreover, there is no information on whether he was provided with any due legal process, representative of his choice as his family members were completely kept in limbo for the past more than 21 months since his detention in 2007.40 Jamyang Tenzin was arrested in connection with his famous protest against the imposition of patriotic education campaign in various religious institutions of Lithang region. A massive patriotic education campaign was launched in all monastic institutions in Lithang County following a series of protests in Lithang led by Ronggye Adrak during the annual horse race festival on 1 August 2007. After the protest incident, the Chinese authorities summoned leaders of townships and monasteries in and around Lithang to commence the launch of patriotic education campaign in the first week of September 2007 that lasted for three months. During one of those patriotic education campaigns in Yonru Geyden Rabgayling Monastery in Lithang on 3 October 2007, Jamyang Tenzin confronted the work team for carrying out the campaign, which required monks and nuns to write essays denouncing the Dalai Lama and demonstrate their allegiance to the Chinese government. Jamyang Tenzin even raised the question on the arrest of Ronggye Adrak and other Tibetans and expressed his concern on their 123

A Monk Arrested for Opposing Patriotic Education Campaign


In a stark revelation, on 20 July, 2009, TCHRD39 reported the sentencing of Jamyang Tenzin by the Kardze Intermediate Peoples Court in Sichuan province to three years in jail for his involvement in a protest against the implementation of Patriotic Education campaign in Lithang in 2007.

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

whereabouts. He later concluded by shouting, May the Dalai Lama live for thousands of years. He was arrested right away by the local PSB officials after the conclusion of the Patriotic education session at the monastery and his status remained unknown until the court trial in the beginning this month. Therefore, its not only that the eventual punishment for non-compliance with the Patriotic re-education is one of extremely harsh nature but more so, the trial process itself is one plagued with a lot of injustice.

gious heads and expelled from Amdo Jaqung Monastery and ordered that he cannot join any other monasteries.42 The Implementing Measures violate both the freedom from coercion and the right to manifest ones religion or belief protected under international law.43 Religious citizens and personnel have the right to be free from coercion that impair[s] the right to havea religion or belief, including the use of threat of physical force or penal sanctions to compel believersto recant their religion or belief.44 The term coercion in Article 18(2) is to be broadly interpreted.45 The Implementing Measures directly violate the freedom from coercion in the many articles where they define illegal or prohibited religious activities of Tibetan Buddhist practitioners by reference to patriotic principles claiming that such activities, to be legal, must promote patriotism, ethnic unity and social stability. For example, Article 3 of the Implementing Measures, which sets forth the general principles of the measures, states that religious activities have to be normal to be protected by law, legal, and have to safeguard the unification of country, ethnic unity and social stability. Here immediately discernible is how Article 3 is directly coercive by defining what the religion must promote patriotism and loyalty to the Chinese state first - in order to be protected by law. Further, the terms defining what must be promoted; and what is legal - social stability, ethnic unity, and normal are themselves undefined, thus allowing the Chinese government to define the concepts as it chooses. It is clear that the term normal, which has existed in Chinas Constitution, has not been used to protect the practice of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet. Thus, the Implementing Measures violate international law by directly stating, in Article 3, that Tibetan Buddhism must promote the belief system that China or Communist Party of China espouses.

Senior Monk of Amdo Jaqung Monastery Expelled


In another case on 24 July 2009, TCHRD41 reported that the disciplinary head of Amdo Jaqung Monastery in Bayen County, Tsoshar Prefecture, Qinghai Province had been expelled for failing to comply with the officials of patriotic education campaign. On 27 June 2009 a team of officials from Religious Affairs Bureau of Bayen (Ch: Hualong) Hui County under Tsoshar (Ch: Haidong) Prefecture, Qinghai Province and the County Public Security Bureau (PSB) officials arrived at Amdo Jaqung Monastery to carry out patriotic education campaign now euphemistically called by the name of Legal Education session. According to source, the officials ordered the disciplinary head of Amdo Jaqung Monastery, Lobsang Tsultrim, to call for monks to assemble for the legal education to be conducted in the monastery. However, even after him making a formal announcement, not a single monk turned up for the legal education session. Subsequently, the officials put the blame squarely on the disciplinary head of the monastery for the lack of discipline in the monastery and failure to properly educate the monks. Lobsang Tsultrim, a 36-year-old monk was later sacked from his position as disciplinary head, stripped of privileges entitled for reli124

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Persecution of Prominent Religious Figures


Sentencing of Tulku Phurbu Tsering On 22 April 2009 TCHRD condemned in strongest terms the framing of Tulku Phurbu Tsering Rinpoche on weapon charges related to last years peaceful protests in Kardze (Ch: Ganzi). The real reason for Tulku Phurbu Tsering Rinpoches arrest on 18 May 2009, appeared to be linked to peaceful protest staged by more than 80 nuns of Pangri Nunnery voicing their distress at the Chinese authorities crackdown, killing, torture and arrest of peaceful Tibetan protesters in many parts of Tibet as well as resentment against the forced implementation of the patriotic re-education campaign, forcing Tibetans to sign official documents that criticize, denounce and attack the Dalai Lama. Following the protest 55 nuns of the Pangri Nunnery were arrested. Many were severely beaten by the security forces at the site of the demonstration before being bundled away in military trucks. The current situation in Kardze is known to be very tense following court trial of Tulku yesterday. Tulku Phurbu Tsering Rinpoche is a highly regarded reincarnated Tulku (Living Buddha) of Tehor Kardze Monastery in Kardze County, Kardze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (TAP), Sichuan Province. He is the chief spiritual preceptor and the head of Pangri and Ya-tseg Nunneries in Kardze. A charismatic figure that was a source of inspiration and hope had in the past constructed an old age orphanage and opened two chemist shops for the local Tibetans. Tulku Phurbu Tsering Rinpoche, 52, who headed Pangri and Ya-tseg Nunneries in Kardze was accused of illegally possessing weapons, his Beijing based lawyer Li Fangping was quoted as saying to the Associated Press (AP) in a telephonic interview earlier stating that Rinpoche could face imprisonment for up
46

to 15 years if found guilty by the Kardze Prefecture Intermediate Peoples Court. The Tulku was reportedly tortured for four days and nights upon detention and forced into making a confession after a police interrogation. Police even threatened his wife and son of detention if he did not comply. The arrest of a prominent religious figure was not a new tactic employed by China rather it serves as a dark reminder of her persistent vilification and demonizing campaign against a prominent religious figure inside Tibet who have been viewed as a direct challenge to their authority. In addition, Chinese authorities in order to give a different dimension to the mostly peaceful protests last year are distorting facts with fabricated evidence extracted through torture so as to label the prominent religious leader as someone instigating violence and that is something the authorities had been working so hard over the past months. Such acts are disparagingly worrisome as numerous human rights are violated in the process. On 23 December 2009 Kardze (Ch: Ganzi) Intermediate Peoples Court in Dartsedo (Ch: Kangding) sentenced Tulku Phurbu Tsering Rinpoche to 8 years and six months in prison. According to source, more than five members attended the trial. The two Beijing based defense lawyers who previously represented Tulku were not present at the time of court sentencing. According to AFP a new defense lawyer believed to be a lawyer name Jiang Tianyong represented Tulku during court sentencing. BBC website47 said Tulku Phurbu Tsering was sentenced for illegal possession of ammunition and embezzlement. However, Tulku Phurbu Tsering denied all the charges.

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In the past, many of prominent Tibetan religious figures such as Khenpo Jigme Phuntsok of famed Sertha Buddhist Institute, Geshe Sonam Phuntsok of Dargay Monastery in Kardze, Tulku Tenzin Delek Rinpoche, the founder of Kham Nalanda Monastery, who championed the welfare of Tibetan people and Bangri Rinpoche, the founder of Gyatso orphanage in Lhasa were all arrested under false and fabricated charges. Many of them are serving lengthy prison sentences whereas a few have passed away after their release. China has a long and reprehensive history of gross human rights violations abetted by a political culture of impunity towards perpetrators of human

Torture (CAT). TCHRD notes that, Chinese Public Security Bureau (PSB) and Peoples Armed Police (PAP) are repeatedly using torture as a means of intimidating, investigating and extracting information or confessions from real or perceived offenders and detainees.48

Political Campaign Against the Dalai Lama


One of the longest standing issues in the violation of religious freedom inside Tibet has been the implementation of the notorious and infamous political campaign against the Dalai Lama known as antiDalai campaign. The Chinese government had already established Articles 3, 10 and 34, a legal framework to justify the coercive systems already in place by the Chinese government in the anti-Dalai Lama and patriotic re-education campaigns, regularly harming Tibetan Buddhist religious citizens and personnel and their right to hold the beliefs of their choice. The patriotic re-education campaign uses the type of ideology of conversion system, because the monks position in the monastery is conditioned on his acceptance of the political beliefs mandated by the Chinese government in the campaign. If legitimate threats were to exist to the national security of the government as a result of the practice and belief system of Tibetan Buddhism, then international law would support appropriate restrictions. But no such threat has been established and similarly no such international law has supported the Chinese governments argument on the regulation of religious institutions inside Tibet till date. In fact, the Dalai Lama, to whom allegiance is prohibited, supports Tibets autonomous status within the state of China, not independence or splittism, and a nonviolent path to resolve the political differences between Tibet and China. China has an uphill battle to establish that Tibetans loyalty to the Dalai Lama poses a real threat to the national security of China.

Trukul Tezin Delek Rinpoche

rights violations. The torture and ill treatment are endemic in the wide network of prisons and detention centers across the Tibetan plateau. Torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment appears to have become a central element of state agents treatment of Tibetans perceived as being in opposition to the Communist regime and those attempting to exercise their rights to freedom of association, peaceful assembly and expression and the case of Tulku here clearly highlights such heinous practice being employed by the Chinese authorities despite PRC signing and ratification of UN Convention Against 126

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Nonetheless, the patriotic education campaigns inside Tibet is forcing monks and nuns to study political books dealing with Maos thoughts, policies of the Communist Party of China, distorted version of Tibetan history, legal penal codes and the constitution of China, the so-called rules and regulations for monks and nuns, the ideals of socialism and the most ridiculous of all learning how to denounce the Dalai Lama as a devil, a separatist, a wolf in a sheep skin and so forth. Not only monks and nuns study these books, but also by the end of every term they are required to undergo examination and test on these syllabuses of political education to ascertain whether they have learnt the political education properly. In other words it is to measure whether or not the Party political indoctrination has succeeded in winning the hearts and minds of the Tibetan people. This year one of the survivors of the last years Tongkor massacre fled Tibet and reached India safely. Dorjee Rinchen, 18, was a monk survivor from Tongkor Monastery (Ch: Donggu) in Zithang Township, Kardze County, Kardze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (TAP), Sichuan Province, whose monks protested against the enforcement of the patriotic education in the monastery when the official work team entered the monastery to conduct patriotic education campaign. Under the patriotic education campaign, it requires monks to denounce the Dalai Lama, to oppose hostile separatist forces, signing documents displaying their allegiance to the Communist Party and its policies inside Tibet. Ordinary Tibetans later joined the protest where a scuffle arose between the Chinese armed security forces and Tibetan protesters, following which Chinese soldiers fired live ammunition into the protesting Tibetans leading to the death of dozens of Tibetan protesters on the spot. One of the protesters during the massacre was Tongkor Dorjee Rinchen. The following is his testimony49 given to TCHRD on 27 November 2009. 127

Testimony of Tongkor Dorjee Rinchen50


My name is Dorjee Rinchen. I am 18 years old, born in Tsera Village, to a father Dhondup Palden and mother Jamyang Lhamo, in Tongkor Township, Kardze County, Kardze TAP, Sichuan Province. Last year on 2nd April 2008, a protest flared up in Tongkor Monastery (Ch: Donggu) in Zithang Township, Kardze County, Kardze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (TAP), Sichuan Province, with the arrival of official work team to conduct patriotic education campaign in the monastery. On 3rd April 2008, the work team along with a huge contingent of Peoples Armed Police (PAP) and Public Security Buearu (PSB) officials arrived in Tongkor Monastery and raided our residences, stamping on and vandalizing the photos of the Dalai Lama, Tongkor Shabdrung Rinpoche and Panchen Lama in our Tongkor Monastery. The actions by Chinese patriotic education work team triggered a protest by our monks who refused to undergo patriotic education campaign session. Under the patriotic education campaign, it required us to denounce the Dalai Lama, to oppose hostile separatist forces, signing documents by displaying our allegiance to the Communist Party and its policies inside Tibet. In ensuing moments, the protest broke out when two Tibetans, one a senior monk and another a lay man were detained for their refusal to adhere and undergo patriotic education campaign. Subsequently in the same evening, hundreds of our monks from our community, also joined by local Tibetans marched towards County government headquarters to and demanded the immediate release of Geshe Tsultrim Tenzin and layman Tsultrim Phuntsok. Thereafter we left the scene after being assured by Chinese officials that the two detained Tibetans would soon be released by 8 PM of 3 April 2008. However, when Chinese authorities failed to honour our promise, we returned but on the way we were confronted by a heavy presence of PAP and

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

PSB officials, which later broke into a scuffle. We were calling for the release of two monks who were earlier arrested by Chinese security forces for objecting the Chinese governments enforced patriotic education campaign in Tongkor Monastery which brought much misery and discomfort for us. We chanted slogans such as Long Live the Dalai Lama, Independence for Tibet, Tibet belongs to Tibetans, Swift Return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet, and the Release of all the Tibetan Political Prisoners. Shortly after in the heat of protest, the PAP forces fired live ammunition rounds on the protesting Tibetans, resulted in the death of about 14 known Tibetans, and at least 83 Tibetan peaceful protesters sustained severe gun injuries. Later, the Chinese security forces arrested around 12 Tibetans branded as ring leaders of the Tongkor protest. We were arbitrarily arrested, detained, tortured for almost a year. Every household was ordered to provide 100 Gyama, (1 Gyama = 500 grams) of fire wood, however only few households complied the order. Later on 1 and 2nd April 2008, Chinese Democratic Management Committee (DMC) work team arrived at Tongkor Monastery to enforce patriotic education campaign, which involved the monks to denounce the Dalai Lama, to conform to Chinese government political indoctrination, signing documents containing the denunciation of the Dalai Lama as a splittist leader, and hostile separatist force. However, we refused to sign and comply with the indoctrination session enforced by DMC work teams. Lobsang Jamyang, the chief monk of Tongkor Monastery defied the authorities writ to undergo patriotic education session. The DMC work team members demanded assurance from Tongkor DMC members that no such kinds of demonstrations would ever take place in future and with that DMC returned to their offices. Moreover on that very evening, the Chinese authorities cut down telephone

and mobile lines and all other communication channels in order to ensure that no information leak to the outside world regarding the implementation of patriotic education campaign in Tongkor Monastery. On 3 April 2008, around dawn 4 am in morning, a large contingent of PAP, and PSB of around 4000 Chinese soldiers in around 98 armor vehicles surrounded Tongkor Monastery from all directions. The order to shoot at sight was also announced in and around Tongkor Monastery. At around 8 o clock in the morning of 3 April 2008, separate groups, consisting of five to six Public Security Bureau PSB ransacked and raided residences of the monks searching for the photos of the Dalai Lama, Tongkor Shabdrung Rinpoche, the chief patron of Tobgkor Monastery, and other incriminating materials. The security forces stamped on the photos of the Dalai Lama and Shabdrung Rinpoche and some monks were even beaten by Chinese security forces for complaining. An elderly monk, a 75-year-old Geshe Tsultrim Tenzin and lay person Tsultrim Phuntsok were arrested in the raid. Later they ransacked the Prayer Hall of Tongkor Monastery, and seized all the scroll paintings of the lineages of successive Shabdrung Rinpoches, the Dalai Lamas and Panchen Lamas of the past. During the raid the Chinese authorities burnt confiscated 22 sacks of the copies of scroll paintings of successive lineages of Tongkor Shabdrung Rinpoches, the Dalai Lamas and Panchen Lamas seized from all the residences of Tongkor monks. Some school teachers who lived near by Tongkor Monastery were made to carry the 22 sacks of confiscated scroll paintings to Buthok Ground, located near Tongkor Monastery, where they were burnt. Making mockery of the sacred scroll paintings, Chinese soldiers gathered around burning sacred scroll paintings to draw comfort from the cold weather.

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Scenes of the stamping of the photos of Tongkor Shabdrung Rinpoche, the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lamas by the feet of the Chinese forces were captured on video and still camera by Chinese security forces. Helpless local Tibetans were reduced to mere spectators and then around 4 o clock in the evening, the monasterys gongs were sounded to call monks for a meeting. During the meeting, the head of the monastery spoke at length about incidents surrounding 1st and 2nd April 2008. He suggested monks to contemplate over the next course of actions. During the meeting, few monks rose up and shouted, if we were not allowed to remain in our own place, we will not have any regrets if we lose our lives, then suddenly in fits of emotions, the monks forego their daily prayers, and marched towards the Chinese government office at Buthok Ground, where they chanted numerous slogans such as Long Live the Dalai Lama, Release all political prisoners including Geshe Tsultrim Tenzin. The monks halted their protest demonstration at a bridge making slew of slogans and chants which continued till 8 o clock in the night. Still then Geshe Tsultrim Tenzin had not been released by the Chinese authorities. Once again the monks pitched up their protest slogans at which numerous PAP and PSB surrounded the protesting monks and fired machine guns at the peaceful protesters. In horrifying moments, few monks standing in rear fell down after sustaining bullets injuries. I was not able to recognize and identify those fallen monks in the darkness, the peaceful protesters fled in all directions, Chinese security forces continued to pound bullets on fleeing protesters. At that point of time, I was shot by a bullet on the back of my right arm, which slashed a big chunk of flesh from my rear shoulder arm as bullet pierced through. I gathered my energy and then hid myself behind a tree trunk and remained there for a while. I even saw a woman being hit by bullets and her sister wailing on a ground 129

out of helplessness. Although I wished to help the wounded lady but I couldnt do so because of my severe injuries. A horrifying scene still haunted me when a monk name Lobsang Rinchen out of anger burst and charged into Chinese security forces firing hails of bullets at protesters and shouted, hit me! Hit me! And then a single shot found it mark on his temple and fell down on the ground with thud. Also in another incident, Tsering Kyi was shot down and his brother tried to carry her on his back and after taking several steps she died on the spot. The situation was fast becoming too terrible to bear and witness. Hence I immediately made my moves to leave the killing field. Later I learnt that at least 14 Tibetan protesters were shot dead by Chinese security forces. The dead Tibetan protesters were: 1. Tsewang Rinzin from Juruda Village, (Tongkor Monastery) 2. Kunchok Sherab (monk Tongkor), 30, from Khasung Village 3. Lhungo, 35 (earlier spelled as Lhego from Walanda Village) 4. Tsering Kalden from Walanda Village 5. Thupten Sangden, 27, from Tsera Village 6. Lobsang Rinchen, 25, from Nyatri Village 7. Choezin (monk) from Sothok Da Village 8. Bhu Bhu Delek, 30 (lay man) from Sothok Da Village 9. Tsering Dhondup, (monk) from Khasung Village 10. Tsering Dhondup (lay man) Dru-yak Village 11. Druklo Tso, 34 (female) Kugra Village 12. Tseyang Kyi, 23, (female) from Tsang Ngoe Village 13. Sonam Tsultrim, 22, (lay man) from Nyatri Village 14. Kunsang Choedon, 35, from Mokrin Village Kunsang Choedons father Tsang-gon later became mentally insane after the death of her dotted daughter. Little afterwards he died in misery and sorrow. I

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

heard from many people that around 83 protesters sustained serious gun injuries. Out of which I was able to identify 14 protesters. I was denied of access to medical care in the government run hospital, due to which I underwent intolerable suffering and hardships for the past more than a year.

A Tibtean Nun Gave Her Life for Religious Freedom


The Chinese authorities arrested on 3 April, 2009, two nuns, Yangkyi Dolma and Sonam Yangchen, of Dragkar Nunnery in Kardze County, Kardze (Ch: Ganzi) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (TAP), Sichuan Province. They had staged a peaceful protest at the Kardze County main market square on 24 March, 2009. The protest was staged at around 3 PM (Beijing Standard time) at Kardze County shouting slogans calling for swift return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet, human rights for Tibetans in Tibet and religious freedom in Tibet. Yangkyi Dolma distributed a handful of handwritten pamphlets during the short protest. The Chinese Peoples Armed Police (PAP) immediately detained both the Tibetan nuns from the site of protest and beat them indiscriminately with rods and electric batons before being thrown into and driven away in a security vehicle. Following the incident, at around 7 PM in the evening, a group of security forces stormed into Yangkyis family home ransacking the portrait of the Dalai Lama and rebuked the family members for being the supporter of separatist forces. Early next morning (on 25 March), two Chinese security forces arrived at Yangkyis home and told his brother Tsangyang Gyatso to report at the Kardze County government headquarters. There has been no information on what ensued after that incident.51 She was earlier arrested on 24 March 2009 and later died in the early morning of 6th December at Chengdu hospital52. On 24 August 2009, exactly six months after her arrest the Kardze County Security forces handed over Yangkyi Dolma (33-yearold) to Kardze Intermediate Peoples Court, however, there is no information on whether she was formally tried by the court or not.

Reasons for My Coming Into Exile


Since massive protests that swept Tibetan plateau, mostly led by monastic community, the Chinese government reinforced the implementation of patriotic education campaign, leading to large scale arrests, demonstrations and detentions of Tibetan people. For instance, in Tongkor Monastery Chinese authorities announced numerous rules and regulations, thereby enforcing expulsions of monks who engaged in anti-Chinese government activities. For those who wanted to remain in monastery must fulfill Chinese government demand to oppose hostile separatist forces outside Tibet as a prerequisite. The ceiling on the strength of the monks was imposed on monasteries. Such harsh measures forced us to speak our minds. Unlike my friends who were arrested during the protest, it was pure luck that I was not arrested. I felt that I was on a borrowed time waiting for an eventual arrest by Chinese authorities, and hence I immediately made my mind to escape Tibet. On the one hand I have had a strong wish to have an audience with His Holiness the Dalai Lama and on the other hand I wish to pursue my monastic studies on Buddhist canonical texts. With clear conviction, I departed my homeland with heavy heart towards Lhasa where I found a guide who helped me to escape into Nepal. I paid 15,000 Yuan for the guide to take me to Nepal. On 7 November 2009, I reached the Tibetan Reception in Dharamsala.

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Incidentally, the other nun Sonam Yangchen, arrested along with Yangkyi was also handed over to the same Court but there is no information on her status, physical and mental wellbeing. Yangkyi Dolmas death body has not been handed over to her family members and there is no information on whether a post mortem was carried out to ascertain the cause of her death or not. On 3rd December, Kardze County Public Security Bureau (PSB) officials informed her family members about her dire health condition at Chengdu Government hospital. The family members on reaching Dartsedo, which is a night long journey to Chengdu-the provincial capital, came to know about her death. There are many other Yangkyi Dolmas who pay a huge price for speaking their consciences demanding fundamental human rights and religious freedoms. The following testimonial account given by monk Lobsang Tengay, 36 from Namdrol Kugon Monastery revealing the systematic repression and destruction of Buddhist cultural education in Tibet in the name of patriotism and love for ones Motherland China.

ernment, our Namdrol Kugon Monastery witnessed a steady decline in the number of monks. Not in a single year did the strength of monks surpass that of its preceding year. Moreover, the Chinese government issued a regulation that no one was allowed to enter or join monastery before the age of 18. Since the continuing enforcement of the ban, the number of monks at monastery rapidly dwindled year by year and in a course of time once a bustling monastery, a hub of learning haven was turned into a deserted monastery. Much to the dismay of local Tibetans, the Chinese government has a plan of converting the monastery into a museum piece that attracts thousands of foreign and Chinese tourists from Mainland China. The aim was to churn out revenue from tourism industry, increasingly becoming the most lucrative business in Tibet. Every month the Religious Affairs Bureau (RAF) of Nagchu County and Township authorities regularly visited our monastery and stayed there at least three to four days on stretch to conduct patriotic education under a slogan Love Your Religion Love Your Country. The entire patriotic education campaign dealt on three principle topics. The monks in the monastery were made to undergo three-hour patriotic education session in the morning and later three-hour session in the afternoon. In total the monks received six hours of lectures and speeches of how to being a patriotic monk in a day. The three principle topics of patriotic education were: 1. Patriotic education session on fighting and opposing separatism 2. Patriotic education session on studying of Tibetan history 3. Patriotic education session on the Constitution of China

Testimony Anti Dalai Campaign in Nagchu County53


Lobsang Tengay (lay name: Buthang), 36, was born in Padong village, Amdo County, Nagchu Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR). Lobsang Tengay entered Namdrol Kugon Monastery when he was 14 years old, and spent 22 years studying Buddhist scripture at the monastery. He testified to the Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy (TCHRD) about the religious repression in his monastery. Lobsang Tengay testified: Since the imposition of ceiling by the Chinese gov-

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Opposing separatism focused on about writing critical and self analytical essay on rejecting and denouncing blind faith Tibetans (monks) have had towards the Dalai Lama-arguing that he does not possess any qualities to regard him as a spiritual guide and a teacher. Opposing separatism also included writing a denunciation article on the Tibetan government in Exile headed by the Dalai Lama. Similarly under the topic of patriotic education session on the Constitution of China the focus was on individual monk to transform themselves into a patriotic monk, one who love the Motherland China and the Communist Party of China. The monks were also made to write article extolling the virtues and greatness of socialist system. Regarding patriotic education on studying the history of China, the monks were taught with Chinas version of Tibetan history stating that Tibet has been part of China since the Tang dynasty in 7th Century A.D. Moreover, the Chinese authorities at their own will distribute books and pamphlets concerning the laws and constitution of China to the monks. Under duress and compulsion, the monks study them without interest and seriousness. The Chinese authorities repeatedly told us not to study the Buddhist scriptures alone, but also must study the rule of law and the constitution of China. In the end, after the completion of each patriotic education session the monks must confess and write about their souls being cleansed, transformed that they had received a truly patriotic education from the Chinese authorities. All that the monks of Namdrol Kugon Monastery wanted was a monastic learning center in the monastery, where young monks can study scripture to become a learned monk. The Chinese government did not grant permission to the monks and devout local Tibetans to build a monastic learning center in 132

Namdrol Kugon Monastery although monks and the local Tibetan had raised enough funds to build it. The Constitution of China provides the freedom of religious beliefs, but it is not case in Tibet. I give this testimony to prove that the Chinese government has violated the freedom of religious beliefs of the Tibetan people inside Tibet. Since last years March 14 2008 uprising inside Tibet, the Chinese government has intensified patriotic education campaign inside Tibet to counter the rising tide of nationalistic sentiment in Tibet. As never before, the Chinese government this time conducts the patriotic education campaign in all parts of the Tibetan society, apart from monastic institutions whom the campaign has been traditionally being associated. Those of monastery with a sizeable strength of monks were more seriously targeted by the campaign. In our Amdo County, we have eight monasteries but were of small sizes compare to other monasteries in Tibet. The monks of eight monasteries did participate in March uprising in Tibet but since the strength of monks in eight monasteries were insignificant; the implementation of patriotic education campaign was far less intense. However, in April 2008, the patriotic education campaign was launched in the eight monasteries of Amdo County, one by one and the entire campaign lasted about one month and ten days dealing on opposing separatism, learning laws and the constitution of China and learning the correct history of China. I attended the first day of the patriotic education campaign. On that day we were asked to write a criticism essay denouncing the Dalai Lama as an anti-Chinese people and more than that we were told to put our fingerprint on it. At that point of time, I thought to myself that I was a monk, a Bud-

Religious Freedom

dhist monk bound by monastic codes and disciplines. How can I do this to my root guru one who was the guide of this and the future rebirths? I was trapped between the devil and the deep sea. Leaving with no other option, I withdrew myself from monastery. If I had refused, I would have landed in serious trouble, even imprisonment and if I comply with their orders, I would commit a serious religious demerit and sin. The Chinese government sees and treats the Tibetan Buddhist monks in an extremely bad light. More restrictions and vigilances are imposed on monks. During the last years uprising inside Tibet, monks had to leave monastery so as to save themselves. In a political witch-hunt campaign, the State run media channel broadcasted slews of warning instruction to households and hotels not to host and keep monks, doing so would be met with serious punishments. The Chinese government employed fear tactic to receive collaboration from general public in arresting the monks participated in the last years protests. Generally, when monks wanted to take a leave from the monastery, they can take a leave maximum up to seven days from the head of monastery. However after last years protest, the monks had to obtain a clearance letter from the County Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) officials, only then monks can leave the monastery. To put it short, Tibetan monks in religious institutions cannot tolerate denunciation campaign of the Dalai Lama. It causes great deal of sorrow and misery on monks. Sometimes with irreparable psychological pain and damage. Seeing nothing but sorrow and pain ahead of me if I continued to stay in Tibet, I made my escape journey to India. I reached Kathmandu Tibetan reception center on 24 September 2009 and at last breathed my freedom. The following testimonial is a case of a forced implementation of political education and denial of reli-

gious education took place in Nyemo Monastery, Amdo County, Nagchu Prefecture, TAR.

