Vrnjačka Banja, Serbia

10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ″RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN MECHANICAL INDUSTRY″

RaDMI 2010 PROCEEDINGS Vol. 1
Editor: Predrag V. Dašić Donji Milanovac, Serbia 16 - 19. September 2010.

Publisher:

SaTCIP (Scientific and Technical Center for Intellectual Property) Ltd., 36210 Vrnjačka Banja, Serbia

For publisher: Jovan Dašić, Director of the firm SaTCIP Ltd. Reviewers: Prof. dr. Branislav Dragović, vice-dean, Maritime Faculty, University of Montenegro, Kotor (Montenegro) Prof. dr Volodymir Fedorinov, rector, Donbass State Machinery Academy (DSMA), Kramatorsk (Ukraine) Prof. dr Raycho Ilarionov, vice-rector, Technical University of Gabrovo (Bulgaria)

Technical processing and design: Predrag Dašić Jovan Dašić

Approved by: Decision no. 004/2010 from 01-06-2010 from SaTCIP Ltd., Vrnjačka Banja (Serbia)

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Circulation: 80 exemplars Printed by: SaTCIP (Scientific and Technical Center for Intellectual Property) Ltd. 36210 Vrnjačka Banja, Serbia

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ORGANIZER

Vrnjačka Banja, Serbia http://www.satcip.com/

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
1. Predrag Dašić, SaTCIP Ltd., Vrnjačka Banja (Serbia), Chairman 2. Milan Marinković, INTERHEM Research Center, Belgrade (Serbia) 3. Dr Milutin Milosavljević, University of Priština – Office Kosovska Mitrovica, Technical Faculty, Kosovska Mitrovica (Serbia) 4. Marina Stanojević, University of Niš, Faculty of Economics, Niš (Serbia) 5. Dr Slobodan Radosavljević, Mining Basin ″Kolubara″, Lazarevac (Serbia) 6. Veis Šerifi, Technical Faculty, Čačak (Serbia) 7. Jovan Dašić, SaTCIP Ltd., Vrnjačka Banja (Serbia) 8. Danka Milićević, SaTCIP Ltd., Vrnjačka Banja (Serbia) 9. Ana Karić, SaTCIP Ltd., Vrnjačka Banja (Serbia)

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SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. Prof. dr Grigoryev Sergey Nikolaevich, rector, Moscow State Technological University ″STANKIN″, Moskva (Russia), Chairman Prof. dr Valentin Nedeff, rector, University of Bacău, Faculty of Engineering, Bacău (Romania), Vicechairman Prof. dr Friedrich Franek, University of Vienna and president of Austrian Tribology Association, Vienna (Austria), Vice-chairman Prof. dr Raycho Ilarionov, vice-rector, Technical University of Gabrovo (Bulgaria), Vice-chairman Dr Syed Ahmed, CSEM S. A., Surface Engineering Division, Neuchâtel (Switzerland) Prof. dr Emilia Assenova, Technical University of Sofia, Sofia (Bulgaria) Prof. dr Anatoly P. Avdeenko, Donbass State Machinery Academy, Kramatorsk (Ukraine) Prof. dr Milun Babić, University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kragujevac (Serbia) Prof. dr Nada Barac, University of Niš, Faculty of Economics, Niš (Serbia) Prof. dr Rade Biočanin, University of Novi Pazar, Technical Faculty, Novi Pazar (Serbia) Prof. dr Leonid Borisenko, Belarusian-Russian University (BRU), Mogilev (Belarus) Prof. dr Konstantin D. Bouzakis, Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece) Prof. dr Miodrag Bulatović, University of Podgorica, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Podgorica (Montenegro) Traian Buidoş, University of Oradea, Faculty of Management and Technological Engineering, Oradea (Romania) Prof. dr Mikhail V. Burmistr, academician, rector, Ukrainian State University of Chemical Engineering, Dniepropetrovsk (Ukraine) Prof. dr Alexander I. Burya, academician, Dniepropetrovsk State Agrarian University, Dniepropetrovsk (Ukraine) Prof. dr Ilija Ćosić, dean, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Scientific, Novi Sad (Serbia) Prof. dr Predrag Ćosić, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Naval Architecture, Zagreb (Croatia) Prof. dr George Dobre, University Politehnica, Bucharest (Romania) Prof. dr Alexandre Dolgui, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France) Prof. dr Ćemal Doličanin, rector, University of Novi Pazar, Technical Faculty, Novi Pazar (Serbia) Prof. dr. Branislav Dragović, vice-dean, Maritime Faculty, University of Montenegro, Kotor (Montenegro) Prof. dr Ljuben Dudesku, vice-dean, University of Skopje, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Skopje (Macedonia) Prof. dr Petru Dusa, Technical University ″Gh. Asachi″, Faculty of Mechanics, Iaşi (Romania) Prof. dr Ljubodrag Đorđević, University of Union, Faculty of Industrial Management, Kruševac (Serbia) Prof. dr Vladan Đorđević, academician, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade (Serbia) Prof. dr Sabahudin Ekinović, rector, University of Zenica, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Zenica (Bosnia and Herzegovina) Prof. dr Volodymir Fedorinov, rector, Donbass State Machinery Academy, Kramatorsk (Ukraine) Prof. dr Milomir Gašić, University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kraljevo (Serbia) Prof. dr Manfred Geiger, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany) Prof. dr Anatoly Ivanovich Grabchenko, National Technical University, Kharkov Polytechnical Institute, Kharkov (Ukraine) Prof. dr Nicolae Valentin Ivan, University Transilvania of Brasov, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brasov (Romania) Prof. dr Ratomir Ječmenica, University of Kragujevac, Technical Faculty, Čačak (Serbia) Prof. dr Milan Jurković, University of Bihać, Technical Faculty, Bihać (Bosnia and Herzegovina) Prof. dr Isak Karabegović, dean, University of Bihać, Technical Faculty, Bihać (Bosnia and Herzegovina) Prof. dr Baki Karamiş, Erciyes University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kaysei (Turkey) Prof. dr Branko Katalinić, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) IV

