!

ulobal vision
Inteinational, Fiji
"#$%&'()*!+,*-(.
Stanuaiu 0peiating Pioceuuie

village site assessment













Piepaieu by: Thomas Tuipin-}elfs (Stuuent Numbei: u8uSuuu6)

Piepaieu foi: uvI, Fiji Community Bevelopment Piogiam

veision 1.u (Nay 2u12)






u8uSuuu6 1
!"#$%&'(&)'*+%*+,!
-.&/012',% ............................................................................................................................ 3
3.&45'2% ................................................................................................................................. 3
6.&7%(8*8+8'*,....................................................................................................................... 3
9.&:''(+'2&:"8*&;"1<%,+8*=&4>,+%?............................................................................. 6
@.&/1'5%A01%&B0+$8*% ........................................................................................................ 9
@.-.&CA%*+8(>8*=&+D%&*0?#%1&'(&*%E&::F;&,>,+%?,&1%G081%A&+'&,"+8,(>&A%?"*A. 9
@.3.&CA%*+8(>8*=&,08+"#$%&$'5"+8'*,&('1&*%E&::F;&,>,+%?, ......................................... 9
@.6.&CA%*+8(>8*=&+D%&$%<%$&'(&E'1H&1%G081%A&+'&?"8*+"8*&%I8,+8*=&::F;&,>,+%?, J
@.9.&CA%*+8(>8*=&+D%&G0"*+8+>&"*A&5',+&'(&?"+%18"$,&1%G081%A ...................................... K
@.@.&L","E"&!10,+&M'0*A"+8'*&"*A&N$'#"$&O8,8'*&C*+%1*"+8'*"$&40,+"8*"#$%&
F"+%1&4'$0+8'*,&('1?................................................................................................................ P
Q.&R+D85"$&)'*,8A%1"+8'*, ................................................................................................ P
J.&B5502"+8'*"$&;%"$+D&"*A&4"(%+>............................................................................... P
:%(%1%*5%&S8,+ ...................................................................................................................--
T22%*A8I&-U&48+%&T,,%,,?%*+&'(&V"<'+0"&O8$$"=%..................................................-3
T22%*A8I&3U&:"8*E"+%1&)'$$%5+8'*&4>,+%?&)'?2'*%*+&S8,+..............................-6



























u8uSuuu6 2
-.&/012',%&

In 2u1u, ulobal vision Inteinational (uvI) anu the vinaka Fiji Yasawa Tiust
Founuation (vFYTF), establisheu a iooftop iainwatei haivesting (RRWB)
initiative in the Yasawa uioup, Fiji to ease the watei secuiity issues that exist
theie (uvI, 2u11; uvI, 2u12). The two oiganisations have electeu to utilize this methou
because it is alieauy wiuely piacticeu, in basic foims, by the communities of the
Yasawa uioup. The piimaiy focus of the initiative is to pioviue a sustainable
souice of potable watei foi the people of the Yasawa uioup (Lunu, !"# $%., 2u11; vinaka
Fiji, 2u12).

This stanuaiu opeiating pioceuuie (S0P) pioviues auvice on how to caiiy out a
village site assessment within the Yasawa uioup to ueteimine if a watei ueficit is
piesent anu if so the amount of woik iequiieu to iectify the situation.
3.&45'2%&

This S0P applies to all village site assessments caiiieu out by uvI anu vFYTF
within the Yasawa uioup, Fiji. It may also be useu by othei uvI piogiammes
involving RRWB.

The Inteinational Rainwatei Baivesting Alliance (IRBA) have appioveu the woik
caiiieu out by uvI anu vFYTF anu as such this S0P may be of inteiest to exteinal
paities involveu in iainwatei haivesting (Lunu, 2u11).
6.&7%(8*8+8'*,&

:''(+'2& :"8*E"+%1& ;"1<%,+8*=& W::F;XU& A methou of iainwatei haivesting,
which utilises a householu iooftop, as a catchment suiface to collect
piecipitation foi uomestic use (Nwenge Kahinua anu Taigbenu, 2u11).





u8uSuuu6 S
9.&:''(+'2&:"8*&;"1<%,+8*=&4>,+%?&

The typical RRWB system installeu by uvI anu vFYTF, as can be seen in Figuie 1,
is compiiseu of the following components (uvI, 2u11; Lunu, !"#$%., 2u11):