Testimony Be a Good Monk of the Communist China!54


This is a tragic story of Nyemo Monastery and its religious devotees as testified to the Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy (TCHRD) by its former monk Lobsang Choeyang who recently escaped from Tibet on 14 February 2009. He testified to the deplorable state of violation of religious freedom in Nyemo Monastery and local Tibetans in Amdo County, Nagchu Prefecture of Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR).
Lobsang Choeyang testified:

My name is Lobsang Choeyang, 37, formerly one of the seven committee members of the Democratic Management Committee (DMC) of Nyemo Monastery, falling under the Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) of Kya-ngog village. Our Nyemo Monastery has a ceiling of 84 monks. Out of the 84 monks, only 54 of them were registered monks with permanent residence in the monastery. However, there were around 16 non-registered monks who secretly stayed and studied inside the monastery. All of them were below 18, and hence according to the Chinese government regulation, they were not permitted to stay inside monastery. They had been staying illegally in the monastery for many years. However, after March 14 2008 when large-scale peaceful protests and riots that engulfed Lhasa city, the religious affairs bureau of Amdo County initiated flurries of activities connected to the implementation of patriotic education campaign inside the monastery for a period of one and half month.

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We (monks) were divided into three groups and then subjected to patriotic education campaign thrice every month.

Anti Dalai Lama campaign:


In the patriotic education campaign classes, we received lengthy lecture on three major topics. These three things were discussed and lectured so loudly in the patriotic education classes. 1. The Dalai Lama is not a spiritual leader but a separatist bent on to plot evil schemes to split and break the Motherland China and therefore we must resolutely oppose and counter his evil designs 2. It is the Communist Party of China who has done more grateful things to the people of Tibet rather than the Dalai Lama Clique and his hostile international forces 3. If monks want to love his dharma, Motherland and to become a good monk of the Communist Party of China, he must not fall trap to evil, cunning tricks of the Dalai Lama and his Clique and also the monks must defend and safeguard the great Motherland China The Chinese authorities told us that if we did not participate in the patriotic education campaign then the Communist Party would expel us from the monastery. It could even mean that our monastery could be permanently closed down depending upon the seriousness of the offenses. By mounting huge pressure and scare tactics, we were subjected to one month of patriotic education campaign led by officials of religious affairs bureau and the DMC. During the patriotic education campaign sessions, we were distributed with four books on patriotic education in the class. After the end of patriotic education classes, we were instructed to write one page of counter attack on separatism and three

different denunciation essays on the Dalai Lama. We were then told to paste one denunciation essay on walls of our residence quarters, one essay on the board of County government office, one essay to be sent to the County Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) office, which would be kept in their office archive. However, majority of monks refused to write the denunciation essays on the Dalai Lama. Some of the monk members of the DMC were forced to write denunciation essay on the Dalai Lama out of helplessness and desperation. Failure to do so would land them in serious difficulties and penalties. The RAB officials of Amdo County conducted exactly 40 days of patriotic education campaign in our monastery during which the entire monastic routines such as religious activities; studies and prayers come to a complete stand still. The patriotic education classes commenced at every 10 am and lasted till 12 am in morning. After one-hour lunch break, the afternoon session of patriotic education resumed at 2 pm and lasted till 6 pm in the evening. In total we had 6 hours of patriotic education session in a day.

Restriction And Regulation:


Days after the peaceful protests and riots in Lhasa City since 14 March 2008, Amdo County RAB officials and local authorities intensified the restriction on movements of monks in our monastery. Monks were barred from leaving and re-entering the monastery, doing so would be expelled from the monastery. We were not even allowed to go outside to perform prayers in the houses of lay householders upon their request, which has been a practice in Tibetan culture for more than one thousand and five hundred years. The Chinese government would boast that they

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earmark huge amount of funds for the renovation of temples and monasteries inside Tibet. It may be true for few landmark temples and monasteries in Lhasa city since they attract thousands of tourists every year. However, in the other parts of Tibet, monasteries and nunneries have been completely ignored and left unattended.

its monks. It has also introduced variety of tough laws on the entry of new monks to monasteries, in fact the imposition of new laws and regulations have been more of HOW NOT TO BE A MONK if any. Today, it is extremely difficult for Tibetans to become a monk. For a Tibetan to become a monk, it is never easy and simple as it was in the old Tibet. Today, an aspirant monk must pass through various difficult and complicated bureaucratic system created by the Chinese government to become a monk. Now things have changed. In old Tibet an aspirant monk goes directly to a monastery of his liking to forward his aspiration to a chosen religious teacher to seek his consent so as to enroll him as a disciple. The aspirant monk then adopts cardinal precepts and vows to be observed for the rest of his life. With that he becomes a Buddhist monk to a particular monastery of his choice. However, now, it is not the case. It is extremely difficult to be a monk. An aspirant monk must first write an application to the Chinese government. The content of the application must state that he wants to be a good monk of the Communist Party of China. He then has to approach the local village leader to procure a recommendation letter from him stating that he is a loyal and reliable aspirant monk of the Communist Party of China. He then has to submit both his application and recommendation letter to the County Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB). Afterwards County (RAB) will forward his application and recommendation to Prefecture Level Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) (Nagchu Prefecture in my case). Subsequently the Higher Department of Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) of the County will forward his documents to the Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) of Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR). Later the TAR Religious Affairs Bureau will forward his case application paper to the Religious Affairs Bureau of the central government of

Ban Imposed on Prominent Local Religious Leaders:


The Nyemo Monastery is a seat of two reincarnated Buddhist teachers, late Tulku Jamyang Rinpoche died at the age of 87. Since his demise, the Chinese government has imposed ban on the search of his reincarnation. He was the principal preceptor of Nyemo Monastery during his lifetime. Another important religious leader of Nyemo Monastery is Thokmey Tulku Rinpoche who was recognized by the Dalai Lama in 1996 as the reincarnation of previous Thokmey Tulku Rinpoche. However, due to the Dalai Lamas recognition, the Chinese government barred Thokmey Rinpoche from entering and contacting the monastery. He is currently studying Tibetan medicine in a medical college in Lhasa. He still maintains contacts with Nyemo Monastery through secret channels whenever necessary. He has huge affinity for his Nyemo monastery and in the past raised huge amount of funds to support the renovation work for Nyemo Monastery, all through secret channels without the knowledge of the Chinese authorities.

How Not To Become a Monk:


Currently there were seven different monasteries in Amdo County subjected to rigorous patriotic education campaign. Ceiling on the strength of monks in all these monasteries have been fixed and imposed. The Chinese government has imposed arrays of measures to control the growth of monastery and

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China. In that way an aspirant monk has to pass through various layers of bureaucratic channels before the Chinese government approves his application. In any case it takes at least three years before the various offices of the Chinese government can complete the processes of his application documents. Three years is a long time, anything could happen in between the time period and beside three precious years are wasted for no valid reasons. In that way it is extremely difficult for an aspirant monk to enter a religious order and practice. The monastery must have to run within the limited ceiling quota issued by the Chinese government. If the Chinese government found that the monastery has violated the ceiling quota, DMC and the local Religious Affairs Bureau officials with a help of Chinese security forces will expel the extra number of monks residing at the monastery. For instance Drong-pa Nunnery in Tsomar Village, Amdo County in Nagchu Prefecture, TAR had fixed a ceiling quota of 30 nuns in the nunnery, however when the Chinese authorities later found out that the nunnery was housing 50 nuns, an excess of 20 nuns. Accordingly the 20 extra nuns were expelled from the nunnery. The expelled nuns were given strict orders against re-entering the nunnery and also issued with strict orders to local DMC in nunnery and local authorities who try to secretly harbour them. They were warned of serious repercussions by the Chinese government if caught red handed. The heads of the DMC and its members too will be expelled from a monastery or a nunnery as a punishment. In general a strict restriction and regulation was imposed on the movements of monks. For instance monks of seven monasteries in Amdo County, Nagchu Prefecture, TAR can move freely to perform religious rites and ceremonies in the house of

lay devotees but they are strictly forbidden to venture beyond Amdo County. If there are urgent matters to attend then the monks must seek special permission from the County Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) officials. If at all permission is granted it would not be more than one month. In that sense there is so much of curtailment and restriction imposed upon religious activities of monks. During the last years spring uprising in Lhasa on 14 March 2008, the Chinese government imposed total restriction and ban on all religious activities in the monastery. Even minor religious activities like burning juniper incense, hoisting prayer flags on monastery rooftops, performing tantric ritual dance and other prayer recitations were banned and forbade by the Chinese government. This year TCHRD managed to obtain a classified document revealing the huge extent to which the patriotic education campaign is being currently implemented inside Tibet. It is now a regular practice and a scene in almost all of the religious institutions inside Tibet where monks and nuns are denied of undisturbed and uninterrupted study of their religious scriptures. Instead, they are forced to study political books dealing with Maos thoughts, policies of the Communist Party of China, distorted version of Tibetan history, legal penal codes and the constitution of China, the so-called rules and regulations for monks and nuns, the ideals of socialism which are completely irrelevant to their spiritual vocation. The part of their new education is about learning to write essays and critique denouncing the Dalai Lama as a devil, a separatist, a wolf in a sheep skin and so forth. Apart from studying these books, they are also required to pass the examination; if they fail they would be subjected to severe punishments, including the expulsion from the monastery and nunnery. Every other month, the work teams and the local DMC would raid a monastery or a nunnery;

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conduct test examination on the political education given to the monks and nuns. TCHRD obtained one such examination question paper issued in the monasteries and nunneries of Ngaba Prefecture, TAP in Sichuan Province. The following is the translation of the written test paper conducted in religious institutions inside Tibet in Ngaba Prefecture, Sichuan Province.

cation campaign conducted by State 2. Colluding with foreign countries with evil plots to undermine sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and endangering its national security would be served with penal sentence of _________________________________________________. Answer Choice A: Three years of prison sentence Answer Choice B: More than ten years of prison sentence Answer Choice C: Life imprisonment or more than ten years of prison sentence

Test Paper for Patriotic Education Campaign in Ngaba Prefecture


Name of Monastery_______________________ Ordained Name _________________ Lay Name___________________________ Family Name _______________________ Monastery House Name ____________________________ Patriotic education campaign and its cleaning and rectification drive in the Religious Institutions of Ngaba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture TAP Written Paper Examination for the First Phase of the campaign. Part I, Written Examination is (a) selecting the right answer from the following choices, and fill them in the space given like this (_____). Each question has a score of 4 marks. 1. The Chinese government protects the normal religious practices and affairs of the citizens. Each and every citizen while conducting his/her religious practice is not allowed to _______________________________________________ Answer Choice A: Break down the public law and order Answer Choice B: Inflict harm to public safety and well-being Answer Choice C: Undermine the Patriotic Edu-

3. Anyone who carries out reconnaissance missions, steals and sells state secrets from the Chinese government offices and departments, organizations and individuals based outside the Chinese territory, and indulges in other illegal espionage activities would receive prison sentence from five years to ____________________________ and for those who commit heinous crimes would receive more than _____________________years of prison sentence or life imprisonment. If the crime is of lesser degree then he /she would receive less than five years of prison sentence and along with that he or she would be subjected to custodial detention- during which he or she would be subjected to labor and other community services or would be deprived of his or her political rights. Answer Choice A: Five years Answer Choice B: Eight years Answer Choice C: Nine years Answer Choice D: Ten years

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When people organize meetings, protest marches and demonstrations they must always respect the constitution and rule of law and other than that they are not allowed to _____________________________________. Answer Choice A: They must not carry out demonstrations on issues that are already stipulated by the Constitution. Answer Choice B: They are not allowed to inflict harm on interests concerning the nation, society and community. Answer Choice C: They are not allowed to harm the Constitutional rights of the citizens. Answer Choice D: They are not allowed to raise and chant slogans. 5. Public rallies, demonstrations and protest marches must be carry out through ______________________________ means and they are not allowed to ______________________________. Answer Choice A: arms and weapons. Answer Choice B: sticks. Answer Choice C: knives and other illegal arms. Answer Choice D: explosives. Answer Choice E: violent riots. Answer Choice F: those who instigates violent riots. 6. Intentionally and deliberately burn, tear down, paint, spoil, stamp and other actions that inflict insult and be-little the national flag of the Peoples Republic of China in the presence of a large gathering of people, the culprits will be ___________________________ according to law of the state and pursued and interrogated

them. If they do not commit serious crimes then they should be fined and given lighter punishment and must be kept in the Public Security Bureaus custodial detention for less than _________________ days. Answer Choice A: non-criminal offense Answer Choice B: criminal offense Answer Choice C: ten Answer Choice D: fifteen 7. What is the name of the agreement signed during the peaceful liberation of Tibet? ____________________________. Part II. True or False Mark ( ) for True and (X) for False. Each question has score of three marks. 1. If someone wants to organize a major religious ceremony or function, he or she must have to follow the rule and regulations, whereby he or she must intimate the office of the Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) of the local government 30 days before the actual commencement of religious ceremony or the religious function in the locality. ( ) 2. If religious organization by whim and fancy chooses places or venues and conducts major religious ceremony and function, then a specially designated office of the Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) will issue straight order to the locality where the religious organization belongs and venue in which major religious ceremony or function is conducted to either demote or sack the concerned government appointed officials who directly oversees the religious ceremonies and functions. If serious offenses are committed, the overseeing office of the Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) will drop the name of religious

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organization and the venue from the official list. If religious organization illegally collects money and property, then it will be confiscated. ( ) 3. The monastery / nunnery owned guest houses, restaurants and shops must without fail or mistake follow and adhere to income tax rules and regulations, and thereby pay income tax to the government accordingly. ( ) 4. Tibet is an inalienable part of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) ( ) 5. Monk or nun needs to procure permission to ordain and enter monastery ( ) 6. Dalai Lama is the leader of the separatist forces. ( ) 7. Can a monk and nun indulging in activities such as beating, smashing; looting and arson be described as a monk and nun of the Tibetan Buddhism or be described as observing the sangha vows and the stipulated rules and regulations. ( ) 8. Religious person cannot interfere in the affairs of politics, law and order and in the education system of the country. ( ) Part III, Short Question Answer (total marks 33 marks) 1. What are the main conducts of monks and nuns in their work affairs? (4 marks) Answer: 2. What are the four cardinal principles and vows (6 marks) Answer: 3. What does it mean by stating, religious af-

fairs will be regulated according to rule of law? What is the objective behind the statement? (4 marks)

Answer: 4. What is the reason for the ban imposed on the display of the photo of the 14th Dalai Lama? (6 marks) Answer: 5. What penal punishments and sentences are amended in criminal procedure law for those ringleaders and chief instigators of people who surrounded the government offices, who smash and stone government office complexes, who disrupt and stop the government offices from its usual works and smooth functioning, who organize gatherings and stage protest rallies and marches? (6 marks)
Answer: 6. Why does it mean by normal religious practices? (4 marks)

Answer:

Part IV Long Question Answer (15 marks) 1. Write a short note on your opinions and views regarding the recent beating, smashing, looting, arson and violence incidents that took place in Ngaba Prefecture?
Answer:

*** THE END OF THE TEST*****

Deprivation And Denial of Religious Education


For any institution to continue its existence, there needs to be a solid mechanism by way of which the

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knowledge of its history, traditions, practices, etiquettes and purposes can be passed down from follower to follower, from generation to generation in perpetuity. Keeping this in mind, the international community holds that freedom of religion includes the freedom to teach and establish seminaries or religious schools55 and teach a religion or belief in places suitable for these purposes.56 The violation of these very fundamental domestic and international laws are the cause of disastrous consequences inside Tibet, when it comes to religious education and the spiritual development of Buddhist devotees. The years of denial and deprivation of true religious study by the Chinese government has resulted in an appalling and pitiable state of religious education in Kumbum Monastery. Kumbum Monastery is his-

many years. As a result of enforcement, intervention in religious affairs, regulation and the deliberate breakdown of monastic administration, the number of monks has decreased considerably and its monastic education is in shabby state of affairs. These are all the making of the Chinese government and its sinister policies towards the religion. The following is a testimonial account of forced implementation of political education and the denial of religious education in Kumbum Monastery.

Testimony
Kumbum Monastery Under Patriotic Education Campaign57
In aftermath of March 14 2008 uprising in Lhasa city and in other parts of Tibet, the Chinese government responded the pan-Tibet mass movement with repressive military crackdown and forced ideological campaigns in Tibets religious institution known as patriotic education. One such patriotic education was conducted in Kumbum Monastery, whose charismatic spiritual leader, Arjia Rinpoche58 had long defected to America, where he has since been living. After his defection, his monastery has been reeling under particular regulation and vigilance by the Chinese authorities. A senior monk from Kumbum Monastery, Kumbum County, Tsoshar Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture TAP, Qinghai Province who withheld his name due to security reasons, testified to Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy (TCHRD) about the ongoing patriotic education campaign inside Kumbum Monastery. He testified: In our Kumbum Monastery there were around 400 registered monks and other 1000 non-registered monks, which were

torically very significant since it is near to the birthplace of the fourteenth Dalai Lama and also is the birthplace of the founder of the largest religious sects in Tibet Gelugpa or Yellow Hat. The monastery was also the seat of one the prominent Tibetan religious figures Arjia Rinpoche who famously refused to recognize and accept the Chinese government appointed Panchen Lama. After his defection in 1998, the monastery has been subjected to intense political and patriotic re-education campaign for

Decline of religious education in Tibet

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consisted of Tibetan, Mongolian and Thiu ethnic minorities. In the past, the Chinese government has been conducting patriotic education in Kumbum Monastery but this time after the outbreak of massive protests in various parts of Tibet, the Chinese authorities simply intensified the launch of patriotic education in our monastery. Every month five officials of County religious affairs bureau used to come to Kumbum Monastery to conduct patriotic education campaign. The main points of lectures and discussions were: We must resolutely oppose and fight back against evil schemes of the Dalai Lama and his clique in trying to split and de-stabilize the great Motherland China. All of you (Kumbum) monks must be patriotic monks who loves both state and dharma alike, and all of you must safeguard social harmony and stability, profess and cultivate love and support for socialist system and must know that the Communist Party of China is the grand custodian of Chinese Motherland and be able to recognize that hostile western international forces in collaboration with the Dalai splittist group foster and trigger all disturbances and social upheavals inside the country. All of you must know that the Dalai Lama is the single most hardened enemy of the 1.3 billion Chinese people. Moreover, on 11 October 2008, for one-month period, prominent heads and lamas of all the big and small monasteries in Qinghai Province as well as teachers from Qinghai South-West Nationality University and Qinghai Teacher Training College and the various religious affairs bureau staffs and officials were called in for a workshop where discussion was held to chalk out ways to conduct patriotic education and the Partys policies on religion. The workshop concluded with unanimous 141

consensus that the implementation of patriotic education is considered the most important task of the country. But for we Buddhist monks the study of religious scriptures and their practice is what we want not the patriotic education enforced upon us by the Chinese authorities. As far as our Kumbum Monastery is concerned, our charismatic religious leader Arjia Rinpoche has been so consistent in his effort to turn our Kumbum Monastery into a flourishing learning centre. It has been his aim to upgrade the quality and standard of religious and knowledge for our monks. In the past our Kumbum Monastery was known for strict discipline and a good quality of monastic education with remarkable strides made in every field. Unfortunately, in the middle of all these, the Chinese government suddenly intensified the patriotic education campaign in our monastery. It has been the single most devastating turn of event for us since our academic atmosphere; learning and spiritual progress in monastery has been completely stalled and thwarted. Not only has the learning stopped but also the discipline in our monastery has been seriously affected and disturbed. Now, our Kumbum Monastery can never be same. I, on my part strongly felt that there was no future if I remained in Kumbum Monastery as a monk. On one hand the Chinese authorities continues to conduct ceaseless patriotic education campaign since the defection of our charismatic Arjia Rinpoche in 1998, the quality of monastic education has been steadily deteriorating, and now almost no learning takes place in our monastery. With a hope of getting a proper monastic education in India, I fled Tibet and reached Kathmandu Tibetan Reception Centre on 12 January 2009. In the last many years the Chinese government has been immensely successful in destroying and uproot-

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

ing the very foundation of a thriving culture of training and tutoring the next generation of Buddhist masters and scholars through studies and oral transmission of knowledge. Under the patriotic education campaign, this system of imparting knowledge has been systematically challenged, so much so that learning hardly takes place in monastic institutions and as a result there are very few masters who can teach or are qualified to teach. Many of thriving and bustling centers of learning have been turned into ghost monasteries and nunneries under the patriotic education campaign. As a consequence many of the committed monks and nuns flee Tibet to receive Buddhist education and training in exile India and receive their ordination from the Dalai Lama. The following testimonies given by senior monks of Kumbum and Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monasteries are the proof of a rapid decline of Buddhist education and the break down of ancient monastic administration inside Tibet - which throughout the centuries churned out thousands of Buddhist scholars and masters. In the case of religious repression in Kumbum Monastery, other monasteries and nunneries inside Tibet, it is the unmindful and blatant violation of Articles 41-44 of the Implementing Measures that gives an interesting example of measures that severely restrict the movement of all Tibetan Buddhist religious personnel and violate the freedom to teach Tibetan Buddhism, and they do so in places suitable for these purposes. Article 43 governs TAR religious personnel who merely cross-cities to study scripture. They must obtain approval from the peoples government religious affairs department in the destination city and report it for the record to the TAR- level peoples government religious affairs department. For TAR religious personnel who are going to outside provinces to study scripture, and for religious personnel from other provinces who study scripture at venues in the TAR, they must consult with and obtain consent from both provincial-level peoples government religious affairs departments. 142

The Chinese government ensures, through complex levels of required governmental approval, that the monastic community travels as infrequently as possible, which in turn severely impairs the religious education of the monastic community. The current measures increase restrictions already in place over the TAR and very negatively affect the transmission of Tibetan Buddhist teachings.59 The traditional, and chosen, mode of education in Tibetan Buddhism is dependent on mobility for its continuation and development. Monks and nuns must travel to certain teachers who possess specialized knowledge to receive teachings in person and which are frequently transmitted orally. Thus, by imposing such strict controls and bans on travel by the monastic community, China impedes the traditional practice of education and religious practice and allows itself the power to bring to a halt the continuation as well as the development of Tibetan Buddhist practitioners, and the continuation of religion. In direct violation of international law, monks are being refused access to their chosen teachers in the traditional custom. For example, the major Gelugpa monasteries are all in Lhasa thus monks from all over Tibet need to be able to travel to Lhasa to study there. Articles 30-34, and 45 violate the provisions of international law that protects the integral aspects of the freedom to practice ones religion by teaching and disseminating religious texts and relevant publications. These articles hinder the effectiveness of the transmission of Tibetan Buddhism by limiting the traditional roles of teachers and censoring the teaching materials that can be used. Specifically, Article 33 prohibits any religious personnel from engaging in meaningful religious activities such as initiations into monkhood or nunhood, consecrations, expounding Buddhist sutras, proselytizing, or cultivating followers outside of venues for religious activities, without prior approval from the peoples government religious affairs department at the county level or

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above. Article 45 outright bans Tibetan religious teachers returning to Tibet from exile from participating in these very same activities. As discussed above, Article 34 restricts the materials that teachers may view and distribute based on whether the materials satisfy patriotic standards. These provisions severely limit the legitimate practice and education of Tibetan Buddhism. Many of the important teachers for young monks and nuns will be those who are being legitimately trained in monasteries established in exile that operate freely, without the severe restrictions that exist on monastic institutions in the TAR. By outright prohibiting these trained practitioners from coming to the TAR to teach and perform initiations, the Chinese governments direct violation of international law puts the very survival of Tibetan Buddhism itself at risk. The following is the testimonial account of the repression of religious freedom in Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery in Shigatse Prefecture, TAR. It reveals how political indoctrination penetrated the every day monastic life and spiritual contemplation of monks and nuns. And how they have no one to turn to in receiving religious education but to flee Tibet and seek religious instruction and teaching in exile. In this case Topgyal a monk from Tsang Tashi Lhunpo fled Tibet to receive his Gelong ordination from the Dalai Lama. He mentioned in his testimony that he was hoping to receive other religious initiations and teachings from the Dalai Lama explaining that there were no suitable teachers inside Tibet from whom he could receive the scriptural teachings.

