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# Chapter 35

## Well Performance Equations

R.A. Wattenbarger,
Texas A&M U.*

Introduction
This chapter summarizes the equations that apply to the performance of a well in a reservoir. The equations are used to calculate the relationship between rate and pressure of a well and the properties of the fluids and formation. These equations apply only in the drainage area of the well and do not describe the entire reservoir performance, except for the case of a single-well depletion reservoir. For more complete treatment of the entire reservoir performance, refer to Chap. 37-Solution-Gas-Drive Oil Reservoirs, Chap. 38-Waterdrive Oil Reservoirs, or Chap. 39-Gas Condensate Reservoirs. There have been several excellent references developed over the past few years on well pressure behavior. I- These are much more detailed than this chapter and the reader should be aware of them. This chapter is a brief summary of this technology. The vector notation used on the left side of the equation has the following meaning. In one dimension (lD),

6 -=

ax2

o.ooo264

her

ap

at )

. .

. . . (24

where x is the distance coordinate in a one-dimensional flow system, ft. In two dimensions (2D),

a2p
a,:+2=

a2p
ay

1
0.000264

4wt -k

aP at ..

. (2b)

where x and y are distance coordinates in a 2D flow system, ft. In radial coordinates,

Diffusivity Equation
The equations that relate pressure and rates for a well are solutions of the diffusivity equation. This equation can be written as 1 ~PC, ap o.ooo264 k at )

3% 1ap
ar2+--= r ar

1
0.000264

hc, -k

ap
ar . .

@cl

v2p=

...

. ..

where
p = pressure, psi, 4 = porosity of reservoir rock, fraction, p = fluid viscosity, cp, total compressibility of system (see Eq. 5), C I= psi- , k = permeability of reservoir rock, md, and f = time, hours.
Aulhor of Ihe onginal chapter on ths topic in the 1462 edltmn was Ralph F. Neilsen

where r is the radius in radial flow system, ft. Eq. 2c gives the most useful solution of the diffusivity equation for reservoir and well performance. The geometry of the reservoir is in cylindrical coordinates with an inner radius, rw, into which the fluid flows at a constant rate and an outer boundary, rc , which is closed and represents the outer boundary of the reservoir. The solutions of this cylindrical coordinate problem have been presented by van Everdingen and Hurst and are presented again in Chap. 38. Eq. 1 is a linear partial differential equation that models how pressure changes with location and time. Theoretically, solutions of Eq. 1 are valid only for reservoirs where the fluid and rock properties are constant. The application of the solutions of Eq. 1, then, are literally applicable for fluids with constant compressibility and

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where
k, = effective permeability k, = effective permeability k, = effective permeability

## to oil, md, to gas, md, to water, md,

PO = oil viscosity, cp, PLp = gas viscosity, cp, and CL, = water viscosity, cp. The total compressibility is the volumetrically weighted average of the compressibilities of the fluids and pore space as follows.

ct =cf+s,c,

+s,c, fSwC,,

. (5)

## Fig. 35.1-Pressure reservoir.

behavior

for constant

rate

in a closed

where cf = formation compressibility, psi - , S, = oil saturation, fraction of pore volume (W, CO = oil compressibility, psi- , S, = gas saturation, fraction of PV, Cg = gas compressibility, psi - t , S, = water saturation, fraction of PV, and CW = water compressibility, psi - . The flow rate also must be expressed in terms of the equivalent total flow rate for multiphase flow. The expression for total reservoir flow rate is
q,B,=q,B,+(1,000q,-R,q,)B,/5.615+q,B,,

viscosity and for formations with constant permeability. These conditions are very nearly met in the case of aquifer flow or for oil reservoir flow at pressures above the bubblepoint. The solutions of Eqs. 1 and 2 can be extended to multiphase reservoir flow for most practical cases.

Multiphase Flow
When more than one phase exists in the reservoir, it is still possible to write the differential equation in a form similar to Eq. 1. This equation was presented by Martin as where ;; 40
B, v 5 vp= o.;2H (>P t cpc,;. . ..,. . (3) qg R, B,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (6) - total reservoir flow rate, STB/D, I total formation volume factor, RB/STB, = oil flow rate, STBID, = oil formation volume factor, RBISTB, = gas flow rate, Mscf/D, = solution gas-oil ratio, scf/STB, = gas formation volume factor, res cu ftlscf water flow rate, STBID, and water formation volume factor, RB/STB.

This equation shows that the conditions of homogeneity are not necessarily met. The concepts of total mobility, (k/p), , and total compressibility, ct, are introduced. The total mobility is the sum of the individual phase mobility as follows.

k 0P

=-+-+-, f PO Pg

ko kg kw
Pw

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (4)

Martin equation is a nonlinear partial differential equas tion. Therefore the general case does not have analytical solutions. However, for practical purposes, Eqs. 3 through 6 can be used for most well performance equations if the meaning of the mobility, compressibility, and flow rate are taken in this general three-phase sense. The single-phase solutions of Eq. 1 can be applied to the multiphase case by using the analogies given in Table 35.1.

TABLE

3&l-ANALOGIES OF SINGLE-PHASE MULTIPHASE EQUIVALENT Single-Phase Value w Multiphase Equivalent WI4 t Ct 9&3,

VALUE

TO

## Oil Well Performance

Well Pressure Performance-Closed Reservoir The performance of a constant-rate well in a closed reservoir (of any geometry or heterogeneity) has the general form shown in Fig. 35.1. The lower curve of Fig. 35.1 shows that the wellbore flowing pressure, p 4, goes through a rapid pressure drop

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early (transient) times and then flattens out until it reaches a constant slope. On this coordinate plot, the closed-reservoir, constant-rate case has the properties
aP, --co

at

at

and
a*Pwf >O at* .
Fig. 35.2-Typical

log t
constant-rate drawdown test graph.

When p of reaches a straight line on the coordinate plot, the period of pseudosteady state has been reached. Every pressure point in the reservoir declines at the same constant rate of depletion after that time. Of particular importance is the decline of the average reservoir pressure, j?~, which assumes the pseudosteady-state depletion rate from the very beginning of production. The constant elope of Fig. 35.1 is valid only for constant-compressibility single-phase fluid. However, the general concept of the transient period and the pseudosteady-state period is the same for a multiphase flow with changing compressibilities. The PR slope would be changing according to the changes in compressibility, and the pR curve after a pseudosteady-state would not be exactly parallel to the p,,,f curve. This nonideal behavior would be typical of a solution gas drive reservoir or a dry gas reservoir where the compressibility and mobilities are continually changing. The infinite-acting solutions and the pseudosteady-state solutions to follow are still ap-

plicable for the multiphase flow case by using the analogies in Table 35.1. The value of pR, however, must be calculated by the material balance method that applies for this case. Infinite-Acting Solution (MTR)

The pressure behavior of constant-rate flow in a closed reservoir goes through several periods: the early-time region (ETR), middle-time region (MTR), and late-time region (LTR). These periods are illustrated on a semilog plot ofp\$ vs. log t in Fig. 35.2. The MTR solution is discussed first. Eq. 1 can be solved for the infinite-reservoir case, which is useful for application at early times. The solution applies to a well producing at constant rate, beginning at t=O, and a homogeneous reservoir of constant thickness.

PO=

10

IO tDr = tD/rD 2

102

IOJ

IO

Fig. X.3-Dimensionless

## pressure for a single well in an infinite system,

no wellbore

storage,

no skin. Exponential-integral

solution.