• Catchment suiface, such as a pitcheu ioof to collect piecipitation
• Biveision plumbing to ieuiiect piecipitation to a stoiage tank
• 0paque, sealeu stoiage tank to pievent algae photosynthesising, as well
as the ingiess of pathogens anu animals
• Extiaction uevice, such as a lockable tap, which is useful foi managing
uistiibution
• Reinfoiceu conciete base to pievent subsiuence of stoiage tank
• 2u-micion filtei to iemove laige paiticulates, such as iust anu algae fiom
the watei piioi to consumption



M8=01%& -U& T& A8"=1"?& +'& ,D'E& +D%& #",85& 1''(+'2& 1"8*E"+%1YD"1<%,+8*=& ,>,+%?& 8*,+"$$%A& #>& NOC& 8*& +D%&
L","E"&N1'02&(uvI, 2u11).&



u8uSuuu6 4
@.&/1'5%A01%&B0+$8*%&
@.-.&CA%*+8(>8*=&+D%&*0?#%1&'(&*%E&::F;&,>,+%?,&1%G081%A&+'&,"+8,(>&
A%?"*A&

The chief of the village uue to be assesseu shoulu be contacteu piioi to
commencing a site assessment. The chief will be able to pioviue geneial
infoimation conceining the village, as well as infoimation iegaiuing the
population, numbei of uwellings anu the quantity of existing RRWB systems
piesent within the community. Bowevei, the numbei anu conuition of existing
RRWB systems anu uwellings shoulu be affiimeu uuiing the site assessment.
Infoimation iegaiuing healthcaie anu euucation shoulu be obtaineu foim the
iesiuent nuise anu heau teachei if applicable.

The infoimation obtaineu uuiing the site assessment shoulu be enteieu into the
equation shown in Figuie 2 to ueteimine the numbei of RRWB systems that aie
iequiieu to pioviue the uesiieu amount of uiinking watei pei peison pei uay foi
a peiiou of six months (Lunu, !"#$%., 2u11; vinaka Fiji, 2u12).





M8=01%&3U&!D%&%G0"+8'*&0,%A&#>&OML!M&"*A&NOC&+'&A%+%1?8*%&D'E&?05D&"AA8+8'*"$&E"+%1&5"+5D?%*+&
8,&*%5%,,"1>&+'&21'<8A%&%"5D&<8$$"=%1&E8+D&@&$8+1%,&'(&A18*H8*=&E"+%1&2%1&2%1,'*&2%1&A">&(Lunu, !"#$%.,
2u11).&


@.3.&CA%*+8(>8*=&,08+"#$%&$'5"+8'*,&('1&*%E&::F;&,>,+%?,&

Theie aie a numbei of factois that neeu to be consiueieu when selecting a
suitable location foi a new RRWB system, which aie:

• Pioximity of potential location to existing RRWB systems anu aquifei feu
watei souices
• The aiea, elevation, anu conuition of catchment suiface
• The level of shaue available foi a stoiage tank

(village population x S lities x 18S uays) - existing iainwatei
haivesting catchment = Numbei of lities to be installeu
u8uSuuu6 S
/1'I8?8+>& '(& 2'+%*+8"$& $'5"+8'*& +'& %I8,+8*=& ::F;& ,>,+%?,& "*A& "G08(%1& (%A&
E"+%1&,'015%,&

Wheie possible it is auvantageous to uistiibute RRWB systems evenly
thioughout a village so that the uemanu at each souice is equal. It is necessaiy to
note the location of any existing RRWB systems, as this will affect the sites at
which the new systems can be situateu. Bowevei, uvI anu vFYTF have aimeu to
pioviue the communities of the Yasawa uioup with a souice of uiinking watei
only. Watei foi cooking anu cleaning is to be obtaineu fiom aquifei feu souices,
such as boie holes. Theiefoie it woulu be auvantageous to situate RRWB
systems close to aquifei feu souices to encouiage the people of the Yasawa
uioup to utilise each souice foi its intenueu puipose anu not to iely solely on the
RRWB systems foi all theii neeus. This is significant because it will aiu in goou
watei management (uvI, 2u11).