dom inside the monastery has worsened since the post March 14 2008 clampdown in Tibet. Upon his safe arrival in Kathmandu, Nepal in November 2009, he testified to the Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy (TCHRD) about the gross violations of religious freedom and the religious repression in Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery in Shigatse Prefecture, TAR. Topgyal testified, My name is Topgyal, 24, from Sakya County, Shigatse Prefecture, TAR. Until age of 13, I remained at home, and never attended school. In 1999, when I reached 14, I was ordained as a monk in Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery. I spent more than 10 years studying Buddhist scriptures and texts. Today Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery housed around 800 monks. As a monk of Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, I wanted to speak out and inform the world about the greatest challenges faced by my monastery. Since 1959 to 1980, Tibet under China saw so much of destruction to its religious and cultural heritage, particularly during the period of unforgivable Cultural Revolution. However, due to the vision and guidance of the Dalai Lama in exile and the late Panchen Lama inside Tibet, they had done much to restore the rich religious and cultural heritage of Tibet. In Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery for instance, we were allowed to pursue religious studies and other religious activities only after we procured permission from the higher authorities. It is stipulated in Chinese Constitution that every citizen is entitled to his or her political and religious rights, however, in reality it is not the case. The religious affairs and activities are always under the control of Chinese government and its communist political system. Hence, they have direct control over all religious affairs and activities inside monastery. Since last years 14 March 2008 protests inside Tibet, there has been 143

Testimony Repression of Religious freedom in Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery60


Topgyal, a monk from Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, one of the largest monasteries in central Tibet is under severe control, restriction and regulation of the Chinese authorities. In recent years the religious free-

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

more restriction and regulations imposed inside our Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery. It is also the case in other small, big and large monasteries of Tibet where rigorous mechanism of political control, regulation and restriction still exist at large. For few months, after the outbreak of last years March 14 protest in Tibet, the DMC and RAB under the direction of the Chinese government conducted education on rules and laws of the Chinese constitution. The part of the education entails the monks to cut, clip speeches, lectures and statements made by the Chinese leaders in various national and state run newspapers, and then to study them in the education sessions. We also had to study Thoughts and Sayings of Deng Xiaoping, Three Represents of Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintaos Theory of Three Harmonies ((a) seeking peace in the world, (b) reconciliation with Taiwan and (c) harmony in Chinese society. Moreover, every day monks had to study the socalled the Implementing Measures, which was nothing more than rules and regulations governing the religious affairs on religious institutions of Tibet. The education sessions along with the patriotic education lasted for several months on stretch in our monastery. The most difficult part of the patriotic education is to target, criticize and denounce the Dalai Lama. How can we criticize and denounce a spiritual teacher whom we believe as the incarnation of the Buddha of compassion, who is perfect one without any stains and flaws. How can he (the Dalai Lama) be denounced since it was the first Dalai Lama Je Gendun Drub who first founded and established our Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery? We were Buddhist monks, wearing a robe once worn by enlightened teacher lord Buddha who taught us to love all sentient beings and how can we criticized and denounced someone who is the direct holder of the teachings of the Lord Buddha and the emanation of enlightened existence. How can we denounced him? He (Dalai Lama) is a perfected 144

Buddha, who triumphed over births and deaths, and by denouncing him, not a flea of harm can be inflicted upon him, it is we who indulge in this negative karma will bear the negative consequences of our karmic action, so we couldnt dare to denounce him. Hence from our part we never wish to indulge in any kind of these activities, however, we were forced by Chinese officials to denounce the Dalai Lama. If we fail to denounce and criticize him then we would face serious political consequences. The condition of livelihood in our monastery is not all that bad but if it be worse, it wont be a problem for us. The worse thing for us and for which we undergo great deal of misery is the lack of religious freedom in Tibet. This is the cancer that plagues us and hence we are not able to perform religious roles and duties once monks performed in the old Tibet. Earlier three monks of Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery i.e. Nyima, 20, Bhuchung, 30 and another Nyima, 30 were arrested for criticizing Chinese authorities intervention in a religious ritual, following which they were arrested and detained. After few months of detention, they were expelled from our monastery. The monk Nyima from Sakya County, while being taken in a vehicle to his hometown sang this moving song: Dont say that there is no wish fulfilling jewel in Tibet If His Holiness the Dalai Lama is not the wish fulfilling jewel Then what else is that wish fulfilling jewel? Under the repressed environment in our monastery, we were not allowed to talk regarding anything concerning Tibet and its political affairs. Particularly we were not allowed to hear and see anything about the activities of the Dalai Lama and his religious teachings. If we do we must ensure complete secrecy. In that way things were extremely difficult. The Chinese government is currently exerting great deal of restriction, repression and regulation on

Religious Freedom

prominent religious teachers and important religious institutions like Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery inside Tibet. In my view, in near future the situation of Tibetan Buddhism inside Tibet will face a critical phase in its entire existence where its survival might be wiped out. The religious institutions might soon be turned into institution where monks and other people study laws, constitution and policies of the Communist Party of China. According to me in few years down the lane, Tibets Buddhist learning tradition and culture will face a rapid decline. Today there is both direct and indirect attempt to discontinue the monastic institution, particularly its vinaya code of conducts and discipline, which as a result is fast breaking down. If left unchecked and unattended, it would further escalate the decline and demoralization of Tibets monastic tradition and its great learning heritage. For these reasons, I fled Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery to seek a monastic education in India. While being in Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, I couldnt find anyone worthy of initiating me into higher Gelong ordination, and because of this I came to exile. Now I am going to receive this noble ordination from His Holiness the Dalai Lama. This is my great hope and for which I am excited about it. Also, one of the reasons of my escape to India is to publicize to the world about the denial of religious freedom and worship, the misery face by monks and nuns inside Tibets religious institutions. While being in India, I will undertake my religious study seriously and in future, if I ever get another opportunity to return to Tibet (Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery), I hope to propagate Buddhist teachings and improve the quality of their education. Let me say this to you, our Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery is the seat of the Panchen Lamas of Tibet. China dismissed and kidnapped the true rein-

carnation of the 10th Panchen Lama and kept him in an undisclosed location. Even their own appointed fake Panchen Lama is being whisked away in Beijing that he hardly come to Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery. No one in our monastery accept the Beijing appointed Panchen Lama, we accept the only Panchen Lama recognized by His Holiness the Dalai Lama. The following is a leaked government document on a manual regulatory book depicting how the religious freedom and beliefs of Tibetan people are violated. The document is an evidence of what TCHRD has been describing for many years about the control of religious freedom in Tibet through various legal instruments and mechanisms. The following legal document was obtained and translated by TCHRD.

Briefing Booklket on Law and Order


Published by Lhasa Municipality Law and Order Information Department, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR).
April 2009

Chinese security forces marching past in front of Tsuglagkhang Temple complex in Lhasa, one of the holiest shrines in Tibet. A massive show of strength and intimidation by Chinese security forces in politically sensitive sites are regular feature in almost every part of Tibet.

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The following is the translation of an excerpt of the law and order manual booklet currently implemented in the religious institutions across Tibet. The Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy (TCHRD) translated the Chapter Ten of the book, which exclusively dealt on how rules and regulations govern the religious institutions inside Tibet. The book was published by (Ch: Lhasa Cheng Guanqu) Lhasa Municipality Law and Order Information Department, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) on April 2009.

the religious institutions, they (monks and nuns) must carry out and discharge duty assign to them by the superior authorities. 4. Monks and nuns must correctly implement the government policy of Religious Freedom from every aspect. They must seriously conduct their religious affairs according to rules and regulations announced by the government. And also the needs and interest of monks and nuns must be protected under rules and regulations. 5. Monks and nuns must foster unity amongst the sub-committees of DMC as well as to protect its reputation. The sub-committees and DMC must mutually respect and support each other. By closely working together as partners, both offices must initiate and exert stronger control and regulation over religious institutions. 6. All monks and nuns must take overall responsibility in discharging responsibilities of the government and must serve sub-committees and DMC in the monastery and nunnery. With moral integrity and honesty and with profound conviction they must serve the religious community. 7. DMC and its sub-committees must maintain and foster amicable relationship with common monks and nuns, and always take care of their welfare and must take timely action in understanding and reading their mind and thought contents. 8. If there is an important matter to be consulted in a monastery or a nunnery, all these important matters must be shared and discussed with the DMC of the monastery and nunnery and its subcommittees. Apart from this, no individual monk or nun is permitted to make his/her decision on important matters. 9. DMC and its sub-committees must exercise efficient regulation on leave submitted by

Chapter Ten Announcement of Discipline Guidelines For Monks and Nuns Under the leadership of democractic management committee (DMC)
1. Monks and nuns must cultivate a resolute faith and respect for the Communist Party of China (CPC) with clear conviction, must respect and adhere to the Socialist political system and the Regional Autonomy system. They must display loyalty to the Constitution and patriotism to safeguard the interest of people. They must safeguard One Motherland China and protect the harmonious relationship amongst the ethnic nationalities. They must adhere to the disciplinary guideline and oppose separatism. 2. Monks and nuns must vehemently study the policies of Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Chinese government, must implement them and accordingly execute polices of the CPC and the Chinese government in religious institutions. 3. Monks and nuns must voluntarily serve its immediate authority and the government. In order to protect the normal religious activities in

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monks and nuns, particularly during important religious dates and months, DMC and subcommittees must first verify the leave and then grant leave accordingly. Similarly, the monastery DMC and its sub-committees must also alert and inform the leave application to its immediate local authorities and local investigation branch office along with a written report. 10.The Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) will carry out proper scrutiny on the nature of religious texts and the content of prayers recited by monks and nuns. Based on proper scrutiny, the permission will have to be granted. All out opposition, restriction and censorship must be imposed on those texts and prayer recitations that contain false and improper views. These must be stemmed out completely from religious rituals and ceremonies conducted in religious institutions. 11.The religious institutions must seriously follow statuary rules of income taxes stipulated by national revenue and taxation bureau. Accordingly, the collection of taxes and exceptions of taxes will be made. Revenues and income of all religious institutions will be put under apex office called Religious Revenue Department, and place revenues and incomes of all religious institutions under one common regulatory system. Not only will the matters and affairs concerning religious institution will be announced publicly, monks and nuns themselves have to take their own initiative to implement policies of the Chinese government. 12.The members of DMC, monks and nuns will enjoy equal political, social, cultural and constitutional rights and under these provisions they will oppose and stem out old feudal practices such as nepotism, hereditary titles and enjoyment of special powers.

13.The leadership of the monastery DMC and its sub-committees will safeguard and observe the discipline, rules and regulations in religious institutions. With great deal of hard work and zeal, they must involve themselves in task and activities of interest and benefit to society, and be an exemplar and role models for monks and nuns. 14.The members of DMC will observe and adhere public law and order and moreover they must protect the state secrets. 15.The members of DMC must propagate and promote democracy in the best of their capacities, and must listen to opinions and suggestions from all corners of monks and nuns and then discharge their duties seriously. 16.The specific government department at local level and local DMC must always be extremely cautious and careful when they admit new monks and nuns into religious institutions. They must not admit those of the following monks and nuns:
(a) Those who are below 18 years of age (b)Those who are former criminals and convicts (c) Those who are expelled from other monasteries and nunneries (d)Those who voluntarily left monastery and nunnery (e) Those who are members of other monastery and nunnery

17.Those of individuals and organizations who are seeking permission to build and renovate stupas, temples and monastic residence from monks and nuns; it is mandatory for them to inform the local government and its concerned authorities. The local government and its concerned authorities must carry out inquiry and investigation on the matter and after which they may grant the approval. It is only then that the permission is granted. If the local government

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and concerned authorities withheld the permission, the monks and nuns cannot proceed to build and renovate monastic structures. 18.Regarding donations and funds coming from foreign shores and individuals, they must be received according to the rules and regulations lay down by TAR government. 19.The DMC of the monastery and nunnery must set up a standard rating system to assess and review the activities and matters of monastery and nunnery during a particular period of time. In doing so, the review and assessment of monastic activities must be categorized as excellent, good and poor by the end of the year, those who excel should be rewarded and those who fail should be fined and punished. This system must be put in place in every monastery and nunnery.

the rule of law, moreover they have rights to protect law and order, to advance the principle of loving ones religion and loving ones state as well as to protect One Motherland China. They also have duties and responsibilities to promote unity and harmony amongst various ethnic nationalities and to oppose and fight separatism and separatist forces. 3. The individual monks and nuns must study both legal system of country and the monastic code of conduct. In addition they must also study political education and strive hard to advance and widen the horizon of their religious knowledge and enhance their moral integrity. They must also protect and preserve historical and sacred philosophical literatures, and to look after the public property. They must voluntarily protect the reputation of their monastery/nunnery and also must safeguard their personal image. 4. Monks and nuns must nurture and establish good bond amongst them, exude mutual love and respect for each other, such as senior monks tending the younger monks. They are strictly forbidden to set up evil factions and secret organizations in the monastery and nunnery.

Duties of Monks and Nuns:


1. The monks and nuns are the citizens of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) therefore are entitled to enjoy all rights provided by the Chinese Constitution, but at the same time they must also fulfill duties as a citizen of the country. All the activities of monks and nuns must be carried out within the framework of provisions stipulated in law, and take up serious voluntary personal initiative and endeavor to study the policies of Communist Party of China (CPC), the Constitution of state and its legal system, and with unflinching conviction they must oppose and fight separatism and must protect the unity of One Motherland China and safeguard the harmony and unity amongst its various ethnic nationalities. Along with these, monks and nuns must voluntarily regulate themselves according to the laws of the government. 2. All monks and nuns have the right to propagate and indulge in religious activities according to

Vows to be Observed by Monks and Nuns


1. The monks and nuns must wholeheartedly and resolutely respect the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), Socialist System, and the Regional Autonomy. Not only these, they must also respect the Constitution of China and its legal system. They must also zealously study the relevant policies and voluntarily put them into practice, thus giving helping hand to government and its policy makers. 2. All monks and nuns must carry out their religious activities within the purview of the Constitution and its legal system. On individual basis, monks 148

Religious Freedom

and nuns must enhance their understanding on Nationalism, Government, Constitution and the spirit of brotherhood amongst citizens. 3. The monks and nuns must follow and give their support to the DMC. They must also give serious observance to the law and order as well as to their monastic code of conduct. They must also take part and participate in monastic polity and its system, cultural studies, and must devote to the study of Buddhist scriptures and also must perform labor work, and likewise should make their presence felt in activities concerning the overall welfare of people and society. 4. Hence, monks and nuns must seriously act upon the aforementioned clauses. 5. The monks and nuns must not listen to and watch evil and anti-social propaganda that endangers the State Security and threatens unity amongst ethnic nationalities. They must not disseminate and circulate subversive journals and literatures, auto visuals as well as secretly keeping them in their residences and homes. They are also forbidden to set up secret organizations and indulge in evil separatist acts and schemes. 6. It is absolutely must for monks and nuns to uphold the ideals of respectfulness and equality amongst the different ethnic nationalities, religious faiths and various sects. They must be religious, pious and faithful and must strive towards fostering mutual spirit of peaceful coexistence amongst different religious faiths and various sects. They must also ensure that nothing untoward takes place in monastery or nunnery that goes contrary to these ideals. 7. Monks and nuns must procure necessary permission from the monastery DMC and higher authorities when they go out of monastery/ nunnery to perform religious rites, to meet relatives, to seek medication, to receive scriptural

instruction and to stay in retreat. In the case of granting leave, we will follow the existing granting leave protocol currently implemented by TAR government in their religious institutions. According to the TAR Issuance of Leave Protocol:
(a) Granting of leave primarily rested on the authority of the monastery DMC of the concerned monastery/nunnery. Leave can be granted only for three days period. (b) If monk and nuns leave exceeds stipulated 3 days, they must again apply for extension leave from both the monastery and nunnery DMC and the DMC of the local village in which the monastery/ nunnery is located. They will be given further four more days of extended leave. (c) After exceeding seven days, if monk and nun want to extend their leave stay, then the DMC of the concerned monastery/nunnery and the local village level DMC will convene a meeting, where they will discuss over the matter, deliberate, exchange opinions and suggestions and after which the monk and nuns must apply for the leave from Township government headquarter. (d)After exceeding ten days, the DMC of the concerned monastery/nunnery, local village DMC and Township DMC will convene a meeting where they will discuss over the matter, deliberate, exchange opinions and suggestions and after which the monk and nuns must appear before the officials of the County Municipality Peoples Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) to file their leave application, and then only the leave is granted. However, during the times of important religious occasions, functions, dates, months, the monks and nuns are not allowed to seek leave from the concerned authorities. When the leave is granted, wherever they may go, they are required to observe and follow the law and order of the State. They must seriously abide by the authority of the concerned government officials of the region where he/she

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may be traveling or staying. They must ensure that they do not commit any offense, which violates the laws and regulations of the locality.

8. After procuring the leave, the monks and nuns in their new designated place must follow guidance and instructions of his/her scripture teacher, local guarantor, particularly they must keenly listen to their advices, and subjected themselves to inspections in monastery/nunnery. The monks and nuns must shoulder responsibility, be friendly and amicable with peer monks and nuns, and must take care of the younger monks in the learning centers. 9. With commendable zeal and enthusiasm, the monks and nuns in their new monastery/nunnery must follow all rules and regulations set up by monastery/nunnery DMC and its subcommittee. They must also take part in all political education under patriotic education sessions. While filing for leave, they must follow the due procedures as stipulated in previous clauses. If monk or nun without any valid reason and permission skip the class session of political education under patriotic education campaign on one occasion, they will be fined with 10 Yuan as a fee. In one year if they attend only two classes of political education under patriotic education campaign, then they will be fined with 20 Yuan as a fee, plus they will undergo preventive counseling education session (to prevent them from repeating the offense again in future). If they attend only three to four classes of political education under patriotic education campaign in a year, then they will be fined 30 to 40 Yuan as a fee, plus he or she will be placed under surveillance for a period of one year. During this one-year surveillance period if he or she is found to have attended only five classes of political education under patriotic education campaign, then he or she will be permanently expelled from the monastery/nunnery. 150

10. Those monks and nuns who perform odd and miscellaneous administrative tasks must strive hard to advance the ideals of One Motherland China and the unity of all ethnic nationalities. They must respect and adhere the Constitution as well as the law and order. They must protect and preserve sacred monastic treasures and the organizational discipline. They must voluntarily work towards preserving the organizational practices and systems of the monastery/nunnery as well as to fulfill the tasks assign by the DMC. Serious Enforcement of the Following Rules and Regulations 1. Those of scripture teachers, abbots, chant masters, disciplinarians, local guardian-cum-guarantorcum-teacher, monastery keepers and attendants if cause financial losses to the monastery because of their dereliction of duties, and endangers State Security and threatens Social Stability and commits other criminal offenses, they will be handed over to law enforcing bodies by the DMC of the concerned monastery. According to the Criminal Procedure Law (CPL), their offenses will be investigated. 2. The members of DMC is to follow this standard protocol where and whenever important matter arises in the monastery/ nunnery, the DMC members must take unanimous decision based on consensus and discussion and after the matter must be forwarded to the higher authorities for deliberation and decision-making. 3. Those of monks and nuns who commit the following offenses, and if the DMC come to a proper conclusive investigation ascertaining their crimes and if there are tangible and concrete evidences about the offenses committed by monks and nuns, then they should be excommunicated and expelled from the monastery / nunnery.

Religious Freedom

(a) Those who shouts subversive and separatist slogans, those who pastes pamphlet with subversive and anti-state contents, and raise subversive and banned flags, those who paint subversive images, and who take photographs and protests. (b)Those who gather and assemble illegally and set up organizations illegally, who carry out protest marches, who take part in social unrests and protests, who promotes and propagates subversive and anti-state thoughts and ideas or kept or distribute and circulate incriminating materials that promotes and propagates subversive and anti-state ideas and thoughts. (c) Those monks and nuns who dont follow and adhere to the rules and regulations stipulated by the government. Those who stays quiet and illegally in the monastery / nunnery and those who enters monastery / nunnery through deceptive means, and who separates himself/ herself from the monastery and who destroys and disturbs usual monastic discipline, order, and who leads others in creating losses and damages to monastic wealth and property.
(d)Those who incites divisions and enmity between monks and nuns in the name of religion, and destroys the religious harmony in the monastery / nunnery. (e) Those who suppresses and oppresses others faith and devotion through various means and schemes and creates enormous disturbances and chaos. (f ) Those who steals and smuggles treasure relics and properties of the monastery / nunnery, who destroys monastic properties and treasures, those who replaces ancient treasures and relics with fake ones, and smuggles monastic treasures and relics out of the monastery / nunnery.

be expelled from the monastery / nunnery. The following are the types of monks and nuns that should be expelled from the monastery / nunnery. (a) Those monks and nuns who do not have special and specific reasons for taking leave and stay beyond their stipulated leave period up to 15 days at a stretch after granting the leave and do not return to monastery / nunnery on time. (b)Those monks and nuns who leaves monastery / nunnery without the consent and permission of the DMC for 7 days at stretch. (c) The disciplinary and legal actions must be taken on those of monks and nuns in group of two or more who left monastery / nunnery for 7 days at a stretch according to the enforcement currently implemented by the TAR government in their Issuance of Leave Protocol. (d)Those monks and nuns who keep monk or nun disciples without the permission of the specific department of the Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB). (e) Those monks and nuns who leaves his / her monastic organization, willingly and voluntarily leaves the monastery / nunnery, or willingly excommunicates himself / herself from the monastic organization in advance knowing well that his or her expulsion decision had been taken up by the DMC and other authorities. The expulsion decisions must be made on those monks and nuns who are indicted of criminal offenses, the DMC must prepare a written document confirming their expulsions from monastery / nunnery and must convene an assembly of monks and nuns during which their expulsion must be publicly declared and announced. Moreover, the registration certificate of those monks and nuns must be confiscated and seized on the day of their expulsion, their names must be dropped from the monastic community and hence forever forbidden to participate and indulge in any kinds of religious

4. Those of monks and nuns who still refuses or are not reformed despite subjected to numerous patriotic education campaigns, must be either separated from the monastery / nunnery or must

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ceremonies and rituals in future, in any part of the country. They must be excommunicated and expelled from the monastery / nunnery, and also voluntarily separated himself / herself from the monastery / nunnery. The concerned monastery DMC and its sub-committees must report and submit to their immediate authorities of the Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) as well as to the local police stations the names of those monks and nuns who leave monastic organization in advance, and those who are excommunicated and expelled due to their criminal offenses.

Rules and Regulations and the Monastic Code of Conducts


1. 2. 3. 4. Abstain from killing Renounce attachments Abstain from stealing others properties Telling lies and falsehood

The aforementioned rules are monastic code of conducts. 5. Not allowed to grow long hairs 6. Not allowed to smoke and consume alcohols 7. Not allowed to play Mahjong, dice, play cards, snooker and other gambling activities 8. Not allowed to participate in dance and music 9. Not allowed to shout and speak aloud in the place of worship 10.Not allowed to enter discothques, video game dens, internet centers and bars 11.Not allowed to wear lay peoples clothes except in the case of performing manual tasks, other than that the monks and nuns must wear proper religious ropes and wardrobes in the monastery and nunnery compound. 12.Not allowed to drive motorbike and cars while wearing religious ropes and wardrobes. 13.Not allowed to form clubs such as classmates and hometown mates, especially not allowed setting up secret organizations in the monastery / nunnery. 152

14.Monks and nuns must honor the spiritual sanctity of monks residence quarters and common rooms in monastery and nunnery. Monks and nuns are not being allowed to keep outsiders in residence quarters and common rooms. 15.Those monks and nuns who violate rules and regulations and monastic code of conducts will be fined and made to do community service. They will be also reprimanded according to monastic code of conducts such as making them to do prostrations, to perform repentances and purifications prayers and rituals, they will not allowed to enter the Prayer Hall to recite sutras and prayers, even if he or she is sometimes allowed, he or she will not have any right to receive monetary gifts offered by patrons and devotees. 16.If monks and nuns violate rules and regulations and the monastic code of conducts, suitable and appropriate actions such as ex-communication and expulsion from the monastery and nunnery will be enforced based on the stipulated rule and regulations announced by the government. Similarly the monks and nuns will be handed over to the local Public Security Bureau authority of the place where the jurisdiction of their Household Registration Card falls under. 17.If violations of rules and regulations and monastic code of conducts do take place, suitable and appropriate actions should be taken depending on the seriousness of their offenses. Also their local guardian-cum-teacher-cum-guarantor must also be put under scanner and his responsibility should be investigated.

Post Script
The Democratic Management Committee (DMC) must submit a half-yearly report on religious affairs in their monastery / nunnery to the concerned offices and department of the Chinese government. Moreover the DMC publicly must inform the large

Religious Freedom

section of monastic community about various religious works, affairs and educational campaigns in religious institutions. It is particularly important to brief monastic community about dealing with disciplinary problems of monks and nuns. If there arises issues and problems in religious institutions, then it is the sole responsibility of the DMC of the concerned monastery / nunnery to take up its initiative and deal with them accordingly. In order to assess the effectiveness and meaningfulness of the stipulated rules and regulations, by the end of every year the Township level government or office of the local government will review the rules and regulations. Those rules and regulations, which are found not effective, will be set aside under review panel and subjected to further scrutiny. If there arises lack of clarity and difficulty in understanding and comprehending the aforementioned rules and regulations, it will be the sole responsibility of the Peoples Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) of the municipality or village level DMC to explain and clarify them. The rules and regulations shall become effective on the day of the declaration and at the same time the previous rules and regulations, if any, exist in the past shall be repealed simultaneously.

testified to TCHRD about his ordeal and the general state of gross violation of religious freedom in his monastery.