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There are two important solutions for the intinitereservoir case. One solution8 assumes that the wellbore has a finite radius, r,. This solution is used mostly for aquifer behavior with the oil field being the inner radius rather than a wellbore. This solution is given in Chap. 38 for the infinite-aquifer case. A simpler solution applies for well behavior. This solution, called the line-source or exponential-integral solution, assumes that the wellbore radius, rw, approaches zero. This solution has the form

Skin Effect The solutions to Eq. 1 are modified to account for formation damage near the wellbore. The damage near the wellbore can be considered concentrated into a very thin radius around the wellbore such that the thickness of the damage is insignificant but a finite pressure drop results from this damage. Fig. 35.4 shows a sketch of the physical concept of the damaged region and Fig. 35.5 shows the pressure profile resulting from this damage. The magnitude of the pressure drop caused by the skin effect Ap, is

Ap,=O.87ms, where
po

.....

.... ....

. . (10)

rD tD h
pi rw

q&)=dimensionless pressure, = r/r,,, =dimensionless radius, = (O.O00264kt)l\$+c,r,. =dimensionless = formation thickness, ft, = initial pressure, psi, and = wellbore radius, ft.

= kh(pi-p)l(141.2

where s is the skin effect, defined in terms of dimensionless pressure such that it would have the following effect on Eq. 8. time,
pD=% ln tD+o.@ts+s. .. ... . . . . . .(ll)

The exponential-integral function, Ei, is a special function that results from the solution of the line-source problem. A more practical solution to the problem is the plot of the dimensionless pD vs. t&rD2, which is shown in Fig. 35.3. The tDr term is the dimensionless time based on external radius, re. Fig. 35.3 can be used to determine the pressure at any time and radius from the producing well. This solution is valid as long as the radius at which the pressure is calculated is greater than 20 r,+ or at the wellbore of the producing well (at r,v) at a value of fo/rD * > 10. Fig. 35.3 is used mostly to determine the pressure at distances away from the well such as at a nearby well location during an interference test. The more common solution of the exponential integral solution is the semilog straight line solution, which applies after to is greater than 100. After this time, Eq. 8 applies at the wellbore:
pD=% hl t,+0.406. ..................... (8)

The value of the skin effect is calculated from transient well test data such as a buildup test or a drawdown test. The exact nature of the cause of the skin effect might not bc known but might be caused by a combination of several factors. Some of these factors are (1) mud filtrate or mud damage near the wellbore, (2) the cement bond, (3) limited perforations through the casing and cement bond, and (4) partial penetration (completion). On the other hand, the value of the skin effect, s, might be negative. This would indicate an improved wellbore condition, which might be caused by (1) improved permeability in the vicinity of the wellbore because of acidizing or other well treatments, (2) a vertical or horizontal hydraulic fracture at the wellbore, or (3) a wellbore at an angle rather than normal to the bedding plane. The determination of the skin effect is important in determining the need for a workover or the benefits of a workover. The effect of the skin can be stated as a modification to the wellbore radius by calculating an effective ,,,, wellbore radius, r calculated by
r w=r,e - s .............................

.(12)

## In customary oilfield units, this equation has the form

kt

pKf=pj -In

log

-3.23

+crrw2

>

, .

(9)

This effective wellbore radius, rlw, can be considered the equivalent wellbore radius in an undamaged or unimproved formation, which would have the same flow characteristics as the actual well with the skin effect. Wellbore Storage Effect (ETR) At very early times the fluid production tends to come from the expansion of the fluid in the wellbore rather than the formation. This tends to delay the production rate from the formation. The relationship between the surface production rate, the expansion of the wellbore fluids, and the formation production rate are shown in Eq. 13: 24C. Lb
B

where m equals (162.6qBp)lkh and p,+f is the flowing bottomhole pressure, psi. This equation results in a semilog plot of p,,f vs. log t with a slope of -m psi/cycle (the MTR of Fig. 35.2.) Eqs. 7 through 9 are used for infinite-acting solutions before the effects of boundaries affect the pressure transient behavior. When the closest boundary begins affecting the behavior at the wellbore, this time is the end of the semilog straight line, t,,d . The last column in Table 35.2 shows tend for various drainage shapes (shape factors).

q\$=q+L+

at

. (13)

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TABLE 35.2-SHAPE

FACTORS FOR VARIOUS CLOSED SINGLE-WELL DRAINAGE AREAS Use Infinite System Solution With Less Than 1% Error For t, < 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.015 0.09 0.03 0.025 0.01 0.025 0.025 0.06 0.02 0.005 0.02 0.005 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.025
ftDA)end

In Bounded 0 0 A n

Reservoirs

cA

In CA 3.4538 3.4532 3.3178 3.2995 3.0865 - 2.3227 3.4302 2.5638 1.5070 1.2045 3.0836 2.3830 1.5072 0.7390 1.1497 - 0.5425 -2.1991 1.6825 0.9894 - 1.4619 -2.1585 0.8589 - 1.3224 - 1.3220 - 1.2544 - 1.2452 - 1.1387 f 1.5659 - 1.3106 - 0.8774 - 0.3490 -0.1977 -1.1373 - 0.7870 - 0.3491 + 0.0391 -0.1703 + 0.6758 + 1.5041 - 0.4367 - 0.0902 +I.1355 + 1.4838 - 0.0249

Exact For tDA > 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.9 0.1 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.3 0.4 1.5 1.7 0.4 2.0 3.0 0.8 0.8 4.0 4.0 1 .o

@DA)pss

Less Than 1% Error For t, > 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.12 0.60 0.05 0.25 0.30 0.25 0.15 0.15 0.50 0.50 0.15 0.60 0.60 0.30 0.30 2:oo 2.00 0.40

31.62 31.6 27.6 27.1 21.9 0.098 30.8828 12.9851 4.5132 3.3351 21.8369 10.8374 4.5141 2.0769 3.1573 0.5813 0.1109 5.3790 2.6896 0.2318

q3 c&ID

0.1155 2.3806 Reservoirs* xxe 2.6541 2.0348 1.9988 1.6620 1.3127 0.7887 Reservoirs 19.1 of Unknown Character 25.0

2.95

- 1.07

3.22

- 1.20

Use (xJx,)

in place of A#:

## for fractured systems.

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EC
REGION SEALED ,UND+RIES / /

OF

DAMAGED

## PERMEARILITY CIRCULAR WELL BORE

1
Fig. 35.4-Radial flow model showing damaged zone.

log r

Fig. 35.5--Schematic

of pressure

distribution

near wellbore.

where C, equals V,,,cd and qsj is the flow rate at the sandface, STB/D and C, is the wellbore storage constant, equal to the volume of the wellbore, V, , times the wellbore fluid compressibility, c wf. The effect of the wellbore storage is to make the very early transient pressure behave as though it were reflecting production only from the wellbore fluid expansion. This pressure drop can be calculated from
Pi-Pwf 24C,t.

at every point throughout the reservoir. This is a depletion period at which every point of the reservoir drops at a rate according to the pore volume, VP, and compressibility of the drainage area, ct,

ap ( >pss=
--\$

-0.234qB ~ pCt

. ....

(15)

qB

. . . . . . . ..~..............

