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Mr. D M Nathaniel
G&G department, RIL
Manoj kumar maurya
MSc.Tech Geophysics Exploration BHU, Varanasi
In lieu of all the people in Reliance Industries Limited (E&P) I have in mind, my first and foremost thanks go to Mr. Anand Binani, HR and Mr. Harish Ghodpade, HR for arranging this training for M.Tech.and M.Sc. Tech., final year students. I am extremely grateful to them for their kind support and help rendered during the entire period of this training. My sincere thanks go to Mr. D.M. Nathaniel under the supervision we completed our project. I also would like to give my thanks to Mr. Murali Krishna and Mr. Ravi Verma for their proper guidance. I would like to give thanks to Srinivas, Kenneth D’silva, Sreejesh Shreedhar, Megha Saxena, Chandan Mishra, Shashirekha mahapatra for their cooperation in completion my project. Last but not least, I thank my fellow for making this venture memorable.
Manoj Kumar Maurya
2. Synthetic Seismogram 3. Seismic attributes 4. Sequence Stratigraphy 5. Interpretationa)-Manual Interpretation of seismic sections b)-Structural intepretation at Work Station
SEISMIC INTERPRETATION: The main goal of seismic data interpretation is that to identify the oil and gas reservoir. In seismic exploration, an acoustic energy source radiates elastic waves into the earth from the surface; receivers on the surface detect acoustic energy reflected from geological interfaces within the earth. The recorded data are processed in ways which ease interpretation. Seismic interpretation is the interface between the exact mathematics of seismic data processing and inexact geological reasoning. Oil and gas occur in sedimentary rocks, where source rocks are present and a porous and permeable reservoir is sealed by an impermeable cap rock to form a trap. The principal uses of seismic exploration include basin analysis, prospect generation and their evaluation by mapping geological structures and stratigraphic features. Integration of exploration well data with seismic data can reduce the ambiguity of the interpretation. Seismic interpretation techniques include both structural and stratigraphic methods applied at both basin-scale and prospect-scale based up on the objective of the given project. As the time period given for this training is about a month, preliminary interpretation aspects on 2D and 3D seismics are exposed viz., concepts of petroleum geology, seismic structural and stratigraphic analysis, synthetic seismogram and hands-on correlation and mapping techniques on state of art work stations.
Synthetic seismogram is a model of the total seismic earth response of the layered earth through which the waves pass. It is the result of one of many forms of forward modeling to predict the seismic response of the Earth. Synthetic seismogram is a direct one-dimensional model of acoustic energy traveling through the layers of the earth. The Reflection Coefficient is the ratio of reflected wave to incident wave at point of reflection. A series of horizontal acoustic impedance (ρ V) contrast at the boundaries from which reflectivity is computed by the equation, ρ2 V2 – ρ1 V1 RC = ρ2 V 2 + ρ1 V 1
where V is the interval velocity.
Synthetic seismogram is generated by convolving the reflectivity derived from digitized acoustic and density logs with a suitable zero or minimum phase derived from seismic data. By comparing marker beds or other correlation points picked on well logs with major reflection on the seismic section, interpretation of the data can be improved. The quality of the match between a synthetic seismogram depends on well log quality, seismic data processing quality, and the ability to extract a representative wavelet from seismic data. The acoustic log is generated calibrated with check-shot or vertical seismic profile (VSP) first-arrival information before combining with the density log to produce acoustic impedance. Successful interpretation depends upon the ability to combine the knowledge gained from seismic data with geological interpretation derived from logs and cores. For interpretation, a deterministic seismic model of the earth is constructed from the geological model the seismic trace to reduce discrepancies. An iterative comparison process continues until a satisfactory fit between synthetic and actual data is obtained. Theoretical models are prepared by considering acoustic properties.
FIG: Synthetic Seismogram Uses of Synthetic seismogram: 1. The identification of geological horizons which give rise to observed reflection. 2. It does not contain multiple reflections. The identification of multiples becomes easy from the synthetic seismogram. It can also be used for identification of ghost reflections. 3. It can be used in finding stratigraphic traps. This can be done by checking “character of reflection” with the velocity to stratigraphic situation in the earth. 4. The relationship between the velocity and the correlated layers give a possibility of extrapolating velocity distributions of points in the surroundings. 5. The comparison of synthetic record with field records permits better correlation between the recorded reflection and their cause in the earth.