A Tibetan woman pilgrim seen going for prostation around a temple

TESTIMONY A pilgrim stopped from undertaking his pilgrimage journey61


A Tibetan pilgrim monk from Chamdo Prefecture, Tengchen County, TAR, upon his safe arrival in Kathmandu Reception Centre testified to the Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy (TCHRD) about the trials and tribulations he faced on his pilgrimage to the holy city of Lhasa in April 2008. However, for the safety and well being of his relative in Tengchen County and his peer monks at monastery, he withheld his name while giving his testimony. He recounted: I (name withheld), 29, was from Khatong village, Sertsa Township,Kyungpo Tengcheng County, Chamdo Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR). I spent twelve years in Tashi-ling Monastery as a monk. At the time of my leaving, there were around 40 monks, and out of which 22 were juvenile monks under 18, or staying illegally in the monastery. In the past the Chinese government issued new regulations, which bound the entire af-

Disruption of Religious Devotion


On 25 February 2009, the traditional custom of going for religious visits to important monasteries was curtailed. Strict ban was imposed on get together celebrations and association during the Tibetan New Year festivities. One such incident of blockage on religious activities took place in Lhasa city when a religious devotee who was on a pilgrimage by prostration, crossing of hundreds of miles from Nagchu County to Lhasa was stopped by the Chinese authorities and repeatedly sent back to his native village. On one occasion he was detained, questioned and later released. The Tibetan devotee later came to exile in India, upon which he

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fairs of monastery. Under the regulation the Chinese government issued ceiling on the number of monks, a monastery can house. And also the monasteries are not allowed to house monks below the age of 18. If any monastery violates the official regulation, then it would face possible closure and severe fines. However, the monasteries inside Tibet still do take serious risks by housing underage monks. When the Democratic Management Committee (DMC) and Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) conduct surprise raids in our monastery, then underage monks would flee the monastery and remained in hideouts until DMC and RAB officials left our monastery. In that way the underage monks do face great hardships for acquiring proper monastic education and spiritual development. Since the outbreak of pan-Tibet protests in 2008, the implementation of patriotic education in our monastery had been more frequent. During the patriotic education sessions, we were forced to oppose, criticize and denounce the Dalai Lama. This session was most difficult to most of our monks. In another session we were forced to oppose the separatist forces and hostile international splittist groups. Whenever the DMC and RAB organized meetings in the monastery to conduct patriotic education, the monks would often try to bunk the meetings. They simply detest such patriotic education sessions. During the patriotic education sessions, the DMC and RAB officials used to distribute papers called opinion writing where we had to write our criticism and scathing immoral attacks on the Dalai Lama. We were also made to levy charges against the Dalai Lama stating that he plotted and instigated the last years March protest in Lhasa city. In end we had to sign opinion paper with our fingerprint and signature. In that manner the monks were never allowed to settle down for their monastic studies and spiritual contemplation, instead, they were harassed, disturbed all the time in the name of pa-

triotic education and loving motherland country. We monks never found peace in our monastery.

The Chinese government run radio would often bombard people with all kinds of lies and propaganda claiming monks are enthusiastically taking part in great patriotic education campaign in great number and with great success. However, the true situation on the ground was a far cry from actual truth. Not a single monk like the patriotic education campaign and also in future not one will either like it. The situation in our monastery had become extremely oppressive and repressive. There was no freedom, peace and happiness around. Every monk in our monastery was dreaming of leaving the monastery and come to India to pursue monastic education. On my part, I devised a plan to go for a pilgrimage to holy city of Lhasa by prostrating. In doing so, I could at least avoid the unhappy environment at our monastery as well as to devote my life to true spiritual pursuits. In March 2008, I started my prostration journey from Tashi-ling Monastery to Lhasa city. However, when I reached Nagchu County, Nagchu Prefecture on 20 March 2008, I was told by Nagchu officials not to continue my prostration pilgrimage to Lhasa city, and I was turned back with much pain and disappointment. Undaunted by difficulties, in July 2008, I once again resumed my pilgrimage to Lhasa city. Once again Chamdo authorities stopped me from undertaking my prostration journey to Lhasa city. Then I boarded a bus and reached Lhasa city. While I was doing my prostration at Bakhor, at around 4 am in the morning, the Lhasa Public Security Bureau (PSB) arrested me. I was taken to a detention center where I was interrogated about the purpose of my coming to Lhasa. They immediately seized my bag pack and searched it. It only contained a cushion I

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used for prostration. Because they arrested me on suspicion ground, I was quickly released. However, I couldnt continue my prostration devotion and pilgrimage. I made my mind to escape to India and today I am before you. There is no religious freedom inside Tibet. I come here to undertake religious study and spiritual contemplation in one of the Tibetan monasteries in south India.

Ban Imposed on Important Religious Occassion


Despite their protected status, religious ceremonies continue to be strongly restricted in Tibet in direct contravention of international laws protecting the freedom to manifest ones religion. Prohibitions continue to be in place for important days like Saka Dawa62, Gaden Ngyamchoe63, and the birthdays of the Dalai Lama and the 11th Panchen Lama Gedhun Choekyi Nyima. Those failing to abide by these orders risk expulsion from school and fines. The basic protection of the right to worship or assemble in connection with ones religion as noted previously,64 is directly violated by Articles 27, 28 and 14 in the Implementing Measures. Articles 27 and 28 establish the unfettered authority in the relevant governmental department to directly manage, without any accountability, a religious event that exceeds the capacity of an approved religious venue to ensure that it is carried out with safety and order. No guidelines are provided for what safety and order means, or for what level of supervision would be acceptable by the government. Thus, no guarantees are provided that these intrusions by the government will not infringe or even prohibit the freedom to worship at such a religious event. Further, under Article 14, religious gatherings (just the general collective activity of religious citizens) have been outright prohibited unless held at registered, approved religious venues, or a site appointed by the peoples government religious affairs department

at the county level or above. Further, they must be presided over by religious personnel pre-approved by the government. Implicit in this article is the fear and consequent distrust of the Chinese government of the practice and power of religion of religious people gathering without the control and watchful eye of the state. In essence, this provision reflects the Chinese policy that the practice of religion, or at least Tibetan Buddhism, in China is not valid or legal until expressly sanctioned by the government. Earlier, a monk named Tapey from Kirti Jhepa Monastery, in his mid twenties immolated himself on 27 February 2009 at towns main road. Eyewitnesses reported that he was carrying a picture of the Dalai Lama and was shouting slogans. Reports say he was shot by the Chinese security forces and then collapsed on ground.65 In an ICT update released on 1 March 2009, it was further substantiated that he set himself on fire after officials announced a ban on marking the Monlam prayer festival at Kirti. The Monlam (Great Prayer) Festival, falls on 4th -11th day of the 1st Tibetan month in Tibetan Buddhism directly after the Tibetan New Year (Losar). As the greatest religious festival in Tibet, thousands of monks (of the three main monasteries of Drepung, Sera and Ganden) traditionally gathered for chanting prayers and performing religious rituals at the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa.66 A day before the self-immolation, a thousand monks gathered at Kirti Monastery to demand the Chinese authorities to allow them to hold the great prayer festival. Meanwhile, a report released by Xinhua said that the monk was recovering from the burn inju-

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

ries. Xinhuas report on 6 March 2009 denies the initial reports by some Tibetans that the monk was shot by the Chinese security police as he immolated himself.

China Banned Important Religious Event in Barkham County67


The Emergency Coordination Committee of Kirti Monastery in Dharamsala issued a press statement on 28 December 2009 regarding the imposition of ban on annual congregation of Tibetan Buddhist monks in Barkham County. According to the tradition, which started three years back, the third annual winter session on Valid Cognition, (Sanskrit: pramana Tib: Tsema) was to be held at Gyalrong Kirti Tsodhun Monastery. It was a month long religious event that attracted thousands of monks from over fifty monasteries in Qinghai and Sichuan Provinces. The first ever religious congregation on Valid Cognition was held in 2007 at Tagtsang Lhamo Kirti monastery during which the four major monasteries of Kirti Tsang, Tagtsang Lhamo Kirti, Ngaba Kirti, Tsodhun Kirti and Hortsang Kirti decided to take turns to host the event. Last years congregation of Valid Cognition was held at Ngaba Kirti under severe atmosphere of restriction and vigilance by the Chinese government. The monastery was cordoned off and monks and nuns from other monasteries and nunneries were not allowed to participate in the important religious event. This year the annual congregation on Valid Cognition was to be hosted by Tsodhun Monastery and the preparations for the event was underway. However on 2 December 2009, Barkham County authorities issued the imposition of ban on the religious event, for violating the so-called rules and regulations (consisted of 9 articles and 44 clauses) earlier announced on 16 August 2009 by the Chi-

nese government. Since then Tsodhun Monastery has been placed under close vigilance and restriction. The rules and regulations provided tough regulation and control over religious institutions in Tibet. It is Chinas newest attempt to legitimize the repression of religious freedom inside Tibet. On 16 December 2009, around 20 local authorities, including high ranking Deputy Party Secretary of Ngaba Tibet Autonomous Prefecture (TAP) called up a meeting of monks at Tsodhun Monastery and announced that the years annual religious congregation on Valid Cognition could not be held under the rules and regulations. He issued a strict warning to monks and nuns of arrest, detention and closure of the monastery if they refused to comply the government order. The Chinese authorities refused to reverse the ban despite repeated attempts by senior monks of Tsogdhun Monastery to allay the Chinese authorities suspicions. Moreover the Chinese authorities accused Kirti Monastery of spearheading the last years protest against the Chinese government as well as coming under the influence of Kirti Rinpoche, a prominent Buddhist scholar and teacher based in Dharamsala, India to stage separatist activities.

Conclusion
The year 2009 has been the year of unprecedented repression of the religious freedom in all parts of Tibet. The year also saw the intensification of the infamous patriotic education campaign in religious institutions across Tibet, resulting in widespread violation of freedom of religious worship and beliefs. Unlike previous years, the year also witnessed the extension of patriotic education campaign in secular society, particular in areas that saw serious protests and demonstrations during the pan-Tibet uprising of 2008. In the past the launch of patriotic education campaign appeared to be sporadic but

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since the beginning of this year onwards, it has been systematic, protracted and enforced with newfound vigor and zeal by the Chinese authorities. The Dalai Lama continues to be linked with every aspect of religious devotion and spiritual activities of Buddhist monks and nuns in Tibet. The Chinese security continues to intimidate, restrict activities and movements of monks and nuns in religious institutions. Religious institutions across Tibet continue to face steady decline in the quality of religious education. In the backdrop of the stringent enforcement of patriotic education campaign, the future of Tibetan Buddhism appears bleak and dark. In every aspect the year 2009 has been one of the worst years of religious repression in Tibet for decades.

10

11 12

13 14 15

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17

Endnotes
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TEARS OF BLOOD - Mary Craig, 1992, A CRY FOR TIBET, Harper Collins Religious, pg. 27 The relevant provisions protecting the freedom to manifest ones religion are found in: UDHR, Article 18; ICCPR, Articles 18(1), (3); 1981 Declaration of the General Assembly, Article 6; General Comment 22, par. 4; and Commission on Human Rights, Resolution 2005/40, 2005, par. 4, E/CN/4/RES/2005/ 40 (cited infra as Commission on Human Rights 2005 Resolution). United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief, 25 November 1981, Article 6(a), A/RES/36/55 (cited infra as 1981 Declaration of the General Assembly). Human Rights Committee, General Comment 22, 1993, par. 4, available at http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/ 9a30112c27d1167cc12563ed004d8f15?Opendocument (cited infra as General Comment 22). The relevant provisions protecting the freedom of religion from coercion are found in: UDHR, Article 18; ICCPR, Article 18(2);1981 Declaration of the General Assembly, Article 1(2); and General Comment 22, par. 4. 1981 Declaration of the General Assembly, Article 6(a); General Comment 22, par. 4. 1981 Declaration of the General Assembly, Article 6(a);General Comment 22, par. 4. 1981 Declaration of the General Assembly, Article 6(a); General Comment 22, par. 4. 1981 Declaration of the General Assembly, Article 6(a); GeneralComment 22, par. 4.

19

20 21 22

23 24

25

26

27

1981 Declaration of the General Assembly, Article 6(h); GeneralComment 22, par. 4. 1981 Declaration of the General Assembly, Article 6(h); GeneralComment 22, par. 4. General comment par. 4 1981 Declaration of the General Assembly, Article 6(g); General Comment 22, par. 4. General comment, par.4 1981 Declaration of the General Assembly, Article 6(g); General Comment 22, par. 4; 1981 Declaration of the General Assembly, Article 6(d); Commission on Human Rights 2005 Resolution, par. 4.d. See Living Buddha, Official Document 1, pp. 89-98 (translation of the TAR Measures for Implementation of the Regulations for Religious Affairs). TCHRD Annual Report 2006: Human Rights Situation in Tibet, TCHRD, January 2007, Executive Summary, available at http://www.tchrd.org/publications/hr_updates/2007/ hr200701.html#Executive. TCHRD Annual Report 2006: Human Rights Situation in Tibet, TCHRD, January 2007, Executive Summary, available at http:/ / w w w. t c h r d . o r g / p u b l i c a t i o n s / h r _ u p d a t e s / 2 0 0 7 / hr200701.html#Executive. CECC Report, General Overview, Executive Summary Freedom of Religion; USCIRF Report, p. 120 (legal reforms, which were issued with the promise of increased religious freedom protections, have not halted abuses and are used in some cases to justify arrests and other restrictions); TCHRD Annual Report 2005, Human Rights Situation in Tibet, TCHRD, January 2005, Religion Chapter, fn. 52, 53, available at http://www.tchrd.org/publications/annual_reports/2005/ ar_2005.pdf; Michael Weisskopf, Report: China Repression Worsening, Phayul.com, 15 October 2007, available at http:/ /www.phayul.com/news/article.aspx?id=18230. States were described as schizophrenic in the context of their incongruent international undertakings in an article by FIDH. Report, The WTO and human rights, For the primacy of human rights, FIDH, November 2001, No. 320/2, p. 4 (cited infra as Primacy of Human Rights). Living Buddha, p. 4 (citing Xinhuanet, March 2, 2007). CECC Report, General Overview and Freedom of Religion. Two monks commit suicide in Amdo Ngaba, 4 April 2008, Http://www.tchrd.org/press/2008/pr20080404a.html Ibid Ngaba (Ch:Aba) County, Ngaba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province - Repression leads monk to commit suicide, Updates on Tibet, 22 April 2008 A monk commits suicide due to patriotic re-education, Update on Tibet Demonstrations, 21 July 2008, http:// www.tibet.net/en/flash/2008/0708/21C0708.html Five Ramoche monks missing since April raid, September 2008, http://www.tchrd.org/publications/hr_updates/2008/ hr200809.html Nine monks sentenced, other committed suicide in Tibet, 10 February 2009, http://www.tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090210.html

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Ragya Monastery encircled, reeling under severe restriction, 23 March 2009, http://www.tchrd.org/press/2009/ pr20090323b.html Mass detentions of monks, suicides and despair as enforced condemnation of Dalai Lama provokes dissent, 29 April 2009, http://www.savetibet.org/media-center/ict-news-reports/ mass-detentions-monks-suicides-and-despair-enforcedcondemnation-dalai-lama-provokes-disse Ibid Aggressive anti-Dalai Lama campaign in Kham; imminent food shortages feared as result of security sweep, 17 April 2009, http://www.savetibet.org/media-center/ict-news-reports/ aggressive-anti-dalai-lama-campaign-kham-imminent-foodshortages-feared-result-security-sw Ngaba (Ch: Aba) County, Ngaba TAP (incorporated into a Chinese province of Sichuan) - A teenager monk from Kirti Dhongri monastery commits suicide due to patriotic reeducation, Update on Tibet Demonstrations, 9 July 2008, h t t p : / / w w w . t i b e t . n e t / e n / index.php?id=285&articletype=flash&rmenuid=morenews Fear of arrest and torture causes Tibetan monk to Commit suicide in Tibet, 21 April 2008, http://www.tibet.net/en/ index.php?id=846&articletype=flash Meldro Gungkar (Ch: Mozhugongka) County, Lhasa municipality- Protests held again, Update on Tibet, 26 April 2008, http://www.tibet.net/en/flash/2008/0408/ 26C0408.html Identified list of Tibetans killed under Chinas crackdown since 10 March 2008, http://www.tibet.net/en/pdf/ tibetans_killed_2008.pdf Tibetan Monks in Critical Condition After Attempted Suicide, as Protests Mount, 13 March 2008, http://www.rfa.org/ english/news/politics/tibet_protest-20080313.html Self-immolated man asked to amputate his legs, 13 March 2009, http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090313.html TCHRD Press Release, Dated: 10 February 2010, Nine monks sentenced, other committed suicide in Tibet TCHRD Press Release, Dated: 20 July 2009, A Tibetan monk sentenced to 3-years in jail for opposing Patriotic education Campaign http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090720.html. TCHRD Press Release, Dated: 24 July 2009, China expels disciplinary head of Amdo Jaqung Monastery http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090724.html. Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief, Asma Janhangir, Extracts from the Annual Reports 2006 and 2007 of the Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief, Asma Janhangir, par. 35, Framework for Communications, E/ CN.4/2006/5 (cited infra as Special Rapporteur Extracts). Human Rights Committee, General Comment 22, 1993, par. 4, available at http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/ 9a30112c27d1167cc12563ed004d8f15?Opendocument (cited infra as General Comment 22). The relevant provisions protecting the freedom of religion from coercion are found in: UDHR, Article 18; ICCPR, Article 18(2); United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms

45

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48 49

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51 52

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55 56 57

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59 60

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of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief, 25 November 1981, Article 1(2), A/RES/36/55 (cited infra as 1981 Declaration of the General Assembly); and General Comment 22, par. 4. Human Rights Committee, General Comment 22, 1993, par. 4, available at http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/ 9a30112c27d1167cc12563ed004d8f15?Opendocument (cited infra as General Comment 22). The relevant provisions protecting the freedom of religion from coercion are found in: UDHR, Article 18; ICCPR, Article 18(2); United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief, 25 November 1981, Article 1(2), A/RES/36/55 (cited infra as 1981 Declaration of the General Assembly); and General Comment 22, par. 4. TCHRD Press Release, Dated: 22 April 2009, A popular Tibetan religious head put on trial in Kardze Tibetan living Buddha Phurbu Tsering jailed by China, http:/ /news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8436865.stm http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090422.html. TCHRD Press Release: Dated: 22 November 2009, Tongkor shooting survivor reaches exile with a harrowing tale TCHRD Press Release: Dated: 22 November 2009, Tongkor shooting survivor reaches exile with a harrowing tale http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090403b.html. TCHRD Press Release, Dated: 7 December 2009, Kardze nun protestor died under mysterious circumstances in Chengdu Hospital Kathmandu Interview No. 12, Dated: 24 September 2009, Anti Dalai campaign in Nagchu County Kathmandu Interview No. 14, Dated: 16 February 2009, Be a good monk of the Communist China! http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090828.html. http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090828.html. Kathmandu Interview No. 11, Dated: 21 January 2009, Kumbum Monastery under patriotic educationcampaign Arjia Rinpoche (Lobsang Thupten Juimai Gyatso) is the spiritual head of Kumbum Monastery, one of the six largest monasteries of the Gelugpa school of Tibetan Buddhism. It is the birthplace of Lama Tsong Khapa (founder of the school which is now headed by the Dalai Lama). Kumbum Monastery was once the home of 3,600 monks and well revered by the four well known Buddhist Colleges for higher learning: The Institute of Sutra, Institute of Tantra, Institute of Tibetan Medicine, and the Institute of the Kalachakra (Astrology). In the 1980s, after Buddhism began to revive in Tibet and in China, Arjia Rinpoche reestablished monastic life and traditional studies at Kumbum. Since his defection in 1998, he sought exile in America, where he has since been living there. Living Buddha, p. 24. Kathmandu Interview No. 4, Dated: 12 September 2009, repression of religious freedom in Tsang Tashi Lhunpo Monastery Kathmandu Interview No. 3, Dated: 4 August 2009, A pilgrim stopped from undertaking his pilgrimage journey

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62 63

64

65 66

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Buddha Shakyamunis Birth, Enlightenment and Parinirvana The day on which Je Tsongkapa, founder of Gelugpa Sect of Tibetan Buddhism passed away. The day on which Je Tsongkapa, founder of Gelugpa Sect of Tibetan Buddhism passed away. http://tchrd.org/press/2009/pr20090216a.html. h t t p : / / w w w. s a v e t i b e t . o r g / f i l e s / d o c u m e n t s / new_protest_today_in_Ngaba_030109.pdf. Press Statement issued by Emergency Coordination of Kirti Monastery, 28 December 2009, China bans the third annual winter session of Tsema congregation

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List of Known Tibetans Sentenced


Affiliation Gonsar Monastery 11/4/2008 Lithang Monastery Date of Arrest Date of SentencePrison Origin Derge County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Chigdril County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Youruma, Lithang Kardze, TAP Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province

8/21/2007 00/03/2008 23/09/2008 Dragkar Nunnery 24/03/2008 Kongpo Bangri Monastery26/08/99 Dingkha Monastery Benkar Monastery 00/08/2008 Benkar Monastery 00/08/2008 Palden Gyuto Monastery 24/05/2008 Khabchen Monastery Pangri Na Nunnery 4/7/2009 00/00/08-09

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

Sex M M M M M M F M M M M M M M F M M M F Serwa Monastery 21/04/2009 14/05/2008 22/03/2008 14/04/2008 29/03/94 00/00/2008 00/00/2008 25/03/2008 4/11/2008 00/00/2009 00/01/2009 8/4/2009

160
00/01/2009 00/00/08-09

TCHRD Name Age 08-166 Aa Dhonyoe 08-079 Aati 08-185 Aatruk Phuntsok 07-002 Adruk Lopoe 45 08-036 Bagdro 08-046 Bakula 08-080 Bamo 99-046 Bangri Rinpoche 40 08-197 Basang ( Passang) 08-189 Bhu Tengay 08-190 Bhuchung Norbu 09-086 Bhuchung Tsering 34 08-167 Bhugha 09-095 Bhulhuk 56 09-024 Bhumo 36 08-131 BhurjamTsang Choephel 33 08-168 Bumga 22 94- 077 Chemi Dorjee ? 26 09-036 Chime 20 09-077 Chime Gonpo 08-058 Choden 08-176 Choedon 08-132 Choephel 33 09-005 Choephel 33 09-111 Choephel 24 08-111 Choephel Tashi 09-044 Choetso Dolma 96-224 Dawa Dorjee 31 09-033 Dawa Sangpo 30 98-030 Dawa Tsering 54 08-081 Deyang 08-151 Dhargyal 26 08-025 Dhola 09-002 Dhungtso 20 08-026 Dolkyab Tsang Lama Kyab19 08-082 Dolma 06-009 Dolma Kyap 30 08-177 Dolma Yangtso 09-045 Dolma Yangtso 34 08-083 Donyang 08-133 Dorjee 09-040 Dorjee 08-112 Dorjee Dhargyal 08-160 Dorjee Dolma

M F M M M M F M M M F M M F M F M` F F

4/4/2008 00/00/2008 00/03/2008 Gaden Choeling Nunnery 14/05/2008 Bank Employee 00/00/96 00/00/2008 Farmer 00/09/98 Ngangong Nunnery 24/04/2008 15/03/2008 Ghema Draggo Nunnery 18/06/2008 11/4/2008 Dragkar Nunnery 24/03/2008 Teacher, Writer 9/3/2005 Ngangong Nunnery 25/03/2008 Sertha Buddhist Institute 25/03/2008 M 20-21/03/2008 M Kirti Monastery 14/05/2008 M 00/03/2008 F 15/03/2008

Term Court 6 Yrs 3 Yrs 8 Yrs Dartsedo PSB DC10 yrs 15 Yrs + 1Y&2M 3 Yrs Chushul Prison 18 yrs Life 8Yrs 8Yrs Shelkar 2Y&6M C P I P Court 6 Yrs 2 Yrs C P I P Court Trimon 9 Yrs K C P Court 4 Yrs 6 Yrs Chushul Prison 15 yrs 10 Yrs L M I P Court 3 Yrs 2 Yrs 7 Yrs 4 Yrs 4 Yrs N C P Court Chushul 2Y&6M L M I P Court 3-14 Yrs Chengdu 1 Yrs K C P Court Chushul Prison 16 yrs Life Imprisonment L M I P Court Chushul Prison 15 Yrs 3 Yrs 5 Yrs 15 Yrs Chengdu 2 Yrs K C P Court 15 Yrs 3 Yrs Xiling Prison 10 yrs 7 Yrs 2 Yrs 3 Yrs 4 Yrs 2 Yrs N C P Court 3-14 Yrs 5-14 Yrs

Toelung Dechen County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Driru County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Driru County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Dingri County, Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Chamdo Pashoe Namling County, Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Rebkong County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Chogri, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Taktse County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Nagchu Markham, Chamdo TAR Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Tsochang,TAP Qinghai Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR"

List of Known Tibetans Sentenced


Affiliation Date of Arrest Date of Sentence Prison Gaden Choeling Nunnery 14/05/2008 18/03/2008 00/00/08-09 Thanggya Monastery 1/4/2008 00/03/2008 Benkar Monastery 00/03/2008 Ngaba Kirti Monastery 28-29/03/2008 Court

Age Sex F 18 M 31 M M M 42 M M M M M M

161

TCHRD 08-178 09-026 08-027 08-041 08-077 08-048 08-084 09-021 09-101 08-085 09-067 09-079 08-022 09-060 08-059 04-017 09-014 06-012 09-121 00-008 08-198 08-001 09-103 08-134 09-094 09-003 02-038 09-051 09-074 08-047 09-100 08-086 08-060 09-058 09-090 07-005 08-087 08-037 96-259 08-135 08-050 08-028 08-199 08-161

Name Dorjee Khando Dorjee Tashi Dorjee Wangyal Dorjor Drakpa Gyaltsen Drukda Gari Karma Tsephel Gelek Gendun Goga Goga Gonpo Gyaltsen Gonpo Tsekho Gonpo Tsering Gosoe Gyalpo Gyaltsen Gyaltsen Namdak Gyatso Nyima Gyurmey ? Gyurmey Dhondup Gyurmey Thinley Hu-Lo Jamdrup Jampa Jampa Dickyi Jampa Namgyal Jamphel Jamyang Jamyang Choephel Jamyang Khedrup Jamyang Lodoe Jamyang Nyima Jamyang Sherab Jamyang Tenzin Jamyang Tenzin Jangsem Nyima Jigme Jigme Gyatso Jigtrin Tsang Namse Jinpa Kalbar Kalbha Kalden Chodak

