Wl nl 8ula (WaLer for Llfe

):
A ulscusslon on Lhe AdvanLages and LlmlLaLlons of
uLlllzlng 8oofLop 8alnwaLer ParvesLlng as a
SusLalnable Source of ÞoLable WaLer ln Lhe ?asawa
Croup, ll[l

AuLhor: 1homas 1urpln-!elfs
SLudenL number: 08030006


















u8uSuuu6 2
!"#$%&'(&)'*+%*+,!
-.&/*+0'123+4'* ................................................................................................................... 5
-.-.&6"3780'2*1.......................................................................................................................... 5
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5.&=''(+'>&="4*?"+%0&@"0;%,+4*8................................................................................. <
5.-.&=''(+'>&="4*?"+%0&@"0;%,+4*8&AB,+%C&)'C>'*%*+,............................................. <
5.5.&A4+%&D,,%,,C%*+ .................................................................................................................. E
F.&G4,32,,4'* ....................................................................................................................... E
F.-.&D1;"*+"8%,........................................................................................................................... E
F.5.&H4C4+"+4'*, ........................................................................................................................... I
<.&)'*3$2,4'*....................................................................................................................... J
=%(%0%*3%&H4,+ ..................................................................................................................... K

-.&/*+0'123+4'*&
-.-.&6"3780'2*1&

The Yasawa uioup, a iemote 9u km chain of appioximately twenty volcanic
islanus, is situateu in the noithwest of the islanu nation of Fiji, as can be seen in
Figuie 1 (Encyclopaeuia of the Nations, 2u12). This iegion contains twenty-seven villages
anu has a total population of ~Suuu people. Souices of income foi communities
within the Yasawa uioup aie extiemely pooi. Thus the people of these islanus
uepenu upon the lanu anu sea foi theii basic sustenance anu as such aie
intiinsically linkeu to theii enviionment (uvI, 2u11; Staines anu Luckham, 2uu9).


L4820%&-M&D&C">&'(&L4:4&3'*+"4*4*8&+N%&O","?"&P0'2>Q&?N43N&4,&$'3"+%1&4*&+N%&*'0+N?%,+&'(&+N%&3'2*+0B&
(Welt-Atlas.ue, 2u12).
u8uSuuu6 S
The availability of potable watei, which is essential foi life anu sanitation, is
seveiely limiteu within the Yasawa uioup. This is a iesult of inauequate watei
catchment (theie aie no notable iivei systems oi lakes in the Yasawa uioup) anu
annually low levels of piecipitation between Nay anu 0ctobei, as can be seen in
Figuie 2 (Encyclopaeuia of the Nations, 2u12; uvI, 2u12a).


L4820%& 5M& D& 80">N& +'& ,N'?& ";%0"8%& >0%34>4+"+4'*& ?4+N4*& +N%& O","?"& P0'2>Q& L4:4& (Woilu Weathei anu
Climate Infoimation, 2uu9).&

In 2u1u, ulobal vision Inteinational (uvI), a woiluwiue volunteeiing
oiganisation aimeu at conuucting enviionmental ieseaich, conseivation anu
community uevelopment anu the vinaka Fiji Yasawa Tiust Founuation (vFYTF),
establisheu a iainwatei haivesting initiative in the Yasawa uioup. The initiative
aims to pioviue a sustainable solution to ease the watei secuiity issues that exist
within this aiea (uvI, 2u11; uvI, 2u12). The two oiganisations aie aspiiing to inciease
watei catchment to a capacity that has the potential to pioviue eveiy inuiviuual
within this iegion with five lities of uiinking watei pei uay foi six months. Thus
uvI anu vFYTF have electeu to utilize iooftop iainwatei haivesting (RRWB) as a
methou foi alleviating watei secuiity issues because it is alieauy wiuely
piacticeu, in basic foims, by local communities (Lunu, !"# $%., 2u11; vinaka Fiji, 2u12).
RRWB is a& methou of iainwatei haivesting, which utilises a householu iooftop,
as a catchment suiface to collect piecipitation foi uomestic use (Nwenge Kahinua anu
Taigbenu, 2u11).


u8uSuuu6 4
-.5.&9#:%3+4;%&

The following uiscussion aims to ueteimine if RRWB is the most appiopiiate
methou foi obtaining a secuie anu sustainable supply of potable watei in the
Yasawa uioup. Thus if an accuiate conclusion is to be obtaineu it will be
necessaiy to iuentify the auvantages anu limitations of this methou, as well as foi
othei methous appiopiiate foi use in this enviionment.

