“Present Sources of Energy
And The Need For Alternative Energy Sources”


(1ST Sem 4 year B.S)





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This is to certify that ASHWIN.S.P of 1


Sem B.S has

satisfactorily completed the project report on the topic: “Present Sources of Energy and the Need for Alternative Energy Sources ” In chemistry during the academic year 2011-2012



Teacher In-Charge H.O.D

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I would like to express my gratitude towards members of KLE Societies S.Nijalingappa College and The Principal, Mr. Karki for their kind co-operation and encouragement which help me in completion of this project. I am highly indebted to my HOD Mr. K. A. Bulbule and my lecturer Mrs. Sushma Bhat for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the


our future”. ** The IYC will: 5 . Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO] have jointly declared the year 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry [IYC]. My thanks and appreciations also go to my parents and friends in developing the project and people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES project & also for their support in completing the project. It is time to celebrate the achievements of chemistry and its contributions to the well-being of humankind with the statement “Chemistry-our life . INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF CHEMISTRY 2011 The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry [IUPAC] and United Nations Educational.

Molecular transformations are central to the production of foodstuffs. metals. advancing economic progress and fostering a wholesome environment. fuels. iii. National and International activities carried out during the International Year will emphasize the importance of chemistry in helping to sustain the natural resources base for life. i. The science of chemistry is fundamental to humanity’s understanding of the world and the cosmos. medicines.In order to ensure that first-rate minds continue to be attracted to and challenged by the central science. its key contributions to developing human knowledge. In partnership with the United Nations .e. Increase interest of young people in chemistry. Increase the public appreciation of chemistry in meeting world needs – chemistry. Generate enthusiasm for the creative future of chemistryHumanity’s understanding of the world is grounded in our 6 . IYC will underscore the role of chemistry in managing natural resources sustainably. the IYC will make a strong educational contribution towards the goals of the UN Decade of Education for sustainable Development.* *is both a deeply philosophical inquiry and an applied scientific endeavor.. virtually all manufactured and extracted products. appropriately called the Central Science.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES i. ii. particularly in the key action areas of health* *and environment. Through IYC the chemical community will publicly celebrate the art and science of chemistry.

The year 2011 also marks the one-hundredth anniversary of the founding in Paris of the International Association of Chemical Societies to address the need for international co-operation among chemists and 7 . Chemists will inevitably *International Year of Chemistry2011 *to play a key role in overcoming the challenges facing today’s world. Curie’s achievements continue to inspire students. The year 2011 marks the one-hundredth anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Marie Sklodowska Curie*. A deep understanding of the science is essential for developing molecular medicine.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES developing knowledge of chemistry. for example in helping to address the United Nations Millennium goals. iv. to pursue careers in chemistry. Celebrate the 100th anniversary of Madam Curie Nobel Prize and the 100th anniversary of the founding of the International Association of Chemical Societies. especially women. Creative opportunities to discover exciting new principles and applications continually appear as our understanding of molecular properties grows. for creating new materials and sustainable sources of food and energy.* recognizing her discovery of the elements radium and polonium. Dr.

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES international standardization of nomenclature. and scientific communication. 8 . physical contacts. atomic weights.

Later on we go into the details of gasoline usage and a more better and sustainable alternative for it. fossil fuels and the need to shift towards a more sustainable renewable source. 9 . This is followed by the alternative energy sources available which can be used to generate clean energy efficiently without affecting the environment..e. We’ll explore the generation of electricity from coal fired power plants and the hazardous effects caused by the use of this source.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES ABSTRACT This is a work on the use of conventional non renewable energy sources i. biofuels. The key players in the conventionally used fossil fuels are coal and petroleum.

Of course petroleum to fuel our vehicles and coal which is the most abundant fossil fuel is widely used in the generation electricity throughout the world and also in industries. Now we’ll go through how coal is used in the generation of electricity. Here the key players in traditionally used non renewable sources are petroleum and coal.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES Present Sources of Energy And The Need For Alternative Energy Sources This is a presentation about the conventional non renewable sources of energy that we use in our everyday life and the need to shift towards a more sustainable renewable energy source. 10 .