)'*A8+8'*Z&"1%"&"*A&%$%<"+8'*&'(&5"+5D?%*+&,01("5%&

The RRWB systems installeu by uvI anu vFYTF may only utilise iooftops
constiucteu of coiiugateu ioofing iion, as a catchment suiface. This is because
algae anu bacteiia may be piesent within the ioofs of the tiauitional Fijian buies,
which aie constiucteu of plant mateiials (Belmieich anu Boin, 2uu9; Staines anu Luckham,
2uu9). Bowevei, coiiugateu iion ioofs may also piesent iisks if not selecteu
caiefully. Roofs containing metallic coatings oi paints shoulu be avoiueu to
ieuuce the iisk of heavy metal contaminants being leecheu into the haivesteu
iainwatei. Roofs containing high levels of iust shoulu also be avoiueu, as this will
ieuuce filtei life (Belmieich anu Boin, 2uu9).

It is necessaiy to ueteimine the appioximate suiface aiea of a iooftop uesiieu foi
use with a RRWB system so that it is possible to estimate the level of
piecipitation it will captuie. This infoimation will also iuentify the appiopiiate
stoiage tank size to use with the installation to maximise both supply anu cost
efficiency (see Appenuix 2 foi costs iegaiuing stoiage tanks). The calculations to
ueteimine both ioof suiface aiea anu potential annual watei supply aie shown
in Figuie S (0NEP, 2uu9). The calculation foi watei supply is baseu upon an aveiage
u8uSuuu6 6
annual iainfall within the Yasawa uioup of 178u mm (Encyclopaeuia of the Nations, 2u12)
anu a iunoff coefficient value of u.8 foi coiiugateu iion (0NEP, 2uu9).



&
M8=01%&6U&8X&RG0"+8'*&0,%A&+'&5"$50$"+%&1''(&,01("5%&"1%"[&88X&RG0"+8'*&0,%A&+'&5"$50$"+%&"**0"$&E"+%1&
,022$>&(0NEP, 2uu9).

It is also impoitant to asceitain the height of a catchment suiface. This is because
the catchment suiface is connecteu to the stoiage tank at high level via the
uiveision plumbing, as can be seen in Figuie 1. A suitable height foi a catchment
suiface foi use with a S 2uu litie tank is 2 4uu mm fiom giounu level to the
bottom of the facia boaiu, as can be seen in Figuie 4. Wheieas a suitable height
foi a catchment suiface foi use with a 1u uuu litie tank is S uuu mm fiom giounu
level to the bottom of the facia boaiu. It may be necessaiy to excavate a layei of
topsoil so that the conciete base can be constiucteu at uepth to gain the iequiieu
minimum height.


M8=01%&9U&4D'E,&D'E&+'&?%",01%&+D%&D%8=D+&'(&"&5"+5D?%*+&,01("5%&(1'?&=1'0*A&$%<%$&+'&+D%&#'++'?&
'(&+D%&("58"&#'"1A&(Tuipin-}elfs, 2u11).&

i)
Roof suiface aiea (m
2
) = ioof length (m) x ioof wiuth (m) x sine of the angle of ioof (uegiees)

ii)
Supply (lities pei yeai) = iainfall (178u mm pei yeai) x aiea (m
2
) x iunoff coefficient (u.8)
u8uSuuu6 7
Finally, it is necessaiy to ueteimine that it is possible to achieve the appiopiiate
level of guttei pitch foi the uiveision plumbing fiom the selecteu house. This is
because piecipitation will not flow auequately thiough the uiveision plumbing if
the guttei pitch is too shallow. Bowevei, the holuing capacity of the uiveision
plumbing will be ieuuceu if the guttei pitch is too steep. It is iecommenueu that
gutteiing shoulu uescenu by ~1S mm ovei a uistance of ~4 Suu mm (Rain-uuttei-
uuiue.com, 2u12).

S%<%$&'(&,D"A%&"<"8$"#$%&('1&,+'1"=%&+"*H&
&
A final factoi to consiuei when selecting a suitable location foi a new RRWB
system is the amount of shaue piesent at a potential site. It is impoitant foi a
catchment suiface to ieceive minimal shaue to maximise its watei haivesting
potential. Nevei the less, it is auvantageous to situate a stoiage tank in an aiea
with a high level of shaue to ieuuce the amount of uiiect sunlight it ieceives. This
will ueciease the iisk of theimal convection, which aius in algal anu bacteiial
uevelopment by iaising the tempeiatuie within the stoiage tank (0N-Babitat, 2uuS).