6. It is an aid to correlation comparable to electric logs.
Problems in Synthetic seismogram: Synthetic seismograms are rarely a perfect match to field data. There are many reasons for this, 1. Frequency- Sonic logging operates in the kilohertz frequency range (high frequency, short wave length), while seismic data are typically 10-90 Hz (low frequency, long wavelength). This means the sonic log is influenced by a tiny volume of rock compared to a seismic wave passing the borehole. 2. Anisotropy- Sonic log measures velocity in the vertical direction, while seismic waves travel at significant angles away from the vertical. If anisotropy is present, then velocity depends on the direction the wave is traveling. It is not uncommon to see a 10-15% difference between horizontal and vertical velocities. 3. Bore Hole- Sonic logging sensitive to washouts and other borehole problems, while long wavelength seismic waves are not. 4. Wavelet- The user is required to specify the wavelet, and it is very easy to get it wrong. Some advanced software products can scan the data and attempt to extract the wavelet. But these scanners involve many user parameters.
SEISMIC ATTRIBUTE: Seismic attribute is a quantitative measure of a seismic characteristic of interest, usually based on basic information of time, amplitude, frequency, and attenuation, either by direct measurements or by logical or experience based reasoning. These all the seismic character can be plot on a map (called as seismic attribute map). And these are all measurable property of seismic data which are able to describe the properties of the rock strata. These different seismic attributes has different signature over different geological events, even some of hidden geological events can also be identify using this attribute analysis.
3.1.1. Reflection Strength: Reflection Strength is defined as the square root of the total energy of the seismic signal at an instant of time. It is a measure of the instantaneous value of the amplitude of the envelope of the seismic trace. It has robust, smoothed, polarity independent measure of energy in the seismic trace at a given time. It can be thought of as amplitude independent of the phase. Reflection Strength = [(Recorded Trace) 2 + (Quadrature Trace) 2] ½ The colour coded reflection strength display provides a measure of reflection character.It is sometimes helpful in distingushing reflections from massive reflections and those which are interference composites. Reflections from massive interferences tend to remain constant over a large region. Reflectons which result from the interference of several seperate reflections tend to vary along a seismic line as the thichness or contrast of the individual component reflector changes.Unconformities oftain show changes in reflection strength character as the sub cropping beds changes.This may be the indicator for unconformities which are otherwise difficult to detect.Seismic sequence bounderies tends to have fairly large reflection strength. 3.1.2. Instantaneous phase:
Instantaneous phase is a quality independent of reflection strength. It is a measure of the continuity of events on a seismic section. It describes the angle between the phasor and the real axis as a function of time. Therefore, it is always a number between -180° and +180°. Regardless of the amplitude value at the peak or trough, the magnitude of the instantaneous phase will always be the same. In other words, instantaneous phase tends to equalize weak and strong events and thus makes it easier to track weak, coherent events. It emphasizes the continuity of the events. Therefore reveals faults, pinch outs, angularities, channels, fans, and internal depositional geometries.Phase displays often reveal sedimentary layering patterns and thus can help in identifying seismic sequence boundaries. 3.1.3. Instantaneous frequency: The time derivative of the instantenious phase is called instantenious frequency. It is a measure of the slope of the phase trace.Instantaneous frequency is given by
Instantenious frequency often characterises a particular sequence of reflectors.It is also sensitive to changes in bedding sequence and is thus usefull in telling where stratigraphic changes occur. Frequency measurement can be smoothed using time windows of varing shape and length in time .One particularly useful scheme is to use weighting according to reflection strength which produces “average weighted frequency.”Hydrocorban accumulations often have low frequencies immedietely beneath them; this is refered to as a “low frequency shadow” and often a useful hydrocorban indicator. Instantaneous frequency also provides a means of detecting and calibrating thin–bed tuning effects, which may result from the constructive and destructive interference
Apparent polarity: The sign of the seismic trace (whether positive or negative ) at the instant where the refleciion strength has its maximum value is determined and called polarity.An apperent polarity display indicates the sign of the reflection coefficient, if a reflection is an isolated primary reflection and if the wavelet is zero phase.In colour presentation one colour is used to indicate negative polarity and another to indicate positive polarity and the intensity of the colour is varied according to the magnitude of the reflection strength. Apparent polarity can sometimes help you distinguish between different types of amplitude anomalies. “Bright spots associated with gas accumulations in clastic sediments usually have lower acoustic impedance than surrounding beds and hence show negative polarity for reservoir top reflections and positive polarity for reflections from gas-oil or gaswater interfaces (often called flat spots)”.