000 Btu/lb (11. and a heating value of 13. Coal contains elements such as hydrogen. has a 46–86 percent fixed-carbon content and a heating value of 11.8 million joules/lb).600 Btu/lb (equivalent to 14. sub bituminous. the energy emitted by a burning wooden match]). It is the most abundant economically recoverable coal globally and the main fuel burned in steam turbine-powered electric generating plants. What Are the Four Major Categories of Coal? Coal is classified into four categories.6–15. a soft coal that produces smoke and ash when burned.000–15. steel. for electrical generation. known as metallurgical or coking coals. and lignite—based on fixed-carbon content and heating value measured in British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb). and is itself considered to be a mineral of organic origin.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES COAL What Is Coal? Coal is a combustible carbonaceous rock that contains large amounts of carbon.054. has the highest fixed-carbon content. and nitrogen. oxygen. and high volatile ) coal. a hard black coal that burns with little flame and smoke. has various amounts of minerals. and other industries. medium. anthracite. Some bituminous coals. and for the iron. 86–98 percent.500–15.2–16. Bituminous (low. Coal is also a fossil fuel—a substance that contains the remains of plants and animals and that can be burned to release energy. bituminous.6 joules. have properties 11 . Anthracite. or ranks.5 million joules/lb [1 Btu=1. It provides fuel for commercial and home heating.

plastics.8 million joules/lb).ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES that make them suitable for conversion to coke used in steelmaking. Sub bituminous coal has 46–60 percent fixed-carbon content and a heating value of 8. The fourth class.7 million joules/lb). and numerous other organic chemicals. coal is an important source of raw materials for manufacturing. from which chemists have synthesized drugs. 5.300 Btu/lb (5. Electrical generation is the main use of both classes. solvents. a soft brownish-black coal. COAL RESERVES IN INDIA AND THE WORLD 12 . also has a 46– 60 percent fixed-carbon content. In addition to producing heat and generating electricity. lignite. dyes. but the lowest heating value.8–13.000 Btu/lb (8. Its destructive distillation (carbonization) produces hydrocarbon gases and coal tar.300–13.500–8.8–8.

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES Electricity from Coal: Electricity from coal is the electric power made from the energy stored in coal. gives coal most of its energy. C + O2 CO2. made from ancient plant material. H= -393. This energy is released when coal is burned.e.5 KJ/mol 13 . i.. Carbon.

It is then mixed with hot air and blown into the firebox of the boiler. it is pulverized to the fineness of talcum powder. by burning coal to boil water. of uranium atoms as the source of heat. The heat turns water to steam in steam generators. 1. How Do Coal-Fired Plants Work? Generation of electricity in a coal-fired steam station is similar to a nuclear station. The steam is then used to drive turbine generators. Firebox before the coal is burned.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES Coal-Fired Power Station: A coal-fired power station produces electricity. or splitting . producing steam which drives a steam turbine which turns an electrical generator. Burning in suspension. The difference is the source of heat. usually for public consumption. The burning of coal replaces fissioning. the coal-air 14 .

What Are The Pros Of Coal Power? 15 . Condenser cooling water millions of gallons of cool lake water are pumped through a network of tubes that runs through the condenser. pumped through pipes inside the boiler. the steam is piped to the turbine. This essential cooling process requires large quantities of water. After the steam is condensed. The water in the tubes cools the steam and converts it back into water.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES mixture provides the most complete combustion and maximum heat possible. At temperatures of up to 538 degrees Celsius and under pressures up to 1. 3. The condenser is an important part of a steam-electric unit. thus. Boiler highly purified water. most steam-electric stations are located on lakes or rivers. where magnets spin within wire coils to produce electricity. the steam is drawn into a condenser. This device condenses the steam leaving the turbines back into water so that it can be used over and over again in the plant. whether nuclear or coal-fired. Turbine|generator the enormous pressure of the steam pushing against a series of giant turbine blades turns the turbine shaft. 5. Condenser after doing its work in the turbine. a large chamber in the basement of the power plant. is turned into steam by the heat. it is pumped to the boiler again to repeat the cycle. The turbine shaft is connected to the shaft of the generator. 2.588 kilograms per square inch. 4.

