THAFSEER IBN KASEER, 9:36 Explanation

ヮヤΒ͡ シ ン∠ Α z を キゅ∠ バ∇ャや リ∇Βよ ヴ∠ ∇ボΑ ヴz ェ ∩∃ レシ ブ∇ャぺ ⊥ ⊥ ら∠ ゲ⊥ ユ⊥ ͡ ら͡ ∠ ∠ ツ ⊥ わ∠ る∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ «ケゅz ャや ヴ∠ま ゅz まヱ るレイ∇ャや ヴ∠ま ゅz ま レ ャ͡ ョ͡∠ ͡ z ∠ ャ͡ ョ͡
(Every man who does not pay t he Zakah due on his money, t hen on t he Day of Resurrect ion, his side, forehead and back will be branded wit h rods made of fire on a Day t he lengt h of which is fift y t housand years, unt il when t he servant s will be j udged; t hat man will be shown his dest inat ion, eit her t o Paradise or t he Fire.) aIn t he Tafsir of t his Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Zayd bin Wahb said, "I passed by Abu Dharr in t he area of Rabadhah and asked him, ` What made you reside in t his area' He said, ` We were in Ash-Sham when I recit ed t his Ayah,

ゅ∠ ルヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ Ιヱ るツヘ∇ャや∠ ょワグャや ラヱ⊥ レ∇ムΑ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ヰ∠ ボ͡ Α ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ヱ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ゴ͡ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ び∃ Β͡ぺ ゆや∠ バよ ∇ユワ∇ゲゼらプ ヮヤャや モΒ͡ シ ヶ͡ ユ ャ∠ ∃ グ∠ ͡ ⊥ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ら∠ プ
(And t hose who hoard up gold and silver and spend t hem not in t he way of Allah, announce unt o t hem a painful t orment .) Mu` awiyah said, ` This Ayah is not about us, it is only about t he People of t he Book.' So I (Abu Dharr) said, ` Rat her, it is about us and t hem.''

ヶ͡ やゲ∇ヰセ ゲゼハ ゅ∠ ∇をや ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ケヲ⊥ ゼャや りギハ ラまぴ プ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ͡ z ∠ ハ ͡ ヰぁ ∠ z ͡ z ͡ べヰ∇レョ チ∇ケΙや∠ れ∠ ヨジャや ペヤカ ュ∇ヲΑ ヮヤャや ょ⇒∠ ミ ∠ ͡ ∠ x ヱ ヲ∠ z ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ わ͡ リヰΒ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤ∇ヌゎ Κプ ユあ ボ∇ャや リΑあ ャや マャク ∀ ゲェ るバよ∇ケぺ z ͡ プ ヨ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ Β∠ ⊥ ギ ∠ ͡ ュ⊥ ⊥ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∇ユムルヲ⊥わ⇒∠ Α ゅ∠ ∠ るプべ∠ リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ゎゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ⊥ ∠ ヤ͡ ボ⊥ ヨミ ⇔ z ミ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ヤ͡ ホ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ び リΒ͡ わヨ∇ャや ノョ ヮヤャや ラぺ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤ∇ハや∠ るプべ∠ ∠ ボz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ヨ∠ ヱ ⇔ z ミ
(36. Verily, t he number of mont hs wit h Allah is t welve mont hs (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on t he Day when He creat ed t he heavens and t he eart h; of t hem four are sacred. That is t he right religion, so wrong not yourselves t herein, and fight against t he Mushrikin idolat ers collect ively as t hey fight against you collect ively. But know t hat Allah is wit h t hose who have Taqwa.)

The Year consists of Twelve Months
Imam Ahmad recorded t hat Abu Bakrah said t hat t he Prophet said in a speech during his Haj j ,

ぶや ペヤカ ュ∇ヲΑ ヮわゃ∇Βヰミ ケや∠ わ∇シや ギホ ラゅ∠ ゴャや ラま ゅ∠ぺ» ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョz z ͡ ャ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ や⇔ ∇ヰセ ゲゼハ ゅ∠ ∇をや るレz ャや ∩∠ ∇ケほ∇ャや∠ れや∠ ヨジャや ヰ ͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ⊥ ∠ ジ チ ∠ ヱ ͡ ヲ∠ z ヱ⊥ ヱ りギ∇バボ∇ャや ヱ⊥ :∀ ゅ∠ ャや∠ わョ ∀ ∠ ゅ∠∠ ∩∀ ゲェ るバよ∇ケぺ ク∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ク れ Β͡ ヲ∠ ⊥ るを ヤを ュ⊥ ⊥ ∀ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ン∠ ゅ∠ ィ リ∇Βよ ヵ͡ ャや ゲツョ ょィケヱ ュz エヨ∇ャや∠ るイエ∇ャや キ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ⊥ ヱ ͡ z ͡ «ラゅ∠ ∇バセヱ ら∠∠
メゅホ ユを:

«∨や∠ ワ ュ∇ヲΑ ヵぺ» グ∠ ∃ ∠ ぁ ∠
ゅレヤホ: ぶや ヮャヲシケヱ ∩ユヤハぺ ろムジプ ヴわェ ゅレレニ ヮルぺ ヮΒヨジΒシ ゲΒピよ ヮヨシや メゅホ:

«∨͡ ∇エレャや ュ∇ヲΑ ザ∇Βャぺ» ゲ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠
ゅレヤホ: ヴヤよ ユを メゅホ:

«∨や∠ ワ ゲ∇ヰセ ヵぺ» グ∠ ∃ ∠ ぁ ∠
ゅレヤホ: ぶや ヮャヲシケヱ ∩ユヤハぺ ろムジプ ヴわェ ゅレレニ ヮルぺ ヮΒヨジΒシ ゲΒピよ ヮヨシや メゅホ:

«∨͡ イエャや や∠ ザ∇Βャぺ» るz ͡ ク ∠ ∠ ∠
ゅレヤホ: ∩ヴヤよ ユを メゅホ:

«∨や∠ ワ ギヤよ ヵぺ» グ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ぁ ∠ ヮルぺ ゅレレニ ヴわェ ろムジプ ユヤハぺ ヮャヲシケヱ ぶや :ゅレヤホ :メゅホ ヮヨシや ゲΒピよ ヮΒヨジΒシ «∨∠ ギ∇ヤら∇ャや ろジ∇Βャぺ» り∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠

«ヴヤよ :ゅレヤホ
(The division of t ime has t urned t o it s original form which was current when Allah creat ed t he heavens and t he eart h. The year is of t welve mont hs, out of which four mont hs are sacred: Three are in succession Dhul-Qa` dah, Dhul-Hij j ah and Muharram, and (t he fourt h is) Raj ab of (t he t ribe of) Mudar which comes bet ween Jumada (At h-Thaniyah) and Sha` ban.'' The Prophet t hen asked, (What is t he day t oday') We said, "Allah and His Messenger know bet t er. He kept quiet unt il we t hought t hat he might give t hat day anot her name. He said (Isn't it t he day of Nahr) We replied, "Yes.'' He furt her asked, (Which mont h is t his) We again said, "Allah and His Messenger know bet t er,'' and he kept quiet and made us t hink t hat he might give it anot her name. Then he said,(Isn't it t he mont h of Dhul-Hij j ah) We replied, "Yes.'' He asked, (What t own is t his) We said, "Allah and His Messenger know bet t er,'' and he kept quiet unt il we t hought t hat he might change it s name. He asked, (Isn't t his t he (Sacred) Town) We said, "Yes.'' He said,

∇ユムッや∠ ∇ハぺヱ メゅ∠ ヮらジ∇ェぺヱ ∇ユムャや∠ ∇ョぺヱ ∇ユミ¬ゅ∠ キ ラみプ» ⊥ ∠ ゲ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヲ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ͡ z ͡ ∠ ∩や∠ ワ ∇ユミゲ∇ヰセ ヶ͡ や∠ ワ ∇ユムョ∇ヲΑ るョ∇ゲエミ ∀ や∠ ∠ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ グ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ プ グ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ュ ゲェ ⊥ ∠∠ ∇リハ ∇ユムャほ∇ジΒプ ∇ユムよケ ラ∇ヲボ∇ヤわシヱ .や∠ ワ ∇ユミギヤよ ヶ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ プ ゆゲ∇ツΑ ゅ⇔ゅzッ ヵ͡ ∇バよ やヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲゎ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ぺ ∩∇ユムャゅ∠ ∇ハぺ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ャ ヤ⊥ ギ ∠ バ͡ ∠ ャ ャ∠ ⊥ ͡ ヨ ∠ ヒヤらΒャ ゅ∠ぺ ∨⊥ ∇ピヤよ ∇モワ ゅ∠ぺ ヂ∇バよ ゆゅ∠ ケ ∇ユムツ∇バよ ͡ あ∠ ⊥ ͡ ャ∠ ろ z∠ ∠ ャ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ホ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヴ∠ ∇ヱ∠ ラヲ⊥ Α ヮピあらΑ ∇リョ モバヤプ ょもゅ∠ ∇ャや ユム∇レョ ギワゅz ャや ハ ぺ ⊥ ム∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ピ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ゼ «ヮ∠ ヨシ ∇リョ ヂ∇バよ ∇リョ ヮャ バ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠
(Verily! Your blood, propert y and honor are sacred t o one anot her like t he sanct it y of t his day of yours, in t his mont h of yours and in t his cit y of yours. Verily, you will meet your Lord and He will quest ion you about your act ions. Behold! Do not revert t o misguidance aft er me by st riking t he necks of one anot her. Have I conveyed It is incumbent upon t hose who are present t o inform t hose who are absent , because t hose who are absent might comprehend (what I have said) bet t er t han some who are present .) Al-Bukhari and Muslim collect ed t his Hadit h. In a small book collect ed by Shaykh ` Alam ad-Din As-Sakhawi, ent it led, Al-Mashhur fi Asma' Al-Ayam wash-Shuhur, he ment ioned t hat Muharram is so named because it is a sacred mont h. To me, it was so named t o emphasize it s sacredness. This is because t he Arabs would swit ch it around. One year t hey would say it was a sacred mont h, t he following year t hey would say t hat it was not . The aut hor said, "...and Safar is so named because t hey used t o leave t heir homes during t hat mont h for fight ing and t raveling. When saying ` Safir' a place, it means t o leave it ... Rabi` Al-Awwal is called t hat because t hey used t o do Irt iba` in it , t hat is t o maint ain one's propert y... and Rabi` Al-Akhir, was so named for t he same reasons. Jumada is called t hat because t he wat er would dry up (Jamud) t hen....They say Jumada Al-Uwla and Al-Awwal, or Jumada Al-Akhar or Al-Akhirah. Raj ab comes from Tarj ib, meaning t o honor. Sha` ban because t he t ribes would separat e and ret urn t o t heir homes. Ramadan was so named because of t he severit y of t he Ramda' - t hat is - t he heat , and t hey say t hat t he branch Ramadat when it is