During pseudosteady-state behavior, wellbore pressure is related to the average reservoir pressure, PR, by a productivity index (PI), J, as follows.
q=J(pR -p,j). ....... . . . . . . . . (16)

Note that this shows a linear relationship between & and time. Consequently, a p vs. t plot will be linear during the wellbore storage period. Also, a plot of log Ap vs. log I is a straight line with a slope of unity. This wellbore storage effect may last for just a few seconds or it may last for many hours-i.e., for a deep, low-permeability gas well that has a large storage volume in the wellbore, a high-compressibility gas, and great resistance to flow from the formation. After a period of time, this wellbore storage solution gives way to the semilog straight line (for the radial flow case). The period between the linear relationship and the semilog straight line is from one to one and one-half cycles of log t. Fig. 35.6 shows that Eq. 12 applies during ETR, then gives way to Eq. 11 during MTR. lo This loglog dimensionless plot has the same shape as a plot of log (pi-p,,+) vs. log r. This is sometimes called a type
curve.

This PI equation relates the pressure drawdown to the production rate. For a circular drainage area we can write out the complete expression for the PI equation as 7.08x 10 -3khl(B/t)
4=

In r,/r,

-0.75s~

_ (Pi?-Pwj),

. . . . . (17) .

Pseudosteady-State Behavior (LTR) After a well produces at constant rate for a period of time, the boundary effects interrupt the infinite-acting pressure behavior. If the well is in an irregularly shaped drainage area, the closest boundary to the well causes the earliest departure from the infinite-acting pressure solution. After a transition period, the well begins pseudosteady-state behavior. The pseudosteady-state behavior begins after the effects of the farthest boundary have been felt at the wellbore. When pseudosteady-state behavior begins (see Fig. 35.2) the rate of pressure decline, (a~/&)~~~, is constant

where re is the exterior boundary radius, ft. Note that the quantity in brackets is equivalent to J in Eq. 16 for the circular drainage area. J is a constant if the viscosity and formation volume factor of the producing fluid are constant. If these fluid properties are not constant, Eqs. 16 and 17 still apply but the PI value changes with the changing fluid properties. For multiphase flow these equations still can be used by substituting the definition in Table 35.1 into Eqs. 16 and 17. Eq. 17 has to be modified if the drainage area is not circular with the well in the center. A general form of the pseudosteady-state equation has been worked out by Dietz l1 and has been cited by other authors. I-5 The generalized pseudosteady-state equation has the form

CA rw

A
2 +s

1
(PR

-pwf),

. . . (18)

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## pressure for a single well in an infinite reservoir skin-composite reservoir.

including

wellbore

storage

where A is the drainage area, sq ft. and CA is the shape factor (Table 35.2). This equation can be applied by using the values for CA in Table 35.2 or by moving the terms in the denominator to the form 7.08 x 10 -3khl(&) 9=
% hl-

Calculate the bottomhole pressure (BHP), pwf, after 12 hours and after 120 days for a constant oil production rate of 80 STB/D. Solution. From Eq. 5, Cr=CffS,C, +s,c, x 1O-6

2.2458
CA

+% lnT+S
rw

@R

-Pwfh

## =[3.0+(0.75)(8.5)+(0.25)(3.2)] =10.2X 10e6 psi- .

...

. ..

. .. ..

(19) Calculate the time required to reach pseudosteady state. From Table 35.2, O.O00264(45)t,,, (tDA)pss=O.l= (O.18)(1.5)(1O.2x1O-6)(1.74x1O6)

This form is easier to use because the first term of the denominator also is tabulated in Table 35.2. In Table 35.2, x, is the distance from the well to the side of the square drainage area, and xf is the distance from the well to either end of the vertical fracture. Table 35.2 also shows the dimensionless time, tom, at which the infinite-acting solution ends, and also the time at which pseudosteady state begins, (t~~)~~,r. Example Problem 1 (Transient and Pseudosteady State). A well is centered in an approximately square drainage area. The following data are given.
A = 1.74~ lo6 sq ft (40 acres),

where tpssis 40.3 hours. So the well is infinite acting after 12 hours. By using Eq. 11, p~= h h tD+o.do&i+s.

By using the definitions of pD and tD in Eq. 8, we have WKWW~-p,vf) 141.2(80)(1.12)(1.5) 0.000264(45)( 12) (O.18)(1.5)(1O.2x1O-6)(O.25)2 0.0498(5,100-p,,&=% +0.4045+1.6;

h = 21 ft, s = 1.6, rw = 0.25 ft, k, = 45 md, PO = 1.5 cp, \$fJ= 0.18, , cc7 = 8.5~10~~ psi- , CW = 3.2~10~~ psi- cf = 3.0X10p6 psi- , S, = 0.25, B, = 1.12, and pi = 5,100 psi.

=% In

## In (8.28~10~)+0.4045+1.6; 177; and

5,100-p,,=(8.82)/(0.0498)=
p,f=4,923

psi at 12 hours.

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4,199-p,,f=

## 178; and psi at 120 days.

p,,=4,021

Production Rate Variation (Superposition) These solutions have included only the constant-rate case. Of general interest, of course, are the cases where rate changes with time. These cases are best handled by using the principle of superposition. The principle of superposition amounts to dividing the production history into a sequence of rate changes such as that shown in Fig. 35.7. The total effect of the production on the pressure response, Ap, is the additive effects of each of the rate changes. In Fig. 35.7, rate q1 applies from t=O to the current time. At t, the rate increases to q2. The effect of this rate change can be viewed as an incremental rate, q2 -91, which has been in effect for a period of time t-t l . Then q3 would also be seen as a rate change, q3 -92, which has been in effect for a period of time t- 12. The effect of all these rate changes is computed by superposing the solutions that applied to each rate change and its corresponding time that it has been in effect. The equation for computing the total pressure drop, Ap,, is
N

tl

12 FLOW

t3 TIME,

t4 t,

t N-2 HOURS

t N-I

## Fig. 35.7-Schematic representation rate schedule.

of a variable

production-

At 120 days, the well is in pseudosteady state (greater than 40.3 hours). First, calculate PR. Using Eq. 15, the rate of pressure decline can be calculated.

(-> at
P==

aP

-0.234qB

pc,
-0.234(80)( 1.12)

p; -p,#=

c
i=l

(qj -qj-,)f((t-tr-,)

(20)

= (21)(O.18)(1.74x1O6)(1O.2x1O-6)

= -0.313

psi/hr.

## 7.08x 1O-3 khl(&)

90 = A 2.2458 +% In-+s % InCA rM

## 7.08x10-3(45)(21)!(1.12x1.5) (80) = - 1.3224+ % In 1.74x 10-6 (0.25)* +1.6 1

when qieI =0 when i=l. The functionf(t) can be called the unit responsefinction. The unit response function is the pressure drop, pi -pKf, which occurs at time f for a unit production rate (q= 1). The unit response functions may be quantified by the cases described such as the wellbore storage equation at early times (ETR), the semilog straight line solution at MTR, and finally the pseudosteady-state solution at later times (LTR). For example, if q 1 had been in effect for a time longer than tpss, its contribution to the pressure drop at time t would be calculated from the pseudosteadystate equations, which would comprise the calculation of the reduction in p from Eq. 15 and the pressure drop from p R to pwf in Eq. 16. The effect of the second rate might be still in the transient period, which would call for Eq. 11 to be applied. Note that the calculation of the pressure decline of p R can be calculated with Eq. 15 only for the constantcompressibility case. For the general case, such as a solution gas drive reservoir, the appropriate material balance equations would be applicable to calculate PR. If the last rate change has been in effect for a time greater than tP,rSand the system has constant compressibility, the following simplification can be made for Eq. 15. 5.615 NpB,
PR PiVpCr . . . . .