Whilst the supply of coal is currently perceived to be plentiful. accessible coal reserves will start to run out and we will be forced to mine less accessible and more dangerous reserves of coal. What Are The Cons Of Coal Power? 1. coal is a fairly inexpensive fuel to burn in power stations. (according to the world coal association. 3. Unlike natural gas and oil. Coal is also a versatile fuel and can be converted into a gas or liquid form for cleaner burning. which means less environmental pollution. Coal is extremely plentiful. One of the biggest disadvantages of coal power is that like other fossil fuels.) 2. ultimately it is still a non-renewable fuel source and at some point in the future. Coal is easily transported all over the world. it has been estimated that there are over 847 billion tonnes of proven coal reserves worldwide. there is serious air pollution concerns 16 . Coal fired power stations can be built anywhere as long as there are transport links to supply the necessary fuel. 4.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES 1. 5. environmentalists are keen that we move away from fossil fuels such as coal and start concentrating more on renewable sources of energy such as wind and solar power. which means lower energy bills for consumers. Coal is capable of generating huge amounts of electricity very cheaply. which makes it an economic fuel for industrial nations all over the world. 2. It also means that coal reserves are unlikely to run out any time soon. As such. This means that there is enough coal to last us around 118 years at current rates of production. 6.

Coal mining destroys the local habitat.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES related to coal power. The emissions from coal fired power stations have also been linked to various long term health problems in those living and working in the vicinity of the power stations. Coal power emissions are thought to be responsible for higher levels of respiratory diseases such as asthma and. 17 . which in turn is a major contributory factor in global warming and acid rain contamination. lung cancer. 5. 4. Coal fired power stations are responsible for the release of huge amounts of sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Coal mining is a dangerous activity and millions of people are killed or affected by ill health every year in the pursuit of coal. more seriously. 3.

geothermal energy. They all have lower carbon emissions. wind energy.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES ALTERNATE ENERGY NEED FOR ALTERNATE ENERGY SOURCES Everyday the world produces carbon dioxide that is released to the earth’s atmosphere and which will still be there in one hundred years time. Climate change. 18 . and other renewable resources. wave & tidal energy sources. Alternative energy sources are renewable and are thought to be "free" energy sources. Alternative energy refers to energy sources that have no undesired consequences such for example fossil fuels or nuclear energy. one-third of the world's energy will need to come from solar. One answer to global warming is to replace and retrofit current technologies with alternatives that have comparable or better performance. wind. Who says? British Petroleum and Royal Dutch Shell. two of the world's largest oil companies. We call this alternate energy. This increased content of carbon dioxide increases the warmth of our planet and is the main cause of the so called “global warming effect”. compared to conventional energy sources. population growth. These include. but do not emit carbon dioxide. and fossil fuel depletion mean that renewables will need to play a bigger role in the future than they do today. solar energy. By 2050.

1.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES WIND ENERGY How Does Wind Energy Work? The diagram below shows a simplified version how a wind turbine converts the kinetic energy in the wind to electrical energy around the country. The blades turns a shaft inside the nacelle (the box at the top of the turbine) 19 . 2. The wind blows on the blades and makes them turn.

By the mid 1990s. These are similar to those found in normal power stations.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES 3. like during storms. This prevents the turbine being damaged. or 46. there was an installed capacity of 4.000 v. The shaft goes into a gearbox which increases the rotation speed enough for. Denmark. typically 33. around to face the wind. the subcontinent was installing more wind generating capacity than North America.. however. Britain. The power output goes to a transformer. This is often done by local firms. which converts the electricity coming out of the generator at around 700 volts (v) to the right voltage for distribution system. 5. and the Netherlands.430 MW..092 MW. exists 20 . When the wind changes direction motors turn the nacelle. which uses magnetic fields to convert the rotational energy into electrical energy. so that the turbine can be switched off in very high winds. which means that people don't have to visit the turbine very often. As of 2006. and the blades along with it. The ten machines near Okha in the province of Gujarat were some of the first wind turbines installed in India. ten times that potential. These 15-meter Vestas wind turbines overlook the Arabian Sea. Why Wind Energy? India is surpassed only by Germany as one of the world's fastest growing markets for wind energy. just occasionally for a mechanical check.The generator. Instruments to measure the wind speed and direction are fitted on top of the nacelle. The national grid transmits the power around the country. The nacelle is also fitted with brakes. 4. All this information is recorded by computers and transmitted to a control centre.