5.&=''(+'>&="4*?"+%0&@"0;%,+4*8&
5.-.&=''(+'>&="4*?"+%0&@"0;%,+4*8&AB,+%C&)'C>'*%*+,&

The RRWB system installeu by uvI anu vFYTF, as can be seen in Figuie S, is
compiiseu of the following components: a catchment suiface, such as a pitcheu
ioof to collect piecipitation; uiveision plumbing to ieuiiect piecipitation to a
stoiage tank; an opaque, sealeu stoiage tank (eithei S 2uu lities oi 1u uuu lities
in volume uepenuing on the aiea of catchment suiface) to pievent algae
photosynthesising, as well as the ingiess of pathogens anu animals; anu an
extiaction uevice, such as a lockable tap, which is useful foi managing
uistiibution (uvI, 2u11). Finally the tanks aie situateu on a ieinfoiceu conciete
base to pievent subsiuence anu fitteu with a 2u-micion filtei to iemove laige
paiticulates such as iust anu algae fiom the watei piioi to consumption (uvI, 2u11;
Lunu, !"#$%., 2u11).

!
L4820%& FM& D& 14"80"C& +'& ,N'?& +N%& #",43& 0''(+'>& 0"4*?"+%0RN"0;%,+4*8& ,B,+%C& 4*,+"$$%1& #B& PS/& 4*& +N%&
O","?"&P0'2>&(uvI, 2u11).&
u8uSuuu6 S
5.5.&A4+%&D,,%,,C%*+&

A site assessment is caiiieu out in each village piioi to installation to iuentify the
population of a village, as well as the quantity anu conuition of existing watei
catchment. This infoimation is then useu in the equation shown in Figuie 4 to
ueteimine the numbei of RRWB systems that aie iequiieu to pioviue the
uesiieu amount of uiinking watei pei peison pei uay foi a peiiou of six months
(Lunu, !"#$%., 2u11; vinaka Fiji, 2u12).



L4820%&<M&!N%&%T2"+4'*&2,%1&#B&SLO!L&"*1&PS/&+'&1%+%0C4*%&N'?&C23N&"114+4'*"$&?"+%0&3"+3NC%*+&
4,&*%3%,,"0B&+'&>0';41%&%"3N&;4$$"8%0&?4+N&E&$4+0%,&'(&104*74*8&?"+%0&>%0&>%0,'*&>%0&1"B&(Lunu, !"#$%.,
2u11).&
&

uvI anu vFYTF have concluueu that foi the pioject to be sustainable it will be
necessaiy to caiiy out woikshops aimeu at uepaiting the infoimation necessaiy
to maintain an auequate RRWB system. This is because it is moie eneigy anu
cost efficient foi the local community to maintain theii systems iathei than
ielying on a thiiu paity to visit the isolateu iegion to monitoi anu caiiy out
maintenance on the system (Lunu, !"#$%., 2u11).
F.&G4,32,,4'*&
F.-.&D1;"*+"8%,&

A piimaiy auvantage of implementing the RRWB technique in the Yasawa uioup
is that it is has the potential to obtain sufficient quantities of fieshwatei by
making use of a natuial iesouice. This is because 1 mm of piecipitation in an
aiea 1 m
2
will yielu a litie of potable watei (Agaiwal anu Naiain, 2uuu; FA0 Coipoiate
Bocument Repositoiy, 2u12). Thus a mouest conciete uwelling in Nacula village, which
is locateu on Nacula Islanu in the Yasawa uioup, with a iooftop of Su m
2
has the
potential to yielu S.S x 1u
4
lities of uiinking watei fiom the iegion's annual
iainfall of 178u mm (Encyclopaeuia of the Nations, 2u12). Theie aie eighty-two conciete
uwellings with a iooftop aiea appioximately equal to oi gieatei than Su m
2
in