38. Prof. dr Veijo Kauppinen, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland) 39. Prof. dr Marianna Kazimierska - Grebosz, Technical University of Lodz, Faculty of General Mechanics, Lodz (Poland) 40. Dr Sergei A. Klimenko, Director of Association of Mashine – Bulding Technologists of the Ukraine ATMU, Kiev (Ukraine) 41. Prof. dr Karel Kocman, Technical University of Brno, Brno (Szech Republic) 42. Prof. dr Janez Kopac, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ljubljana (Slovenia) 43. Prof. dr Marian Kralik, vice-dean, Slovak University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Bratislava (Slovakia) 44. Prof. dr Zdravko Krivokapić, vice-dean, University of Podgorica, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Podgorica (Montenegro) 45. Prof. dr Janos Kundrak, University of Miskolc, Faculty of Production Engineering, Miskolc, (Hungary) 46. Prof. dr Evgeniy A. Kundrashov, academician, State Technical University, Chita (Russia) 47. Prof. dr Cristian N. Madu, Pace University, Lubin School of Bussiness, New York (USA) 48. Prof. dr Velibor Marinković, University of Niš, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Niš (Serbia) 49. Prof. dr Vlatko Marušić, University of Osijek, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Slavonski Brod (Croatia) 50. Prof. dr Ostoja Miletić, vice-rector, University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 51. Prof. dr Onisifor Olaru, dean, University ″Constantin Brancusi″ of Tg-Jiu, Faculty of Engineering, Tg-Jiu (Romania) 52. Prof dr Constantin Oprean, rector, ″Lucian Blaga″ University of Sibiu, Sibiu (Romania) 53. Prof. dr Liviu Palaghian, vice-dean, University of Galati, Galati (Romania) 54. Prof. dr. Nam Kyu Park, Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea) 55. Prof. dr Jozef Peterka, vice-dean, Slovak University of Technology, Faculty of Material Sciences and Technology of Trnava, Trnava (Slovakia) 56. Prof. dr Georgios Petropoulos, University of Thessaly, Faculty of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Volos (Greece) 57. Prof. dr Narcisa Popescu, University ″Politehnica″, Bucharest (Romania) 58. Prof. dr Stanislaw Pytko, Technical University of Krakow, Krakow (Poland) 59. Prof. dr. Zoran Radmilović, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, University of Belgrade Belgrade (Serbia) 60. Prof. dr Snežana Radonjić, vice-dean, University of Kragujevac, Technical Faculty, Čačak (Serbia) 61. Prof. dr Miroslav Radovanović, University of Niš, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Niš (Serbia) 62. Prof. dr Georgi Rashev, dean, Technical University of Gabrovo, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Gabrovo (Bulgaria) 63. Prof. dr. Milorad Rašković, dean, Maritime Faculty, University of Montenegro, Kotor (Montenegro) 64. Prof. dr. Dong-Keun Ryoo, College of International Studies, Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea) 65. Prof. dr Igor Sergeevich Sazonov, rector, Belarusian-Russian University (BRU), Mogilev (Belarus) 66. Prof. dr Adolfo Senatore, University of Salermo, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Fisciano (Italy) 67. Prof. dr Ivana Simić, University of Niš, Faculty of Economics, Niš (Serbia) 68. Prof. dr Dimitri Yu. Skubov, State Technical University of Sankt Petersburg, Sankt Petersburg (Russia) 69. Prof. dr Georgy Slynko, academician, Zaporozhye National Engineering University, Zaporozhye (Ukraine) 70. Prof. dr Mirko Soković, vice-dean, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ljubljana (Slovenia) 71. Prof. dr Viktor Starkov, Moscow State Technological University, Moscow (Russia) 72. Prof. dr Ljubodrag Tanović, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade (Serbia) 73. Prof. dr Oleg Vasilevich Taratynov, academician, Moscow State Industrial University, Moscow (Russia) 74. Prof. dr Mirela Toth-Tascau, Politehnica University of Timişoara, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Timişoara (Romania) 75. Prof. dr Nikolaos Vaxevanidis, Institute of Pedagogical & Technological Education, N. Heraklion Attikis (Greece) 76. Prof. dr Karol Velisek, Slovak University of Technology, Faculty of Material Sciences and Technology of Trnava, Trnava (Slovakia) 77. Prof. dr Edward Walicki, University of Zielona Gora, Faculty of Mechanics, Zielona Gora (Poland) 78. Prof. dr Ton vad der Wiele, Erasmus University, Rotterdam School of Management, Rotterdam (Netherlands) 79. Prof. dr Carol Zoller, University of Petrosani, Faculty for Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, Petrosani (Romania) 80. Prof.dr Jeroslav Živanić, dean, University of Kragujevac, Technical Faculty, Čačak (Serbia) 81. Prof. dr Dragan Živković, High Technical School, Zrenjanin (Serbia) V