is around 46.092 MW.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES The wind power potential on a national level. 21 . base data collected from 10 states considering only 1% of land availability.

g. There is no adverse effect on global environment. expected to be completely exhausted in the coming 60 years Has to be transported from its source site for further processing. Gulf War of 1991 and the Iraq War of 2003. OPEC crises of 1973.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES Comparison between Fossil Fuels and Wind Wind Availability Usable as it exists Fossil Fuel Have to be procured and made usable through laborious and environmentally damaging processes Limited in reserves. The whole system is pollution free and environment friendly. exposing the environment to pollution from accidents Used in producing electricity. safeguarding national security. e. Allows for self sufficiency. releasing green house gasses Over-reliance on oil as a resource has undermined India’s energy security. 22 . Limitation on availability Transportati on Inexhaustible resource Used where it is available or transported where needed Environment Zero emission al effect of use Geo-political Reduces our reliance implications on oil.


or geothermal — Geo (Earth) + thermal (heat) — energy is accessed by drilling water or steam wells in a process similar to drilling for oil. Geothermal power plants have much in common with traditional power-generating stations. In nature this energy is usually shown in the form of the volcanoes. 24 . How A Geothermal Power Plant Works? Most power plants—whether fueled by coal. Lesser part of this energy is gained from the crust. below is shown the working of a standard plant. This energy is mainly generated from Earth's core since temperature of Earth's center is reaching temperatures above 6000 degrees Celsius which is even hot enough to melt a rock. which are all areas on which heat is concentrated near the earth’s surface.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Geothermal energy is energy that is gained thanks to an intensive heat that continuously flows outward from deep within the Earth. Heat from the Earth. generators. transformers. nuclear power. and other standard power generating equipment. hot water springs and geysers. gas. They use many of the same components. While there are three types of geothermal power plants. or geothermal energy—have one feature in common: they convert heat to electricity. the planet's outer layer by decay of radioactive elements which are present in all the rocks. including turbines.

The turbine and generator are the primary pieces of equipment used to convert geothermal energy to electrical energy. Typically. Hot geothermal fluids flow through pipes to a power plant for use in generating electricity.Power Lines Deliver Electricity Electrical current from the generator is sent to a step-up transformer outside the power plant. or a secondary working fluid. an injection well is also drilled to return used geothermal fluids to the geothermal reservoir. pressurized geothermal fluid.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES Wells Are Drilled A production well is drilled into a known geothermal reservoir. is allowed to expand rapidly and provide rotational or mechanical energy to turn the turbine blades on a shaft. The Turbine Drives the Electric Generator Rotational energy from the turning turbine shaft is used directly to spin magnets inside a large coil and create electrical current. Voltage is increased in the 25 . Transmission . Steam Turns the Turbine Hot.

and businesses.600 MW of power. Indian geothermal provinces have the capacity to produce 10. The various assessment studies and surveys undertaken so far have resulted in the identification of 340 hot springs across the country. Indian has to depend on clean. The discovery of vast geothermal reservoirs at Puga in the north-west of the Himalayas and Tatapani fields on the Narmada in central India also augurs well for the country. Professor and Head Department of Earth Sciences. 26 . Chandrasekharam. cheap.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES transformer and electrical current is transmitted over power lines to homes.IIT-Bombay says that. Why Geothermal Energy ? A report by D.a figure which is five time greater than the combined power being produced from non-conventional energy sources such as wind. rural based and eco-friendly geothermal power in future. buildings. But yet geothermal power projects have not seen the sunlight due the availability of 192 billion tones of recoverable coal reserves. With escalating environmental problems with coal based projects. solar and biomass.