@.6.&CA%*+8(>8*=&+D%&$%<%$&'(&E'1H&1%G081%A&+'&?"8*+"8*&%I8,+8*=&::F;&
,>,+%?,&

It is possible that RRWB systems will be piesent within a village being assesseu
by uvI anu vFYTF. It is necessaiy to evaluate the conuition of an existing system
to ueteimine if it can pioviue a safe supply of potable watei in its cuiient state
anu if not can it easily be iefuibisheu to uo so. Consequently, it will be impoitant
to ieview the following:

)"+5D?%*+&,01("5%&
A RRWB system is not capable of captuiing piecipitation without a catchment
suiface. Thus a system shoulu not be incluueu within the existing watei
catchment calculation if the catchment suiface is missing oi iiiepaiably
uamageu. This is because uvI anu vFYTF aie not qualifieu to iepaii oi ieplace
catchment suifaces.

&
u8uSuuu6 8
78<%1,8'*&2$0?#8*=&
It is impoitant to ieview the conuition of the uiveision plumbing. It will be
necessaiy to ieplace missing oi uamageu uiveision plumbing on systems that
can be easily iefuibisheu. 0nuamageu existing uiveision plumbing may iequiie
cleaning.

)'*A8+8'*&'(&,+'1"=%&+"*H&
Stoiage tanks may be constiucteu of eithei PvC oi cement. It is possible to
ienuei the outsiue of a cement tank to cuie the piesence of a minoi leak.
Bowevei, it is not possible to cuie majoi uamage to a cement tank. Thus a system
shoulu not be incluueu within the existing watei catchment calculation if the
stoiage tank is iiiepaiably uamageu. Bamageu PvC tanks can often be iepaiieu
anu shoulu theiefoie be incluueu with in the existing watei catchment
calculation. PvC stoiage tanks shoulu be cleaneu eveiy thiee months anu as such
it may be necessaiy to iecommenu that an existing tank be cleaneu (Lunu, 2u11).

4%"$%A&,>,+%?&
It is impoitant to note if a system is sealeu wheievei possible. Theiefoie it may
be necessaiy to oiuei mateiials such as stoiage tank lius anu silicone to achieve
this.
&
3\Y?851'*&(8$+%1&
It is unlikely that an existing RRWB system will contain a 2u-micion filtei.
Bowevei, the quality of the filtei anu filtei housing shoulu be assesseu if piesent.

@.9.&CA%*+8(>8*=&+D%&G0"*+8+>&"*A&5',+&'(&?"+%18"$,&1%G081%A&

See Appenuix 2: Rainwatei Collection System Component List to ueteimine the
cost anu quantity of mateiials neeueu against the measuiements maue uuiing
site assessment.


u8uSuuu6 9
@.@.&L","E"&!10,+&M'0*A"+8'*&"*A&N$'#"$&O8,8'*&C*+%1*"+8'*"$&
40,+"8*"#$%&F"+%1&4'$0+8'*,&('1?&

The infoimation obtaineu uuiing the site assessment shoulu be enteieu into the
Yasawa Tiust Founuation anu ulobal vision Inteinational Sustainable Watei
Solutions foim; a completeu example of which can be seen in Appenuix 1: Site
Assessment of Navotua village. The completeu foim shoulu be sent to the uvI
Countiy Cooiuinatoi.
Q.&R+D85"$&)'*,8A%1"+8'*,&

The Fijian people utilise the ioot of &'(!)# *!"+,-"'./* to piouuce a beveiage,
which contains both seuative anu anaesthetic piopeities, calleu yaqona (kava).
Yaqona is wiuely ieveieu thioughout Fiji anu as such many political, ieligious
anu social ceiemonies aie pieceueu by a yaqona ceiemony. It is customaiy to
piesent the heauman of village with yaqona, as a gift, which is calleu a -!0/-!0/,
upon enteiing a village foi the fiist time. Theiefoie it will be necessaiy to
piesent the heauman with yaqona piioi to caiiying out a village site assessment
(Bigh Commission of the Republic of Fiji - Austialia, 2u12).

