Optical mesh networks are a type of telecommunications network.Transport networks, the underlying optical fiber-based layer of telecommunications networks, have evolved from DCS (Digital Cross-connect Systems)-based mesh architectures in the 1980s, to SONET/SDH (Synchronous Optical Networking/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) ring architectures in the 1990s. Technological advancements in optical transport equipment in the first decade of the 21st century, along with continuous deployment of DWDM systems, have led telecommunications service providers to replace their SONET ring architectures by mesh-based architectures. The new optical mesh networks support the same fast recovery previously available in ring networks while achieving better capacity efficiency and resulting in lower capital cost. Optical mesh networks today not only provide trunking capacity to higher-layer networks, such as inter-router or inter-switch connectivity in an IP, MPLS, or Ethernet-centric infrastructure, but also support efficient routing and fast failure recovery of high-bandwidth services. This was made possible by the emergence of optical network elements that have the intelligence required to automatically control certain network functions, such as fault recovery.Optical mesh networks enable Quality-of-Service protection and a variety of dynamic services such as bandwidth-on-demand, Just-In-Time bandwidth, bandwidth scheduling, bandwidth brokering, and optical virtual private networks that open up new opportunities for service providers and their customers alike.

Optical mesh networks refer to transport networks that are built directly off the mesh-like fiber infrastructure deployed in metropolitan, regional, national, or international (e.g., transoceanic) areas by deploying optical transport equipment that are capable of switching traffic (at the wavelength or sub-wavelength level) from an incoming fiber to an outgoing fiber. In addition to switching wavelengths, the equipment is typically also able to multiplex lower speed traffic into wavelengths for transport, and to groom traffic (as long as the equipment is so-called opaque - see subsection on transparency). Finally, these equipment also provide for the recovery of traffic in case of a network failure. As most of the transport networks evolve toward mesh topologies utilizing intelligent network elements (optical cross-connects or optical switches [9]) for provisioning and recovery of services, new approaches have been developed for the design, deployment, operations and management of mesh optical networks. Optical switches build by companies such as Sycamore and Ciena (with STS-1 granularity of switching) and Tellium (with STS-48 granularity of switching) have been deployed in operational mesh networks. Calient has built all-optical switches based on 3D MEMS technology.Optical mesh networks today not only provide trunking capacity to higher-layer networks, such as inter-router or inter-switch connectivity in an IP, MPLS, or Ethernet-centric packet infrastructure, but also support efficient routing and fast failure recovery of highbandwidth point-to-point Ethernet and SONET/SDH services.

TRANSPARENCY Traditional transport networks are made of optical fiber-based links between telecommunications offices. where multiple wavelengths are multiplexed to increase the capacity . diverse from the primary path taken by the connection over the mesh network.and path. some connections can be unprotected. segment. In path-protected mesh networks.RECOVERY IN OPTICAL MESH NETWORKS Optical mesh networks support the establishment of circuit-mode connection-oriented services. can be implemented. thereby avoiding contention for the shared resources in case of a single link or node failure. Restoration is another recovery method that can work on its own or complement faster protection schemes in case of multiple failures. or shared among multiple connections (aka Shared Backup Path Protection). P-cycles[7] is another type of protection that leverages and extends ring-based protection. A connection can be protected against a single failure by defining a backup path. Multiple recovery mechanisms that provide different levels of protection [10] or restoration [11] against different failure modes are available in mesh networks. Channel-. multiple diverse routes can be designed so that a connection has multiple recovery routes and can recover even after multiple failures (examples of mesh networks across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans [12]). link-. or only partially diverse backup paths. Finally. A number of other protection schemes such as the use of pre-emptible paths. typically ones whose primary paths are not likely to fail at the same time. others can be protected against single or multiple failures in various ways.protection are the most common protection schemes. The backup path and associated resources can be dedicated to the connection (aka Dedicated Backup Path Protection).