In seismic section, the reflection continuity is not good before phase attribution.So, from this section understanding the depositional environment is very difficult. These seismic section processed by phase attribution to enhance reflection continuity. In figure phase attributed section showing the good continuity of prograding facies.
Seismic Sequence Stratigraphy
Application of seismic stratigraphic interpretation techniques to sedimentary basin analysis has resulted in a new way to subdivide, correlate, and map sedimentary rocks. This technique is called sequence stratigraphy. Sequence stratigraphy is defined as the study of rock relationships within a time-stratigraphy framework of repetitive, genetically related strata bounded b surfaces of erosion or nondeposition, or their correlative conformities. The fundamental unit of sequence stratigraphy is the sequence, which is bounded by unconformities and their correlative conformities. A sequence can be subdivided into systems tracts, which are defined by their position within the sequence and by the stacking patterns of parasequence sets and parasequences bounded by marineflooding surfaces. Sequence stratigraphy is essential to our understanding of the marine sedimentary processes which produce hydrocarbon source rocks, reservoirs, and seals. Sequence stratigraphy gives us a well-defined methodology for analyzing sedimentary strata and predicting subsurface lithologies. The basic premise of seismic sequence stratigraphy is two-fold: 1)-Identify large-scale sequences, covering periods of several million years, on the basis of seismic reflector geometries; 2)-Correlate these sequences to a global sea level chart. Depositional sequences correlate throughout sedimentary basins and probably correlate globally. Particular sets of depositional processes and thus certain depositional environments and lithofacies are associated with particular systems tracts. Thus, an identification of systems tracts on seismic data provides a framework for more accurate prediction of depositional environments and lithofacies. An accurate knowledge of depositional environments and lithofacies enables improved predictions of reservoir, source, and seal rocks and migration pathways. Fundamental control of depositional sequences is, we believe, short-term eustatic changes of sea level superimposed on longer-term tectonic changes. Systems tracts also provide a seismic target that is thicker than an individual reservoir unit, but which has a genetic relationship to that reservoir unit. This genetic relation
between systems tracts and reservoir units makes the seismic prediction of reservoirs more dependable. SEISMIC REFLECTIONS AND GEOLOGIC TIME LINES Three types of relations between seismic reflections and geologic time lines are identifiable on seismic sections. They are (1) seismic reflections that follow synchronous geologic time lines within (plus-or-minus) one-half wavelength; (2) seismic discontinuities, such as unconformities and downlap surfaces, which follow geologic time boundaries; and (3) rare seismic reflections caused by fluid interfaces and certain diagenetic changes that follow surfaces that are diachronous to geologic time lines. Stratal surfaces represent ancient surfaces of deposition and therefore are essentially time synchronous. The duration of the hiatus associated with a discontinuity varies, but the discontinuity is, itself, a geologic time boundary because it separates rocks of different ages and does not cross other chrono stratigraphic surfaces. For example, the ages of the strata above and below an unconformity will vary if the areal extent of erosion or non-deposition varies with time, but all the rocks below the unconformity will be older then the rocks above the unconformity. Although time lines merge along a discontinuity, none actually cross it. For these reasons, reflections derived from discontinuities are not diachronous. Diachronous reflections are caused by fluid interfaces, such as gas/water, Gas/oil, and (in certain cases) oil/water; by gas hydrates; and by certain diagenetic changes, such as the opaline transition in areas where biogenic silica is plentiful.