30 M 32 M M 26 M M 24 M M 28 M 28 M M M 21 M 46 M 20 F 40 M 29 M

Origin Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province K C P Court Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Gonjo County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Driru County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Tawu County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province L I P Court Lhodrag County, Lhoka Prefecture "TAR" Ma C P Court Machen County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province D C P Court Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, TAP Sichuan L I P Court Tsona County, Lhoka Prefecture "TAR" Shigatse, TAR Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sog.Sogrongmi Gonjo County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ma C P Court Machen County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province

21 M M 15 M 30 M 42 M 35 M 33 M 22 M 26 M 34 M 38 M M 23 M 23 M M

Term 7 Yrs 3 Yrs 15 Yrs 15 Yrs+ 2Yrs 1Y&4M 3 Yrs Sang Nag Choekor M 15/03/2008 00/05-06/2008 2 Yrs Ragya Monastery 21/03/2009 13/08/2009 1 Yrs 18/03/2008 3 Yrs 00/00/2008 3 Yrs 00/00/2008 3 Yrs 14 Yrs 00/00/2008 00/00/2009 3 Yrs 21/03/2008 2 Yrs 00/02/04 Ngapa Prison 11yrs Samye Monastery 15/03/2008 00/05-06/2008 15 Yrs Sera Monastery 00/05/2006 Chushul Prison 5 Yrs 6/6/2008 00/04/2009 Chengdu 1 Yrs Sog Tsedhen Monastery 17/03/00 Chushul Prison 10 yrs Thanggya Monastery 1/4/2008 Life 10 Yrs 21/03/2009 13/08/2009 1 Yrs Khenpa Lung Monastery 12/5/2008 4 Yrs Khabchen Monastery 4/7/2009 2 Yrs 31/05/2008 00/01/2009 Chengdu 2 Yrs N/A 00/01/02 Ngaba Prison 9yrs 11/8/2008 7/5/2009 4 Yrs 00/00/2008 3 Yrs Ngaba Kirti Monastery 28-29/03/2008 1Y&3M Ragya Monastery 21/03/2009 13/08/2009 2 Yrs Khenpa Lung Monastery 12/5/2008 3 Yrs Kirti Dongri Monastery 30/03/2008 2 Yrs Dhen Choekor M 9-10/1/2009 22/05/2009 13 Yrs Yonru Geyden Rabgayling 3/10/2007 3/7/2009 3 Yrs Youru Geydenling M 10/3/2007 Lithang PSB DC 8yrs 6/6/2008 3 Yrs Dingkha Monastery 17/03/2008 15 Yrs + Amdo Labrang Monastery 30/03/96 Chushul Prison 18 Yrs 00/03/2008 4 Yrs Rongpo Monastery 1Y&6M 16/03/2008 15 Yrs 17/03/2008 life 15/03/2008 5-14 Yrs

C P I P Court Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" K C P Court Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County D C P Court Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Ma C P Court Machen County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province J C P Court Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" K C P Court Lithang County, kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Youru Sakhor, Lithang, Kardze TAP Dzatoe County, Jyekundo "TAP" Qinghai Province Toelung Dechen County,Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Kanlho Sangchu Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Rebkong County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Ngaba County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR"

Appendices

List of Known Tibetans Sentenced


Affiliation Farmer Dingkha Monastery Court

Age 26 28 22 39 Thanggya Monastery L M I P Court

Origin Youru Kharshul, Lithang Kardze, TAP Toelung Dechen County,Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture,"TAR" Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Gonjo County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR"

27 30 23 Trosik Monastery Lutsang Monastery Ngangong Nunnery

Dingkha Monastery

Date of Arrest 10/3/2007 17/03/2008 10/3/2008 25/03/2008 00/03/2008 1/4/2008 00/03/2008 00/00/2008 18/03/2008 20/03/2008

21

36 Tsang Monastery Tsendrak Monastery

00/03/2008 25/02/2009 25/03/2008 20/03/2008 11/4/2008

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

16

33 39

162

19 20

Toelung Dechen County,Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Riwoche County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Ngaba County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" M C P Court Mangra County, Tsolho "TAP" Qinghai Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province N C P Court Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Rebkong County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province C P I P Court Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" K I P Court Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province K I P Court Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province N C P Court Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Gonjo County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" K I P Court

32

Chigdral County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Lithang,Karze TAP Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province D C P Court

23 20

24

TCHRD 07-006 08-038 08-113 08-088 08-114 08-200 08-115 09-032 08-042 08-089 08-061 08-072 09-048 08-179 09-125 08-015 08-002 08-003 09-082 09-085 09-123 08-136 09-039 08-004 08-043 09-124 07-003 08-090 08-091 09-052 08-029 08-092 08-162 08-137 09-073 09-112 08-116 08-117 09-011 08-138 08-093 08-139 09-084 09-042 11/4/2008 00/00/2008 Gaden Choephel Ling M 18/03/2008 26/02/2009 Gyupa Monastery 29/03/2008 Kirti Monastery 14/05/2008 Thanggya Monastery 3/4/2008 Thanggya Monastery Labrang Tashi Kyi M 17/03/2009 Teacher 8/22/2007 24/03/2008 Khenpa Lung Monastery 11/8/2008 11/4/2008 Gonsar Monastery 15/03/2008 Dragkar Nunnery 7/4/2008 00/00/2008 00/00/2008 00/03/2008 00/03/2008 Yarteng Nunnery 18/06/2008 Dragkar Nunnery Achog Tsenyi Monastery 24/04/2008 Gaden Choephel Ling M 18/03/2008 Kardze Monastery 14/05/2008

Name Kalgyam Kalsang Bakdo Kalsang Dhondup Kalsang Dorjee Kalsang Nyima Kalsang Tsering Kalsang Tsering Kangtsuk Karma Dawa Karma Gyaltsen Kel Tson Kelden Kelsang Gyatso Khando Lhamo Khang Kunchok Khechok Khedup Gyatso Kunchok Kunchok Dhondup Kunchok Jinpa Kunchok Tsephel Kunchok Tsultrim Kunga Kunga Phuntsok Kunga Tenzin Kunga Tsayang Kunkhen Kunsang Dorjee Kunyang Lama Lama Kyab Lama Tagyal Lhakdon Lhakpa Choetso(lhatruk) Lhakpa Tsering Lhakpa Tsering Lhakpa Tsering (Chewa) Lhakpa Tsering (Chungwa) Lhamo Lhamo Choetso Lhudrup Tendar Lhundup Lobsang Lobsang Choegyen

22

29 33 43 32 36 18

Sex M M M M M M M M M M M M M F M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M F F M M M M F F M M M M

Date of Sentence Prison Term Lithang PSB DC 5yrs 15 Yrs + 3-14 Yrs 3 Yrs 3-14 Yrs Life 3-14 Yrs 8/4/2009 S.Death sentence 15 Yrs+ 3 Yrs 2 Yrs 20 Yrs 2 Yrs 7 Yrs 00/00/2008 2 Yrs 13 Yrs 10 Yrs 10 Yrs 00/00/2008 Drapchi 4 Yrs 12 Yrs 12/11/2009 15 Yrs 4 Yrs 00/00/08-09 2 Yrs 10 Yrs 15Yrs 12/11/2009 5 Yrs Dartsedo PSB DC 9 yrs 3 Yrs 3 Yrs 7/5/2009 4 Yrs 15 Yrs 3 Yrs 5-14 Yrs 4 Yrs 7 Yrs 00/00/2009 5 Yrs 3-14 Yrs 3-14 Yrs 15/01/2009 2Y&6M 4 Yrs 3 Yrs 4 Yrs 21 Yrs 5 Yrs

Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze, "TAP" Sichuan Province Derge County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Dartsedo County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province L M I P Court Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" K C P Court Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Dartsedo County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province K I P Court Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province K C P Court Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province

List of Known Tibetans Sentenced


Affiliation Drongsar Monastery Woeser Monastery Ngaba Kirti Monastery Serwa Monastery Court

Age 19 19 32 23

22 29 Oenpo Monastery L M I P Court

23 17 22 25 28 K C P Court Ratoe Monastery Drongsar Monastery 8/11/1995 00/00/2008 00/00/2009 00/04/2009 10/3/2008 21/03/2008 17/01/93 20/03/2008 20/03/2008 18/03/2008 00/00/2008

Gaden Monastery Kardze Monastery TAR""University Thangkar Monastery Serewa Monastery

Date of Arrest Date of SentencePrison 7/01/1997 Chamdo DC 14/05/2008 28-29/03/2008 29/03/94 Chushul Prison 15/03/2008 00/02/04 Ngapa Prison 10/3/2008 00/04/2009 Chushul 00/03/2008 00/03/2008 5/7/1996 Chushul Prison 14/05/2008 19/03/88 Chushul Prison 17/03/2008 29/03/94 Chushul Prison 15/03/2008

26 Oenpo Monastery Tsendrak Monastery Sog Drama Association Achog Tsenyi Monastery Achog Tsenyi Monastery Achog Tsenyi Monastery

L M I P Court L M I P Court

163
8/19/2007 00/00/2008 17/05/2008 25/02/2009 16/05/2008 00/03/2008 00/03/2008 00/01/2009 27/10/2008 7/5/2009 00/00/2008 24/03/2008 11/8/2008 00/04/2009 00/03/2008 24/04/2008 00/03/2008S 00/03/2008

30 19 33 23 33

Sex M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M

M 36 M Farmer

K C P Court M C P Court

L M I P Court D C P Court

TCHRD Name 97-053 Lobsang Dorjee 08-152 Lobsang Gyatso 08-054 Lobsang Jamyang 94-076 Lobsang Jinpa ? 08-163 Lobsang Khechok 04-016 Lobsang Khedrup 09-106 Lobsang Ngodup 08-118 Lobsang Samten 08-119 Lobsang Tashi 96-157 Lobsang Tenpa 09-041 Lobsang Tenpa 88-052 Lobsang Tenzin 08-062 Lobsang Thupten 94-079 Lobsang Tsegyal 08-030 Lobsang Tsemey 08-191 Lobsang Tsephel 95-118 Lobsang Tsering 09-109 Lobsang Wangchuk 08-094 Lochu Chopa Thar 09-105 Lodoe 08-013 Lodoe 93-240 Lodroe Gyatso 08-016 Lodrup Phuntsok 08-017 Lodrup Yeshi 08-180 Lodup Tendhar 08-095 Logha 09-076 Logha 08-169 Loten 07-004 Lothok 09-078 Loyang 09-008 LungLung Sona, 09-047 Lungtok Gyatso 08-074 Menkyap 08-039 Migmar 08-120 Migmar 08-023 Migmar Dhondup 09-114 Migmar Dhondup 08-063 Namkha Tsering 09-053 Namkho 09-091 Namlha 08-140 Namsi 08-012 Nangrin 08-078 Nemay 08-121 Ngawang

M 22 M Lutsang Monastery M M M M 37 M M 27 M M 38 M 36 M M Benkar Monastery M

Term 14 yrs 5 Yrs 1Y&9M 15 yrs 5-14 Yrs 11yrs 5 Yrs 3-14 Yrs 3-14 Yrs 15yrs 5 Yrs 18 yrs 2 Yrs 15yrs 15 Yrs 9 Yrs Chamdo DC 14yrs Chushul 15 Yrs 3 Yrs Chushul 10 Yrs 12 Yrs Chushul Prison 21yrs 13 Yrs 13 Yrs 7 Yrs 3 Yrs 3 Yrs 6 Yrs Dartsedo PSB DC5 yrs 3 Yrs 3 Yrs 2 Yrs 2Y&6M 15 Yrs + 3-14 Yrs 14 Yrs 14 Yrs 2 Yrs 3 Yrs 2 Yrs Dzoge Detention 4 YRS 11 Yrs 2Yrs 3-14 Yrs

Origin Chamdo Pashoe Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Chamdo Jojugyabdo Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Kardze County, TAP Sichuan Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Drigung Meldro Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lhasa Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Chamdo Pashoe Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Chushul County, Lhasa Municipality"TAR" Chamdo Pashoe Taktse County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Rebkong County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sog,Sogrongmi Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Derge County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang,Karze TAP Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Mangra County, Tsolho "TAP" Qinghai Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Dingri County, Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Rebkong County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Diru County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Driru County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR"

Appendices

List of Known Tibetans Sentenced


Date of Arrest 00/03/2008 00/00/2008 2/4/2008 18/03/2008 9-10/1/2009 22/05/2009 Xiling 00/00/08-09 Thring Chen 7/11/2008 Date of Sentence Prison Court Origin Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR"

Age Sex Affiliation M M M M 21 M 29 M 30 M Dhen Choekor Monastery M 37 M M F Pangri Na Nunnery M M Chushul Prison Chengdu

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

00/05-06/2008 00/00/2008 00/09-10/2009 Chengdu 00/05-06/2008 22/05/2009

164
Chamdo DC Kardze PSB DC 8/4/2009 00/05-06/2008 21/05/2009

TCHRD 08-123 08-202 09-118 08-007 09-083 08-008 09-057 08-067 05-001 08-124 09-027 08-164 08-102 09-075 95-085 09-001 08-165 08-187 08-031 09-019 08-032 09-081 09-122 09-017 09-054 08-103 08-020 96-169 08-009 08-104 09-065 09-089 09-031 09-088 08-144 08-053 08-024 09-020 08-033 09-080 08-125 08-193 08-154 08-044 5/5/2001 00/03/2008 14/05/2008 15/03/2008 18/03/2008 00/00/2008 Damshung 00/00/95 Ghema Draggo Nunnery 18/06/2008 15/03/2008 Woeser Monastery 14/05/2008 Gaden Chokorling M 23/03/2008 Langthang Monastery 15/03/2008 13/04/2008 00/00/2008 00/03/2008 Samye Monastery 15/03/2008 Dhen Choekor Monastery 9-10/1/2009 Khenpa Lung Monastery Gaden Chokorling M 23/03/2008 Tsampung Monastery 18/07/01 15/03/2008 Tehor Tsitang Monastery 20/05/2008 00/00/2008 00/09/2008 00/00/2008 00/09/2008 Woeser Monastery 14/05/2008 Trosik Monastery 15/03/2008 Jowo Monastery 15/03/2008 16/03/2008 Labrang Tashi Kyi M 15/03/2008 00/03/2008 Ngaba Kirti Monastery 22/03/2008 Thanggya Monastery Trosik Monastery 18/03/2008 Ngaba County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province

Name Sonam Tsering Sonam Tsering Sonam Tsetan Sonam Tseten Sonam Yarphel Talo Tashi Dorjee Tashi Gyal Tashi Gyatso Tashi Gyatso Tashi Lhamo Tashi Namgyal Tashi Palden Tashi Palden Tashi Tsering Tashi Tso Tenpa Dhondup Tenphel Tenzin Tenzin Bhuchung Tenzin Chodak(tencho) Tenzin Choedak Tenzin Choedak Tenzin Dawa Tenzin Gyaltsen Tenzin Gyaltsen Tenzin Gyatso Tenzin Khedup Tenzin Lhamo Tenzin Ngodup Tenzin Ngodup Tenzin Norbu Tenzin Phuntsok Tenzin Rinchen Tenzin Tsangpa Tenzin Tsepo Tenzin Yeshi Tenzin Zoepa Terzoed Thapkey Gyatso Tharchin Thinley (Thintse) Thinley Wangyal Thupa Kyab

M 26 F M 19 M 44 M M 20 M 25 M 23 M M 37 M M 24 M M F 20's M 24 M 29 M M 17 M 19 M 20 M M M 25 M 34 M M 30 M 21 M 20 M

Term 3-14 Yrs Life 10 Yrs 10 Yrs 12 Yrs 10 Yrs 15 Yrs 2 Yrs 12 yrs 3-14 Yrs 2 Yrs 5-14 Yrs 3 Yrs 3 Yrs 15 yrs 2Y&6M 5-14 Yrs 8 Yrs 15 Yrs 15 Yrs 15 Yrs 20 Yrs 15 Yrs 2 Yrs 15 Yrs 3 Yrs 13 Yrs Life 10 Yrs 3 Yrs 3 Yrs 5 Yrs S.Death sentence 2 Yrs 4 Yrs 1Y&9 M 14 Yrs 13 Yrs 15 Yrs 15 Yrs 3-14 Yrs 9 Yrs 5 Yrs 1Y &9M

L M I P Court Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" K C P Court Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province J C P Court Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Rebkong County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Amdo Golok Machen County Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" K C P Court Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Woesang, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Damshung County, Lhasa, "TAR" K C P Court Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province L I P Court Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" C P I P Court Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" L M I P Court Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" L I P Court Tsome County, Lhoka Prefecture "TAR" J C P Court Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Tengchen County Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province C P I P Court Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" L M I P Court C P I P Court Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Ngaba County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" L I P Court Tsome County, Lhoka Prefecture "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province K I P Court Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province

List of Known Tibetans Sentenced


Date of Sentence Prison Court

00/04/2009

Date of Arrest 11/5/2008 00/03/2008 6/6/2008 6/6/2008 19/03/2008 18/07/01 19/03/00 00/00/1992 28/06/2008 4/7/2002 00/05/2009 K C P Court 16/03/2008 22/03/2008 17/03/2008

00/00/97

Origin Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Tawu County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Chigdril County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Tengchen County Sog County Nagchu TAR Sog County, Nagchu TAR Sertha County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang,Karze TAP Tawu County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Chushul County, Lhasa Minicipality "TAR" Chamdo Pashoe Ngaba County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sog Yaklashang

19/03/00 9-10/1/2009 22/06/2008 00/00/2008 8/6/2008 4/7/2009 00/03/2008 6/6/2008 00/00/2008 6/6/2008 00/04/2009 3/4/2008 00/01/03 19/03/2008 18/03/2008 00/00/2008 21/03/2009 00/00/2009 13/08/2009 21/05/2009 22/05/2008 17/03/2008 21/03/2008 27/10/2008 00/04/2009 22/05/2009

165

J C P Court

C P I P Court

L M I P Court

L M I P Court Ma C P Court K I P Court

TCHRD 08-145 08-126 08-146 09-120 08-173 05-002 00-032 92-156 09-061 04-007 08-155 08-034 08-174 08-021 08-147 08-156 02-018 08-045 08-203 02-020 08-010 09-059 08-076 09-070 08-068 09-096 08-127 08-148 09-119 08-188 09-116 08-157 09-092 08-194 00-79 08-175 08-056 09-110 09-098 08-195 09-037 08-069 08-011 08-070 Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Dartsedo County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Pasho County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Diru County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Gonjo County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Marthang County Chigdril County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Taktse County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Machen County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Rebkong County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province

Name Thupten Dolma Thupten Gyatso Thupten Gyatso Thupten Gyatso Thupten Nyima Thupten Thabkai Trakru Yeshi Trinkar Trulku Gephal TrulkuTenzin Delek Trungwang Drakpa Tsechoen Tsedak Tsekho Tsekho Tsenam Tsepal Tsephal Tsering Tsering Lhagon Tsering Nyima Tsering Palden Tsering Phuntsok Tsering Phuntsok Tsering Tsomo Tsetan Tseten Tseten Dolma Tsewang Dakpa Tsewang Dorjee Tsewang Dorjee Tsewang Drakpa Tsewang Jigdrak Tsewang Yeshi Tsokphel Tsulkho Tsultrim Tsultrim Tsultrim Tsultrim Gyatso Tsultrim Gyatso Tsultrim Gyatso Tsultrim Gyatso Tsultrim Jugney

Age Sex Affiliation 40 F Dragkar Nunnery M M M 30 M Palyul Monastery M Tsampung Monastery 48 M Electrical employee 33 M Farmer 19 M Sertha Nobsur Monastery 54 M Lithang Monastery M F 31 M 27 M M M Ratoe Monastery 64 M Serwa Monastery 26 M Trosik Monastery M 40 M N/A 17 M Thanggya Monastery 36 M Dhen Choekor Monastery 24 M Khangmar Monastery M Khangmar Monastery 27 F Samtenling Nunnery 40 M Khabchen Monastery 30 M Thanggya Monastery F Dragkar Nunnery M M 40 M 22 M M 20 M Thanggya Monastery 31 M Khangmar Monastery 36 M 26 M Trosik Monastery 23 M M Ragya Monastery 42 M Achog Tsenyi Monastery 37 M Labrang Tashi Kyi M 35 M Sogtsang Monastery M Tsang Monastery 29 M Sogtsang Monastery

Term 4 Yrs 3-14 Yrs 4 Yrs Chengdu 3 Yrs 6 Yrs Chamdo DC Life Chushul Prison 12 yrs Chushul Prison 22 yrs 3 Yrs Chuandong Life 5 Yrs 15 Yrs 6 Yrs 13 Yrs 4 Yrs 5 Yrs Chushul Prison 16 yrs 1Y &9M Life Chushul Prison 15 yrs 10 Yrs 12 Yrs 2Y&6M 2Y&6M Drango PSB DC 2 Yrs 2 Yrs 3-14 Yrs 4 Yrs Chengdu 7 Yrs 8 Yrs 8 Yrs 5 Yrs thring Chen 2 Yrs 9 Yrs Ngaba DC 12 yrs 6 Yrs 1Y&9M Chushul 2Y&6M 4 Yrs 9 Yrs Life Imprisonment 2 Yrs 10 Yrs 2 Yrs

Appendices

List of Known Tibetans Sentenced


Date of Arrest 8/6/2008 22/05/2008 Court

00/00/2008 25/03/2008 21/03/2009 12/5/2008 24/03/2008 18/06/2008 00/03/2008 25/03/2008 00/03/2008 00/00/2008 22/06/2008 12/6/2008 17/03/00 28/06/2008 14/05/2008 20/04/2008 29/03/2008 29/03/2008 00/01/2003

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

166

TCHRD Name 08-071 Urgen Lhamo 08-105 Urgen Tashi 08-158 Waelsa Norzin Wangmo 08-184 Wamo 08-196 Wangdue 09-113 Wangdue 08-106 Wangmo 09-104 Yang-Kyab 09-013 Yangkyi 08-107 Yangtso 09-010 Yangzom 08-128 Yargay 08-108 Yebuk 08-109 Yephung 08-014 Yeshe 08-129 Yeshi 08-035 Yeshi Choedon 09-117 Yeshi Choedon 08-110 Yeshi Dhargyal 09-004 Yeshi Dorjee 96-136 Yeshi Tenzin 09-062 Yingchuk 09-030 Youghal Khando 08-149 Zamba 08-150 Zaru Kunchok Drakpa 08-159 Zaru Tenpa Gyatso 03-011 Zoepa aka Soepa

Age Sex Affiliation 37 F Watak Nunnery 18 M Tse-Tsang Monastery F F Ngangong Nunnery M 40 M 29 F M 28 F Dragkar Nunnery F Dragkar Nunnery 31 F Yarteng Nunnery M F Ngangong Nunnery M 35 M M F 50 F 27 M Khangmar Monastery 32 M Kharnang Monastery 32 M Sog Tsedhen Monastery 18 M Sertha Nobsur Monastery F Pangri Na Nunnery 34 M 25 M Thoesamling Monastery M Taktsang Lhamo Kirti M 33 M Khangmar Monastery

Date of Sentence Prison Term Drango PSB D C 2 Yrs 3 Yrs 5 Yrs 7 Yrs Life 27/10/2008 15 Yrs 3 Yrs 13/08/2009 6M 2/1/2009 1Y&9M 3 Yrs 15/01/2009 2Y&6M 3-14 Yrs 3 Yrs 3 Yrs 12 yrs 3-14 Yrs 15 Yrs 7/11/2008 15 Yrs 3 Yrs 17/11/2008 4 Yrs Chushul Prison 15 yrs 00/05/2009 3 Yrs 00/00/08-09 2 Yrs 4 Yrs 4 Yrs 5 Yrs Ngaba DC 12 yrs

Origin Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Marthang County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" L M I P Court Taktse County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ma C P Court Machen County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province K C P Court Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province K C P Court Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Phenpo lhundup county, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" L M I P Court Lhasa City, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province K C P Court Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sog,Sogrongmi K C P Court Sertha County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province K C P Court Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County,Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Marthang County, TAP

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Sex 33 60 19 Ngaba Kirti Monastery Age Affiliation Arrest 20-21/03/2008 28-29/03/2008 22/03/2008 18/03/2008 00/04/2008 Prison

54 Dargay Nyagey Nunnery Labrang Monastery Gyume Monastery

18/03/2008 18/03/2008 20/05/2008 15/05/2008

28 38 Mindroling Monastery 41 21 20 Thangsar Monastery 42 27 Yarteng Monastery

Gyalmo Gedhen Dhargyal Monastery

167
40 Pangrina Nunnery Ramoche Temple 25 32 17 Dragkar Nunnery Beri Monastery Dragkar Nunnery 15/03/2008 18/06/2008 20/03/2008 20/03/2008 14/05/2008 16/06/2008 16/06/2008 14/05/2008 25/03/2008 15/05/2008 26/05/2008 18/06/2008 23/04/2008 22/06/2008 7/5/2008

TCHRD 08-0003 08-0005 08-0008 08-0009 08-0015 08-0016 08-0017 08-0020 08-0021 08-0022 08-0023 08-0024 08-0026 08-0027 08-0028 08-0029 08-0030 08-0031 08-0032 08-0035 08-0037 08-0038 08-0039 08-0043 08-0045 08-0048 08-0049 08-0050 08-0052 08-0059 08-0061 08-0062 08-0063 08-0065 08-0066 08-1879 08-0071 08-0072 08-0073 M M M M M M F F M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M F M M F M M M M M M F F F F 15/05/2008 20/05/2008 17/03/2008 25/03/2008 28/03/2008 22/03/2008 3/5/2008 2/4/2008 31/06/2008 26/07/2008 00/08/2008 21/03/2008

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET ? DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Aache Tare Aaho Aakun Kun ? Aakya Aatak Aaten Gyang Aati Aba Bhumo Achoe Achok Jamyang Jinpa Achok Pasang Gegokar Achok Thinley Adrel Ago Tselo Aka Akhu Nyi Akor Jigme Aku Ako Aku Sangay Angyok Asang Bersatsang Aten Aya Baluk Kyab Barchung Lopo Baywang(Pemo) Bende Gyal Bende Khar Bendetsang Yangchen Bhu Gonpo Bhu Khepa Bhu Soegha Bhu Tashi Bhu Thapkey Bhuchung Bhumo Khando Bhumo Lhaga Bhumo Palmo Bhumo Pema