(21)

## *(4,199-p++& 3.982 -1.3224+8.571+1.6

(80) =

(4,199-p!&

The following example problem shows how superposition can be applied for a case where both pseudosteadystate and transient pressure drops are added.

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Exynple Problem 2 (Superposition). The well in Example Problem 1 produces according to the following schedule. time (hours) Oto2 2 to 8 thereafter (SI%D) 300 120
80

f(lO),

andf(4)

## are used, giving

5,100-p,,=(300)[0.1256

## ln(6.9x lo4 x 12)+0.504]

-(180)[0.1256

ln(6.9x104

x 10)+0.504]

-(40)[0.1256 Calculate p,,,, at 12 hours and at 120 days. So&ion. As we observed in Example Problem 1, the well was infinite acting after 12 hours, so we use Eq. 20.
N
pi-Pwf= C i= (4i-qi-Of(f-ti-1) I

ln(6.9~10~~4)+0.504]

=(300)(2.22)

-(180)(2.19)

-(40)(2.08) We first needf(t), the unit response function. We can use Eq. 11 to find Ap in terms oft for q=l:
pD=% In tD +0.4@5+3,

= 189;

p,,=4,911

psi at 12 hours.

At 120 days, the well has a cumulative production of 141.2(1)(1.12)(1.5) N, =300 STB/D x (2/24 days) =% In 0.000264(45)? (0.18)( 1 .S)( 10.2 x 10 -6)(0.25)2 +0.4045+1.6, 3.98Ap= 1/2In 6.90x 104t+2.004, and =9.615 STB. Ap=O.1256 ln(6.90x so
pREpi-

t80

STBiDx(l19.5

days)

lOt)+0.504,

5.615NpB,

## f(t)=Ap=O.1256 Substituting into Eq. 20,

ln(6.90x104t)+0.504.

vpct

5.615(9,615)(1.12) =(5,100)(21)(0.18)(1.74x106)(10.2x10-)

=5,100-901=4,199. Using Eq. 19 (the same as Example Problem l), we calculate +@I3 -921f(t--12);

## and again, pwf=4,199-178=4,021 +(120-3OO)f(12-2) psi at 120 days.

+(80-12O)f(12-8),

The effect of the early rate variation is forgotten after the rate is constant for tpss=40.3 hours, except for the slight increase in cumulative barrels ( 15 STB), which is negligible in this case.

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## Gas Well Performance

The performance of gas wells is similar to oil wells (liquid reservoirs) except for two major differences: (1) the fluid properties of gas change dramatically with pressure and (2) flow can become partially turbulent near the wellbore, resulting in a rate-dependent skin factor. These two factors are discussed and alternative forms of gas performance equations are presented. The application of these principles to gas flow is only slightly more complicated than to liquid flow, but there is often much confusion about gas wells. There are several reasons for this. One reason is that there are many versions of gas flow equations in the literature. Some are in terms of p, some in terms of p2, and some in terms of a real gas pseudopressure, m(p). All these equations can be used and are valid forms. Another reason for confusion is the different coefficients in the equations, which sometimes arise from the assumed temperature and pressure base of a standard cubic foot of gas. The following equations use only the symbols T,, and psC, since the pressure base in different areas does vary significantly. Still another reason for confusion is that deliverability testing has been customary with gas wells because of government requirements. Deliverability testing, based onalog(pR2 -pwf2) vs. log qg plot, is largely an empirical approach. The deliverability plot approach was developed mainly for low-pressure gas wells and does not work well with the deeper, higher-temperature, and higher-pressure wells that are more common today. The Effect of Gas Properties In the derivation of the diffusivity equation, the form of Eq. 1 is not achieved because the values of z and p vary with pressure. Consequently the following form occurs in the derivation.
&vp= w

P

## cg , can be expressed in terms

Id.2
zQ

.......

____ __ (25)

For practical purposes, however, Eq. 23 can be taken as a linear differential equation in terms of m(p). This was confirmed by the result of computer simulations performed by Wattenbarger and Ramey. l3 They showed that the pressure transient equations can be used, with very good approximation, in terms of m(p). After pseudosteady-state, PI equations similar to Eqs. 16 through 19 can be used. The application of the m(p) solutions is not difficult. the values of m( p) vs. p can be determined by graphical integration or can be calculated with computer programs that use built-in correlations to estimate the variation of z and p with pressure. Since our equations and graphical techniques depend on equations of a straight line of p either on a linear plot or a semilog plot, it is worth analyzing how the slopes of m(p) are related to the slopes of p plots, or p2 plots; we can show that the derivative of m(p) with respect to, for example, log t is as follows.

## am(p) --=c\$&=<t,&. wag 4

.C2@

1 4 ap o.ooo264 -- at , k

. . . . . . (22)

These relationships indicate that an m(p) plot, or a p plot, or ap* plot can be used and then the relationships in Eq. 26 applied. The m(p) plot is preferable because it is most likely to have the proper semilog straight line. Thep and p* plots can be used as shortcuts if the proper MTR slope is identified. For example, the slope of a p vs. log r plot can be determined from a plot and then the value of the slope of m(p) vs. log t can be calculated by using Eq. 26 without ever actually plotting values of m(p). Non-Darcy Flow Darcy law applies to gases at lower rates (laminar flow), s which are found throughout the reservoir. However, near the wellbore the rates can become extremely high because of the converging flow as the gas approaches the wellbore. At these rates inertial e&ts can become important and Darcy law no longer applies. The inertial effects s take the form of distorted flow paths and also turbulence in different locations in the pore structure. Although the exact nature of this microscopic flow is not known in the reservoir, the net effect is a higher pressure gradient when these inertial effects become important. For laminar flow we can rearrange Darcy law to the s following form.
ap --.-z--v ax P k

where L is the dimensionless gas-law deviation factor. This equation is a nonlinear partial differential equation and cannot be solved analytically by the methods applied to Eq. 1. A method for linearizing the partial differential equation was developed by Al-Hussainy er al. l2 They introduced a real gaspseudopressure, which may be defined as
m(p)=2;p\$p. . . . . . . . .(23)

This pressure-dependent function integrates the variations ofp, Z, and ,Uwith pressure. When this function is introduced into the derivation of the diffusivity equation, the diffusivity equation for a real gas takes the form 1
4cLcg WP) ar k . . ..

Vm(p)=

o.ooo264

~,............................