B-5. B-6. B-7. B-8. B-9.

Park N.K., Lu Bo. (Busan – Republic of Korea) PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE CONTAINER PORTS WITH DEA Radmilović Z. (Belgrade – Serbia), Markolović T. (Kotor – Montenegro) QUEUE LENGTH OF INDIVIDUAL SHIPS AT INDEPENDENT WATERWAY LOCKS Škurić M., Dragović B., Markolović T., Jovović D. (Kotor – Montenegro) CONTAINER YARD MODELING AND HANDLING EQUIPMENT Urdea G.B., Itu V., Dumitrescu I., Cozma B.Z. (Petroşani –Romania) SYSTEMIC ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AT LIVEZENI MINE Zrnić N., Đorđević M., Bošnjak S. (Belgrade – Serbia), Dragović B. (Kotor – Montenegro) DEVELOPMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGIES FOR RTG CONTAINER CRANES

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SESSION C APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
C-1.

C-2.

C-3. C-4.

C-5. C-6. C-7.

C-8.

C-9.

C-10.

C-11.

C-12. C-13.

C-14.

Aleksandrov S., Čajetinac S., Šešlija D. (Trstenik – Serbia) DIDACTIC SYSTEM FESTO MPS - SORTING STATION AND ITS APPLICATION IN EDUCATION IN THE FIELD OF MECHATRONICS Bilić S. (Slavonski Brod – Croatia), Misirača D. (Gradiška – Bosnia and Herzegovina), Bilić H. (Mostar – Bosnia and Herzegovina), Rajilić S. (Novi Grad – Bosnia and Herzegovina) COMPUTER USAGE IN CALCULATEING THE EXPENDITURE OF REINFORCEMENT Cvejić R. (Belgrade – Serbia) COMMERCIAL MANAGEMENT INFORMATICS AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES Cvejić R. (Belgrade – Serbia), Pavlović V. (Novi Sad – Serbia), Đokić G. (Novi Sad – Serbia) PROVIDING INFORMATION SECURITY IN BUSINESS SYSTEMS AND ELECTRONIC BUSINESS Čajetinac S., Šešlija D., Aleksandrov S., Todorović M. (Trstenik – Serbia) PWM CONTROL OF THE PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR BY PLC CONTROLLER Damnjanović Z., Petrović D., Milić V., Pantović R. (Bor – Serbia) ICT AND THERMOGRAPHY IN MINING INDUSTRY Debelac C, NǍstac S, MǍCUTǍ S. (Galati – Romania) ADVANCES ON COMPUTATIONAL DYNAMICS OF WHEEL LOADER BUCKET CHARGING Erić D. (Čačak – Serbia) METHOD FINITE ELEMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY PROCESS IN THE CONTEXT CONCURRENT ENGINEERING Ilarionov R., Kartunov S. (Gabrovo – Bulgaria) WORKING OUT A SYSTEM FOR ECOLOGICAL MONITORING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ZONES AND OUT- OF -TOWN TERRITORIES IN BULGARIA, BASED IN INFORMATIONAL INTERNET ENVIRONMENT Jovanić P. (Belgrade– Serbia), Damnjanović Z., Petrović D. (Bor – Serbia) THERMAL ANALISIS OF SCHRS 800 CONTINUOUS EXCAVATOR CONSTRUCTION FRAME ON OPEN PIT DRMNO Kartunov S., Rachev P. (Gabrovo – Bulgaria) CLASSIFICATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL ERRORS ON BASIS OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS INFORMATION MODEL Marjanović Z., Brzaković R. (Kragujevac – Serbia) INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR INNOVATION MANAGEMENT Mašović S. (Belgrade– Serbia), Saračević M. (Niš – Serbia), Milović B. (Subotica – Serbia), Kamberović H. (Novi Pazar – Serbia) INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AS A TOOL FOR ESTABLISHING E-HEALTH Mihalcea S., Stănescu N.D. (Piteşti – Romania) CAM SYNTHESIS FOR A TIMING MECHANISM WITH MECHANICAL VARIABLE VALVE LIFT XIII

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10th International Conference ″Research and Development in Mechanical Industry″

RaDMI 2010
16 - 19. September 2010, Donji Milanovac, Serbia

THERMAL ANALISIS OF SCHRS 800 CONTINUOUS EXCAVATOR CONSTRUCTION FRAME ON OPEN PIT DRMNO
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Predrag Jovanić 1, Zvonko Damnjanović 2, Dejan Petrović 2