FIG: Seismic reflections, lithofacies and major variables affecting stratigraphy In the figure black lines represent seismic reflections. Notice how they cross lithofacies boundaries. For example, those near the top of the diagrammatic section pass from fine-grained marine shales, through nearshore sands, into coastal-plain sediments, and finally onlap as a fluvial lithofacies. The seismic reflections are following former depositional (stratal) surfaces, which are the true physical surfaces in the rocks and are not the time-transgressive lithofacies boundaries. There is no continuous physical surface at a time-transgressive lithofacies boundary for a reflection to follow. Higher amplitudes associated with the greater impedance contrasts within the zone of sand/shale interbedding, for example, typically climb from one reflection to the next as the zone of maximum impedance contrasts climbs. Because rock formation boundaries commonly follow mappable lithofacies boundaries, seismic reflections also will cross formation boundaries where they are time transgressive. Although seismic reflections closely follow synchronous geologic time lines, bed spacing can cause the reflection peak to vary by plus-or-minus one-half the seismic wavelength. Two discontinuities, onlap and downlap are shown in Figure. The lower one,
located near the base of the diagrammatic section, is characterized by regional onlap; it is a sequence boundary. The upper one, located in the middle of the diagrammatic section, is characterized by downlap; it is a downlap surface. Notice that the sequence boundary is located within the sand lithofacies and crosses into a coastal-plain lithofacies. The downlap surface is located within the fine-grained marine shales and passes laterally into nearshore sands and coastal-plain sediments. The location of sequence boundaries and downlap surfaces within lithofacies or formational units is common. Seismic Sequence Analysis:
The objective of seismic sequence analysis is to interpret depositional sequences and systems tracts on seismic sections by identifying discontinuities on the basis of reflection terminations. The best way to do this is to look for places where two reflectors converge. Where reflectors converge there will be reflection terminations. Mark the reflection terminations with arrows. Draw in the discontinuity surface between the onlapping and downlapping reflections above, and the truncating and toplapping reflectors below. If the discontinuity becomes conformable, trace its position across the section by reflection correlation. Identify the type of discontinuity. If it is characterized by regional onlap above and truncation below, it is probably a sequence boundary. If it is characterized by regional downlap, it is most likely a downlap surface.
FIG: Reflection termination pattern and types of discontinuities Discontinuities are underlined.
In simulated seismic section, within the lower zone of convergence, reflectors terminate by lapping out in an up dip direction. This is the onlap pattern. Another zone of convergence at the top of the section is also characterized by onlap. Between these zones characterized by onlap are zones of convergence characterized by reflectors that terminate by lapping out in a down dip direction. This is the downlap pattern. On the lefthand part of the diagram, reflectors terminate upward below the discontinuity and indicate that a section is missing. Two examples are shown: the eroded top of a structure, and regional beveling. This is the truncation pattern. On the upper right-hand portion of the diagram, the reflectors lap out against each other below the discontinuity. This is the toplap pattern. In the right center, reflectors terminate below the discontinuity by depositional thinning (sediment starvation). This is the apparent truncation pattern. SEISMIC FACIES ANALYSIS: The objective of seismic facies analysis is to quantify and interpret seismic parameter variations caused by geologic changes within seismic sequences and systems tracts. The best way to identify reflection pattern geometries is to look for reflectors that dip at a greater angle than those above and below. In general, these reflectors will
indicate depositional slopes. This pattern is called offlap. The rollover at the top of the offlap pattern indicates the depositional shelf break. Seaward of the depositional coastal break is deeper water. Deep water preserves depositional topography. Many seismic reflection patterns have been identified on seismic data recorded where the sediments were deposited in deep-water settings. Some of the most important seismic reflection patterns are offlap, submarine onlap, submarine mounds, channel/overbank complexes, slumps, slope-front-fill, climbing toplap, and drape. The offlap pattern can be used to interpret paleowater depths by analyzing the height of the prograding clinoforms. The onlap pattern helps to interpret submarine topography. Mounds, channel/overbank complexes (leveed channel deposits), and slumps indicate lowstand deposits. Slope-front-fill generally indicates distal mudstones. Climbing toplap is often associated with deep marine current deposits. Drape indicates sediments derived from suspension. The apparent truncation and downlap patterns indicate sediment starvation. Landward of the shelf edge, seismic facies interpretation is much more difficult because sea level and stream gradients tend to level out depositional surfaces, causing parallel to subparallel seismic reflection patterns. Within this area, truncation, subtle onlap, and mounded fluvial deposits create most of the stratal geometries. Sequence boundaries are shown as solid lines and downlap.