. (30)

This equation still is not quite a linear differential equation because p and cR vary significantly with pressure.

where apldx is the pressure gradient and v is the macroscopic (Darcy) fluid velocity. At the higher rates, when

WELL

PERFORMANCE

EQUATIONS

## inertial effects become important, the Forchheimer equation is used:

(31) where p is the fluid density and F, is the turbulence factor. The right side of Eq. 3 1 contains a term for viscous forces and a term for inertial forces, both of which contribute to the pressure loss. Although a number of workers have correlated the value of F, with rock properties, for practial purposes the velocity varies too much in the vertical direction near a wellbore to predict the effect of non-Darcy flow in a particular well. One practical approach is to consider the nonDarcy effect near the wellbore as a rate-dependent part of the skin effect:
s =s+FDa 1 qg 1 , . .. ....... .(32)

/ *<

s =s

Production
Fig. 35.8-Skin

rate,

q,

factor determination.

where FD, is the non-Darcy (turbulence) factor, (lo3 cu ft/D) - , 1qg / is the absolute value of gas rate, lo3 cu ft/D, and s is the effective skin effect of a well flowing at a rate qg. Fig. 35.8 shows how s varies with rate. The value of FD, varies with pressure but for simplicity can be considered constant. The value of FD, must be evaluated by transient testing of the well at several rates and determining corresponding values of s The transient equations (MTR) and pseudosteady-state equations (LTR) are modified for gas wells as shown in the following. Infinite-Acting Gas Reservoir (MTR) The transient solution for the infinite-acting gas reservoir is analogous to the liquid case shown in Eq. 11. Eq. 11 then must be modified for the effect of non-Darcy flow and fluid property variation with pressure. This results in the following equation. mD=% where In t,+0.4045+s+F, 1qg ) , . .
.(33)

Before putting Eq. 33 into a more practical form, consider that the pressure drop term, m( p i) - m( p ,+,f),can be stated as Am(p) and can be related to Ap and Ap2 by the relationships

Am(p)=

(z&Q=

(;):2.

. (34)

The average values shown in parentheses are the integrated average values over the pressure range. For practical purposes it is accurate to evaluate these average quantities at the midpoint pressure. In other words, 2plzpp is evaluated at j, where ji is equal to (jYR +p,f)/2 and (1l~l.r)~ is evaluated at j?, where jY is equal to (jY~+p,,,f)I2, or ,/(p~+pK,/)/2 for the p* equation. For the infinite-acting reservoir, the average reservoir pressure, PR, is the same as pi. These relationships are important because they allow us to account for the variation of fluid properties, within and still express equations simply engineering accurac in terms of p and p Y>Eq. 33, when put in more practi. cal form, can be expressed in terms of m(p), p, or p2, as

m(pi)-m(pwf)

1
. . . . . . . (35a)

2.303 =-log 2 and = dimensionless m(p), tD = dimensionless time, T,, = standard condition temperature, R, pressure, psia, PSC = standard condition TR = reservoir temperature, R, m(pi) = m(p) at initial pressure pi, psia2icp, and m(pWf) = m(p) at wellhore flowing pressure pWf, psia2/cp.
mD

0.000264kc (4P41~W2
( qn / ,

+0.4045+~+F~,

>

(Pi-P&\$) P

0.000264kt
(4W) ir w
2

+0.4&t5+S+F,

( qe 1 ,

.. ....

. . (35b)

35-12

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

0.08

Solutions (LTR)

## GAS GRAVITY REDUCED TEMPERATURE=

0.06

= 0.7 17(195 F)

The pseudosteady-state solutions are analogous to the liquid solutions and can be put in essentially the same form. The only changes are to allow for the changes of fluid properties with pressure and non-Darcy flow. The inclusion of these effects is the same as discussed above. The result is the following form of the pseudosteady-state equations, in terms of m(p), p, and p*.

kh

% ln----

2.2458A
+~+FD, kg I CAT,'

* m(p)-m(p,f) [

1
,

_. _. _.

_.

(364

2,000

4,000 P,

6,000

8,000

10,000

where m@)=m(p) at p R, psia /cp, and CA =shape factor from Table 35.2.

psla

Flg. 35.9-Typical

## variation of m(p) and zp with pressure.

kh

Vi In1.987x 1O-5

2.2458A

C,4rw2

+s+FDa I qgI

(PR-p,,,,),
2.303 O.ooo264kt

...

. ....

. . . (36b)

P
2

=-log
2

(4Pc)irw

and
. . . ... (35~)

+0.4045+s+FDa

I qg I ,

where (@PC);=&LC evaluated at pi. Eq. 35 can be used to predict p,,f for the infinite-acting period (MTR) between the wellbore storage period and the beginning of pseudosteady state. Fig. 35.9 shows a typical relationship of zp with pressure. The value of Z,Uis almost constant when p is below 2,000 psia. This makes the p2 type of equation fairly accurate below 2,000 psi because Z,Ucan be taken out of the integral in Eq. 23 if zp is constant. p2 plots and equations tend to work well in reservoir pressures less than 2,000 psia. Fig. 35.9 also shows that m(p) tends to be linear with pat higher pressures (above 3,000 psia). This means that p plots and equations tend to work well for higher-pressure reservoirs. If there is a doubt about whether these p* or p simplifications apply to a particular reservoir, then m(p) plots and equations should be used.

kh

l/z In-

2.24584
+~+FDcI I qs I

c*rw2

Eqs. 36 have general application for pseudosteady-state gas flow. Note that these forms of the pseudosteady-state equations are considerably different from the gas deliverability approach that is used extensively. The gas deliverabili approach is empirical and based on a log-log plot ofp 9 -p,,,, vs. qg. The comparison between Eqs. 36 and the deliverability plot approach is discussed by Lee. 5

WELL

PERFORMANCE

EQUATIONS

35-13

Long-Term Forecast Long-term forecasting can be accomplished in a fairly straightforward manner using Eqs. 36 along with a p R/z plot. The CR/z plot, of course, is simply a material balance for a closed gas reservoir. Through this plot the value of P.Q can be determined for any value of cumulative production, G,. Given this value of p R, one of the forms of Eqs. 36 then can be used to determine qx. Note that in deep, high-pressure reservoirs, the influence of formation and water compressibility can become important compared with gas compressibility. At these high pressures, greater than about 6,000 psig, the p R/Z plot should be modified to account for the formation and water compressibilities. A technique for this modified p,& plot is presented by Ramagost and Farshad. tJ A complete forecast of production rate vs. time can be generated by converting the cumulative production to a time scale. The value ofp%f might be fixed as a condition of the production forecast, or it may be solved simultaneously with wellbore hydraulic relationships, such as given in Chap. 34. Example Problem 3. A gas well produces from a drainage area that approximates a 4: 1 rectangle with the well in the center. The following data apply.
A = 6.96x lo6 sq ft (160 acres), h = 34 ft, s = 2.3, = 0.0052 (lo3 cu MD)- , FD, = 0.23 ft, rw k, = 0.52 md,
ZPR

CA z5.3790.

Eq. 36b is

kh

l/2 In T+S+FDO
CArw

2.24584
hi: 1

(->
z/J p

2P

(PR-Pwf);

q,=1.987x10-5

(520)

## (14.7)(670) (0.52)(34) % In 2.2458(6.96x 106)

+2.3+0.0052 1 qK 1

(5.379)(0.23)* *(3.42x105)(4,150-1,500)

= 1.987x 10 -5(0.0528)

## 17.68 8.91+2.3+0.0052 1qR 1

= see Fig. 35.9, 4 = 0.11, TR = 210F+460=670R, T,, = 6WF+460=520R, pSc = 14.7 psia, and j?~ = 4,150 psia. rate, qg , if pWf= 1,500

.(3.42x

105)(2,650) 1.68~10~

11.21+0.0052

( qg 1

## (11.21+0.0052 simplest form of the

1qg I)q,=1.68x104.

This equation can be solved as a quadratic equation, or simply by trial and error, by using estimates of I qx I starting with I qg 1 =0:

= (4,150 + 1,500)/2

(11.21+O)q,=1.68x104
4,: = 1,499.