It is customaiy foi Fijian people to covei theii shoulueis anu knees when in
public. Thus uvI staff anu volunteeis aie expecteu to weai a sulu (Fijian saiong)
anu uvI t-shiit when caiiying out a village site assessment. It is also consiueieu
uisiespectful to weai heauweai. Bence hats shoulu not be woin unless iequiieu
by health anu safety (Staines anu Luckham, 2uu9).
J.&B5502"+8'*"$&;%"$+D&"*A&4"(%+>&

The following auvice must auheieu to when caiiying out a village site
assessment to ieuuce the iisk of a injuiy to peisonnel whilst on site (Lunu, 2u11):

• Site assessments must always be leau by an auequately tiaineu membei
of uvI staff
• Staff anu volunteeis must weai closeu toeu shoes whilst on site
u8uSuuu6 1u
• Staff anu volunteeis must weai the helmets pioviueu when woiking on oi
aiounu lauueis
• Staff anu volunteeis shoulu follow best piactice when woiking fiom a
lauuei
• Staff anu volunteeis shoulu bewaie of falling objects
• volunteeis shoulu iepoit any hazaius to a membei of staff







































u8uSuuu6 11
:%(%1%*5%&S8,+&

Encyclopaeuia of the Nations (2u12) 1'2'. |onlinej Available at:
<http:¡¡www.nationsencyclopeuia.com¡geogiaphy¡Congo-Bemociatic-Republic-of-the-to-
Inuia¡Fiji.html> |Accesseu u1 Nay 2u12j.

uvI (2u11) 1'2'#345-")/."'45#6)$'5'57#8$5/$%. |onlinej Available at:
<http:¡¡is.gviaumin.com¡Attachmentuateway¡uuu416¡uvI%2uFiji%2uConstiuction%2uPiogia
m%2u292%2uTiaining%2uNanual%2uv1.puf> |Accesseu u1 Nay 2u12j.

Belmieich, B. anu Boin, B. (2uu9) 0ppoitunities in iainwatei haivesting. 9!-$%'5$"'45 |e-jouinalj
248 pp.118-124. Available thiough: <http:¡¡www.scienceuiiect.com¡> |Accesseu 1u Nay 2u12j.

Bigh Commission of the Republic of Fiji - Austialia (2u12) :$5;45$#3!)!*45,. |onlinej Available
at: <http:¡¡www.fijihighcom.com¡home-mainmenu-1¡stuuent-info-mainmenu-S9¡6S-yaqona-
ceiemony.html> |Accesseu 1u Nay 2u12j.

Lunu, B. (2u11) <=>?#1'2'@#345-")/."'45#A!%.4*!#&)!-!5"$"'45. |PoweiPointj August 2u11. Naui,
uvI.

Lunu, B. (2u11a) B$'5C$"!)#34%%!."'45#D,-"!*#34*(45!5"#E'-". |Woiu uocumentj August 2u11.
Naui, uvI.

Lunu, B., Benuing, T., Tuipin-}elfs, T. anu Biiu, L. (2u11) <=>#1'2'#F/$)"!)%,#B!(4)"#GGH |e-
uocumentj Available at: <http:¡¡www.sciibu.com¡uoc¡74472868¡uvI-Fiji-Quaiteily-Repoit-
}une-0ct-2u11> |Accesseu u1 Nay 2u12j.

Nwenge Kahinua, }. anu Taigbenu, A.E. (2u11) Rainwatei haivesting in South Afiica: Challenges
anu 0ppoitunities. &+,-'.-#$5I#3+!*'-"),#4J#"+!#K$)"+ |e-jouinalj S6 (14-1S) pp.968-976.
Available thiough: <http:¡¡www.scienceuiiect.com¡> |Accesseu 1u Nay 2u12j.

Rain-uuttei-uuiue.com (2u12) A+$"#>-#6+!#B'7+"#L*4/5"#MJ#</""!)#&'".+N |onlinej Available at:
<http:¡¡www.iain-guttei-guiue.com¡guttei-pitch.html> |Accesseu 1u Nay 2u12j.

Staines, B. anu Luckham, N. (2uu9) E45!%,#&%$5!"@#1'2'. 8
th
eu. Nelbouine: Lonely Planet
Publications.