University of Belgrade, Institute for Multidisciplinary research, Belgrade, SERBIA, e-mail: predrag.jovanic@cms.bg.ac.rs 2 University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty in Bor, Bor SERBIA, e-mail: zdamnjanovic@tf.bor.ac.rs e-mail: dpetrovic@tf.bor.ac.rs

Summary: In this paper are given description of application thermography in the industry as an efficient way of monitoring system condition. Thermal imaginig analysis can be quickly and precisely find the critical parts of the system that can produce failure of the same. We can located the areas where the temperature are higher on continous excavator construction because of dynamic tension during operation of the system. The parts of the construction where the highest tension occur are determined by the thermal analysis. It is predicted installing of devices for measure size of the strain suffered by excavator construction. Combining thermal imaging techniques with measurements using a measuring tape tension can lead to great benefit in maintaining these structures. Thermal imaging analysis gives a general picture of the distribution of tension examined the structure on which the measuring tape to measure the intensity and possible direction of tension action. Key words: thermography, thermal camera, temperature, tension, continous excavator.

1. INTRODUCTION
Thermal camera measuring belong to the non destructive group of analysis that make possible determine the temperature distribution of system continously, precisely and quickly which are analyzed in real terms. The analysis of thermo vision information enables multiple comparatives analysis of thermograms and the other measurements. Thermography allows you to find the critical points in the system quickly and easily which can cause damage. Adequately and timely action on those parts of the system to prevent unnecessary delays in production. Also, reduce the cost of system maintenance.

2. PRINCIPLES OF THERMAL IMAGINING ANALYSIS
It is fact that every body emit some quantity of heat if it is has temperature higher than absolute temperature. Every part of electromagnetic spectrum gives some information about object or process where it is generated, Figure 1. While visible part of spectrum gives information about morphology characteristic of object and very specific information of colors, thermal properties of process or object manifest in infrared part of electromagnetic radiation. Infrared thermography is traditional method for temperature mapping of objects. This methodology is special applicable for visualization distribution of temperature on electronic devices like as PC boards, hybrid modules, printed boards, as well as detection of overheating places of every system in which are manifesting dissipation temperature.

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Figure 1: Electromagnetic spectrum of radiation Thermal cameras record images in infrared area of 7.5-13μm, with a spectral resolution of objects is performed on of 1.3mrad. In this infrared spectrum area give us information about distribution of temperature on the surface of the observed object or process. A results of analysis IR image are visual information with intensity, measured IR radiation which are represented by color. Provided thermal imaging pictures are pseudo-images obtained using appropriate LUT tables or program linking temperature for color. In this way the user get immediate information on the distribution of temperature on the observed object in the form of visual information, figure 2.