=2,825 psia. Next, try From Fig. 35.9, we estimate ~~~ at 2,825 psia as (11.21+0.0052x1,499)q,=1.68x104; zpR =0.0165
qg =884.

Next, try
2(2,825) =-=3.42x

lo5

(11.21+0.0052x884)q,=1.68x qR = 1,063.

104;

0.0165

35-14

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

970

## .(I, 960 8 ; 950 0. E 2 2 E P ?I ii

940

k,h=

lf=%oBo~o
m

, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (374

## and for gas wells,

-5.792 x 104q,(p,,TR/Ts,) m*

930
920

k,h=

. . . . . . . . Wb)

910

## where m* is the slope of m(p) plot,

k,h=
FLOW TIME, t, hours test.

-5.W!X

~04q,(p,,TR/Ts,) m
wb

Fig. B&10-Semilog

## . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (37c) where m is the slope of p plot, or

Next, try
k,h=

-5.792x

104q,(p,,TR/T,,) nP

(z~~)wb.

Wd)

## (11.21+0.0052x1,063)q,=1.68x104; qg=1m4 until the solution converges at

qg = 1,018 x lo3 cu ft/D.

where m is the slope ofp* plot and subscript wb refers to wellbore. The values of zpl2p in Eq. 37c and zp in Eq. 37d are evaluated at pW, rather than (pR+p,,)/2, which is used in the pseudosteady-state equations. The value of the skin effect, s, is determined from one of the following equations for oil and gas wells. For oil wells,
Pi-P1

## Transient Well Test Analysis

The subject of transient well test analysis can be very complicated and has been covered very thoroughly in the literature. I-5 These references show not only the straightforward cases of transient well test analysis but also go into many exceptions, alternative techniques for analysis, and other complications. It is the intent here to cover only the most straightforward and routine methods for analysis of oil and gas wells. The most common values to calculate from a transient well test analysis are kh, s, and PR. With these three values plus a knowledge of the drainage area and shape of the drainage area (values of CA and A), the flow rate can be calculated or forecast for a particular BHP, p,,,f, by using the pseudosteady-state equations. The method of analyzing kh and s for a drawdown test and a buildup test are summarized now. Drawdown Test The drawdown test is accomplished simply by putting a well on a constant production rate after the well has been shut in. Variations of the drawdown test involve analysis of variable rates, but only the constant-rate case is covered here. The analysis is based on the infinite-acting solution (MTR). The data are plotted on a pressure vs. log time semilog plot and the slope of the plot, m, is determined graphically in units of psi/cycle (see Fig. 35.10). The equations for determining w1 for an oil well or a gas well are as follows.

x=1.151

112

-log-

k ~wtr,2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (384
where p 1 is the pressure at AZ= 1 hour; and for gas wells,

s=1.151

## m(pi)-m(pl)k -logm* +crr,2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (38b)
-log--k

hc,r,2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (38~) or

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (3W
The disadvantage of this equation (compared to buildup testing) is that pi must be known to calculate S.

WELL

PERFORMANCE

EQUATIONS

35-15

It is important to evaluate the proper semilog straight line. In many cases it is difficult to tell whether an apparent semilog straight line is in the MTR solution or is still being affected by wellbore effects (ETR) . It is often helpful to make a log-log plot of Pi -pwf vs. flowing time, t, to analyze when the wellbore effects are finished. A straight line with a slope of unity on this log-log plot indicates that the pressure behavior is being totally dominated by wellbore storage. The semilog straight line then can be expected to begin at about 1.5 log cycles after the data points leave the log-log straight line of unity slope. Buildup Testing Buildup testing is more common than drawdown testing. The main reason for this is that the well rate is known when the well is shut in (q=O). The analysis of a buildup test is based on the assumption that a constant flow rate is maintained for a producing time, tp , and then the well is shut in. Variations of the buildup test include analysis of variation in production rate before shut-in, but only the constant-rate production period is covered here. The pressure, p\$ (At=O), is measured just before shut-in and then at different shut-in times, A?, after the time of shut-in. A plot is made of the shut-in pressures, PDF, vs. a time scale based on the shut-in time, At. The time scale is either log At or log (I,, +At)iAt. The first of these plots (Fig. 35.11) is called an MDH plot (Miller, Dyes, and Hutchinson 15). The second type of plot (Fig. 35.12) is called a Homer ~10~~~ Both plots give the same semilog straight line slope, which is also the same as measured in the drawdown test. The kh for an oil or gas well can be determined from the slope of this semilog straight line by the following equations (identical to Eqs. 37, except for the sign). For oil wells, k h= 162.6qoBofio , 0
m

3350 = 3317

!i 30000
10-I

,454 6
I IO

## SHUT-INTIME, At, hours Fig. 35.11 -MDH

plot for buildup test.

## 01 E3300 i P -3250 2 3 2 u3200 h OF STORAGE

PI, * 3266 P

-40

PS/o/CYCL

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 094

## and for gas wells,

43 2
8 IO

654

2 2

86543

2 IO

k h= 5.792x104q,hJ /dL) g m*
k,h=

(tp +At),A:

. .

(39b)

## plot of pressure buildup data from Fig. 35.11.

5.792x 104q,(p,,WW
m wb

or

## k h= 5.792 x 104q,hJ-dW g m"

s=1.151
hg)wb. WW

(I
kg 4ClgCt

m(pl)-m(p,f) I
m*

Note that the signs are reversed for the Homer plot. The skin factor, s, can be determined from one of the following equations. For oil wells, -log
ko

-log-

+3.23

>

, .. ...

. . . . . . . . . (40b)

s=l.151

Pl -Pwf
mr

4ihctr?

I -log kg
hsctrw2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (404

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (4Oc)

35-16

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

2 ,300 2 z Kcr a,
QIZOO

## d ; IQ 8 II00 I= 8 IO00 343 2

I02

86543

2
IO

82.3.1

(to + Af)/U Fig. 35.13-Horner plot of typical pressure buildup data from a
well in a finite reservoir.

or
P2 I -P2 wf kg

s=l.l51

(I

-log

+3.23

CbgCd

>

. ........ . .....

. (404

## The slope refers to the corresponding semilog straight line.

prr,f is the last pI(,f at At=O. These equations are based

on the equation of the semilog straight line. Therefore, if p ws does not fall on the extrapolated semilog straight line at At= 1 hour, then p I is read on the semilog straight line rather than at the actual data. Again, be reminded that transient well test analysis can be very complicated and can depart in many ways from the simple analysis presented here. These equations are presented only for quick reference and to show the proper interpretation of the real gas formulas for the normal cases. The reader should refer to Refs. 1 through 5 for more details and explanation of departures from these simple cases. of p 8 The value of PR represents the average reservoir pressure in the drainage area of the well. It is important to determine PR from a buildup test so that PR can be used for material balance calculations, history matching in reservoir simulation, or in pseudosteady-state performance equations.