FIG: Simulated seismic section with common seismic facies pattern.
After acquisition and processing has been done the seismic data need to be interpreted. Seismic interpretation is the process of determining information about the subsurface of the earth from seismic data. Three seismic sections are manually coloured according to reflection terminations. The sequence boundaries such as unconformity surfaces are marked. Then, these sections are interpreted in terms of depositional environments and tectonics.
EXERCISES: SEQUENCE & FACIES ANALYSIS Manually Interpreted Seismic Section-1 Seismic section consists of a super sequence comprising of many subsequences.
B1 B2 B3 B
D F E
Sequence A: This sequence is made of a number of parasequences having same trend of deposition separated from each other by a number of unconformities. Sediments are deposited under calm environment condition dipping in SE direction. Upper part of the parasequence shows onlap reflection pattern, which is lapout against underlying layer. It is a transgressive sequence due to rise in sea level. Sequence-B: There are a number of progradational facies indicating deltaic depositions. These deltas are out-building basinward, indicating that the rate of sediment supply in the basin is more than the rate of subsidence during period of sea level fall. Sequence-B consists of six subsequences. Every sub sequence indicates different geometry of delta. Stretching of deltaic depositions mainly depends on velocity of the river system, water depth and sediments supply. Subsequence-B1&B2, indicate decreased velocity of the river system, as indicated by oblique progradations. Seismically it is possible to identify delta plain, delta front and prodelta. The gradient fall point of a progradation is the subjacent shelf-edge (deltafront), rich of reservoir quality sands. Both deltaplain (landward part) and prodelta (basinward part) with reference to deltafront are expected to contribute organic rich clays/shales. In sequence-B3, the elongated progradation indicates the velocity of the river system as on a gradually increased pattern. Whileas sequence-B4, denotes an eroded deltaplain facies( erosional unconformity) indicated by toplap reflection pattern. However, Sequence-B5 and B-6, indicate as deposited in overall transgression without erosional toplap pattern and indicate a general delta out-build towards basin side. Sequence-C: This sequence shows a numbers of unconformities. Sediments are thickening in NW- direction and thinning towards SE-direction The SE side of this sequence is folded due to possible intrusions. Sequence D: This sequence shows parasequence sets of sediments depositions which are modified by compressional forces. Consequently, the middle part exhibits anticlinal structural configuration and SE part is deformed due to intrusion.
Sequence E: Sediment depositions are affected by post depositional tectonics thereby indicating anticlinal fold. It is interesting to note that the sediment thickness in the middle portion is more and toward both the sides is thinner in this anticlinal fold (clearly a case of structural inversion). Sequence F: This sequence is made up of either salt dome or some magmatic intrusion.
Manually Interpreted Seismic Section-2 This section is consists of a number of sequences which are interpretations are as follow:
Sequence-A: In this sequence, sediment thickness is more which is indication of the more supply of sediments from the river system and they are deposited along with subsidence. Unconformities present in this sequence indicate that the sediments deposited in different periods. A large number of faults can be seen which are developed due to structural deformation. Subsequence pattern shows that deposition takes place under high velocity of the river system.
Sequence-B: It is consists of a number of subsequences separated from each other by unconformities. Upper layers are thin due to less supply of sediments from the river system while thickness of the lower layers increases with depth. This sequence has a gentle slope going down to basin. Sequence-C: : A number of layers separated from each other by unconformities have variable thickness which may be due to subsidence and high velocity of the river system. Some layers are folded due to structural deformation. Sequence-D: This Sequence may be basement rock which identified by the chaotic seismic reflection configuration.
This section is consists of a number of sequences which are interpretations are as follow:
Sequence-A: The parallel trend of subsequence boundaries indicate that sediments are deposited under calm environment. They are onlapping against the upper eroded surface of sequence-B. The erosion of sediments is due to wave action. Sequence-B: This sequence consists of a number of sequences, each of which are separated by major unconformities dipping towards south direction .The thickness of the sediments increases towards south which shows that rate of accommodation space is more than the rate of sediments supply. Sequence-C: This section shows deltaic configuration at the lower portion(?). Here sediment supply of the river system and velocity is more which causes elongated prodelta.