In the early 2010s. . Reshaping. routing of connections is tightly linked to the wavelength selection and assignment process (so-called Routing and Wavelength Assignment. optical add-drop multiplexer. and Retiming (3R). the routing problem is one of finding a primary path for a connection and if protection is needed. including Dijkstra's algorithm. Transparent optical mesh networks have been deployed in metropolitan and regional networks since the mid 2000's. undergoing an optical-to-electrical conversion for signal Reamplification.[15] and numerous heuristics. a backup path diverse from the primary path. Hybrid schemes that leverage optical bypasses and provide limited O-E-O conversions at key locations across the network. or directed to an outgoing fiber link where they are again carried as wavelengths multiplexed into that fiber link towards the next telecommunications office. or Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (ROADM) systems). are referred to as translucent networks. Several algorithms can be used to determine a primary path and a diverse backup path (with or without sharing of resource along the backup path) for a connection or service. The act of going through Optical-Electrical-Optical (O-E-O) conversion through a telecommunications office causes the network to be considered opaque. The wavelengths are terminated on electronic devices called transponders. Inside a telecommunications office. In an opaque network. k-shortest path. such as: shortest path. When the incoming wavelengths do not undergo an optical-to-electrical conversion and are switched through a telecommunications office in the optical domain using all-optical switches (also called photonic cross-connect. In transparent or all-optical networks. operational long distance networks still tend to remain opaque. in the absence of devices that can translate between wavelengths in the optical domain). the network is considered to be transparent. including Suurballe's algorithm.[14] edge and node-diverse or disjoint routing. This is due to the fact that the connection remains on the same wavelength from end-to-end throughout the network (sometimes referred to as wavelength continuity constraint. the signals are then handled to and switched by a transport switch (aka optical cross-connect or optical switch) and either are dropped at that office. or "RWA"). as they are transmission limitations and impairments that prevent the extension of transparency beyond a certain point ROUTING IN OPTICAL MESH NETWORKS Routing is a key control and operational aspect of optical mesh networks.of the fiber. Wavelengths are used on each link independently of each other's.

The free space and other losses are calculated for the downlink frequency. frequently used.38) can be applied to the downlink. the corresponding output BO is [BO]0 _ 11 _ 5 _ 6 dB. 12. Eq. (12. (12.DOWNLINK The downlink of a satellite circuit is the one in which the satellite is transmitting the signal and the earth station is receiving it.Where the carrier-to-noise ratio is the specified quantity rather than carrier-to-noise density ratio.38) becomes the values to be used are the satellite EIRP.38) is used. (12. If the satellite EIRP for saturation conditions is specified as [EIRPS]D. For example.53) is that which appears at the detector of the earth station receiver. output BO is not linearly related to input BO. The resulting carrier-to-noise density ratio given by Eq. This becomes.2. the earthstation receiver feeder losses. Since the linear portion gives a 1:1 change in decibels. A rule of thumb. then [EIRP]D _ [EIRPS]D _ [BO]0 and Eq. with an input BO of [BO]i _ 11 dB. but subscript D will be used to denote specifically that the downlink is being considered.21 shows. the relationship between input and output BO is [BO]0_[BO]i_5 dB. Equation (12. a corresponding output BO must be allowed for in the satellite EIRP. Thus Eq. (12. is to take the output BO as the point on the curve which is 5 dB below the extrapolated linear portion. and the earthstation receiver G/T.7.7.53) becomes . as shown in Fig. 12. on assuming that the signal bandwidth B is equal to the noise bandwidth BN: OUTPUT BACK-OFF Where input BO is employed as described in Sec. 7. As the curve of Fig.

the power output of the TWTA is given by Once [PTWTA] is found.SATELLITE TWTA OUTPUT The satellite power amplifier. and coupler losses between the TWTA output and the satellite’s transmit antenna. the saturated power output rating of the TWTA is given by . Referring back to Eq.3). has to supply the radiated power plus the transmit feeder losses. These losses include the waveguide. (12. filter. which usually is a TWTA.

h.allwyn james raj final year-ece .Satellite communications assignment By.

h.allwyn james raj final year-ece .optical fibre communication assignment By.

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