A fiber-optic system is similar to the copper wire system that fiber-optics is replacing. The difference is that fiber-optics use light pulses to transmit information down fiber lines instead of using electronic pulses to transmit information down copper lines. multimode fibers (MMF). Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals propagate along them with less loss. An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length. birefringent polarization-maintaining fibers (PMF) and more recently photonic crystal fibers (PCF). In smaller core diameter fibers. and today optical losses are significantly lower than the original target set out by Charles Kao and George Hockha WHAT IS OPTICAL FIBER A technology that uses glass (or plastic) threads (fibers) to transmit data. but the optical losses inherent in the materials at the time made it impractical to use. FIRST A BIT HISTORY In 1870. This was the driving force behind the developments to improve the optical losses in fibre manufacturing. each of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves. as they began using them in remote illumination and viewing instruments.INTRODUCTION In recent years it has become apparent that fiber-optics are steadily replacing copper wire as an appropriate means of communication signal transmission. much lower losses in the cables were essential. (widely used for most communication links longer than 200 meters) the fiber acts as a waveguide. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communication. with the design and the wavelength of the light propagating in the fiber dictating whether or not it will be . and they are immune to electromagnetic interference. Other system users include cable television services. Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with such optical fibers. Looking at the components in a fiber-optic chain will give a better understanding of how the system works in conjunction with wire based systems. John Tyndall demonstrated that light follows the curve of a stream of water pouring from a container. They span the long distances between local phone systems as well as providing the backbone for many network systems. non-dispersion shifted fibres (NDSF). university campuses. Optical fibers are also used to form sensors. In 1966 Charles Kao and George Hockham proposed the transmission of information over glass fibre. In fibers with large core diameter. office buildings. There are many different designs of optical fibers. the confinement is based on total internal reflection. John Logie Baird patented a method of transmitting light in a glass rod for use in an early colour TV. it was this simple principle that led to the study and development of applications for this phenomenon. A fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of glass threads. In the 1950's more research and development into the transmission of visible images through optical fibres led to some success in the medical world. nonzero dispersion-shifted fibers (NZDSF) and dispersion-shifted fibers (DSF). stepindex optical fibers which are characteristics of an optical fiber and different types of optical fiber as singlemode fibers (SMF) in which there are three kinds of fibers. and electric utility companies. and they also realised that to make it a practical proposition. including graded-index optical fibers. which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher data rates than other forms of wired and wireless communications. and in a variety of other applications. industrial plants.

it is very. These include improved system performance.multi-mode optical fiber or single-mode optical fiber. Fiber optic transmission systems . Manufacture of optical fibers is based on partially melting a chemically doped preform and pulling the flowing material on a draw tower. but the real benefits in the data industry are its immunity to Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI). Because of the mechanical properties of the more common glass optical fibers. Fiber optic cable can support much higher data rates. for instance between buildings where copper cables would require cross bonding to eliminate differences in earth potentials. in data networks this can be as much as 2km without the use of repeaters. and improved safety and electrical isolation. it will not corrode and is unaffected by most chemicals. and at greater distances. These include: The ability to carry much more information and deliver it with greater fidelity than either copper wire or coaxial cable. it can be used where electrical isolation is needed. including lightning. It will also not create ground loops of any kind. Fibres also pose no threat in dangerous environments such as chemical plants where a spark could trigger an explosion. Their light weight and small size also make them ideal for applications where running copper cables would be impractical. there is no fire hazard. and no danger of electrical shock to personnel repairing broken fibers. and will not conduct electricity. making it ideal for transmission of serial digital data. special methods of splicing fibers and of connecting them to other equipment are needed. It can therefore come in direct contact with high voltage electrical equipment and power lines. high bandwidth properties of fiber cable they can be used over greater distances than copper cables. ADVANTAGES OF FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS Because of the Low loss. fiber optic systems have many attractive features that are superior to electrical systems. Even in the most explosive of atmospheres. very difficult to tap into a fibre cable to read the data signals. and the fact that glass is not an electrical conductor. signal security. immunity to electrical noise. than coaxial cable. Since the only carrier in the fiber is light. there is no possibility of a spark from a broken fiber. Fibers are built into different kinds of cables depending on how they will be used. It can be buried directly in most kinds of soil or exposed to most corrosive atmospheres in chemical plants without significant concern. . Because fibre is nonconductive. connected by fiber optic cable offer a wide range of benefits not offered by traditional copper wire or coaxial cable. and by using multiplexors one fibre could replace hundreds of copper cables.a fiber optic transmitter and receiver. Last but not least is the security aspect. As the basic fiber is made of glass. This is pretty impressive for a tiny glass filament. The fiber is totally immune to virtually all kinds of interference.