or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). either directly using photovoltaic’s (PV). As in a conventional 28 . natural gas or by splitting uranium to produce steam. there is one important difference. Photovoltaic’s convert light into electric current using the photoelectric effect Power From The Sun A solar thermal power plant in principle works no differently than a conventional steam power plant. No harm is done to the environment by burning coal.300 feet (400 meters) in length and are made up of parabolically shaped mirror segments. solar radiation must be concentrated. Parabolic trough collectors represent the most advanced technology for use in doing this. It is produced solely by the energy that comes from the sun. These troughs are more than 1. evacuated absorber tube receivers.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR POWER Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity. In order to achieve the high temperatures required. oil. However. Electricity Can Be Stored Solar radiation heats up the thermo-oil that flows through the receiver to a temperature of 400° Celsius so that a downstream heat exchanger is able to generate steam. The troughs track the sun over the course of the day and focus the resulting radiation along the caustic line of the mirrors onto specially coated. Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam.

Heat storage systems can allow electricity output even if the sun isn’t shining. heating. drying etc…).fr”).cat. it’s a step towards achieving of Vision 20-20 target of becoming energy independent Talk of solar energy usage in India. 4.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES power plant. “www. the steam is pressurized inside the turbine that drives the generator. WHY SOLAR POWER? Lesser pollution. 1. Even if 10% of this area is used. drying. the solar energy that can be made available to us would be 8 million MW (equivalent to 5909 mtoe: million tons of oil equivalent) per year – this leads to less pollution by that amount. as half the total energy consumed in developing countries is used in the domestic cooking sector” according to Nahar.inist. water distillation. cooking. 2. 3. and space heating and cooling. what have we been successful at? 29 . refrigeration.(From a scientific research group. How? According to a report. the average intensity of solar radiation received on India is 200 MW/km2. It can help India to reduce its import bills significantly if solar energy can be used for domestic purposes as well (Ex: cooking. Finally. Thermal solar energy can be used for water heating. “One of the most crucial of these uses is cooking.

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES Did we know that there are 500.000 people each day using these solar panels Did we know that India is the only country which has a separate ministry for alternative energy? Ministry Of New & Renewable Energy(MNRE) 30 .000 plus solar cookers in use today? Did we know that we have the world’s largest solar cooking venue in Tirupati ? This place provides food for more than 15.

Geothermal Power Cons 1) Long Gestation Time Leading to Cost Overruns – The Gestation Time for permitting. financing. 4) High Load Factor . The electricity supply is much more uniform and reliable.Geothermal Energy does not lead to pollution disasters like the BP Oil Spill and Coal Deaths which are directly related to Dirty Energy Production. Compare this to 6 months for a small wind farm or 3 months for a Solar PV plant 2) Slow Technology Improvement – Geothermal Energy has the potential to generate 100s of gigawatts of electricity through new techniques like EGS. Geothermal Energy has a load factor of almost 80% which is equal to that of Thermal Power and comparable to Nuclear Power. 5) No Pollution and Deaths. However the technology improvement has been slow with setbacks. 31 . drilling etc.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES Pros And Cons Of These Alternative Sources: Geothermal Power Pros 1) Environment Friendly and Global Warming Mitigation Effects 2) No Fuel Cost Geothermal Energy does not require any fuel like most other Conventional sources of energy 3) Predictable.The Load Factor for Solar and Wind Energy ranges from 15-40% which is quite low compared to Fossil Fuel Energy. can easily take 5-7 years to develop a geothermal energy field.24/7 Power -Geothermal Energy is very predictable and producers power 24/7 unlike Other forms of Renewable Energy like Solar and Wind Energy are intermittent in nature.