Nacula village. This suggests that it is possible to yielu ~4.4 x 1u
6
lities of
(village population x S lities x 18S uays) - existing iainwatei
haivesting catchment = Numbei of lities to be installeu
u8uSuuu6 6
fieshwatei annually, which woulu supply the village's population of ~17S people
with ~69 lities of uiinking watei pei uay (Tuipin-}elfs, 2u11). This technique coulu
aiu in eneigy conseivation because it uoes not iequiie a powei souice to
function anu may eliminate the neeu foi impoiteu watei, which has been
necessaiy in the past uue to seveie watei shoitages (Lunu, !"# $%., 2u11). Impoiting
fieshwatei to the Yasawa uioup is not sustainable because it is eneigy intensive
anu expensive (IslanusFiist, 2u12).

Seasonal aquifeis aie a chief souice of fieshwatei in the Yasawa uioup. Nethous
such as iechaige uams coulu theiefoie be useu to haivest iainwatei fiom the
iegion's hilly topogiaphy foi the puipose of iechaiging an aquifei. Bowevei,
aquifeis aie unuei constant iisk of contamination fiom saltwatei intiusion,
which is likely to woisen uuiing peiious of low iainfall (uoiuon-Claik, 2u11; Lunu, !"#$%.,
2u11; Staines anu Luckham, 2uu9). This is because the contents of the aquifei aie likely
to be consumeu at a iate, which exceeus the pace at which it is iechaigeu.
Theiefoie the uiffeience in uensities between the two watei bouies allows
saltwatei fiom the sea to intiuue upon the aquifei. Fuitheimoie, the iisk of
saltwatei intiusion has incieaseu within the Pacific uue to iises in sea level, as a
iesult of theimal expansion (uoiuon-Claik, 2u11; Spatafoia, 2uu8). Thus it woulu not be
beneficial to utilize expensive technologies such as iechaige uams to assist in the
iechaiging of aquifeis, as they aie not a secuie souice of potable watei. RRWB
howevei, pioviues a closeu system, which piotects the haivesteu watei against
the ingiess of saltwatei (uvI, 2u11).

Seawatei uesalination is an alteinative methou capable of pioviuing laige
quantities of fieshwatei fiom a natuial iesouice (Choi, !"# $%., 2uu9). Bowevei, it can
be aigueu that this technique is not suiteu to the communities of the Yasawa
uioup foi seveial ieasons, which aie: insufficient existing infiastiuctuie; high
cost anu complexity of initial installation; high opeiation anu maintenance costs;
anu the unavailability of skilleu peisonnel to manage the installation (Choi, !"# $%.,
2uu9; Lunu, !"# $%., 2u11). Seawatei uesalination techniques also piouuce effluents,
which contain high concentiations of biine anu chemical contaminants that have
the potential to impact negatively upon maiine life (uieenlee, !"#$%&'#2uu9).
u8uSuuu6 7

It is not possible to asceitain the cost foi installing a seawatei uesalination plant
in the Yasawa uioup because costs aie case specific (Ashoui anu uhuibal, 2uu4).
Bowevei, opeiational costs foi high-piessuie ieveise osmosis uesalination (R0),
which is wiuely consiueieu to be the most eneigy efficient foim of uesalination,
iange between $u.6S anu $u.9u pei m
S
of fieshwatei (Choi, !"#$%., 2uu9). Theiefoie an
auvantage of the RRWB technique is the systems cost efficiency, as it uoes not
incui any opeiational costs to piouuce potable watei. Fuitheimoie minimal
tiaining is sufficient foi a peison to successfully manage, install oi caiiy out
maintenance on a RRWB system, wheieas skilleu peisonnel aie iequiieu to
opeiate anu maintain uesalination technology. Thus this technique woulu be
moie sustainable than seawatei uesalination, when consiueiing the limiteu
income anu expeitise piesent in the Yasawa uioup (Belmieich anu Boin, 2uu9; Lunu, !"#
$%., 2u11).