Sequence-D: A homogeneous layered sequence of varying thickness, which was undergone structural deformation. There are many faults observed which are extending vertically downward with some curved in nature. These faults are of both normal and reverse type. This structure is very similar to salt dome and presence of constrained fault making it very prosperous for the accumulation and movement of the hydrocarbons. Sequence-E: This sequence indicates that they are made up of either salt dome or of magmatic intrusion.
STRUCTURAL INTERPRETATION AT WORK STATION
Seismic Horizon Picking: The process of picking the reflections is pivotal to seismic data interpretation, because to identify the distribution of sediments. A horizon is a reflection that appears on seismic section over some geological extent. The reflection identified as representing some geological formation. Reflections are identified as coming from the tops of the certain formation which can be interpreted. These horizons are picked from seismic section throughout the survey area. These horizon picking are nothing but a picking of time, by reading the reflection time. Generally, horizon picked for preparing the contour map, isochron map or isopach map. Horizons picked in one of the block in Kerala Konkan offshore basin. Three horizons such as Oligocene age, Mid-Miocene age and present age reflectors are picked. The horizon periods are confirmed with help of drilled wells.
FIG: Uninterpreted seismic section
FIG: Horizon picked section for Oligocene, Mid-Miocen and Present
Mid-Miocene and Present. Preparation of Contour Maps: Contour maps are the two-dimensional surface by connecting equal height or depth. From this contour map we can visualize the three-dimensional surface. Contour maps are used to know the structural style, the location of traps and the structural risk in the prospect. Selection of contour interval should be appropriate to the type of anomaly to be delineated. The contour interval depends on the size of the feature. For example basement maps can be contoured with 100 ms intervals and steeply dipping areas also 100 ms
contour interval can be chosen to avoid clustering of contours. When the feature is small or requires details, even 19 ms contour is preferred. If the interest lies in the delineation of small amplitude structures, the contour interval should preferably be double the accuracy of the data. In plane surface beds are having equal spaced contour intervals. For widely spaced contour imply the gently dipping, whereas the dense spaced contours imply the steeply dipping beds. The contour maps of sea bottom, Mid-Miocene boundary, and Oligocene boundary are drawn in the seismic section. Widely spaced contour intervals are indicates that continental shelf part and where contour intervals start to dense interval is indicates the continental edge. In continental slope portion the contour interval is more closely arranged. In contour maps, near the continental shelf edge we can see the presence of small patches. These patches are may be isolated carbonate platforms. Isolated carbonate platforms are formed, when the shallow sea level. From the map, the width of continental shelf is more in the northern part and narrows down towards southern part.
FIG: Present age contour map
FIG: Contour map of Mid-Miocene age
FIG-5.8: Contour map of Oligocene age Seismic Horizon
Preparation of Isopach maps: Isopach maps are represents the equal thickness of layers. The thickness variation (depth) can be made where the unit is defined by seismic horizons at upper and lower boundaries. The procedure is to determine the difference of reflection depth of the boundary reflections at each observation point and plot these values on a map and contour. Isopach map is picking two horizons on well logs, subtracting the depth of one from that of the other, putting the difference on a map, and contouring.
The contoured map then shows how the thickness of the zone changes from place to place. There are refinements, like calculating true thickness where there is dip, rather than just using vertical distance. An isopach shows differences in amount of material deposited. For this purpose, the isopach is usually made over a rather thin zone, may be a single formation. Isopach maps are useful to locate paleohighs, depocentres of several of stratigraphic units, fault, pinchout zones, etc
Preparation of Isochron maps: Isochron maps are a contour map represents the thickness between upper and lower boundaries of layers in terms of time. The use of isochron maps are reduces or even eliminates near-surface problems that will cause the absolute time to be in error. Isochron map section made by flattening a horizon and it as showing paleostructure, the structure of the lower horizon at the time the upper horizon was deposited. That is, the time interval map is the map you would get if you flattened a horizon on a number of sections to show paleostructure and then picked some deeper horizon on those sections and mapped it.
Fig:Isochron map showing sediment deposition between horizon Present day and Midmioscene
Fig: Isochron map showing sediment thickness between horizon Mid-mioscene and Oligocene
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