however this again is one of the silliest arguments. Nuclear etc.Solar Energy does not require any fuel. Solar Power Cons 1) Intermittent Nature . This is a huge advantage in these days when gas and oil disruptions are causing energy insecurity. 2) High Capital Investment – A Solar Plant can cost around $3.One of the biggest problems of Solar Power ( Solar PV that is ) is that it is intermittent in nature as it generates energy only when the sun shines. Solar Energy has comparable potential as that of Nuclear Energy 4) Size Advantages . This problem can be solved with energy storage however this leads to additional costs. Solar Power Pros 1) Environment Friendly – Solar Energy does not lead to any major mining activity. This is not possible for other energy forms which require a minimum large size such as Coal. does not lead to significant GHG emissions.Solar Installations can be installed in various sizes with as little as 200 Watts and as big as a 1000 MW.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES 3) Financing is the biggest problem in developing projects particularly became of political corruption and the overpowered oil industry. The costs of energy can only be compared by Levelized Cost of Energy 32 . This is said to be too high.5-6 million to be spent in building 1 Megawatt. 3) Almost Unlimited Potential – Solar Energy Potential is almost infinite compared to the limited and peak features of Conventional fossil fuels. does not lead to health hazards like thermal power 2)No Fuel and Low Maintenance .

Price shocks due to high fuel costs are a big risk with fossil fuel energy these days Wind Energy Cons 1) Low Persistent Noise .Wind Turbines can sometimes use large amounts of land if not properly planned and built.There have been a large number of complaints about the persistent level of low level noise from the whirring of the blades of a wind turbine 2) Land usage . The construction of roads to access the wind farms etc also takes up some land. maintenance. security and insurance costs. you can’t build a wind farm near the Dead Sea etc Wind Energy Pros 1) No Pollution and Global Warming Effects 2) Low Costs – The Costs of Wind Energy has reached the level of Gas powered Energy and can be generated at extremely low rates of around 7-8c/KwH in favorable conditions 3) No Fuel Cost . While it is true that the initial capital investment for solar power is quite high. fuel costs.This disadvantage of Solar Energy is present with other forms of Energy as well. 33 .This is a huge advantage over other fossil fuels whose costs are increasing at a drastic rate every year . For example you can’t build a nuclear plant on top of an earthquake prone region.Electricity prices are increasingly rapidly in most parts of the world much faster than general inflation. Some forms of Energy are just better suited to some places. the lifecycle cost of solar energy is not that high. 3) Cannot be Built Anywhere .ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES (LCOE) which calculates the cost of energy over the lifetime calculating the capex.

we’ll move on to the Production and usage of Gasoline (Petrol). 34 .ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES 3) Intermittent Nature . This problem can be solved with energy storage however this leads to additional costs.Wind Power is intermittent in nature as it generates energy only when the wind blows. Now.

the energy in a gallon of gasoline is equivalent to the energy in about 110 McDonalds hamburgers! Where does gasoline come from? Gasoline is made from crude oil.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES GASOLINE What Is Gasoline? Gasoline is known as an aliphatic hydrocarbon. A gallon(3.650 watthours: • If it were possible for human beings to digest gasoline. you get carbon dioxide (from the carbon atoms in gasoline). In other words. This liquid contains hydrocarbons. 35 .000 food calories -.000 BTU or 36. Here are some common configurations: Typical Molecules Found In Gasoline When you burn gasoline under ideal conditions. and the carbon atoms in crude oil link together in chains of different lengths. which is equivalent to 125. gasoline is made up of molecules composed of nothing but hydrogen and carbon arranged in chains. water (from the hydrogen atoms) and lots of heat. a gallon would contain about 31. The crude oil pumped out of the ground is a black liquid called petroleum. with plenty of oxygen. Gasoline molecules have from seven to 11 carbons in each chain.7 liters) of gasoline contains about 132x106 joules of energy.