Tuipin-}elfs. T. (2u11) A photo to show how to measuie the height of a catchment suiface fiom
giounu level to the bottom of the facia boaiu |photogiaphj (Thomas Tuipin-}elfs' own piivate
collection).

Tuipin-}elfs, T. (2u11a) D'"!#L--!--*!5"#4J#O$04"/$#='%%$7!. |Excel uocumentj Novembei 2u11.
Naui, uvI.

0N-Babitat (2uuS) Blue Biop Seiies, Book 2, P!5!J'.'$)'!-#Q#3$($.'",#P/'%I'57@#B$'5C$"!)#
R$)0!-"'57#$5I#S"'%'-$"'45. |e-bookj Available thiough: <http:¡¡www.unhabitat.oig¡> |Accesseu
1u Nay 2u12j.

0NEP (2uu9) R$5IT44U#J4)#B$'5C$"!)#R$)0!-"'57#J4)#"+!#3$)'TT!$5@#L#()$."'.$%#7/'I!%'5!#
J!$"/)'57#T!-"#()$."'.!-#J4)#)$'5C$"!)#+$)0!-"'57#'5#-*$%%#'-%$5I#3$)'TT!$5#!50')45*!5"-. |onlinej
Available at:
<http:¡¡www.unep.oig¡themes¡Fieshwatei¡PBF¡Banubook%2uRWB%2ufoi%2uthe%2uCaiii
bean.puf> |Accesseu 1u Nay 2u12j.

vinaka Fiji (2u12) LT4/"#S-. |onlinej Available at: <http:¡¡www.vinakafiji.com.fj¡what-we-
uo¡watei-piojects-in-yasawas> |Accesseu u1 Nay 2u12j.
u8uSuuu6 12
T22%*A8I&-U&48+%&T,,%,,?%*+&'(&V"<'+0"&O8$$"=%&
&


(Tuipin-}elfs, 2u11a)
u8uSuuu6 1S
T22%*A8I&3U&:"8*E"+%1&)'$$%5+8'*&4>,+%?&)'?2'*%*+&S8,+!!




This list was collateu baseu on a simple watei collection system mouel. These aie
the basic components neeueu to fix gutteiing to tin ioofs anu uiveit watei via
pvc plumbing into plastic holuing tanks positioneu on a soliu conciete base. The
piices aie aveiages taken fiom laige Fijian Baiuwaie Neichants. This list can be
useu as a benchmaik foi funuiaising anu financial foiecasting. The size of tanks,
length of gutteis, numbei of biackets anu clips, amount of cement, anu iequiieu
tools will vaiy. This is not an exhaustive list.
&
:%G081%A&4>,+%?&)'?2'*%*+,&
• Nailey Stoim Clouu uutteiing (S metie lengths) $22.7S each (18.7S)
• uuttei Biackets $1.Su each (+¡- 1u neeueu pei system) (1.6S, one eveiy 2ft)
• Left hanu ¡ Right hanu Stop enus $2.1S each
• 0utlet Expansion Rain Beau $8.Su each
• Bown Pipe $24.uS (8ummxS.6mtis) each (21.6S)
• Bown Pipe Clip $1.4u each (1u neeueu pei system) (2.8u)
• Socket Benu (8umm) $4.uS each (S.Su)
• Watei Tanks
• 2uultis : $12u.6u
• Suultis: $261.Su
• 1uuultis: $S76.1u
• 11uultis: $S98.Su
• 17Sultis: $SS4.uu
• 2uuultis: $SSu.uu
• Suuultis: $77S.uu
• Pacific Cement (Sukg bag) $14.Su each (1u neeueu foi laige base)
• Befoim Nilu Steel (1umm x 6mtis) $8.4S pei length (1u neeueu pei stanu) (foi
cieating the base)
• Black Binuing Wiie $S.2S (foi binuing steel)
• Welueu Steel Nesh $96.uu (foi ieinfoicing base¡ciack pievention)
• visqueen Film Black (6umtisx6ft) $.S1 pei mti (unuei the base)
• Cemestick (4ltis) $17.Su
• Ezi Covei Aciy uloss unueicoat white (4ltis) $S4.uu


(Lunu, 2u11a)

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