Origin Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Tsoe City, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Nyagchuka County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Jomda County, Chamdo Prfecture, "TAR" Nangchen PSB DC Nangchen County,Jyekundo "TAP" Qinghai Province Sertha County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drongo County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Lhasa "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province

Appendices

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation Nyimo Gaysey Nunnery Dragkar Nunnery 13 52 40 16 32 20 41 19 A-Khor Monastery A-Khor Monastery Gur Monastery A-Khor Monastery Gonsar Monastery Woeser Monastery Labrang Monastery Taksang Lhamo Kirti Monastery Ngaba Kirti Monastery Pangrina Nunnery Dragkar Nunnery Khenpa Lung Monastery Arrest 22/05/2008 25/03/2008 12/5/2008 25/03/2008 12/5/2008 12/5/2008 14/04/2008 Prison

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

168
23 24 20 26 16 25 30 21 Ngaba Kirti Monastery Drepung Monastery Gaden Choeling Nunnery Rongpo Thosam Monastery Gomang Monastery

TCHRD 08-0075 08-0078 08-0079 08-0081 08-0082 08-0084 08-0088 08-0091 08-0092 08-0093 08-0095 08-0098 08-0099 08-0102 08-0105 08-0106 08-0107 08-0108 08-0110 08-0111 08-0112 08-0114 08-0116 08-0119 08-0120 08-0121 08-0124 08-0126 08-0127 08-0133 08-0136 08-0139 08-0140 08-0141 08-0145 08-0146 08-0147 08-0148 08-0149 23 18 25 29/03/2008 28-29/03/2008 14/05/2008 20/03/2008 23/03/2008 23/03/2008 20/03/2008 14/04/2008 23/03/2008 21/03/2008 24/05/2008 18/03/2008 13/5/2008 15/03/2008 17/05/2008 17/03/2008 30/03/2008 10/3/2008 17/03/2008 23/03/2008 17/05/2008 28-29/03/2008 00/04/2008 14/5/2008 17/04/2008 30/03/2008 19/04/2008 31/06/2008 18/03/2008 25/03/2008 20/03/2008 Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Rebkong County, Melho "TAP" Qinghai Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Jomda County, Chamdo Prfecture, "TAR" Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Chogri, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Chigdril County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Sex Bhumo Tengha F Bhuten M Bhuti F Botho M Botsu F Butuk M Chambu Gudrup M Cheno Khedup M Chewa Kunchok DhargyalM Chignyin M Chime Dolma F Chimey Lhazom F Cho Gyatso M Choe Gyatso M Choedar M Choeden M Choeden M Choeden F Choedrub M Choegong M Choegyal M Choeley M Choenga F Choepa Kyap M Choepa Tashi M Choephak M Choephel M Choephel M Choephel M Choephel Gyatso M Choephel Wangpo M Choetso F Choeyang Gyatso M Choeyang Kyab M Chogri Yeshi M Chokdup M Chokey F Chokey Dolma F Chokpo M

Origin Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Sog County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Shigatse County, Shigatse Prefecture,"TAR" Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Chentsa County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Pema County Prison Pema County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province 4yrs Ngaba County,Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Thamey Village, Kardze Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation 40 Labrang Monastery 24 29 22 Ramoche Temple 42 Shugseb Nunnery Rongwo Monastery 38 Dragkar Nunnery 40 31 20 43 19 Gaden Choeling Nunnery Drepung Monastery Ngaba Kirti Monastery Mishi Thangsar Monastery Arrest 30/06/2008 18/03/2008 10/3/2008 21/03/2008 21/03/2008 21/03/2008 21/03/2008 24/03/2008 26/05/2008 18/03/2008 28/04/2008 Prison

169
Mishi Thangsar Monastery 20 15 Geyma Drak Nunnery Dragkar Nunnery

Origin Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Pema County Prison Pema County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Lhasa "TAR" Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Chushul County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Lhasa, "TAR" Rebkong County, Melho "TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze County, Kardze, "TAP" Sichuan Province Tewo County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province

Ngaba Prison

Appendices

TCHRD 08-0153 08-0156 08-0157 08-0160 08-0165 08-0166 08-0168 08-0169 08-0170 08-0171 08-0172 08-0174 08-0176 08-0180 08-0181 08-0183 08-0184 08-0185 08-0186 08-0187 08-0189 08-0195 08-0199 08-0201 08-0204 08-0205 08-0206 08-0214 08-0216 08-0217 08-0220 08-0222 08-0225 08-0226 08-0227 08-0229 08-0231 08-0235 08-0240 20/04/2008 3/8/2008 12/5/2008 18/03/2008 25/03/2008 18/03/2008 14/04/2008 14/5/2008 00/04/2008 28-29/03/2008 4/20/2008 21/03/2008 19/03/2008 14/5/2008 16/03/2008 18/03/2008 10/3/2008 25/03/2008 00/03/2008 23/03/2008 21/03/2008 21/03/2008 25/03/2008 18/06/2008 12/5/2008 20-21/03/2008 21/03/2008 Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Chigdril County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Choney Khedup Chosang Choyang Chukpo Tsering Dakpa Damchoe Damchoe Damchoe Damdul Damdul Dangdrung ? Darchen Dawa Dechen Wangmo Dekyi Deleck Denden Denden Depa Tenpa Deyang Deyang Tashi Dhargyal Dhargyal Dhargyal Dhargyal Dhargyal Garwatsang Dhari Dhonden Dhondup Dhondup Dhondup Wangchen Dhonyoe Dhorga Dhorga Chungwa Dhorlo Dhungtso Dickyi Dolkar Kyab Dolma Kyab

Sex M M M M M M M M M M F M M F F M M M M F M M M F M M F M M M M M M M M F F M M

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation North-West Nationalities University 24 34 21 30 21 Sang Lung Monastery 23 25 55+ 18 18 22 Lhasa People's Hospital 31 26 28 27 A-Khor Monastery Gyutoe Monastery Rong Gonchen Monastery Pangrina Nunnery Arrest Prison

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

170
19 28 Geyma Drak Nunnery 30

TCHRD 08-0243 08-0244 08-0246 08-0248 08-0249 08-0250 08-0256 08-0258 08-0260 08-0263 08-0264 08-0267 08-0268 08-0269 08-0270 08-0271 08-0273 08-0274 08-0275 08-0276 08-0277 08-0281 08-0282 08-0283 08-0286 08-0287 08-0288 08-0289 08-0290 08-0291 08-0292 08-0293 08-0294 08-0295 08-0297 08-0298 08-0302 08-0303 08-0305 18/03/2008 21/03/2008 10/8/2008 19/05/2008 14/05/2008 11/6/2008 00/04/2008 21/03/2008 3/5/2008 19/05/2008 20/03/2008 15/06/2008 21/03/2008 00/04/208 23/03/2008 00/07/2008 15/05/2008 18/08/2008 20/03/2008 22/06/2008 18/03/2008 20/03/2008 20/03/2008 7/5/2008 21/6/2008 22/03/2008 23/03/2008 00/05/2008 13/4/2008 00/04/2008 18/03/2008 21/03/2008 23/03/2008 15/05/2008 22/03/2008 9/8/2008 18/06/2008 22/03/2008

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Dolma Tsering Dolma Tsering Dolma Tsering Dolma Yangtso Dondrub Donga Dorjee Dorjee Chuk Dorjee Dhondup Dorjee Drakpa Dorjee Gyaltsen Dorjee Kundup Dorjee Lorig Dorjee Rabten Dorjee Rinchen Dorjee Rinchen Dorjee Tashi Dorjee Tashi Dorjee Tashi Dorjee Tashi Dorjee Tashi Dorjee Tsering Dorjee Tseten Dorjee Tseten Dr. Yangzom Dragu Drakho ? Drakpa Drakpa Drakpa Drakpa Drakpa Drakpa Drakpa Drakpa Chakdri Drakpa Dorjee ? Drangyae Yen Drashi Tso Drokho ?

Sex F M F F M F M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M F M M M M M M M M M M M F F M

Origin Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Mari Township,Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Dzamthang County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Pelbar County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province So-Ngo Township, Kardze, "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture,"TAR" Chentsa County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Lhasa "TAR" Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Rebkong County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County,Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation 18 Jhangkar Monastery Thangsar Monastery 33 55+ 28 26 20 Gewa Drak Nunnery Prison

41 36 6 28 30 32 27 30 Pangrina Nunnery Tashi Lhunpo Monastery Kathog Monastery Bada Samdupling Monastery Labrang Monastery Sera Monastery Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery Bada Samdupling Monastery Taksang Lhamo Kirti Monastery Gur Monastery Labrang Monastery Mishi Thangsar Monastery Thoesamling Monastery Chogri Monastery Chogri Monastery Qinghai University Tongkor Monastery 1/4/2008 10/3/2008 00/04/2008 00/03/2008 26/04/2008 14/04/2008 1/4/2008 23/03/2008 15/05/2008 21/03/2008 15/05/2008 26/03/2008 26/03/2008 17/04/2008 3/4/2008 18/03/2008 19/06/2008 23-25/03/2008 N/A N/A 50 70's

Drepung Monastery Unknown Thangsar Monastery Beri Monastery

171

TCHRD 08-0306 08-0307 08-0310 08-0312 08-0314 08-0315 08-0322 08-0323 08-0325 08-0326 08-0327 08-0328 08-0330 08-0331 08-0333 08-0334 08-0335 08-0336 95-005 08-0337 08-0338 08-0340 08-0341 08-0342 08-0343 08-0346 08-0347 08-0348 08-0350 08-0352 08-0354 08-0356 08-0357 08-0358 08-0359 08-0360 08-0361 08-0362 08-0363

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET ? DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Drongpo Rabten Dronkhoma ? Dronsep Drugthar Drukgyal Drukgyal yak Dukar Tsering Dukhor Dungkar Dungtso Dunlag Gadha Lhagyal Gadho Gakhu Gatruk Dorjee Gawa Gawa Gechung Bhumo Gedun Choekyi Nyima Geleg Geleg Drakpa Geleg Gyurmey Geleg Phel Geleg Samdup Geleg Thapkey Gendun Gyatso Gendun Gyatso Gendun Gyatso Gendun Gyatso Gendun Gyatso Gendun Gyatso Gengya Tsundue Geshe Namgyal Tsering Geshe Sonam Gyurmey Geshe Tenzin Choephel Geshe Tsultrim Tenzin Ghangde Ghayou Gheshor

Sex M M F M M M M M M F M M M M M M M F M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M

Arrest 00/03/2008 20/03/2008 21/03/2008 17/04/2008 23/03/2008 00/04/2008 17/04/2008 20/03/2008 18/07/2008 18/06/2008 25/03/2008 00/04/2008 26/07/2008 21/03/2008 24/6/2008 18/03/2008 24/03/2008 14/05/2008 17/05/95 00/07/2008

Origin Bathang County, Kandze "TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County,Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Chigdril County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Phunpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Nangchen PSB DC Nangchen County,Jyekundo "TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County,Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Beijing ? Nagchu, Lhari Kardze, "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Lhasa Golog,"TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Chentsa County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Drango PSB DC Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango PSB DC Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Xining City, Qinghai University Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province

Appendices

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation Arrest 1/5/2008 16/05/2008 4/20/2008 Prison

Labrang Monastery 26 35 17 40 23 20 Gonsar Monastery Dargay Monastery Kardze Monastery

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

172
Sera Monastery Larung Ngarik Nangten Lobling 36 Nubsur Monastery 18 Ngaba Kirti Monastery 26 40 39 Labrang Monastery

TCHRD 08-0365 08-0367 08-0369 08-0372 08-0373 08-0376 08-0377 08-0379 08-0380 08-0381 08-0383 08-0385 08-0388 08-0390 08-0393 08-0394 08-0395 08-0397 08-0398 08-0399 08-0400 08-0401 08-0402 08-0403 08-0406 08-0411 08-0413 08-0415 08-0419 08-0420 08-0423 08-0425 08-0426 08-0429 08-0431 08-0433 08-0434 08-0435 08-0440 22/03/2008 28/05/2008 30/03/2008 18/05/2008 23/03/2008 18/03/2008 00/03/2008 24/05/2008 18/03/2008 18/03/2008 20/03/2008 20/03/2008 20/03/2008 1/5/2008 17/03/2008 17/03/2008 20/03/2008 20/03/2008 20/03/2008 20/03/2008 8/7/2008 20/03/2008 25/03/2008 22/03/2008 28/06/2008 20/03/2008 26/03/2008 21/03/2008 16/04/2008 28-29/03/2008 11/5/2008 11/5/2008 17/03/2008 1/4/2008 23/03/2008

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Sex M Ghiling Lungtok Ghoeso M Ginike Tsulkho M Golok Jigme M M Gomchukgyal Gondon Sangay M Gondrue M Gongkar Thinley M M Gongpa Yak Gonpa M Gonpa Tsering M M Gonpo Gonpo M M Gonpo Gyaltsen Gonpo Namgyal M M Gonpo Namgyal Gonpo Tashi M M Gonpo Tsering Gonpo Tsering M M Gonpo Tsering Gonpo Tsering M M Gonpo Tsering M Gonpo Tseten M Gonpo Wangyal Gudrak M Gure M M Gurkyi Guru M Gyachuk Wangchuk M Gyade M Gyalbha M Gyalpo Gyalri Tsang Lama TseringM Gyatso M Gyayul Seyang F F Gyayul Thinley Gyobhu Thar M M Gyurmey Hega M

Origin Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Tsoe City, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Tawu Chang Yen Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Tewo County,Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge Detention CenNgaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lushoe Township,Kanlho, "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation Horshul Monastery 18 Khangmar Monastery Dargay Hardu Nunnery 35 25 Beri Monastery 20 18 36 20 30 Tehor Kardze Temple Kardze Monastery Khangmar Monastery Jammey Monastery Namtso Monastery Ramoche Temple Dargay Hardu Nunnery Dragkar Nunnery Beri Monastery Prison

173
41 24 28 28 45 18 Drepung Monastery Unknown A-Khor Monastery 33 33 Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery 21 19 46 29 Achog Tsenyi Monastery Za-Samdup Monastery Gyalmo Gedhen Dhargyal Monastery Mishi Thangsar Monastery A-Khor Monastery Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery

Origin Sertha County,Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Chigdril County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Lhasa "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Machen County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province

Appendices

TCHRD 08-0443 08-0447 08-0448 08-0449 08-0451 08-0453 08-0454 08-0456 08-0457 08-0458 08-0459 08-0460 08-0461 08-0462 08-0463 08-0464 08-0465 08-0466 08-0467 08-0468 08-0469 08-0472 08-0473 08-0474 08-0475 08-0476 08-0477 08-0478 08-0480 08-0481 08-0485 08-0491 08-0493 08-0497 08-0502 08-0503 08-0504 08-0505 08-0506

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Sex Jamchu M Jamga Phuntsok M Jamgha M Jamgha M Jampa F Jampa Jampa M Jampa Choephel M Jampa Chokey F Jampa Dekyi F Jampa Dorjee M Jampa Dorjee M Jampa Gendun M Jampa Gyatso M Jampa Kalsang M Jampa Lhamo F Jampa Lhamo F Jampa Sangpo M Jampa Tashi M Jampa Tsundue M Jamphel M Jamphel Tenzin M Jamphel Wangchuk M Jamsang M Jamyang M Jamyang M Jamyang M Jamyang M Jamyang M Jamyang (Chewa) M Jamyang Gyatso M Jamyang Gyatso M Jamyang Jinpa M Jamyang Sherab M Jamyang Tenzin M Jamyang Toetin M Jamyang Tsering M Jamyang Tsering MomotsaM Jamyang Tsultrim M

Arrest 18/03/2008 9/6/2008 25/03/2008 28/03/2008 23/05/2008 20/03/2008 24/04/2008 21/06/2008 25/03/2008 31/05/2008 18/05/2008 9/6/2008 25/03/2008 24/03/2008 14/03/2008 23/05/2008 12/5/2008 14/03/2008 14/06/2008 18/06/2008 11/8/2008 20/03/2008 00/04/2008 26/07/2008 23/03/2008 18/03/2008 19/04/2008 20/03/2008 23/03/2008 23/03/2008 00/04/2008 21/03/2008 15/05/2008 00/04/2008 21/03/2008 20/03/2008 18/05/2008 31/06/2008 28/03/2008

Nangchen PSB DC Nangchen County, Jyekundo "TAP" Qinghai Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Marthang County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Jomda County, Chamdo Prfecture, "TAR" Tsoe City, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation 37 Mamai Nunnery Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery Achog Tsenyi Monastery 21 Khenpa Lung Monastery 30 A-Khor Monastery Labrang Monastery Mishi Thangsar Monastery Wangchen Ponkar Monastery Arrest 21/03/2008 00/04/2008 20/03/2008 12/5/2008 18/03/2008 23/03/2008 Prison

22 30 15 16 27 23 42 40 A-Khor Monastery

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

174
40 35 22 37 31 25 40 30 55+ 25 30 Kardze Monastery A-Khor Monastery Thangsar Monastery A-Khor Monastery Rongwo Monastery Thangsar Monastery Gyutoe Monastery Labrang Monastery Labrang Monastery Ragtram Monastery Mishi Thangsar Monastery Gaden Chokorling Monastery Gyalmo Gedhen Dhargyal Monastery Mishi Thangsar Monastery 4/11/2008 23/03/2008 23/03/2008 25/03/2008 21/03/2008 23/03/2008 21/03/2008 21/03/2008 24/04/2008 23/03/2008 28/03/2008 00/04/2008 25/03/2008 23/03/2008 18/03/2008 19/06/2008 23/03/2008 21/03/2008

TCHRD 08-0507 08-0509 08-0510 08-0512 08-0514 08-0517 08-0519 08-0520 08-0522 08-0524 08-0525 08-0526 08-0527 08-0528 08-0529 08-0530 08-0532 08-0533 08-0534 08-0535 08-0536 08-0537 08-0541 08-0544 08-0547 08-0548 08-0550 08-0555 08-0556 08-0557 08-0558 08-0559 08-0562 08-0563 08-0564 08-0565 08-0566 08-0572 08-0577 23/03/2008 18/03/2008 11/8/2008 20/03/2008 21/03/2008 21/03/2008 22/03/2008 24/03/2008 23/03/2008 21/03/2008 20/06/2008 21/03/2008 22/03/2008 Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Tsoe City, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sertha County,Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Sex F Jamyang Tsultrim Jamyang Tsultrim M M Jamyang Tsundul Jangdrup M Jawoe M Jigme M Jigme M M Jigme Jigme M Jigme M M Jigme Jigme M M Jigme Jigme M M Jigme Jigme (Chungwa) M Jigme Choephel M M Jigme Dawa Jigme Dhargyal M M Jigme Goril Jigme Goril M Jigme Gyatso(Jigme Guri) M M Jigme Lotsa M Jigme Tsenphel Jigtsoe M M Jimpa Jinpa M Jinpa M M Jinpa Jinpa M M Jinpa Gyatso M Jinpa Gyatso Jungney M Jutse M M Kadam Tsering Kagthar M Kal Nyima M M Kalsang Kalsang Choedup M

Origin Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Marthang County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Chigdril County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho"TAP",Gansu Province Shigatse County, Shigatse Prefecture,"TAR" Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Rebkong County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation Thangsar Monastery 49 18 36 A-Khor Monastery 25 28 20 28 Jammey Monastery Gyalmo Gedhen Dhargyal Monastery Tarmo Monastery Kardze Monastery Mishi Thangsar Monastery Prison

Khenpa Lung Monastery Beri Monastery

17 17 17 27 22 40 27 29 Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery 43 64 25 14 15 23 A-Khor Monastery Tsang Monastery Mishi Thangsar Monastery Jhangkar Monastery Beri Monastery

175
32 Chokri Monastery 20

TCHRD 08-0578 08-0579 08-0582 08-0583 08-0588 08-0593 08-0594 08-0595 08-0600 08-0608 08-0609 08-0615 08-0616 08-0618 08-0619 08-0622 08-0632 08-0635 08-0637 08-0638 08-0639 08-0643 08-0646 08-0647 08-0649 08-0652 08-0658 08-0659 08-0662 08-0666 08-0667 08-0670 08-0672 08-0675 08-0676 08-0677 08-0680 08-0684 08-0686 Tsolho PSB DC

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Sex M Kalsang Choephel Kalsang Dawa M Kalsang Dhondup M M Kalsang Dhondup M Kalsang Gyatso Kalsang Gyatso M M Kalsang Gyatso M Kalsang Jampa Kalsang Jinpa ? M Kalsang Lochok M Kalsang Nyima M M Kalsang Sherab Kalsang Sherab M M Kalsang Sonam M Kalsang Tashi Kalsang Tenzin M Kalsang Yeshi M M Kangtsuk Karbho M Kardru M Kardu M M Karma Choejor Karma Wangchuk M M Kathup Thar Katum M Kelden M Khagong Tsang Choedron F Khakbey M Khando F Khando Tsering F Khardo ? M M Khechok Khedup Gyatso M Khenrab Nyima M Khenrab Tashi M Khenrab Tharchin M Khetsun M Konbha M Kopa Tseten M

Arrest 21/03/2008 25/03/2008 20/03/2008 21/03/2008 23/03/2008 10/3/2008 22/03/2008 25/03/2008 28/03/2008 18/06/2008 9/6/2008 00/04/2008 25/03/2008 21/03/2008 12/5/2008 21/03/2008 24/06/2008 20/03/2008 23/03/2008 22/03/2008 23/03/2008 00/03/2008 22/06/2008 21/03/2008 23/03/2008 00/04/2008 24/03/2008 20/03/2008 18/06/2008 00/04/2008 18/03/2008 23/03/2008 13/4/2008 19/05/2008 19/05/2008 19/05/2008 25/03/2008 23/03/2008 22/03/2008

Origin Sangchu County,Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Tsoe City, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Driru County,Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lhasa "TAR" Chentsa County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Chentsa County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Bathang County, Kandze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Chigdril County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Gepa Samdo County,Tsolho "TAP" Qinghai Province Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Drongo County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Chentsa County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Chentsa County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province

Appendices

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation 20 20 Makur Namgyaling Monastery A-Khor Monastery Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery Sang Lung Monastery Bhumsar Monastery Taktsang Lhamo Kirti Monastery Aadu Monastery Taksang Lhamo Kirti Monastery Prison

27 21 33 21 38 22

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

Origin Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Chentsa County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Dzamthang County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture, "TAR" Chentsa County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province

176
17 17 21 20 Taktsang Lhamo Kirti Monastery Taktsang Lhamo Kirti Monastery Taktsang Lhamo Kirti Monastery Unknown Taksang Lhamo Kirti Monastery Taktsang Lhamo Kirti Monastery Gonsar Monastery Ngaba Kirti Monastery Drepung Monastery Dargeyling Monastery Thanggya Monastery 3yrs 22 20 14/04/2008 29/03/2008 29/03/2008 14/5/2008 17/04/2005 29/03/2008 24/05/2008 23/05/2008 00/04/2008 23-25/03/2008 25/03/2008 15/07/2008 3/4/2008 25/03/2008 20/03/2008 2/4/2008 25/03/2008

TCHRD 08-0687 08-0688 08-0689 08-0691 08-0692 08-0695 08-0698 08-0699 08-0700 08-0702 08-0704 08-0706 08-0707 08-0708 08-0709 08-0710 08-0711 08-0712 08-0713 08-0717 08-0719 08-0720 08-0721 08-0722 08-0724 08-0725 08-0727 08-0729 08-0730 08-0732 08-0736 08-0737 08-0742 08-0743 08-0748 08-0750 08-0752 08-0754 08-0755 Drepung Monastery Lo Monastery Taktsang Lhamo Kirti Monastery Taktsang Lhamo Kirti Monastery Taksang Lhamo Kirti Monastery Kumbum Monastery Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Kumbum County, Qinghai Province Tewo County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Tewo County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Drongo County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Gonjo County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Kovo Bhu Kunbo Kunchok Kunchok Kunchok Kunchok Kunchok Dhondup Kunchok Dorjee Kunchok Drakpa ? Kunchok Jamphel Kunchok Jinpa Kunchok Lhundup Kunchok Nagdo Kunchok Nyima Kunchok Nyima ? Kunchok Pelsang Kunchok Rabgyal Kunchok Rabten Kunchok Samten Kunchok Sangay Kunchok Sangpo Kunchok Sangpo Kunchok Sherab Kunchok Soepa Kunchok Tenzin Kunchok Thapkhey Kunchok Woser Kunga Kunga Kunga Kungha Kungyang Kunsang Tsering Kunsang Tsering Kyakha Kyaplo Kyedhar Kyi Jigme Kyi Kyi

Sex M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M

Arrest 17/03/2008 23/03/2008 23/03/2008 00/04/2008 9/4/2008 20-21/03/2008 10/3/2008 20/03/2008 29/03/2008 16/03/2008 26/04/2008 18/03/2008 15/05/2008 00/04/2008 00/03/2008 29/03/2008 29/03/2008 17/04/2008 16/04/2008 14/04/2008

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation 32 22 23 36 33 29 Yarteng Nunnery Dragkar Nunnery 25 Drepung Monastery Gaden Chokorling Monastery Dragkar Nunnery Dragkar Nunnery Prison

177
37 17 35 23 15 20 N/A Kirti Monastery 18 Kardze Monastery Bhenkar Monastery Shar Bumpa Nunnery 35 35 26 38 Taktsang Lhamo Kirti Monastery Zakhog Monastery Beri Monastery Drepung Monastery Ngaba Kirti Monastery A-Khor Monastery Sera Monastery Nationality Middle School Achog Tsenyi Monastery Tongkhor Monastery

TCHRD 08-0756 08-0760 08-0761 08-0765 08-0769 08-0772 08-0781 08-0782 08-0783 08-0786 08-0790 08-0792 08-0793 08-0794 08-0803 08-0805 08-0806 08-0809 08-0810 08-1880 08-0813 08-0814 08-0819 08-0822 08-0823 08-0828 08-0829 08-0833 08-0834 08-0835 08-0839 08-0841 08-0842 08-0844 08-0846 08-0850 08-0851 08-0859 08-0870 Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR"