t hirst y...And t he saying t hat it is a Name of Allah is a mist ake, for t here is no proof or support for t hat ...''

The Sacred Months
Allah said,

び∀ ゲェ るバよ∇ケぺ べ∠ ∇レョぴ ュ⊥ ⊥ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ ͡
(of t hem four are sacred). The Arabs used t o consider t hese mont hs sacred during t he t ime of Jahiliyyah, except for a group of t hem called Al-Basl, who held eight mont hs of t he year t o be sacred as way of exaggerat ion in religion. The Prophet said,

ュz エヨ∇ャや∠ るイエ∇ャや ヱ⊥ ∠ りギ∇バボ∇ャや ヱ⊥ :∀ ゅ∠ ャや∠ わョ ∀ ∠ ゅ∠∠ » ⊥ ゲ∠ ⊥ ヱ ͡ z ͡ クヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ク れ Β͡ ヲ∠ ⊥ るを ヤを «ラゅ∠ ∇バセヱ ン∠ ゅ∠ ィ リ∇Βよ ヵ͡ ャや ゲツョ ょィケヱ ら ∠ ∠ キ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠
(Three are in succession; Dhul-Qa` dah, Dhul-Hij j ah and Muharram, and (t he fourt h is) Raj ab ぴof (t he t ribe of) Mudar which comes bet ween Jumada (At h-Thani)び and Sha` ban). The Prophet said "Raj ab of Mudar'' t o at t est t o t he cust om of Mudar, in saying t hat Raj ab is t he mont h t hat is bet ween Jumada and Sha` ban, not as t he t ribe of Rabi` ah t hought , t hat it is bet ween Sha` ban and Shawwal, which is Ramadan in t he present calendar. The four Sacred Mont hs were made four, t hree in succession and one alone, so t hat t he Haj j and ` Umrah are performed wit h ease. Dhul-Qa` dah, t he mont h before t he Haj j mont h, was made sacred because t hey refrained from fight ing during t hat mont h. Dhul-Hij j ah, t he next mont h, was made sacred because it is t he mont h of Haj j , during which t hey performed Haj j rit uals. Muharram, which comes next , was made sacred so t hat t hey are able t o go back t o t heir areas in safet y ぴaft er performing Haj j び. Raj ab, in t he middle of t he lunar year, was made sacred so t hat t hose coming from t he fart hest areas of Arabia are able t o perform ` Umrah and visit t he House and t hen go back t o t heir areas safely. Allah said next ,

び⊥ Βボ∇ャや リΑあ ャや マャクぴ ユあ ∠ ⊥ ギ ∠ ͡
(That is t he right religion), t hat is t he St raight Law, requiring implement ing Allah's order concerning t he mont hs t hat He made sacred and t heir t rue count as it was originally writ t en by Allah. Allah said,

び∇ユムジヘル∠ リヰΒ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤ∇ヌゎ Κプぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ z ͡ プ ヨ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠
(so wrong not yourselves t herein) during t hese Sacred Mont hs, for sin in t hem is worse t han sin in ot her mont hs. Likewise, sins in t he Sacred Cit y are writ t en mult iplied,

び∃ Β͡ぺ ゆや∠ ハ ∇リョ ヮ∇ホグぁ ユ∇ヤヌよ キゅ∠ ∇ャみよ ヮΒ͡ ∇キゲΑ リ∠ ヱぴ ユ ャ∠ ∃ グ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ル ∃ ⊥ ͡ ∃ エ ͡͡ ͡ プ ͡ ⊥ ョ∠

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