Figure 2: Thermal image of continous excavator Tooday`s thermograpfy systems use third generation semiconductor sensors, which don`t need refrigeration, which represents a significant improvement in use in various applications. The new detectors allows recording on higher wavelengths, which allows better image, higher measurement accuracy and the elimination of the influence of solar reflectivity. The resolution of obtained images are 640x480 pixels, which corresponds to a modern imaginig systems. It is possible to measure without contact in temperature areas since –40o to 2000o C, with an average accuracy of measurement of ± 2o C. The emissivity of object can be defined by separate measuring or it can automatic select form the list of commonly testing materials.

3. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
The electromagnetic spectrum is a freely segmented to a large number of parts, depending on the wavelength. They are called bars and they differ in the methods used to induce and detect radiation. It is no big difference between intensity of radiation in any strip of spectrum. All of them respect same rules and only difference is wavelength.

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UV X ray

IR part of spec V part of the spec Microwawe

Wawelenght

Visible part of the spectrum

Infrared part of spectrum

Figure 3: Electromagnetic spectrum with IR part of spectrum which are used from thermography Thermography uses infrared part of spectrum. In shorter wavelength IR part of spectrum the end of spectrum is on visible part, and at higher wavelengths near IR spectrum range is bordered by microwave part of the spectrum. For practical reason IR part of spectrum is parted on four smaller areas. This infrared parts of spectrum contained: - close IR area (0.75 do 3 μm), - middle IR area (3 do 6 μm), - alien IR area (6 do 15 μm) and - final extreme IR area (15 do 100 μm).

4. PLANCK`S LAW
Black body is defined as an object that absorbs all active radiation at all wavelengths. Max Planck (1858-1947) was able to describe the distribution of spectrum with black-body radiation using the formula: (1) where are: Wλb c h k T λ Black body radiation at wavelenght λ Velocity of light 3 x 108 m/s Planck`s const 6.6 x 10-34 J/s Boltzmann const1.4 x 10-23 J/K Absolute temperature of black body Wavelenght

* Factor 10-6 is taken because the black body radiation is expresed in W/m2m. If the factor not used, the unit is W/m2μm. When the graphic display Planck's formula for different temperatures, gives the related curve. Following the Planck curve for a temperature range of emissions is equal to zero for λ = 0, then quickly grows to a maximum at λmax, and then decreases to zero at high wavelength. The higher the temperature, the lower the wavelength at which achieves maximum (λmax) for each curve. When Planck`s formula is integrate for the values of λ = 0 to λ = ∞, we get a total black body radiation: (2) This is the Stefan-Boltzmann formula, which shows that the total emissivity of the black body is proportional to the fourth degree of temperature. Graphically, the Wb is the area under the Planck curve for each temperature.

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Spectral radiation

Wavelength

Figure 4: Planck's law introduced in the scheme log - coordinate system. Dashed line represents the locus of maximum temperature to Wien`s law

5. ANALISIS CONSTRUCTION OF SCHRS 800 CONTINUOUS EXCAVATOR
Continous excavator is product of O&K firm from Germanys. It belongs to a group of compact excavators (the German classification of group A). Excavator is installed during 1994. and 1995., when it has started to work. Excavator is designed for coal exploitation and is currently working on second BTU system. The next figure represent schema construction of excavator.

Figure 5: Schema of SchRs 800 continous excavator

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Technical data for the excavator are: - The theoretical capacity - The total high of excavators - The total lenth of excavators - Working mass of excavator - Digging heigh - Digging depth - Radius of excavation - Radius of dump - Max dump heigh - Minimum dump heigh - Max rotation engle

3024 m3/h 16.36 m 40.7 m 585459 kg 15m 1.25 m 15.7 m 25.0 m 13.0 m 4.7 m 105°

During the work are recorded numerous deficiencies and problems in the work that are otherwise typical for this type of excavator, and are related primarily to the large installed power (power mining) in relation to construction, the introduction of excessive force through the hydraulic cylinder in the zone of the rotating bearing, bad diagonal layout and too much tension in the construction. The subject for research of tension was frame and foremast shown in figure 6. Recording tension in this research was done by thermal imaging camera, a screening analysis for determining the place of strengthening and setting up sensors to control. The back of the frame was recorded, presented in figure 6. This frame was reconstructed in 2002.