clear liquids called naphthas. Next is kerosene. C2H6 (ethane). a chain with just one carbon atom in it (CH4) is the lightest chain. C6 and C7 range are all very light. respectively (-107. easily vaporized. The chains up through C18H32 or so are all liquids at room temperature. For example.are all gases. C3H8 (propane) and C4H10 (butane) -. known as methane. and they boil at -161. They are used as solvents -. That's why if you spill gasoline on the ground it evaporates very quickly. The different chain lengths have progressively higher boiling points. in the C12 to C15 range. they get heavier.crude oil is heated and the different chains are pulled out by their vaporization temperatures. This is what happens in an oil refinery -. For example. The chains in the C5. as well as solvents and other quick-drying products. engine oil can run all day at 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) without vaporizing at all. Next come the lubricating oils. -43 and -18 degrees C). Oils go from very light (like 3-in-1 oil) through various thicknesses of motor oil through very thick gear oils and then semi-solid greases.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES It turns out that hydrocarbon molecules of different lengths have different properties and behaviors. These oils no longer vaporize in any way at normal temperatures. followed by diesel fuel and heavier fuel oils (like heating oil for houses). -88. Vasoline falls in there as well. -67. All of them vaporize at temperatures below the boiling point of water. As the chains get longer.dry cleaning fluids can be made from these liquids. Methane is a gas so light that it floats like helium. and the chains above C19 are all solids at room temperature. so they can be separated out by distillation. The chains from C7H16 through C11H24 are blended together and used for gasoline. 36 .CH4 (methane). The first four chains -. -46 and -1 degrees F.

starting with paraffin wax. All of these different substances come from crude oil. The only difference is the length of the carbon chains! 37 .ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES Chains above the C20 range from solids. then tar and finally asphaltic bitumen. which used to make asphalt roads.

it would be like throwing a 2. The second problem has to do with carbon and greenhouse gases. they would ideally burn it perfectly and create nothing but carbon dioxide and water in their exhaust. The ultimate effects are unknown. But because the 2. the main source of urban ozone Catalytic converters eliminate much of this pollution. most of us are oblivious to it. a poisonous gas • Nitrogen oxides.5 kg) of carbon into the atmosphere. it would be extremely noticeable -. eventually. Gasoline is mostly carbon by weight. flooding or destroying coastal cities). there are growing efforts to replace gasoline with Bio-fuels. it also produces: • Carbon monoxide. Unfortunately. The carbon dioxide coming out of every car's tailpipe is a greenhouse gas.S. The U. Carbon is also a problem. For this reason. When cars burn gasoline. sea levels may rise. In the process of burning the gasoline. there will be dramatic climate changes that affect everyone on the planet (for example. If it were solid carbon. 38 .ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES Problems With Gasoline: Gasoline has two problems when burned in car engines. The first problem has to do with smog and ozone in big cities. it turns into lots of carbon dioxide gas. Air pollution from cars and power plants is a real problem in big cities. so a gallon of gas might release 5 to 6 pounds (2. the main source of urban smog • Unburned hydrocarbons.3kg of carbon comes out as an invisible gas (carbon dioxide). but it is a strong possibility that.3kg bag of sugar out the window of your car for every gallon of gas burned. When it burns. but they aren't perfect either. the internal combustion engine is not perfect. is releasing roughly 2 billion pounds of carbon into the atmosphere each day.


biofuels have been regaining popularity. Biofuel includes biodiesel and bioethanol or just ethanol. Ex: Photosynthesis) Biofuels have been around as long as cars have. This can make biofuels an economical option to fossil fuels and can aid in strengthening local communities both socially and economically. grow-your-own fuels which can be produced on-site in local villages or communities from locally available. A triglyceride is an alcohol (glycerin) that is bonded to three fatty acids (long hydrocarbon chains). Biodiesel and ethanol are both clean. HOW BIOFUEL IS MADE? BIODIESEL Here's how vegetable oil. However. 40 . and some methanol react to form biodiesel: Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides (a type of ester). and biofuels were largely forgotten. along with growing concern about global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions. renewable resources. with the recent rise in oil prices. But discoveries of huge petroleum deposits kept gasoline and diesel cheap for decades.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES BIOFUELS Biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation (The reduction of carbon dioxide to organic compounds by living organisms. a little catalyst. for the most phase using equipment that a local workshop can make and maintain.