HOW FIBER WORKS Fiber optic technology is based on the use of light energy to transmit data. an optical cable (the transmission medium). fiber optic components are expensive. almost all communications will employ fiber optics. In addition. The cost to install fiber optic systems is falling because of an increase in the use of fiber optic technology. In addition. telephone companies are steadily replacing traditional telephone lines with fiber optic cables. Using a lens. The principle that makes this possible is referred to as total internal reflection. and lectures on fiber optics have begun to educate managers and technicians. According to John Huber in an article in R&D Magazine. the optical cable carries the light waves.) Fiber optic cable is ideal for secure communications systems because it is very difficult to tap but very easy to monitor. DISADVANTAGES Because of the relative newness of the technology. the light bounces back in” (Huber 115). there is absolutely no electrical radiation from a fiber. and the receiver handles the conversion from light pulses back to the original electrical format. (It can frequently be installed without ducts. As the technology matures. and uses less duct space. industry researchers are eliminating these disadvantages. Standards committees are addressing fiber optic part and test standardization. After translating the electrical signals. The lack of standardization in the industry has also limited the acceptance of fiber optics. the use of fiber optics will increase because of its many advantages over electrical systems. A fiber optic cable. It is easier to handle and install.Fiber optic cables are virtually unaffected by outdoor atmospheric conditions. Fiber optics is a particularly popular technology for local-area networks. However. This happens when two materials with different refractive indices . Basically. light cannot get out of the glass. In the future. From this. even one that contains many fibers. where it is then converted back. The transmitter handles the conversion from electrical to light energy. and a receiver. the transmitter uses either a light emitting diode (LED) or an injection laser diode (ILD) to generate the light pulses. this light energy is then sent down the fiber optic cable. conferences. instead. Fiber optic transmitters and receivers are still relatively expensive compared to electrical interfaces. allowing them to be lashed directly to telephone poles or existing electrical cables without concern for extraneous signal pickup. we can see that there are basically three main elements in any fiber optic data link: a transmitter. the encoded data is converted from electrical signals to optical light pulses and then transmitted through the medium to its destination. is usually much smaller and lighter in weight than a wire or coaxial cable with similar information carrying capacity. Many industries are more comfortable with the use of electrical systems and are reluctant to switch to fiber optics. Published articles. “this principle of total internal reflection states that when the angle of incidence exceeds a critical value.

Over short distances.5-micron core diameter. fiber cables can bridge very high electrical potential differences and can be used in environments where explosive fumes are present. Thus. because light propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to electrical cables. wiretapping is more difficult compared to electrical connections. Simply put. It has a narrower core diameter. generally 8-10 microns.cause the angle of incidence to be too large for refraction (bending) of light to take place. This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters. This current is then sent into an amplifier in order to boost the electrical signal back to its original level. the light ray is confined and travels down the core to the receiving end. each by a different wavelength of light (wavelength-division-multiplex WDM). this means that 100 percent is reflected back. router. Also. Single-mode optical fiber only allows one mode of light to travel down its core. the difference in the materials used for the core and the cladding make an extremely reflective surface at the point where they interface. which makes the principle of total internal reflection possible. APPLICATION IN DIFFERENT FIELDS Optical fiber communication Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. Fiber is also immune to electrical interference. or a combination of the two. which prevents crosstalk between signals in different cables and pickup of environmental noise. This is the fundamental concept behind all fiber optic transmissions. a fiber optic cable also has an outer jacket that protects it from abrasion and other forces. These outer layers are added to help protect the fragile core and cladding from damage. receives a light ray. computer. a fiber optic receiver uses a phototransistor to convert the light energy into an electrical current. In addition to the core and the cladding. Although fibers can be made out of transparent plastic. etc. when a fiber optic cable. Additionally. the light signals propagating in the fiber can be modulated at rates as high as 40 Gb/s and each fiber can carry many independent channels. fiber saves space in cable ducts because a single fiber can carry much more data than a single electrical cable. Since the light cannot be bent and exit the material. In order to receive the signal and then convert it back to its original format. without danger of ignition. glass. Most high end cabling will also have a protective buffer and strength material between the cladding and the outer jacket. Both multi-mode and single-mode fibers are used in communications. multimode fiber generally has a 62. Single-mode fiber is generally used for long distance communications. whether it is a switch. which consists of a glass or plastic core surrounded by a cladding with a lower refractive index. a single fiber-optic cable can carry data at rates as high as 14. because of the lower optical attenuation. such as networking within a building.4 Pb/s (circa 14 million Gb/s). At this point. with a 125-micron cladding. and then a digitizer circuit is used to convert the signal into the appropriate digital voltage levels to be used by the external logic. and there are concentric dual core fibers that are said to be tap-proof. the electronic signal is ready to be received by the communications device. the fibers used in long-distance telecommunications applications are always glass. with multi-mode fiber . In total. There are two common types of cabling used for most fiber optic applications: single-mode and multi-mode. with a 125-micron cladding. Because they are non-electrical. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications. On the other hand.