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Sex M Kyipay Lagha F Lama M Lama Phuntsok LamchungM Lekshe M Lha Thruk F Lhagon M Lhagyal Lhakar F Lhakpa Tsering M Lhamo F F Lhamo Chokey Lhamo Kyab M M Lhamo Kyap M Lhubhum Gyal Lhubhum Thar M Lhubhum Tsering M Lhumte M Lhundup M Lhundup Yonten M Lhungo M Lilo M Lo Yeshi M M Lobsang M Lobsang Lobsang M M Lobsang Lobsang Chodar M Lobsang Choegen M Lobsang Choejor M F Lobsang Choezin M Lobsang Dawa Lobsang Dhargyal M Lobsang Dhondup M Lobsang Dhonyoe M Lobsang Geleg M M Lobsang Geleg Lobsang Gyatso M Lobsang Jigme M

Arrest 18/03/2008 23/04/2008 11/8/2008 00/04/2008 23/03/2008 7/5/2008 15/03/2008 15/07/2007 14/05/2008 27/04/2008 18/06/2008 12/5/2008 21/03/2008 17/04/2008 21/03/2008 21/03/2008 21/03/2008 17/04/2008 20/10/2008 20/03/2008 3/4/2008 18/03/2008 25/03/2008 23/03/2008 10/3/2008 20/03/2008 11/6/2008 26/03/2008 13/05/2008 00/07/2008 00/03/2008 00/03/2008 29/03/2008 21/03/2008 26/04/2008 18/06/2008 00/04/2008 28-29/03/2008 19/05/2008

Origin Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Damshul County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Kangtsa County, Tsochang "TAP" Qinghai Province Marthang County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Drongo County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Driru County,Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Phenpo Lhundup County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Chushul County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Derge County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province

Appendices

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation 25 19 29 29 26 20 30 19 31 25 20 23 15 21 35 43 42 20 27 24 18 A-Khor Monastery Labrang Tashikyi Monastery 25 Tsitsang Monastery Sera Monastery Kirti Dongri Monastery Sogtsang Monastery Beri Monastery Prison

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

178

TCHRD 08-0875 08-0877 08-0881 08-0888 08-0890 08-0891 08-0892 08-0895 08-0896 08-0911 08-0917 08-0919 08-0929 08-0931 08-0932 08-0933 08-0934 08-0939 08-0940 08-0941 08-0944 08-0945 08-0946 08-0948 08-0949 08-0950 08-0952 08-0960 08-0966 08-0971 08-0973 08-0974 08-0977 08-0978 08-0979 08-0980 08-0981 08-0983 08-0986 Kardze Monastery Kirti Dongri Monastery Sera Monastery Kirti Dongri Monastery Sogtsang Monastery Kirti Dongri Monastery Chokri Monastery Drepung Monastery Sera Monastery A-Khor Monastery Sogtsang Monastery Khenpa Lung Monastery Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET ? DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Sex M Lobsang Khedup Tenpay G Lobsang Khetsun M Lobsang Kyab M M Lobsang Ngodup Lobsang Nyima M Lobsang Nyima M M Lobsang Palden Lobsang Palmo F Lobsang Phuntsok M Lobsang Tenpa M Lobsang Thinley M M Lobsang Thukjey Lobsang Tsultrim M M Lobsang Tsultrim Lobsang Tsundue M Lobsang Wangchen M Lobsang Wangchuk M Lobsher M Lochoe M Lochoe M Lodoe M Lodoe M Lodoe M Lodoe M Lodoe Rabten M Lodoe Tenpa M Lodoe Wangpo(shidey Gy M Lokey M Lori M Loyang M Lu Lu M Lubhu Yak Lunglung Sonam M Lungrig M Lungrig M M Lungrig Lushoep Tenzin M Luthar M Luwa Tamdin M

Arrest 14/03/2008 25/03/2008 16/04/2008 10/3/2008 30/03/2008 21/03/2008 18/06/2008 25/03/2008 19/03/2008 13/05/2008 30/03/2008 10/3/2008 30/03/2008 5/4/2008 30/03/2008 25/03/2008 00/04/2008 10/3/2008 23/03/2008 21/03/2008 12/5/2008 00/04/2008 00/04/2008 24/04/2008 21/03/2008 21/03/2008 14/04/2008 22/03/2008 20/03/2008 20/05/2008 18/03/2008 17/03/2008 17/05/2008 21/03/2008 23/03/2008 19/03/2008 15/4/2008 9/4/2008 20/03/2008

Origin Machen County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Drongo County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Drongo County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lhoka Prefecture, "TAR" Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Chentsa County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Gyalmo Township,Kanlho, "TAP" Gansu Province Thamey Village, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Chigdril County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Chigdril County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Sex M M F 20 39 M M M M M 18 Khenpa Lung Monastery Age Affiliation 20's Prison

40 45 30 37 21 42 40 29 45 17 32 38 Gonsar Monastery Tarmo Monastery Drepung Monastery Drepung Monastery Woeser Monastery Woeser Monastery Dingkha Monastery 40 20 26 40 22 Larung Ngarik Nangten Lobling Sog Tsendhen Monastery Drepung Monastery Drepung Monastery Tarmo Monastery Tarmo Monastery Kardze Monastery Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery Ratoe Monastery Chushul PSB DC Kardze PSB DC Disappear

Chokri Monastery

179

Origin Tsigorthang County, Tsolho "TAP" Qinghai Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Chentsa County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Drongo County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Chushul County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sog Ya- Ngashang Driru County,Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Driru County,Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Toelung Dechen County,Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Driru County,Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture, "TAR" Toelung Dechen County,Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province

TCHRD 08-0991 08-0993 08-0994 08-0995 08-0996 08-1000 08-1001 08-1005 08-1007 08-1011 08-1012 08-1013 08-1014 08-1015 08-1016 08-1017 08-1020 08-1022 08-1024 08-1029 97-085 08-1033 08-1034 08-1037 08-1038 08-1039 08-1040 08-1041 08-1042 08-1044 08-1045 08-1046 08-1047 08-1049 08-1050 08-1051 08-1059 08-1061 08-1062 M M M M M F M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M F M M

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET ? DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET? DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Malle Mankyab Matok Meda Mekang Tenpa Meri Meshi Dakpa Mikyang Tonpa Moti Tsang Samgha Namgyal Namgyal Namgyal Namgyal Namgyal Tsering Namgyal Tseten(Namtse) Namkar Namlo Namsey Lhamo Namtse Ngakchung Ngawang Geyser Ngawang Choeden Ngawang Choenyi Ngawang Gyaiten Ngawang Jampa Ngawang Lhundup Ngawang Lobsang Ngawang Namgyal Ngawang Phuntsok Ngawang Phuntsok Ngawang Sange Ngawang Serchen Ngawang Serthok Ngawang Tenzin Ngawang Tenzin Ngawang Tharchoe Nikay Norbu Norbu

Arrest 27/3/2008 21/03/2008 22/03/2008 18/03/2008 24/04/2008 20/03/2008 15/05/2008 20/04/2008 11/4/2008 12/5/2008 15/03/2008 21/03/2008 24/03/2008 26/03/2008 20-21/03/2008 16/04/2008 20-21/03/2008 11/6/2008 21/03/2008 8/7/2008 18/08/97 00/04/2008 00/04/2008 18/06/2008 18/06/2008 9/6/2008 00/04/2008 15/03/2008 24/05/2008 18/06/2008 18/06/2008 00/04/2008 00/04/2008 13/5/2008 30/10/2008 17/03/2008 24/04/2008 24/04/2008 25/03/2008

Appendices

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Sex F M F Dragkar Nunnery Dragkar Nunnery 27 35 Drepung Monastery 38 34 30 Gonsar Monastery Soe Monastery Ngaba Zongse Monastery 60 Kardze Monastery Sang Lung Monastery 17 32 32 30 Khenpa Lung Monastery 45 Nyimo Gaysey Nunnery Ngaba Kirti Monastery 30 Sera Monastery 25 20 Thanggya Monastery Palbar County,Chamdo Prefecture, "TAR" Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Lushoe Township,Kanlho, "TAP" Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province F M M M M Age Affiliation 42 Pangrina Nunnery Arrest 14/05/2008 00/07/2008 12/5/2008 18/03/2008 12/5/2008 19/04/2008 Prison Origin Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Pelbar County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Tawu County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

180
18/06/2008 12/5/2008 18/03/2008 20/03/2008 22/05/2008 28-29/03/2008 9/4/2008 10/3/2008 11/6/2008

TCHRD 08-1063 08-1068 08-1069 08-1070 08-1072 08-1075 08-1079 08-1081 08-1084 08-1085 08-1089 08-1090 08-1093 08-1094 08-1096 08-1098 08-1099 08-1100 08-1101 08-1102 08-1104 08-1105 08-1106 08-1108 08-1112 08-1116 08-1881 08-1123 08-1124 08-1125 08-1126 08-1127 08-1130 08-1135 08-1136 08-1138 08-1142 08-1143 08-1144 M M M M M M M M M M M M M M F F F M F M M F F F M M M M 00/07/2008 26/03/2008 19/03/2008 18/03/2008 00/04/2008 31/06/2008 25/04/2008 24/05/2008 19/03/2008 00/07/2008 11/6/2008 21/03/2008 11/6/2008 15/05/2008 2/7/2008 25/03/2008 13/05/2008 3/5/2008 22/06/2008 29/04/2008 18/06/2008

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Norbu Dolma Nyidor Nyigha Nyilo Nyima Nyima Drakpa Nyima Wangchuk Nyindor Nyinkhar Nyinkho O Tsi Olo Palchen Palchen Kyab Palden Palden Palden Choedak Palden Chungwa Palden Dawa Palden Gyatso ? Palden Migkar Palden Nyendak Palden Sherab Palden Tsultrim Paljor Palmo Pangdon Pasang Dolma Passang Dhondup Passang Nyima Passang Tashi Passang Tashi Paylo Pelha Pema Pema ? Pema Dorjee Pema Garwang Pema Gyaltsen

Jomda County, Chamdo Prfecture, "TAR" Machen County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Chigdril County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Palbar County,Chamdo Prefecture, "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Dzamthang County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Dharlag County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Dargey Lamna Village, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Karma Kunsang,East Lhasa City "TAR" Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Lhasa "TAR" Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Dharthang Monastery Rabkar Village, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation Palyul Tharthang Monastery Gaden Choeling Nunnery Prison Khormo Prison

181

TCHRD 08-1146 08-1147 08-1150 08-1860 08-1861 08-1862 08-1863 08-1864 08-1865 08-1866 08-1867 08-1868 08-1869 08-1870 08-1871 08-1872 08-1873 08-1874 08-1875 08-1876 08-1877 08-1878 08-1201 08-1203 08-1205 08-1207 08-1216 08-1217 08-1219 08-1223 08-1224 08-1225 08-1226 08-1231 08-1232 08-1233 08-1236 08-1238 08-1242

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Pema Kharwang Pema Lhamo Pema Tsering Pema Tsering Penkyi Phagpa Thar Phagpa Tsering Phuntsok Phuntsok ? Phuntsok Ngode ? Phuntsok Nyinpo Phuntsok Tsewang Phupo Phurden Powang Rabgyal Rabsel Rangdol Rasha Samten Rayab Choklo Rebtsa Gendun Nagdang Rebtsa Nagdang Ribum Gyal Rigdak Rigdol Rigtar Rigzoe Rin Gyalmo Rinbum Gyal Rinchen Rinchen Dhondup Rinchen Dhondup Rinchen Dorjee Rinchen Tsering Ringden Lhamo Ringen Jamcan Rinpung Gya Rinzin Wangdon Rugyu Tenzin

Sex M F M M F M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M F M

Arrest 10/3/2008 14/05/2008 21/03/2008 Visiting Student Of Drepung Monastery 10/3/2008 21 20/03/2008 20/03/2008 20/03/2008 20/03/2008 Achog Tsenyi Monastery 00/03/2008 21 24/04/2008 Drepung Monastery 11/6/2008 00/04/2008 18/03/2008 22 Sera Monastery 10/3/2008 27 Yarteng Monastery 18/06/2008 26/03/2008 28 Thangsar Monastery 21/03/2008 24/05/2008 25/03/2008 18/03/2008 Tashi Kyil Monastery 15/04/2008 Labrang Monastery 28 24/03/2008 21/03/2008 30 Mishi Thangsar Monastery 30/03/2008 18/03/2008 13 20/03/2008 28 Visiting Student of Drepung 10/3/2008 20's Unknown 26/03/2008 19/03/2008 9/4/2008 24 15/06/2008 16/06/2008 20/03/2008 21 28/05/2008 27 Thanggya Monastery 12/4/2008 35 26/03/2008 23 Dargay Hardu Nunnery 23/05/2008 1/5/2008

Origin Gade County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Toelung Dechen County, Lhasa Municipality, "TAR" Shigatse County, Shigatse Prefecture,"TAR" Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Toelung Dechen County,Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Lhoka Prefecture, "TAR" Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sertha County PrisonSertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Tsigorthang County, Tsolho "TAP" Qinghai Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Gade County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Tsigorthang County, Tsolho "TAP" Qinghai Province Chigdril County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Rabkar Village, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Lhakyi, Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Gonjo County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Tsigorthang County, Tsolho "TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province

Appendices

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation Gyutoe Monastery Prison Origin Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Rebkong County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province

31 34 17 Gormoy Prison Darlag Prison

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

Arrest 15/05/2008 24/03/2008 Drepung Monastery 00/04/2008 15/05/2008 Zahog Monastery 27/04/2008 Ngaba Kirti Monastery 28-29/03/2008 10/3/2008 A-Khor Monastery 23/03/2008 Ngaba Kirti Monastery 28-29/03/2008 Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery 00/04/2008 Sera Monastery 10/3/2008 00/04/2008 Drepung Monastery Visiting Student Of Drepung Monastery 19/03/2008 Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Pema County Prison Pema County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Lhasa Golog,"TAP" Qinghai Province

182
25 42 A-Khor Monastery Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery 26 13 32 32 26 Dragkar Monastery 38 33 Yarteng Monastery Tokden Mindrol Tashi Kyil Monastery 39 Gyume Monastery Labrang Monastery Pangrina Nunnery Nangten School

TCHRD 08-1245 08-1246 08-1247 08-1253 08-1256 08-1257 08-1258 08-1259 08-1262 08-1263 08-1264 08-1265 08-1266 08-1268 08-1271 08-1273 08-1280 08-1282 08-1281 08-1284 08-1285 08-1287 08-1288 08-1291 08-1292 08-1293 08-1294 08-1295 08-1296 08-1298 08-1301 08-1303 08-1305 08-1306 08-1307 08-1308 08-1310 08-1311 08-1312 15/03/2008 18/03/2008 00/08/2008 20-21/03/2008 19/03/2008 23/03/2008 00/04/2008 00/04/2008 21/03/2008 20/03/2008 21/03/2008 17/04/2008 20/03/2008 28/05/2008 21/03/2008 25/03/2008 18/03/2008 17/06/2008 13/08/2008 25/03/2008 15/4/2008 22/03/2008 14/05/2008 22/03/2008 00/04/2008 Chigdril County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Darlag County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Dashi Village, Qinghai Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Dartsedo County,Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Sagey Sakor Guru Samdup Samdup Yalo Samphel Samrup Samsang Samten Samten Samten Samten Samten Samten Sang Sang Lhe Lhe Sangay Sangay Sangay Bum Sangay Dolma Sangay Dolma ? Sangay Gyatso Sangay Gyatso Sangay Gyatso Sangay Gyatso Sangay Khar Sangay Khar Sangay Kyap Sangay Kyap Sangay Lhamo Sangay Rabten Sangay Wangchang Sangden Sangdok Lhawang Sangha ? Sangi Bhu Sangkhog Jamyang Jinpa Sangkhog Thapkey Sangmo Sangnag Sangpo

Sex M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M F F M M M M M M M M F M M M M M M M M F M M

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation 30 Namtso Monastery Prison

29 Yatsek Nunnery A-Khor Monastery Makur Namgyaling Monastery Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery

Maima Tsendrag Monastery Nobsur Monastery Ngaba Kirti Monastery Yatsek Nunnery

28 20 40 26 36 40 26 27 35 30 Sera Monastery Unknown Gewa Drak Nunnery Dargay Nyagey Nunnery Pangrina Nunnery

Arrest 28/04/2008 20-21/03/2008 24/03/2008 20/03/2008 22-23/03/2008 28/03/2008 28-29/03/2008 17/06/2008 24/03/2008 17/06/2008 23/03/2008

183
37 23 18 37 Khangmar Monastery Khangmar Monastery Achog Tsenyi Monastery Gyalmo Gedhen Dhargyal Monastery

TCHRD 08-1314 08-1316 08-1317 08-1318 08-1319 08-1320 08-1323 08-1326 08-1328 08-1329 08-1335 08-1338 08-1340 08-1342 08-1343 08-1344 08-1346 08-1348 08-1351 08-1357 08-1358 08-1359 08-1361 08-1362 08-1363 08-1365 08-1371 08-1373 08-1374 08-1375 08-1376 08-1379 08-1380 08-1381 08-1382 08-1384 08-1385 08-1386 08-1389 18/03/2008 23/03/2008 00/04/2008 18/03/2008 18/03/2008 25/03/2008 22/05/2008 28/03/2008 18/03/2008 7/5/2008 18/06/2008 20/05/2008 14/05/2008 18/03/2008 00/07/2008 10/3/2008 00/04/2008 15/03/2008 18/03/2008 22/06/2008 14/05/2008 5-6/07/2008 9/6/2008 00/03/2008 28/03/2008 18/03/2008 23/03/2008

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Sangsang Lele Sangzin Kyi Sanying Sarbu Sarpa Tsang Lodoe Sashe Sekar Thrintse Sengtop Serpo Setruk Lhamo Shedup Shemo Shepo Sherab Sherab Sherab Sherab Sherab Sherab Gyaltsen Sherab Yangzo Sherde Shilok Shitso So Chokey So Lhatso Soedhon Soelo Soepa Soepa Soepa Soepa Soga Sokar Solo Solu Sonam Sonam Sonam Sonam

Sex M F M M M M M F M F M F M M M M M M M F M M F F F F M M M M M M F M M M M M M

Origin Darlag County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Chentsa County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Darlag County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Chentsa County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Chigdril County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kandze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lhasa, TAR Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Lhasa TAR Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Mangye Monastery Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Tsoe City, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Tewo County,Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province

Appendices

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation Prison

39 33 35 35 18 22 31 Dragkar Monastery Chokri Monastery Pangrina Nunnery

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

184
Drepung Monastery 34 41 40 Makur Namgyaling Monastery Dragkar Monastery Gaden Choeling Nunnery 23 35 Dragkar Nunnery 36 19 20 Pangrina Nunnery A-Khor Monastery Maru Monastery M M M M M M M F F M M M M F M F M M

TCHRD 08-1390 08-1391 08-1392 08-1394 08-1395 08-1404 08-1410 08-1411 08-1412 08-1415 08-1417 08-1418 08-1420 08-1425 08-1426 08-1427 08-1428 08-1430 08-1431 08-1432 08-1433 08-1435 08-1436 08-1437 08-1438 08-1439 08-1440 08-1442 08-1446 08-1447 08-1448 08-1449 08-1450 08-1451 08-1456 08-1457 08-1458 08-1459 08-1461 Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Chentsa County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County,Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Tewo County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lushoe Township,Kanlho, "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Sonam Sonam Sonam Sonam Sonam Sonam Dhargyal Sonam Gyatso Sonam Gyon Sonam Jigme Sonam Lhatso Sonam Nyima Sonam Nyima Sonam Sherab Sonam Wangdue Sonam Wangmo Sonam Wangyal Sonam Yangtso Sonam Yarphel Sondon Songkyap Sopay Sumdor Sungdue Kyap Sungrab Sungrab Sungrab Tabhe Tabo Tagha Takdon Takho Takho ? Taklha Dhondup Taklha Thar Tamdin Chokey Tamdin Tashi Tamdin Tsekyi Tamdin Tsering Tamdin Tseten

Sex M M M M M M M M M F F M M M F M F M F M

Arrest 18/03/2008 20/03/2008 20/03/2008 25/03/2008 25/03/2008 31/06/2008 21/03/2008 00/08/2008 26/03/2008 14/05/2008 20/03/2008 31/03/2008 18/03/2008 10/3/2008 9/8/2008 15/06/2008 12/5/2008 2/4/2008 18/03/2008 24/05/2008 18/03/2008 00/04/2008 20/03/2008 23/03/2008 19/03/2008 1/5/2008 24/04/2008 23/03/2008 12/5/2008 14/5/2008 17/04/2008 22/03/2008 20/03/2008 20/03/2008 12/5/2008 14/04/2008 11/5/2008 19/03/2008 17/04/2008

Origin Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Chigdril County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Jomda County, Chamdo Prfecture, "TAR" Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Dashi Village, Qinghai Province Drongo County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County,Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Gonjo County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Rabkar Village, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County,Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation 44 30 19 Dragkar Nunnery Za Monastery Zakhog Monastery Mishi Thangsar Monastery 14 20 22 14 37 30 Pangrina Nunnery Beri Monastery Khangmar Monastery Gewa Drak Nunnery Nyagay Nunnery Gomang Monastery 36 48 26 23 31 Pangrina Nunnery Larung Ngarik Nangten Lobling Arrest 27/04/2008 8/7/2008 14/04/2008 00/04/2008 14/05/2008 00/06/2008 11/5/2008 27/04/2008 26/04/2008 20/03/2008 10/3/2008 10/3/2008 10/3/2008 21/03/2008 14/05/2008 24/6/2008 Prison

185
26 25 25 27 17 23 37 Ratoe Monastery Achog Tsenyi Monastery Gesay Nunnery Drepung Monastery Khenpa Lung Monastery Sera Monastery A-Khor Monastery Kathog Monastery Gaden Chokorling Monastery Labrang Monastery 22/06/2008 14/03/2008 21/03/2008 18/06/2008 20/05/2008 10/3/2008 30/03/2008 24/03/2008 00/03/2008 00/03/2008 22/05/2008 00/04/2008 12/5/2008 9/7/2008 23/03/2008 00/07/2008 00/03/2008 00/04/2008 23/03/2008 15/05/2008 00/04/2008 19/05/2008

TCHRD 08-1463 08-1464 08-1465 08-1469 08-1471 08-1472 08-1473 08-1474 08-1476 08-1478 08-1480 08-1481 08-1482 08-1484 08-1485 08-1489 08-1491 08-1492 08-1493 08-1495 08-1496 08-1499 08-1500 08-1501 08-1502 08-1506 08-1505 08-1509 08-1513 08-1519 08-1521 08-1524 08-1526 08-1529 08-1530 08-1533 08-1538 08-1540 08-1541 Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Sertha County PrisonSertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze, "TAP" Sichuan Province Drayab County, Chamdo Prefecture, "TAR" Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR"

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Tanor Taphun Tari Akun Tashi Tashi Dolma Tashi Dorjee Tashi Gha Tashi Gyal Tashi Gyaltsen Tashi Gyatso Tashi Gyatso Tashi Gyatso Tashi Gyatso Tashi Gyatso Tashi Lhawang Tashi Ngodup Tashi Sangpo Tashi Sherab Tashi Sonam Tashi Tsering Tashi Tso Tashi Yangtso Tashi Yarphel Tatse Tatse Tendhar Tendhar ? Tenkar Tenpa Tenpa Gyaltsen Tenphal Tenzin Tenzin Tenzin Tenzin Tenzin Tenzin Gyatso Tenzin Gyatso Tenzin Gyephel

Sex M M M M F M F M M M M M M M F M M M M M F F M M M M M F M M M M M M M M M M M

Origin Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichua Province Serthar County,Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Tewo County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Lhoka Prefecture, "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Derge County,Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County,Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture,"TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Chushul County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province

Appendices

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age 19 17 17 19 30 45 31 17 30 22 A-Khor Monastery A-Khor Monastery Drengva Sumdo Monastery Dragkar Nunnery Beri Monastery Thangsar Monastery Labrang Monastery Affiliation Woeser Monastery Bada Samdupling Monastery Woeser Monastery Arrest 30/10/2008 00/03/2008 24/10/2008 19/05/2008 25/05/2008 18/06/2008 21/03/2008 1/4/2008 20/03/2008 24/04/2008 25/03/2008 Prison

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

186
23 28 A-Khor Monastery 38 24 40's Dargay Monastery 25 Bhumsar Monastery 31 30 Palyul Tharthang Monastery Jammey Monastery Ratoe Monastery Sera Monastery

Chushul PSB DC

Origin Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture, "TAR" Sershul County,Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Markham County, Chamdo Prefecture, "TAR" Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Drongo County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sertha County,Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Chigdril County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Luchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Chushul County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze, "TAP" Sichuan Province Chigdril County,Golog "TAP" Gansu Province

TCHRD 08-1546 08-1547 08-1548 08-1551 08-1553 08-1555 08-1556 08-1557 08-1560 08-1561 08-1563 08-1564 08-1568 08-1570 08-1571 08-1572 08-1574 08-1575 08-1579 08-1580 08-1581 08-1583 08-1585 08-1586 08-1587 08-1589 08-1590 08-1592 08-1594 08-1599 08-1604 08-1608 08-1609 08-1612 08-1614 08-1616 08-1615 08-1618 08-1619 11/5/2008 20-21/03/2008 23/03/2008 23/03/2008 16/06/2008 18/03/2008 21/03/2008 18/03/2008 23/03/2008 20/03/2008 9/4/2008 21/03/2008 18/03/2008 16/04/2008 10/3/2008 20/03/2008 10/7/2008 19/03/2008 00/03/2008 00/03/2008 20-21/03/2008 10/3/2008 20/03/2008 25/03/2008 25/03/2008 19/05/2008 18/03/2008 Khormo Prison Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Gade County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Sertha County,Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Sex Tenzin Norbu M Tenzin Phuntsok M Tenzin Rinchen M M Tenzin Tsering Tenzin Yeshi M Thang-Nge M M Thang-Ya Thapkhey M Thapkhey M Thapkhey M Tharchin M M Thayae ? Thinley F M Thinley Thinley (Chewa) M Thinley (chungwa) M Thinley Dorjee M Thinley Namgyal M M Thoekay Thoepa M Thoesam M Thokmey M M Thrukpa Khar Thrukpa Khar M M Thuma Thupchok M Thupdon M Thupkho M Thupten M Thupten M M Thupten Namgyal M Thupten Tsering Thupten Tsering(thupkho M Thupwang M Tingha F M Topden Topden ? M Topgyal M Troema M