Asymptotically, the data approach the correct value of PR as At approaches infinity. Since our shut-in time normally is limited, the MBH method is based on extrapolating the semilog straight line to At= 03, or (fp +At)lAt= 1 .O. This value is called p*. The method then provides a correction to calculate the correct value of j?~ from the extrapolated value of p*. The MBH method assumes that the well flowed at a constant rate for tp and that the drainage area A is known for the well. The dimensionless producing time, tpDA , is calculated. If tpDA is greater than (tp~A)psJ, the later value can be used as tpDA . In other words, it is not important what the rate history was before pseudosteady state was achieved. Now that p* has been extrapolated from the data and tpDA has been calculated, then the correction between p* and jYR is made by using the MBH correction curve that best represents the drainage shape. The MBH correction curves are presented in Figs. 35.14 through 35.17. A stepwise procedure to determine p.8 can be summarized as follows. 1. Make a Horner plot. 2. Extrapolate the semilog straight line to the value of p* at (tP +At)lAt= 1.0. 3. Evaluate m, the slope of the semilog straight line. 4. calculate tpDA =(o.ooo264kt,)/~pcr~. 5. Find the closest approximation to the drainage shape in Figs. 35 _14 through 35.17. Choose a correction curve. 6. Read the value of 2.303(p*-jY~)lrn from the correction curve at t,~~. 7. Calculate thevalue of 5 R. This procedure gives the value of p R in the drainage area of one well. If a number of wells are producing from the reservoir, each well can be analyzed separately to give a j?~ for its own drainage area. This is done, assuming that all wells are producing in pseudosteady state, by dividing the reservoir up into drainage areas for each well by constructing no-flow boundaries between the wells. Fig. 35.18 shows an illustration of such a segmentation of a reservoir. These no-flow boundaries represent the watersheds of the different drainage areas. The drainage areas are calculated so that each drainage area has the same reservoir flow rate compared to its PV. Thus,

Determination

(qr/Vp)

1 =(qr/Vp)2

=(q,lvp)3=(qtlvp)i.

. . .

C41)

There are several methods for determining Jo from a buildup test but the most general is the MBH (Matthews, Brons, and Hazebioek I This method is generally ap). plicable because a number of different reservoir drainage area shapes are available for analysis. These reservoir shapes are the same as those used for evaluating shape factors in Table 35.2. Fig. 35.13 shows how the method is applied. The buildup test has a semilog straight line, which begins bending at the later shut-in times because of the effect of the boundaries. The data normally will bend down and become flat from this curve, but for unusual cases the data actually can bend up from the semilog straight line before it eventually becomes horizontal.

This relationship divides the drainage area (or PV) according to the producing rate of the well. As the well s rates change, then the drainage area changes for the well. If q=O, for example, then no area would be allocated to that well. This procedure of calculating the drainage area and approximating drainage shape is repeated at the time of each pressure survey. The drainage areas and shapes keep changing as rates change. There is often confusion about the meaning of p* in the Horner plot. The value of p* has no physical meaning except in the special case of an infinite-acting well (T?=w). This is the case that Horner16 originally addressed in determining the initial pressure, pi ,-in a newly discovered well. In this special infinite-acting case, p*= p R =pi. Otherwise, p* has no physical meaning.

## PansH =2.303( p -fn)lm N Y h u

P meH =2.303(p*-pR)/m

I!

ojs, E P r

## PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

,-

I-

DIMENSIONLESS

PRODUCTION

TIME.

tCD.

Fig. 35.16-MBH

dimensionless

pressure

for different

welt locations

in a 2: 1 rectangular

drainage

area.

## ,oDIMENSIONLESS PRODUCTION TIME. tpo4

Fig. 35.17-MBH

dimensionless

pressure

for different

well locations

in 4: 1 and 5: 1 rectangular

drainage

area

WELL

PERFORMANCE

EQUATIONS

35-19

TABLE
At

## 35.3-PRESSURE FOR EXAMPLE

4,i,

BUILDUP TEST =310 HOURS PW (Psk3) 2,761 3,057 3,153 3,234 3,249 3,256 3,260 3,263 3,266 3,267 3,268 3,271 3,274 3,276 3,200 3,283 3,286 3,269 3,293 3,297 3,297 3,300 3,303 3,305 3,306 3,310 3,313 3,317 3,320 3,322 3,323 3,323

DATA

t,

+At

(At, + At) At -

Pwn-Pwt (PW 296 392 473 480 495 499 502 505 506 507 510 513 515 519 522 525 528 532 536 536 539 542 544 545 549 552 556 559 561 562 562

(hours) 0.0: 0.10 0.21 0.31 0.52 0.63 0.73 0.84 0.94 1.05 1.75 t .36 1.68 1 .ss 2.51 3.04 3.46 4.08 5.03 5.97 6.07 7.01 8.06 9.00 10.05 13.09 16.02 20.00 26.07 31.03 34.98 37.54

(hours) 310.10 310.21 310.31 310.52 310.63 370.73 370.84 37 0.94 311.05 371.15 37 1.36 311.68 311.99 312.51 313.04 313.46 314.08 315.03 315.97 316.07 317.01 318.06 319.00 320.05 323.09 326.02 330.00 336.07 341.03 344.98 347.54

## Fig. 35.18--Reservoir map boundaries.

showing

approximate

no-flow

Example Problem 4 (Pressure Buildup Analysis) (after Earlougher 2). Pressure Buildup Test AnalysisHomer Method. Table 35.3 shows pressure buildup data from an oil well with an estimated drainage radius of 2,640 ft. Before shut-in the well had produced at a stabilized rate of 4,900 STBiD for 310 hours. Known reservoir data are
D = 10,476 ft,

## rw = (4.25112) ft, psi- , C - 22.6~10~~ 4; i 4,900 STB/D,

h = 482 ft,

pdAt=O)

= 2,761 psig, PO = 0.20 cp, c#l= 0.09, B, = 1.55 RBISTB, casing di = (6.276/12) ft, and rp = 310 hours.

3,101 1,477 1,001 597 493 426 370 331 296 271 229 186 157 125 103 SO.6 77.0 62.6 52.9 52.1 45.2 39.5 35.4 31.8 24.7 20.4 16.5 12.9 11.0 9.9 9.3

We can estimate Ap across the skin from Eq. 10: Ap, =0.87(40)(8.6)=299. Average Drainage-Region Pressure-MBH. We use the pressure-buildup test data of Table 35.3. Pressure buildup data are plotted in Figs. 35.12. Other data are
A= ?rre2 =a(2,640)2

Solution. The Horner plot is shown as Fig. 35.12. Residual wellbore storage or skin effects at shut-in times of less than 0.75 hour are apparent. The straight line, drawn after At=0.75 hour, has a slope of -40 psigicycle, so m=40 psiglcycle. Eq. 37a is used to estimate permeability: 162.6(4,900)(1.55)(0.20) WWW

sq ft.

k,=

=12.8 md.

To see if we should use tp = 310 hours, we estimate tpss using @DA =O.l from Table 35.2. lpss
(0.09)(0.2)(22.6x

10 -6)(7r)(2,640)2(0.

1)

Skin factor is estimated from Eq. 40a using p ,hr = 3.266 psig from Fig. 35.12: 3,266-2,761
40

## tpss = =264 hours.

(0.0002637)(12.8)

s=1.1513

-log

(12.8)(12)2
(0.09)(0.20)(22.6x

10 -6)(4.25)2

Thus, we could replace tp by 264 hours in the analysis. However, since tp is only about l.l7t,,,, we expect no difference in j?~ from the two methods, so we use t,=310 hours. As a result, Fig. 35.12 applies. Fig. 35.12 does not show p* since (t,, +At)lAt does not go to 1.0. However, we may compute p* from pws at (tp +At)lAt= 10 by extrapolating one cycle: p* = 3,325 + (1 cycle)(40 psi/cycle)

+3.2275

=8.6.