The doped fiber is optically pumped with a second laser wavelength that is coupled into the line in addition to the signal wave. which transfers energy from the second pump wavelength to the signal wave. Both wavelengths of light are transmitted through the doped fiber. A coherent bundle of fibers is used. Optical fibers are used as hydrophones for seismic or SONAR applications. Examples of this are electronics in high-powered antenna elements and measurement devices used in high voltage transmission equipment. receivers. which is used to view objects through a small hole. such as jet engine interiors. single-mode transmitters. Fiber-optic sensors have been developed to measure co-located temperature and strain simultaneously with very high accuracy. Rare-earth doped optical fibers can be used to provide signal amplification by splicing a short section of doped fiber into a regular (undoped) optical fiber line. The fiber optic sensor is well suited for this environment as it is functioning at temperatures too high for semiconductor sensors (Distributed Temperature Sensing). The process that causes the amplification is stimulated emission. and single-mode fiber used for longer distance links. Optical fiber sensors for temperature and pressure have been developed for downhole measurement in oil wells. temperature. Because of the tighter tolerances required to couple light into and between single-mode fibers (core diameter about 10 micrometers). pressure and other parameters. for a long. sometimes along with lenses. Medical endoscopes are used for minimally invasive exploratory or surgical procedures (endoscopy). Optical fiber can be used to supply a low level of power (around one watt) to electronics situated in a difficult electrical environment. amplifiers and other components are generally more expensive than multi-mode components. thin imaging device called an endoscope. Optical fibers can be used as sensors to measure strain.used mostly for short distances (up to 500 m). An optical fiber doped with certain rare-earth elements such as erbium can be used as the gain medium of a laser or optical amplifier. The German company Sennheiser developed a microphone working with a laser and optical fibers. Both bottom mounted hydrophone arrays and towed streamer systems are in use. Another use of the optical fiber as a sensor is the optical gyroscope which is in use in the Boeing 767 and in some car models (for navigation purposes) and the use in Hydrogen microsensors. Optical fibers doped with a wavelength shifter are used to collect scintillation light in physics experiments. The small size and the fact that no electrical power is needed at the remote location gives the fiber optic sensor advantages to conventional electrical sensor in certain applications. This is particularly useful to acquire information from small complex structures. A fiber-optic Christmas Tree Optical fiber is also used in imaging optics. Hydrophone sensor systems are used by the oil industry as well as a few countries' navies. . Industrial endoscopes are used for inspecting anything hard to reach. Hydrophone systems with more than 100 sensors per fiber cable have been developed.

TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBER Understanding the characteristics of different fiber types aides in understanding the applications for which they are used. There are two basic types of fiber: multimode fiber and single-mode fiber. early single-mode fiber was generally characterized as step-index fiber meaning the refractive index of the fiber core is a step above that of the cladding rather than graduated as it is in graded-index fiber. and is suited for use in LAN systems and video surveillance. depressed clad and other exotic structures. the first to be manufactured and commercialized. making it suitable for long-distance telephony and multichannel television broadcast systems. allowing for the larger number of modes. and it exhibits no dispersion caused by multiple modes. more information can be transmitted per unit of time. Multimode fiber is best designed for short transmission distances. . A second mode travels at a steep angle and bounces back and forth by total internal reflection. . it can be seen that the second mode travels a longer distance than the first mode. Multimode fiber may be categorized as step-index or graded-index fiber. see “"Dispersion in Fiber Optic Systems. simply refers to the fact that numerous modes or light rays are carried simultaneously through the waveguide. Multimode Step-index Fiber The principle of total internal reflection applies to multimode step-index fiber." however. Operating a fiber optic system properly relies on knowing what type of fiber is being used and why. and the result is a muddied signal at the receiving end. the light that enters at less than the critical angle is guided along the fiber. This fiber type has a much larger core diameter. One mode travels straight down the center of the core. compared to single-mode fiber. The third mode exceeds the critical angle and refracts into the cladding. Single-mode fiber is best designed for longer transmission distances. Singlemode fiber also enjoys lower fiber attenuation than multimode fiber. For a more detailed discussion of dispersion. Thus. it is important to note that high dispersion is an unavoidable characteristic of multimode step-index fiber. Because the core’s index of refraction is higher than the cladding’s index of refraction. Modes result from the fact that light will only propagate in the fiber core at discrete angles within the cone of acceptance. Modern single-mode fibers have evolved into more complex designs such as matched clad. Single-mode Fiber Single-mode fiber allows for a higher capacity to transmit information because it can retain the fidelity of each light pulse over longer distances. Intuitively. and multimode fiber is easier to couple than single-mode optical fiber. causing the two modes to arrive at separate times. This disparity between arrival times of the different light rays is known as dispersion. Multimode Fiber Multimode fiber. Like multimode fiber. Three different lightwaves travel down the fiber.