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Sex M M M M M M F Thangsar Monastery 74 22 Sera Monastery Kardze Monastery Drepung Monastery 15 22 20 22 22 30 Maru Monastery 19 17 45 25 Thanggya Monastery Dhargyal Monastery Drepung Monastery 20's 20 Kardze Monastery 38 Dragkar Nunnery 31/06/2008 17/04/2008 16/04/2008 10/3/2008 22/03/2008 22/03/2008 19/03/2008 3/4/2008 18/03/2008 3/8/2008 00/04/2008 26/03/2008 18/05/2008 24/03/2008 25/03/2008 28/05/2008 19/05/2008 4/20/2008 18/03/2008 25/03/2008 Khenpa Lung Monastery Maru Monastery 22 M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M F M M M M M F M M F M 19/03/2008 3/5/2008 13/5/2008 21/03/2008 18/03/2008 00/03/2008 21/03/2008 29/06/2008 10/3/2008 18/05/2008 10/3/2008 00/04/2008 20/03/2008 12/5/2008 22/03/2008 Age Affiliation Nobsur Monastery Horshul Monastery 32 26 Visiting Student Of Drepung Monastery Yangdhen Monastery 17 Woeser Monastery 35 Arrest 28/03/2008 18/03/2008 Prison Origin Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Darlag County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province Gormoy Prison Chigdril County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Nyagchuka County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Jomda County, Chamdo Prfecture, "TAR" Kashi Monastery Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Pema County Prison Pema County, Golog"TAP" Qinghai Province

187

TCHRD 08-1620 08-1621 08-1622 08-1625 08-1626 08-1629 08-1631 08-1637 08-1639 08-1640 08-1641 08-1642 08-1643 08-1646 08-1651 08-1652 08-1653 08-1658 08-1663 08-1664 08-1665 08-1667 08-1670 08-1671 08-1674 08-1675 08-1681 08-1685 08-1687 08-1688 08-1690 08-1691 08-1692 08-1695 08-1696 08-1697 08-1698 08-1702 08-1703 Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Lhasa "TAR" Jomda County, Chamdo Prfecture, "TAR" Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Lhasa "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Gonjo County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Trulku Gandun Trulku Jangchup Trulku Khenpo Trulku Tenpa Rigsang Trulku Thupten Nyima Tsangpa Tsangyang Tseden Tsedor Mardangma Tsedup Tsegyal Palbastsang Tsegyam Tsehog Tsekyab Tsensang Tsepak Kyap Tsepak Namgyal Tsering Tsering Tsering Tsering Dhondup Tsering Dorjee Tsering Gyatso Tsering Logya ? Tsering Tashi Tsering Ten ? Tseten Tseten Phuntsok Tseten Wangmo Tsewang Tsewang Tsewang Tsewang Dhondup Tsewang Gyatso Tsewang Khando Tsewang Tenzin Tsewang Thapkey ? Tsoema Tsogneyi

Tsigorthang County, Tsolho "TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province

Appendices

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation 40 Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery Shugseb Nunnery 19 30 26 A-Khor Monastery Mishi Thangsar Monastery Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery Rabtsa Gyalmo Monastery Prison

16 19 Achog Tsenyi Monastery 37 20 26 Labrang Monastery Sogtsang Monastery

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

Arrest 22/03/2008 00/04/2008 6/7/2008 28/4/2008 24/04/2008 19/03/2008 20/03/2008 23/03/2008 23/03/2008 00/04/2008 00/04/2008 10/3/2008 21/03/2008 21/03/2008 21/03/2008 22/03/2008

188
32 23 38 24 Sera Monastery Zithang Township Maru Monastery Shugseb Nunnery Tehor Kardze Monastery Shelkar Choedhe Monastery Shelkar Choedhe Monastery Shelkar Choedhe Monastery Shelkar Choedhe Monastery Shelkar Choedhe Monastery Shelkar Choedhe Monastery Shelkar Choedhe Monastery Shelkar Choedhe Monastery Shelkar Choedhe Monastery Shelkar Choedhe Monastery Dargay Hardu Nunnery Shelkar Choedhe Monastery Dhargyal Nunnery Shelkar Choedhe Monastery Dhargyal Nunnery 5/4/2008 20/03/2008 10/3/2008 3/4/2008 22/03/2008 28/04/2008 18/05/2008 19/05/2008 19/05/2008 19/05/2008 19/05/2008 19/05/2008 19/05/2008 19/05/2008 19/05/2008 19/05/2008 19/05/2008 23/05/2008 19/05/2008 28/05/2008 19/05/2008 28/05/2008

TCHRD 08-1704 08-1707 08-1709 08-1711 08-1715 08-1714 08-1716 08-1717 08-1718 08-1719 08-1720 08-1724 08-1725 08-1726 08-1727 08-1729 08-1731 08-1733 08-1737 08-1740 08-1741 08-1745 08-1746 08-1751 08-1755 08-1756 08-1758 08-1759 08-1760 08-1761 08-1762 08-1764 08-1765 08-1766 08-1767 08-1768 08-1769 08-1770 08-1771 Kardze PSB DC

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Tsokho ? Tsoknyi Tsolo Tsondue Tsulkho Tsulkho ? Tsultop Tsultrim Tsultrim Tsultrim Tsultrim Tsultrim Tsultrim Tsultrim Tsultrim Tsultrim Gothrak ? Tsultrim Gyatso Tsultrim Gyatso Tsultrim Gyatso Tsultrim Palden Tsultrim Phuntsok Tsundue Tsundue Tulku Phurbu Tsering Ven Choedhen Ven Dhondup Ven Khenrab Nyima Ven Khenrab Tashi Ven Khenrab Tharchen Ven Lobsang Jigme Ven Samten Ven Tenpa Ven Tenzin Gayphel Ven Tenzin Tsering Ven Tenzin Wangdon Ven Tophgyal Ven Tsewang Khando Ven Tsewang Tenzin Ven Yeshi Lhadon

Sex M M M F M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M F M M M M M M M M M M M F M F M F

Origin Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Chushul County, Lhasa Municipality "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Chigdril County,Golog "TAP" Gansu Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Chushul County, Lhasa Municipality"TAR" Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Dingri County,Shigatse Prefecture "TAR" Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province

List of Known Current Political Prisoners


Age Affiliation Prison

22 21 39 30 Tachok-Tsang Village 32 21 Thanggya Monastery Gaden Chokorling Monastery Pangrina Nunnery Nobsur Monastery Dragkar Nunnery Yarteng Monastery Yatsek Nunnery Gaden Choeling Nunnery Khangmar Monastery Sera Monastery Dragkar Nunnery Gaden Choeling Nunnery Tongkor Monastery Khangmar Monastery 20 40 38 32 28 31 36 32 43 24 26 26 27 34 Labrang Monastery Sogtsang Monastery Sogtsang Monastery Koi-Tsa Village in 20's Beri Monastery

Khenpa Lung Monastery

189
25 Taktsang Lhamo Kirti Monastery 1/4/2008 21/03/2008 21/03/2008 19/06/2008 21/03/2008 17/03/2008 23/03/2008 15/05/2008 29/03/2008

TCHRD 08-1775 08-1776 08-1777 08-1779 08-1781 08-1782 08-1783 08-1785 08-1787 08-1789 08-1791 08-1792 08-1794 08-1795 08-1797 08-1800 08-1802 08-1804 08-1805 08-1806 08-1808 08-1809 08-1812 08-1819 08-1826 08-1828 08-1830 08-1831 08-1833 08-1835 08-1836 08-1837 08-1838 08-1840 08-1842 08-1844 08-1847 08-1850 08-1851 08-1853 08-1856 08-1858 08-1859

Status DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET DET

Name Wangchen Wangchen Wangchen Gardro Wangchuk Wangchuk Wangchuk Wangchuk Dorjee Wangdue ? Wanglo Wangpo Wangtop Wangyal Wochung Kyi Woedon Woeser Thayai Wokay ? Yakna Yangchen Khando Yangchuk Gham Yangdo Yangha Yangkyi Yangzom Yelo Yeshi Yeshi Choetso Yeshi Dorjee Yeshi Dorjee Yeshi Gyurme Yeshi Lhadon Yeshi Lhamo Yeshi Nyima Yeshi Palden Yidor Yonten Yonten Gyatso Yonten Shitruk Youdroom Yougam Youmay Yumey Zambala Zaru Jampa

Sex M M F M M M M M M M M M F F M M F F M M F F F F M F M M M F F M M M M M M M M M M M M

Arrest 20/03/2008 22/03/2008 14/05/2008 12/5/2008 17/04/2008 25/03/2008 24/6/2008 22/03/2008 00/06/2008 25/03/2008 20/03/2008 3/4/2008 18/03/2008 18/03/2008 23/03/2008 22/03/2008 20/03/2008 14/05/2008 28/03/2008 20/03/2008 25/03/2008 12/5/2008 18/06/2008 17/06/2008 00/04/2008 14/5/2008 9/6/2008 20/03/2008 17/05/2008 28/05/2008 14/05/2008 3/4/2008 14/6/2008

Origin Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Markham County,Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Serthar County,Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Darlag County,Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Gonjo County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Chone County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Dzoge County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County,Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Thamey Village, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze,"TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Malho "TAP" Qinghai Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Serthar County,Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sertha County, Kardze"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba"TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County,Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP", Gansu Province Dzoge County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province

Appendices

List of Known Tibetans who were arrested and detained in 2009


Age 38 29 30 26 23 37 30 29 28 30 21 30 37 29 40 41 Affiliation Nekhor Monastery

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

190
27 40 21 27 40 40 30 Labrang Tashi-Kyil Monastery Gema Dra-wok Nunnery Tse-Tsang Monastery 36 47 34 30 30 25 Ngaba Gomang Monastery Labrang Tashi-Kyil Monastery Shapten Monastery Shapten Monastery Shapten Monastery 35 Dragkar Nunner Dragkar Nunner Labrang Tashi-Kyil Monastery

TCHRD 09-001 09-002 09-003 09-004 09-005 09-006 09-007 09-008 09-009 09-010 09-011 09-012 09-013 09-014 09-015 09-016 09-017 09-018 09-019 09-020 09-021 09-022 09-023 09-024 09-025 09-026 09-027 09-028 09-029 09-030 09-031 09-032 09-033 09-034 09-035 09-036 09-037 09-038 09-039

Name Lobsang Lhundup Sonam Tenpa Jampa Thokmey Gelek Kunga Lobsang Tenzin Lobsang Phendey Jampa Yonten Sangay Jampa Tsering Lobsang Wangchuk Lobsang Tashi Gendun Choephel Dhargyal Gendun Jampa Amdo Gyaltsen Damdul Tashi Dhondup Jigme Gyatso Lobsang Khandro Jampa Dhondup Dhunka Dorjee Tsering Wangrak Pachen Khethar Pema Lhamo Yali Palchen Choekyi Dokru Tsultrim Kelsang Gyatso Khensur Thupten Thapkey Tsultrim Gyaltsen Tsundue Tenpa Jamdo Yangkyi Dolma Sonam Yangchen Tsundue Gyatso

Sex M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M F M M M M F F F F F M M M M M M M F F M

Date of arrest 15/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 16/02/2009 12/3/2009 10/3/2009 6/3/2009 19/03/2009 21/03/2009 21/03/2009 21/03/2009 27/03/2009 27/03/2009 27/03/2009 27/03/2009 27/03/2009 00/04/2009 13/4/2009 11/4/2009 11/4/2009 00/04/2009 00/05/2009 00/05/2009 24/03/2009 24/03/2009 14/5/2009

Origin Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Mangra County, Tsolho "TAP" Qinghai Province Sangchu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Drango County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Tsolho "TAP" Qinghai Province Labrang County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Nagchu County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Nagchu County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Nagchu County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Labrang County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province

List of Known Tibetans who were arrested and detained in 2009


Age 38 32 31 23 24 29 27 22 21 24 29 Kirti Monastery Lutsang Monastery Lutsang Monastery Lutsang Monastery Lutsang Monastery Affiliation Labrang Tashi-Kyil Monastery Date of arrest 14/5/2009 5/1/2009 28/12/2008 20/01/2009 20/01/2009 22/01/2009 15/01/2009 25/02/2009 25/02/2009 25/02/2009 25/02/2009

191
Mera Monastery Mera Monastery Mera Monastery Ngaba Gomang Monastery Kirti Monastery Kirti Monastery 36 20's 35 25 25 24 17 17 17 17 28

TCHRD 09-040 09-041 09-042 09-043 09-044 09-045 09-046 09-047 09-048 09-049 09-050 09-051 09-052 09-053 09-054 09-055 09-056 09-057 09-058 09-059 09-060 09-061 09-062 09-063 09-064 09-065 09-066 09-067 09-068 09-069 09-070 09-071 09-072 09-073 09-074 09-075 09-076 09-077 37 50 51 30 42 36 20's 20's 16 21 Taklung Monastery Dhen Choekor Monastery Dhen Choekor Monastery Dhen Choekor Monastery Dhen Choekor Monastery Dhen Choekor Monastery Dhen Choekor Monastery 00/05/2009 9-10/1/2009 9-10/1/2009 9-10/1/2009 9-10/1/2009 9-10/1/2009 9-10/1/2009 1/10/2009 1/10/2009 29/01/2009 29/01/2009 29/01/2009 5/3/2009 2/3/2009 10/3/2009 3/3/2009 5/3/2009 14/3/2009 14/3/2009 14/3/2009 11/3/2009 11/3/2009 11/3/2009 14/3/2009 14/3/2009

Name Sonam Gyatso Ngawang Sonam Kunchok Dolma Bhu Dhargyal Thinley Ngodup Norbu Tashi Lobsang Kirti Lungtok Gyatso Kelsang Gyatso Soepa Gyatso Soepa Gyatso Yulshey Tsetan Lhamo Gyaltsang Dorjee Tenzin Gyaltsen Nyishek Ngawang Tashi Tashi Dorjee Jamyang Sherab Tsering Palden Nyima Wangchuk Yeshi Namkha Tenzin Choephel Lobsang Gyaltsen Anam Jampa Lhamo Thangzin Lobsang Wangchuk Jamyang Phuntsok Mewa Gyatso Lobsang Nyendak Dawa Tsering Dhondup Choetso Tsetan Lhamo Tsering Lhamo Karma Norbu Namsel Dorjee

Sex M M F M M M M M M M M F F M M M M M M M M M M M M F M M M M M M M F F F M M

Origin Labrang County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Dzogong County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Dzogong County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Dzogong County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Mangra County, Tsolho "TAP" Qinghai Province Mangra County, Tsolho "TAP" Qinghai Province Mangra County, Tsolho "TAP" Qinghai Province Mangra County, Tsolho "TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Derge County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Sog County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Sog County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Dzogong County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Dzogong County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Dzogong County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Lithang County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Ngaba County, Ngaba "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province

Appendices

List of Known Tibetans who were arrested and detained in 2009


Age 16 17 36 21 56 Norma Monastery Sex M M M M M M M F M M M M M M M F Affiliation

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

192
27 Ragya Monastery Ragya Monastery Ragya Monastery Ragya Monastery Ragya Monastery Ragya Monastery 14 10 Chaktsa Monastery Chaktsa Monastery M M M M M M M M M M M M M

TCHRD 09-078 09-079 09-080 09-081 09-082 09-083 09-084 09-085 09-086 09-087 09-088 09-089 09-090 09-091 09-092 09-093 09-094 09-095 09-096 09-097 09-098 09-099 09-100 09-101 09-102 09-103 09-104 09-105 09-106 09-107 09-108 09-109 09-110 09-111 09-112 09-113 09-114 09-115

Name Rinchen Wangsel Sangay Tsering Golok Kunga Tsangyang Thugsam Jampa Sonam Taphel Gonpo Tsewang Yigah Alo Drakpay Dawa Drakpa Gyalshay Kyalgah Namlha Tsewang Jigdrak Pedo Phurba Dolkyab Dorjee Tsering Palden Gyatso Tsultrim Sangpo Jamyang Khedrup Gendun Sherab Sangpo Hu-Lo Yang-Kyab Damchoe Sonam Yonten Dechen Thinley Rinpoche Thambo Yagar Dawa Nemel Loyak Thinley Nyima Dagyam Thupo

Date of arrest 14/3/2009 14/3/2009 17/03/2009 11/3/2009 5/4/2009 21/03/2009 15/04/2009 15/04/2009 15/04/2009 15/04/2009 15/04/2009 15/04/2009 15/04/2009 00/04/2009 00/04/2009 7/6/2009 7/6/2009 7/6/2009 7/6/2009 21/03/2009 21/03/2009 21/03/2009 21/03/2009 21/03/2009 21/03/2009 21/03/2009 21/03/2009 29/08/2009 29/08/2009 29/08/2009 29/08/2009 29/08/2009 29/08/2009 29/08/2009 29/08/2009 29/08/2009 29/08/2009 29/08/2009

Origin Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Machen County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Nyarong County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Nyarong County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Nyarong County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Nyarong County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Nyarong County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Nyarong County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Nyarong County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Diru County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Diru County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Derge County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Derge County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Derge County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Derge County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Machen County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Machen County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Machen County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Machen County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Machen County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Machen County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Machen County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Machen County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province

List of Known Tibetans who were arrested and detained in 2009


Age Sex Affiliation Date of arrest 29/08/2009 29/08/2009 29/08/2009 Origin Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Sershul County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province

39 23 19 25 28 16 18 15 Taklung Monastery Labrang Tashi Kyi Monastery Tsakho Monastery Tsakho Monastery Tsakho Monastery khakor Monastery

26/02/2009 17/03/2009 4/12/2009 4/12/2009 4/12/2009 4/12/2009

18 20's

M M M M M M M F M M M M M M M M M M M Guru Gewa School

193
Serthar Larung Ngarig Monastery 47 44 F M M M M M

TCHRD 09-116 09-117 09-118 09-119 09-123 09-124 09-126 09-127 09-128 09-129 09-130 09-131 09-132 09-133 09-134 09-135 09-136 09-137 09-138 09-139 09-140 09-141 09-142 09-143 09-144 09-145 09-146 09-147 09-148 09-149 7/3/2009 7/3/2009 7/3/2009 00/05/2009 00/04/2009 00/04/2009 28/07/2009 00/08/2009 1/10/2009 15/04/2009 15/04/2009 7/6/2009 7/6/2009 00/05/2009 00/05/2009 00/05/2009 7/8/2008 22/06/2009 22/06/2009 Machu County, Kanlho "TAP" Gansu Province Chigdral County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Matoe County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Matoe County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Matoe County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Matoe County, Golog "TAP" Qinghai Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Derge County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Dechen County, Dechen "TAP" Yunnan Province Dechen County, Dechen "TAP" Yunnan Province Chamdo County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Tsangral Road, Lhasa "TAR" Sog County, Nagchu Prefecture "TAR" Nyarong County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Nyarong County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Derge County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Kardze County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Sertha County, Kardze "TAP" Sichuan Province Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR" Jomda County, Chamdo Prefecture "TAR"

Name Sonam Tharshong Sheba Tashi Rabten Kunchok Tsephel Kunga Tsayang Ngagsung Nobay Sherab Nyima Trulku Tsepak Pema Yangzom Tsering Drakpa Chonyi Gyaltsen Rinchen Phuntsok Gyurmey Gonpo Dagah Tsultrim Lobsang Nyendak Passang Norbu Gyaltsen Gonpey Ada Pema Demay Thuppa Sonam Palmo Lobsang Palden Yeshi Palden Ngagchung Ashag Tsang Norha Gonpo Dhargyal

Appendices

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

Note:
The above list contains the names of political prisoners documented by TCHRD from various sources till 27 December 2008, utmost care was taken while preparing the list. Despite scarcity in sources, TCHRD managed to enlist the names of some 2000 people out of estimated 6500 who had been arrested, detained and released since March 2008, Tibetan Peoples Uprising across TAR and Tibetan areas in Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu and Yunnan Provinces. The names of many Tibetan people are not available; TCHRD will try to unearth those names so as to bring forth to the attention of International Community. For rectification and information with regard to name, age, sex, affiliation, prison term and origin please contact TCHRD.

Abbreviation:
DET: DET?: PSB DC: D: M: Y: Detained Detained but release status unknown Public Security Bureau Detention Centre Day Month Year

194

Appendices

APPENDIX 4
Table Listing Relevant International Human Rights Instruments Signed and/or Ratified by the Peoples Republic of China

In s t r u m e n t
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)

Si g n e d o n

Ratified on

Id e a l s
Recognising that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby ever yone may enjoy his economic, social and cultural rights, as well as his civil and political rights. Recognising that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights as well as his economic, social and cultural rights. C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t a l l h u m a n b e i n g s a re e q u a l before the law and are entitled to equal protection of the law against any discrimination and against any incitement to discrimination. Re c a l l i n g t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t w o m e n violates the principles of equality of rights and respect for human dignity, is an obstacle to the participation of women, on equal terms with men, in the political, social, economic and cultural life of their countries, hampers the growth of the prosperity of society and the family and makes more difficult the full development of the potentialities of women in the service of their countries and of humanity. De s i r i n g t o m a k e m o re e f f e c t i ve t h e s t r u g g l e against tor ture and other cr uel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment throughout the world. Considering that the Child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society, and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the UN, and in particular in the s p i r i t o f p e a c e , d i g n i t y, t o l e r a n c e , f r e e d o m , equality and solidarity.

27 October 1997

27 March 2001

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)

5 October 1998

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD)

29 December 1981

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)

17 July 1980

4 November 1980

Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

12 December 1986

4 October 1988

29 August 1990

2 March 1992

195

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009

APPENDIX 5

GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS


TAP Tibet Autonomous Prefecture (Tib. Bod rang skyong khul); There are 10 of these administrative areas (below the level of a province or region) created outside TAR by the Chinese authorities, located in northern and eastern Tibet (in the Tibetan provinces of Kham and Amdo) Tibet Autonomous Region (Tib. Bod rang kyong lljongs, Ch. xizang Zizique); Formally created by China in 1965, this area of central and western Tibet, covering the area of west of the Yangtse River and south of the Kunlun Mountains, is the only area recognized by China as being Tibet The old Tibetan quarter and market area around the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa. In Tibetan it literally means the middle circuit or central circumambulation (Tib. le che pa, Ch. gan bu) Technically applies to staff of the Chinese Government administration; also referred to those working on official projects or in state enterprises United Nations Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Ch. Zhon Guo Gong Chan Dang) Chinese Communist Party; founded in July 1921 United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women A religious ritual circling clockwise around a holy place in order to accumulate merit (Tib. dzong, Ch. xian) The Middle level administrative unit equivalent to district Criminal Procedure Law; the revised CPL came into effect on 1 January 1997 Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Congress (Tib. rigs-nas-gsar-brje); The campaign initiated in 1966 by Mao Zedong in order to regain control of the Communist Party by ordering the youth to bombard the headquarters (purge opponents within the Party) and to eradicate the four olds (old ideas, old culture, old customs and old habits). The Chinese authorities no describe it as Ten Bad Years, referring to the entire period of 1966 to 1979. (Tib. lta srung khang, Ch. kanshoushuo) Place where prisoners are held without charge prior to sentencing (Tib. u-yon lhan khang, Ch. we yuan hi) Democratic Management Committee; Administrative organs established in 1962 in religious institutions in Tibet and reconstructed under the 1996 patriotic re-education campaign

TAR

Barkhor (Tib)

Cadre

CAT CCP CEDAW Circumambulation County CPL CPPCC Cultural Revolution

Detention Centre DMC

196

Appendices Drapchi prison Officially known as Tibet Autonomous Region Prison Endangering State Security Charge introduced in the revised CPL to replace counter-revolutionary Floating population (Ch. liudong renkou) Term used to refer to Chinese migrants who are unregistered permanent and temporary residents in Tibet Geshe (Tib) Spiritual title and doctorate; monk or lama who has completed the highest course in metaphysics and other academic monastic studies in the Gelugpa school Guanxi (Ch) Literally, connection; colloquially a connection to officialdom to acquire preferential treatment Gyama (Tib) Unit of measurement equivalent to 500 grams Gyama (Tib) Unit of measurement equivalent to 500 grams Hukou (Ch) Household Registration card ICCPR International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ICESCR International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Khenpo (Tib) Literally abbot. In Nyingma and Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, Khenpo is analogous to the Geshe degree Lama (Tib) The Tibetan term for a respected religious teacher, equivalent to the Sanskrit term guru. A lama is not necessarily a monk, although monasticism is preferred for all lamas in the Gelugpa School. Chinese politicians use the term incorrectly to refer to any monk Mu (Tib) A measure of land equal to 67 square meters NPC National Peoples Congress PAP Peoples Armed Police Patriotic re-education Initiated in 1996 in Tibets monasteries and nunneries, patriotic re-education campaign was designed to purge the influence of the Dalai Lama, to indoctrinate the monks and nuns with political ideology and to crackdown on dissent activities. Potala Palace Official winter residence of the Dalai Lama in Lhasa PRC Peoples Republic of China Prefecture (Tib. sa khul, Ch. diqu) The administrative area below the level of province or region and above the level of a county Procuracy (Tib. zhib chu, Ch. jian chayan) A Chinese judicial agency responsible for investigating and prosecuting criminal cases. It also handles complaints against police, prison officials and other branches of the administration Prostrate Buddhist practice of lying face down before any sacred body PSB (Tib. schi de chus, Ch. Gong An Ju) Public Security Bureau, local level police force responsible for detaining and arresting suspects and for pre-trial custody Re-education Indoctrination of Chinese Communist ideology and national unity; carried out extensively in religious institutions and labour camps in Tibet Rukhag (Tib) One small unit within a prison, village, school, or military etc Saga Dawa (Tib) The month of Buddhas birth, Enlightenment and Death

197

Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2009 Splittism Strike Hard (Tib. Khadral ringlugs) Party term for the movement for Tibetan independence or any nationalist sentiments (Tib. dungdek tsanen, Ch. yanda) A PRC campaign targeted at crushing corruption and crime. Within Tibet, Chinese authorities are aiming the campaign at splittists Roasted barley flour Detention Area Central Cathedral in Lhasa United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention (Tib. las don ru khag, Ch. gongzuo dui) Specially formed units of government personnel sent to conduct patriotic re-education in an institution or locality A Tibetan medicinal plant (Botanical name cordyceps sinensis) Chinese currency (8 Yuan is equivalent to 1 dollar.)

Tsampa (Tib) Tsongkhul (Tib) Tsuglhakhang (Tib) UNWGAD Work Team Yartsa Gunbu (Tib) Yuan (Ch)

198