producing biodiesel and crude glycerin. 41 . to begin the process of transesterification. and the methanol is bonding. The process takes between 4 and 8 hours when the solution is at 122°F (50°C). the solution containing the dissolved catalyst and methanol is added to the warmed oil (the oil is warmed in order to speed up the process of trans. Applying Transesterification to Biodiesel Production: When making biodiesel. the triglycerides must be broken.esterification). and new esters formed. At this point the triglycerides are being broken.esterification. The process that turns the triglycerides into glycerin and fatty-acid-methyl-esters (biodiesel) is called trans.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES In order to make biodiesel. a few ingredients added.

cause the reaction and thus fermentation occurs. which is as follows: C6H12O6 (glucose) —> 2 CH3CH2OH (ethanol)+ 2 CO2 (carbon dioxide) WHY BIOFUELS? 42 . water and yeast bacteria. which feed on the sugars. Thus this process of fermentation is a series of chemical reactions wherein the simple sugars are converted into ethanol. Then the liquid mash that is created is distilled and purified to get approximately ninety-nine point five percent Bioethanol.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES BIOETHANOL The traditional way of producing Bioethanol would be to mix sugar. the yeast consumes itself in the process and dies out eventually which stops the process altogether. As and how the alcohol percentage increases. There is a simple formula that represents the process of simplified fermentation reaction. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced as and how the yeast consumes the sugar. which are then allowed to ferment in warm environment. Gradually the mixture becomes a liquid that has an approximate of fifteen percent alcohol. Yeast or bacteria.

biofuels could potentially still prove to be substantially more environmentally friendly than their fossil alternatives. In reality. etc) does have a large impact on the overall savings achieved by biofuels. 43 . However. to transport crops. They have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when compared to conventional transport fuels but whether they live up to this depends on the way they are produced and managed. The amount of fuel used during this production (to power machinery. biofuels are not carbon neutral simply because it requires energy to grow the crops and convert them into fuel.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES The aim of all biofuels is to be carbon neutral.

dependence on external sources for technology and financial constraints of renewable energy? CALORIFIC VALUES OF VARIOUS FUELS The calorific value of a fuel is the quantity of heat produced by its combustion . In constant pressure and under "normal" conditions (i. the key question is: how much further can India go in expanding renewable energy sectors given the geographical limitations. The combustion process generates water vapor and certain techniques may be used to recover the quantity of heat contained in this water vapor by condensing it. to 0oC and under a pressure of 1. The real challenge faced by India is to expand its renewable energy sector without slowing down the progress of its economic sectors. An emphasis on presenting the real picture of massive renewable energy potential. especially in rural areas. India will need to maximize the utilization of renewable energy in order to insulate it from any future supply disruption and price shocks of fossil fuels. For this. However.e. India’s energy security policy must undertake a dominant shift towards diversification of renewable energy options.013 mbar). 44 . it would be possible to attract foreign investments to herald a Green Energy Revolution in India.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES CONCLUSION There is an urgent need for transition from petroleum-based energy systems to one based on renewable resources to decrease dependency on depleting reserves of fossil fuels and to mitigate climate change. renewable energy has the potential to create many employment opportunities at all levels.

45 . The Lower Calorific Value (or Net Calorific Value .ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES The Higher Calorific Value (or Gross Calorific Value .NCV) suppose that the products of combustion contains the water vapor and that the heat in the water vapor is not recovered.GCV) suppose that the water of combustion is entirely condensed and that the heat contained in the water vapor is recovered.


com/2008/03/geother mal-energy-use-and-working.html 4. Overview of Renewable Energy Potential of India. Germany 8. 11.greenworldinvestor. SCHOTT Solar CSP GmbH. http://www.blogspot.wikipedia. http://www. http://www. http://www.eere. Global Energy Network Institute (GENI) 5.pluggd.prosandconsof.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES BIBLIOGRAPHY 12. http://www1. http://www. 9.html http://science.html 13.Asp 2.htm http://en. How Concentrated Solar Power Plants Works.Com/About-Energy/GeneratingElectricity/Coal-Fired-How. http://www.Duke-Energy.html 47 .net/what-are-the-pros-and-consof-coal-power/ 3. http://interestingenergyfacts. Peter ml 10.

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