these have a high refractive index at the centre which gradually reduces to a low refractive index at the circumference. The water in the pond has a higher refractive index than the air. To explain this we first need to understand how the light propagates within the fibre core. The tolerances for single-mode connectors and splices are also much more demanding. however. The smaller core diameter makes coupling light into the core more difficult. there are multiple modes of propagation for the rays of light. as the name suggests. In multi-mode fibres. Photons have fundamentally different physical properties than electrons. to high order modes which take the longest route as they bounce from one side to the other all the way down the fibr This has the effect of scattering the signal because the rays from one pulse of light. Light propagation Light travels along a fiber cable by a process called 'Total Internal Reflection' (TIR).Single-mode fiber has disadvantages. Unlike the examples above which have a definite barrier between core and cladding. Optical computer technology is still in the early stages: functional optical computers have been built in the laboratory. To ease the problem. This is the same principle as the reflection you see when you look into a pond.e. this is made possible by using two types of glass which have different refractive indexes. At some specific angle between these two view points the light stops reflecting off the surface of the water and passes through the air/water interface allowing you to see the bottom of the pond. DMD). OPTICAL COMPUTING An optical computer is a computer that uses light instead of electricity (i. What's the difference between single-mode and multi-mode? With copper cables larger size means less resistance and therefore more current. arrive at the far end at different times. but none have progressed past the prototype stage. but with fibre the opposite is true. and if you look at it from a shallow angle you will see a reflection of the surrounding area. thereby reducing intermodal dispersion and improving the shape of the signal. graded index fibres were developed. These range from low order modes which take the most direct route straight down the middle. and researchers have attempted to make use of these properties to produce computers with performance and/or capabilities greater than those of electronic computers. The inner core has a high refractive index and the outer cladding has a low index. if you look straight down at the water you can see the bottom of the pond. store and transmit data. . this is known as Intermodal Dispersion (sometimes referred to as Differential Mode Delay. This slows down the lower order modes allowing the rays to arrive at the far end closer together. photons rather than electrons) to manipulate.

it has also taken the emphasis off the proper care and handling of optical connectors. An optical computer is a device that uses visible light or infrared beams. to perform digital computations. a permanent connection. a typical human hair is 50-75 µm in diameter. compromising the integrity of the optical signal being sent over the fiber. approximately 6-9 times larger! Dust particles can be 20 µm or larger in diameter. Other research projects take a nontraditional approach. even millions of times faster than those of today's most efficient supercomputers. and different performance parameters. different advantages and disadvantages. . resulting in an optical digital computer system processing binary data. Fiber optic connectors need to be cleaned every time they are mated and unmated. Different connector types have different characteristics. oil (from touching the fiber end face). attempting to develop entirely new methods of computing that are not physically possible with electronics. OPTICAL FIBER CONNECTORS Fiber optic connectors have traditionally been the biggest concern in using fiber optic systems. Fiber-to-fiber interconnection can consist of a splice. It is hard to conceive of the size of a fiber optic connector core. Dust. or a connector. it is essential that fiber optics users develop the necessary discipline to always clean the connectors before they are mated. Dust particles smaller than 1 µm can be suspended almost indefinitely in the air. which will be thousands. As a point of reference. This increasing user-friendliness has contributed to the increase in the use of fiber optic systems. This approach appears to offer the best short-term prospects for commercial optical computing. lint. Less light gets through a dirty window than a clean one. Larger dust particles (9 µm or larger) can completely obscure the core of a single-mode fiber. Single-mode fibers have cores that are only 8-9 µm in diameter. From the optical signal’s point-of-view. While connectors were once unwieldy and difficult to use.Most research projects focus on replacing current computer components with optical equivalents.An electric current flows at only about 10 percent of the speed of light. rather than electric current. CONNECTOR CLEANING Another important thing to remember in handling fiber optic connectors is that the fiber end face and ferrule must be absolutely clean before it is inserted into a transmitter or receiver. since optical components could be integrated into traditional computers to produce an optical/electronic hybrid. Fiber optic connector types are as various as the applications for which they were developed. which differs from the splice in its ability to be disconnected and reconnected. A 1 µm dust particle landing on the core of a single-mode fiber can cause up to 1 dB of loss.The optical computer could revolutionize computing in much the same way that the semiconductor chip revolutionized electronics 30 years ago. or other foreign particles obscure the end face. dirty connections are like dirty windows.Optical computers promise speeds. connector manufacturers have standardized and simplified connectors greatly.