Figure 6: Frame and foremast For recording and analysis of SCHRS 800 continous excavators construction to a open pit "Drmno" was used infrared camera Therma CAM TM E2, FLIR producer, owner of JP Serbian Railways (Department of ETP). The basic characteristics are: Measuring range of temperature sensitivity

from -20°C to 250°C ±2°C

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Figure 7: Used IR camera

Figure 8: dimension of FLIR E2 camera used in this research Table 1: Properties of used IR camera
25°x19° /0.3 m 0.12°C at 25°C 50/60 Hz non-interlaced Manual type Focal Plane Array (FPA), uncooled microbolometer 160 x 120 pixels 7.5 to 13μm IMAGE PRESENTATION PAL or NTSC, standard RCA composite video 2.5” colour LCD, 16K colors MEASUREMENT -20°C to +250°C, (-4°F to +482°F) up to +900°C optional ±2°C, ±2% Movable spot, area max, area min, area average, color alarm above or below Palettes (iron,rainbow, B&W, B&W invers), auto-adjust (continuous/manual) Date/time, temperature units °C/°F, language, scale, info field, LCD intensity (high/normal/low) Emissivity variable from 0.1 to 1.0, reflected ambient IMAGE STORAGE Built-in FLASH memory (50 images Standard JPEG LASER LOCATIRTM Class 2 Semiconductor AlGaInP Diode Laser: 1mW/635 nm red BATTERY SYSTEM Li-Ion, rechargeable, field replaceable 2 hours continuous operation. Display shows battery status

Field of view/min focus distance Thermal sensitivity Image frequency Focus Detector type Spectral range Video output External display Temperature range Accuracy Measurement mode Menu controls Set-up controls Measurement corrections Type File formats Classification Type Type Operating time Charging system AC operation Voltage Operating temperature range Storage temperature range Humidity USB RS-232 cable (optional)

in camera, AC adapter or 12 V from car (with optional Std. cable.) 2 bay intelligent charger, 12 V AC adapter 90-260 V AC, 50/60 Hz, 12 V DC out 11-16 V DC ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION -15°C to +45°C (5°F to 113°F) -40°C to +70°C (-40°F to 158°F) Operating and storage 20% to 80%, non-condensing INTERFACES Image transfer to PC Image transfer to PC

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As seen from the table the camera is not designed for continuous recording. Connections with computer are not provided as a two-way, or not allowed outside independent control the camera during the work. Limited memory, up to 50 shots, is not served to the required tests, so that it was necessary to define a system for continuous recording of the phenomenon and designing special holder for the camera, for protect the camera during shooting.

a)

b) Figure 9: The right part of the frame, base: a) the unloaded, b) loaded, right position

Figure 10: Rig recorded at different speeds of work

Figure 11: Bollard of frame recorded during higher speed of excavator

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Figure 12: Above part of frame recorded during higher speed of excavator It is made processing of the results to got recorded voltage distribution facility with screening technique. Processing is made in software package Image Pro Plus v6, a tension extrapolation is made using a mathematical model who is described. Corrections are done for the surface emissivity and reflection, as well as air extinction. The results are shown in figure 13. Tensions are divided into three groups, low (green), intermediate (blue) and high (red). Thermal imaging techniques can not to define bulkiness of tension in this case, but it has been used for accurate determination of loaded areas and their sharing of tension. By measuring the tension of the selected points by other techniques, allows you to define the values of the measurements by thermography.

Figure 13: Tension distribution modeled based on the recorded thermograms

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Bearing in mind this tension during operation, the arrangement of measuring tape (rosettes) in order to obtain relevant data on the size of the tension and monitoring of behavior during the exploitation of the frame is shown in Figure 14.

Figure 1: Positions of rosettes for recording value of tension

6. CONCLUSION
Application thermal systems for the analysis of industrial structure has shown that the system is an effective tool to identify the distribution of tension in dynamically loaded structures. The system is useful for preliminary quantification of the level of tension, with additional analysis can be applied to analyze the development of fatigue load. The results obtained this analysis showed the areas of increased loads structures in a very short time, so that the system can be used with increasing confidence in the maintenance and regular checkups of industrial systems. Combining thermal imaging techniques with measurements using a measuring tape tension can lead to great benefit in maintaining these structures. Thermal imaging analysis gives a general picture of the distribution of tension examined the structure on which the measuring tape to measure the intensity and possible direction of tension action.

REFERENCES
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