F.5.&H4C4+"+4'*,&

Bespite its auvantages, RRWB also piesents a numbei of limitations that coulu
negate its effectiveness at pioviuing a safe anu secuie supply of potable watei.
The foiemost limitation of RRWB to consiuei is its uepenuence upon a constant
level of piecipitation (Belmieich anu Boin, 2uu9). This is significant because the
iegion's six-month peiiou of ieuuceu iainfall is expecteu to inciease, as a iesult
of climate change peituibing cuiient piecipitation patteins within the Pacific.
Thus it is possible to suggest that the Yasawa uioup may expeiience a ueciease
in its annual level of piecipitation (uoiuon-Claik, 2u12). Whilst this issue woulu also
impact upon the iate at which aquifeis aie iechaigeu it woulu not hinuei
uesalination techniques that iely on seawatei (Ashoui anu uhuibal, 2uu4; Encyclopaeuia of
the Nations, 2u12; Spatafoia, 2uu8).

Anothei limitation iegaiuing the RRWB technique is the iisk of pollutants being
piesent in the haivesteu piecipitation that the 2u-micion filtei is not able to
iemove. Piecipitation in aieas fai fiom inuustiial enviionments, such as the
Yasawa uioup, typically haibouis low levels of pollutants. Neveitheless, it is
u8uSuuu6 8
possible foi piecipitation to become contaminateu if a RRWB system utilizes
pooi catchment suifaces such as ioofs constiucteu of zinc oi coppei, oi suifaces,
which aie coateu in a leau-baseu paint. This is uue to the iisk of heavy metals
being leecheu into the haivesteu watei via the catchment suiface (Belmieich anu
Boin, 2uu9). This is not an issue with seawatei uesalination techniques, such as R0,
because the appaiatus is uesigneu to iemove pollutants such as heavy metals
(Bakalái, 2uu9). Bowevei, veitical sanu filteis aie available foi use with RRWB
systems that can potentially iemove heavy metal contaminants. Thus it can be
aigueu that this is a minoi issue that can be easily oveicome (Belmieich anu Boin,
2uu9).

Finally, a RRWB system is only as efficient as its level of upkeep. Thus foi this
initiative to pioviue a safe anu sustainable souice of potable watei it is
impoitant foi the communities of the Yasawa uioup to maintain these systems to
a suitable stanuaiu. If maintenance, such as changing the inline 2u-micion watei
filtei anu cleaning the stoiage tank, uiveision plumbing anu catchment suifaces
aie ignoieu it is possible that the quality of the haivesteu watei will ueteiioiate.
This is not expecteu to be an issue with seawatei uesalination techniques
because qualifieu peisonnel aie expecteu to manage the systems. Bowevei, uvI
anu vFYTF have attempteu to oveicome this issue by conveying the impoitance
of auequate management of the RRWB systems in the Yasawa uioup thiough
community woikshops (Choi, !"#$%., 2uu9; Nosley, 2uuS).

<.&)'*3$2,4'*&

In conclusion it can be aigueu that RRWB is cuiiently the most appiopiiate
methou foi obtaining a sustainable anu secuie supply of potable watei in the
Yasawa uioup. This is because it has the potential to meet the neeus of the
community, is both cost anu eneigy efficient, compliments the limiteu village
infiastiuctuie anu iequiies minimal expeitise in iegaius to system management.
Bowevei, it is impoitant that site assessments anu community woikshops aie
caiiieu out to a suitable stanuaiu so that all possible iisks of contamination can
u8uSuuu6 9
be iuentifieu anu manageu. It is also iecommenueu that annual piecipitation
levels aie monitoieu foi the Yasawa uioup to ueteimine that the watei
catchment is sufficient to obtain the quantities of watei necessaiy to satisfy
uemanu.

=%(%0%*3%&H4,+&

Agaiwal, A. anu Naiain, S. (2uuu) ($"!)#*$)+!,"-./0#12334.-"56%!7#.$"4)$%#)!,24)1!#3$.$/!3!.".
|e-uocumentj Available thiough: <http:¡¡www.inuiawateipoital.oig¡> |Accesseu 1u Nay 2u12j.