according to Gordon Povey. flashbulbs. thinks such devices should be able to reach 1 gigabit per second (Gbps). but they are yesterday’s lighting technology. screens. VLC has already produced a smartphone app which allows low-speed data transmission between a pair of iPhones.The future is not so distant when scientists and researchers will come up with more and more futuristic products and applications using optical fibers. Tomorrow’s is the light-emitting diode. in Britain. . using standard LEDs. Lighten the darkness To turn a light into a Li-Fi router involves modulating its output. The rate of data transfer is also good. All the above compilations gives idea about the tremendous potential associated with this field. Later this year it will bring out Li-Fi products for firms installing LED-lighting systems.Connector cleaning is simply completed by wiping the connector ferrule and end face with some isopropyl alcohol and a lint free tissue. it is impossible to keep track each and every innovations and inventions. just like a Wi-Fi router. who is also the boss of VLC. ambient-light detectors. that would allow a high-definition film to be downloaded in 30 seconds. It has also made an experimental optical transceiver that plugs into a laptop to receive and send light signals. tinkering with their electronics to produce the flickering signals required for data transmission is pretty straightforward. torches and so on—already found in smartphones and similar devices will be the fastest way to bring Li-Fi to market. Incandescent light bulbs and fluorescent tubes are not really suitable for modulation. Dr Povey. and do so over greater range. The Li-Fi consortium reckons more than 10 Gbps is possible. CONCLUSION The applications of the fiber optics field are still emerging and developing so rapidly that.Connector damage can occur if foreign particles are caught in the end face area of mated connectors. a firm set up to commercialise the technology. and linking it with a network cable to a modem that is connected to a telephone or cable-broadband service. Another option for connector cleaning is the cassette type cleaners which use a dry tape system where the tape is advanced every time the cassette is opened ensuring the clean section of tape is used each time. Specially constructed LEDs would be even faster. who is working on light communication with Harald Haas and his colleagues at the University of Edinburgh. LEDs are rapidly replacing bulbs and tubes because they are more efficient. Dr Povey’s group is already up to 130 megabits a second (faster than some older Wi-Fi routers) over a distance of about two metres. And because they are semiconductor devices. to carry a message. In theory. Dr Povey believes that adapting existing LEDs to work with the sensors and light sources— cameras.

The flickering is so slight that it is imperceptible to the human eye. but they are yesterday's lighting technology. for example. Last October a number of companies and industry groups formed the Li-Fi Consortium. But there is only a limited amount of radio spectrum available. Using light offers the possibility of breaking out of this conundrum by exploiting a completely different part of the electromagnetic spectrum. a Japanese firm. to promote high-speed optical wireless systems. transmit digital signals by varying the intensity of the light given off from their screens. Incandescent light bulbs and fluorescent tubes are not really suitable for modulation. such as pointing a smartphone at an illuminated shop sign to read information being transmitted by the light: opening times. Lighten the darkness To turn a light into a Li-Fi router involves modulating its output. just like a Wi-Fi router. to carry a message. The idea is that light can help with a looming capacity problem. and linking it with a network cable to a modem that is connected to a telephone or cable-broadband service.AMONG the many new gadgets unveiled at the recent Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas was a pair of smartphones able to exchange data using light. In this section • • • • »Tripping the light fantastic Looking up Influenza and its complications Bee off Reprints Related topics • • • • • Mobile phones Smart-phones Consumer electronics Technology Communications Yet that is still only a flicker of what is possible. as yet only prototypes from Casio. The data being exchanged by Casio's phones were trifles: message balloons to be added to pictures on social-networking sites. Tomorrow's is the light-emitting diode. flashing lights might seem like going back to sending messages with an Aldis lamp. they are the beginning of a fast and cheap wireless-communication system that some have labelled Li-Fi. In fact. These phones. more and more devices transmitting more and more data are able to connect to the internet. But the firm sees bigger applications. one that is already ubiquitous because it is used for another purpose: illumination. . In an age of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. As radio-based wireless becomes ubiquitous. or the latest bargains. either through the mobile-phone network or through Wi-Fi. but the camera on another phone can detect it at a distance of up to ten metres.