=3,365

psig.

35-20

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Using the definition of tpDA: (0.0002637)(12.8)(310) rpDA= (0.09)(0.20)(22.6x =0.117. From the curve for the circle in Fig. 35.14, poMnn(~~D,+, =O. 117)= 1.34. Then, from our step-wise procedure, pR=3,365p(1.34) 4o 2.303 10 -6)(a)(2,640)2

tpss = time required to achieve pseudosteady state u = macroscopic (Darcy) fluid velocity V, = volume of the wellbore xe = distance from well to side of square drainage area xf = distance from well to either end of a vertical fracture Subscript wb = wellbore

## Key Equations in SI Metric Units

v2p= 3,557x10-9

=3.342 psig. This is 19 psi higher than the maximum pressure recorded.

46 -- k

ap at .......,,......

(1)

Nomenclature
A = drainage area of well

## cfi cWf CA C, f(t)

= = = = =

F Da= F, = m =

mD =

total compressibility evaluated at p; wellbore fluid compressibility shape factor from Table 35.2 wellbore storage constant unit response function non-Darcy (turbulence) factor turbulence factor (162.6qBp)lkh dimensionless m(p) real gas pseudopressure

## where p is in kPa, 4 is a fraction, p is in Paas, c, is in kPa-t, k is in md, and t is in hours.

4t4 =qoB, +(s, -R,q,)B, +q,B,, (6)

where
qo,qr,qw are in std m3/d, B,,BI,B, are in res m3/std m3, qg is in std m3/d, and B, is in res m3/std m3,

m(p) = 2jPtdp=
0 m(p) = m(P) atpR

, ..... .. ..
where
PD =

(7)

m( pi) = m(p) at initial pressure pi m(p,,,f) = m(p) at wellbore flowing pressure p,,,f m* = slope of m(p) plot m = slope of p plot m = slope of p* plot p* = MTR pressure trend extrapolated to infinite shut-in time po = kh(pi -p)/( 141.2qBp) =dimensionless pressure PDMBH = 2.303(p*-pR)lm, dimensionless pressure, MBH method Aps = additional pressure drop across altered zone (qg 1 = absolute value of gas rate qsf = flow rate at the sandface = r/rw =dimensionless radius rD re = external drainage radius rw = effective wellbore radius s = effective skin effect tD = dimensionless time tDA = dimensionless time based on drainage area, A = time required to reach pseudosteady bDA)Pss state, dimensionless t end = end of MTR in drawdown test = dimensionless producing time tpDA

[kh(pi

-~YW-W%41,

r rD = -, rw

tD =

3.557 x 10 -9kt
4wrrw 2

## I3 is in res m3/std m3, p is in Pa*s, t is in hours, 4 is a fraction, and c,is in kPa-*.

pwf =pi -m kt log choir, 2 -8.10 , . . . . . . . . . (9)

>

## See Eq. 7. for other

ap (-> at
PSS

-4.168~1O-~qB

VpC,

. . . . . . . . . . . . (15)

WELL

PERFORMANCE

EQUATIONS

35-21

where VP is in m3, See Eq. 7 for other units. 5.356x10p1E 4= In T -0.75+s BP >
(PR -Pw& . .

## See Eqs. 7 and 9 for units.

. . . (17)

k,h=

m*

. . . . . . . . . . WW

rw
where re =m, s is dimensionless, and p~,p~f are in kPa. See Eq. 7 for other units. where m* is in kPa2/Pa* s-cycle. See Eq. 33 for other units.

## s=1.151 (I? . . . (21)

) -log4pc;rw,2

.,.lO),

pR=pi--

vpc,

.. . . .. .. . .. .. . .... . . ..

,.........................
where m is in kPa/cycle.

(384

where Np isinm3, VP is in m3, B, is in res m3/std m3, c, is in Wa- , and p~,p; are in kPa.
V2m(p)=

## See Eq. 7 for other units.

References
I. Matthews, C.S. and Russell, D.G.: Pressure Buildup and Fknv Tests in Wells, Monograph Series, SPE, Richardson, TX (1967) I. 2. Earlougher, R.C. Jr.: Advances in Well Test Analysis, Monograph Series, SPE, Richardson, TX (1977) 5. 3. Dake, L.P.: Fundmmntals ofReservoir Engineering, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1978). 4. Gas Well Testing-Theory and Practice, fourth ed., Energy Resources and Conservation Board, Calgary, AIL, Canada (1979). 5. Lee, John: Well Testing, Textbook Series, SPE, Richardson, TX (1982). 6. Pressure Analysis Methods, Reprint Series No. 9, SPE, Richardson. TX (1967). 7. Pressure Transient Testing Methods, Reprint Series No. 14, SPE, Richardson, TX (1980). 8. van Everdingen, A.F. and Hurst, W.: The Application of the Laplace Transformation of Flow Problems in Reservoirs, Trans. AIME (1949) 186, 305-24. 9. Martin, J.C.: Simplified Equations of Flow in Gas Drive Reservoirs and the Theoretical Foundation of Multiphase Pressure Buildup Analyses, Trans., AIME (1959) 216, 309-l 1. 10. Wattenbarger, R.A. and Ramey, H.J. Jr.: An Investigation of Wellbore Storage and Skin Effect in Unsteady Liquid Flow: II. Fimte Difference Treatment, Sot. Pet. Eng. J. (Sept. 1970) 291-97; Trans., AIME, 249. 11. Die& D.N.: Determination of Average Reservoir Pressure From Buildup Surveys, .f. Pet. Tech. (Aug. 1965) 955-59; Trans., AIME. 234. R., 12. Al-Hussainy, Ramey,H.J. Jr., and Crawford, P.B.: The Flow of Real Gases Through Porous Media, J. Pet. Tech. (May 1966) 624-36; Trans., AIME, 237. 13. Wattenbarger, R.A. and Ramey, H.J. Jr.: Gas Well Testing With Turbulence, Damage and Wellbore Storage, J. Pet. Tech. (Aug. 1968) 877-87; Trans., AIME, 243. 14. Ramagost, B.P. and Farshad, F.F.: p/z Abnormally Pressured Gas Reservoirs, paper SPE 10125 presented at the 1981 SPE Annual Technical Conference and ExhibItion, San Antonio. Oct. 4-7. 15. Miller, C.C., Dyes, A B., and Hutchinson, C.A. Jr: The Estimation of Permeability and Reservoir Pressure From Bottom Hole Pressure Build-Up Characteristics, Trans., AIME (1950) 189, 91-104 16. Homer. D.R.: Pressure Build-Up in Wells, Proc.. Third World Pet. Gong., The Hague (1951) Sec. II, 503-23. 17. Matthews.C.S., Brons, F., and Hazebroek, P.: A Method for Determination of Average Pressure in a Bounded Reservoir, Trans., AIME (1954)201, 182-91

1 3.557x10-9

4Wg am(p) ~k

at

....I

. (24)

where m(p) is in kPa2 and cg is in kPa- . See Eq. 7 for other units.
,,lj,=% h, t,+o.4@,5+S+FD,IqgI, . . . . . . . (33)

where mD = 2.708x10-

tD =

3.557x

10-9kt
2

dw, r,,

k is in md,

## See Eq. 7 for other units.

k h= _ 2.149x 106qoB,~o 0 .._ m

. .

(374