Ashoui, N.N. anu uhuibal, S.N. (2uu4) Economics of seawatei uesalination in Libya. 8!,$%-.$"-2.
|e-jouinalj 16S pp.21S-218. Available thiough: <http:¡¡www.scienceuiiect.com¡> |Accesseu 1u
Nay 2u12j.

Bakalái, T., Búgel, N. anu uajuosová, L. (2uu9) Beavy metal iemoval using ieveise osmosis. 91"$##
:2."$.-,"-1$##;%2+$1$ |e-jouinalj 14 (S) pp.2Su-2SS. Available at:
<http:¡¡actamont.tuke.sk¡puf¡2uu9¡nS¡6bakalai.puf> |Accesseu 1u Nay 2u12j.

Choi, }.S., Lee, S., Kim, }.N. anu Choi, S. (2uu9) Small-scale uesalination plants in Koiea: Technical
challenges. 8!,$%-.$"-2. |e-jouinalj 249 pp.222-2S2. Available thiough:
<http:¡¡www.scienceuiiect.com¡> |Accesseu 1u Nay 2u12j.

Encyclopaeuia of the Nations (2u12) <-=-. |onlinej Available at:
<http:¡¡www.nationsencyclopeuia.com¡geogiaphy¡Congo-Bemociatic-Republic-of-the-to-
Inuia¡Fiji.html> |Accesseu u1 Nay 2u12j.

FA0 Coipoiate Bocument Repositoiy (2u12) >*$?"!)#@#A#B$-.C$%%#9.7#D+$?2")$.,?-)$"-2..
|onlinej Available at: <http:¡¡www.fao.oig¡uociep¡R4u82E¡i4u82euS.htm> |Accesseu 1u Nay
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<www.spiingeilink.com> |Accesseu u1 Nay 2u12j.

uieenlee, L.F., !"#$%& (2uu9) Reveise osmosis uesalination: watei souices, technology, anu touay's
challenges. ($"!)#B!,!$)1* |e-jouinalj 4S pp.2S17-2S48. Available thiough:
<http:¡¡www.scienceuiiect.com¡> |Accesseu 1u Nay 2u12j.

uvI (2u11) <-=-#>2.,")41"-2.#E)$-.-./#:$.4$%. |onlinej Available at:
<http:¡¡is.gviaumin.com¡Attachmentuateway¡uuu416¡uvI%2uFiji%2uConstiuction%2uPiogia
m%2u292%2uTiaining%2uNanual%2uv1.puf> |Accesseu u1 Nay 2u12j.

uvI (2u12) 9F24"#G,. |onlinej Available at: <http:¡¡www.gvi.co.uk¡about-us> |Accesseu u1 Nay
2u12j.

uvI (2u12a) >2.")-F4"!#"2#H$"!)#,"2)$/!#12.,")41"-2.#-.-"-$"-+!,#-.#<-=-. |onlinej Available at:
<http:¡¡www.gvi.co.uk¡piogiams¡volunteei-constiuction-piojects-fiji> |Accesseu u1 Nay 2u12j.

Belmieich, B. anu Boin, B. (2uu9) 0ppoitunities in iainwatei haivesting. 8!,$%-.$"-2. |e-jouinalj
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IslanusFiist (2u12) ($"!);!14)-"5 |onlinej Available at:
<http:¡¡www.islanusfiist.oig¡issues¡watei_secuiity.html> |Accesseu 1u Nay 2u12j.
u8uSuuu6 1u
Lunu, B., Benuing, T., Tuipin-}elfs, T. anu Biiu, L. (2u11) IJK#<-=-#L4$)"!)%5#B!?2)"#MMN |e-
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>$,!#,"475#2C#;2,2#+-%%$/!'#P$+-"-#K,%$.7'#<-=-. |e-uocumentj Available at:
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2u12j.

Nosley, L. (2uuS) ;QO9>#:-,1!%%$.!24,#B!?2)"#RST0#($"!)#L4$%-"5#2C#B$-.H$"!)#U$)+!,"-./#
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th
eu. Nelbouine: Lonely Planet
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