and do so over greater range. A big advantage of light is that it can be used in areas which contain sensitive equipment that radio signals might interfere with. In an office. And because they are semiconductor devices. able to link up with any networked device placed on the desk. in Britain. tinkering with their electronics to produce the flickering signals required for data transmission is pretty straightforward. Unlike radio. And spotting a nearby light in order to sit next to it is certainly easier than finding the location of a Wi-Fi router. who is working on light communication with Harald Haas and his colleagues at the University of Edinburgh. light waves will not penetrate walls. In theory. Dr Povey. That alone could be enough to. public building and even streetlight could become a Li-Fi hotspot. That means the LEDs involved in Li-Fi would need photodetectors to receive data. though. make this idea fly. As they are gradually replaced by LEDs. as it were. Specially constructed LEDs would be even faster. thus saving airlines fuel. Communication. The rate of data transfer is also good. torches and so on—already found in smartphones and similar devices will be the fastest way to bring Li-Fi to market. according to Gordon Povey. Dr Povey believes that adapting existing LEDs to work with the sensors and light sources— cameras. VLC has already produced a smartphone app which allows low-speed data transmission between a pair of iPhones. a firm set up to commercialise the technology. every home. It has also made an experimental optical transceiver that plugs into a laptop to receive and send light signals. such as aircraft and operating theatres. using standard LEDs. is a two-way street. an LED-powered desk lamp could work as a Li-Fi router. but light reflected from walls or ceilings might often be enough. flashbulbs.LEDs are rapidly replacing bulbs and tubes because they are more efficient. There are limitations to using light. screens. Dr Povey's group is already up to 130 megabits a second (faster than some older Wi-Fi routers) over a distance of about two metres. But even if LEDs are not modified Dr Povey reckons hybrid systems are possible: data could be downloaded using light but uploaded (typically a less data-intensive process) using radio. ambient-light detectors. In any case. The Li-Fi consortium reckons more than 10 Gbps is possible. And light bulbs—some 14 billion of them around the world—are almost everywhere and often on. that would allow a high-definition film to be downloaded in 30 seconds. Later this year it will bring out Li-Fi products for firms installing LED-lighting systems. Having a line-of-sight connection with the LED in question would undoubtedly improve the signal. removing the need for lots of expensive and heavy cabling. LEDs in the ceiling of an airliner would not only allow internet access but could also transmit films on demand to individual seats. . Some LED systems have such sensors already (to know when to turn on at night). of course. Yet for secure applications that could be a bonus. office. having a good line of sight helps Wi-Fi as well. thinks such devices should be able to reach 1 gigabit per second (Gbps). for example. who is also the boss of VLC.

which exceeds the abilities and qualities of wireless RF technology. Create whole solutions in anticipation of customer needs. . Inform potential implementers of the companies and resources available to help them achieve their product goals. The groupe is based on a collectively developed concept and roadmap to establish a new wireless technology in the market. The Li-Fi Consortium has several purposes: • • • • Promote optical wireless communications up to the multi-gigabit range in all their implementations. faster and more secure data transmission as well as environmental and undoubtedly human friendly technology heralds the start of a major shift in wireless technology. The Li-Fi consortium’s charter members are a leading group of international technology companies and research institutions in optical communication technology.Welcome to the Li-Fi Consortium Li-Fi is a new paradigm for optical wireless technology to provide unprecendented connectivity within a localized data-centric environment. The increasing demand for higher bandwidths. a shift from RF to optical technologies. The Li-Fi Consortium The Li-Fi consortium is a non-profit organization. and Coordinate with standardization groups and other industry organizations to provide OEM customers with a complete ensemble of technical and marketing support. devoted to introduce optical wireless technology.

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