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8/25/12 edition

Anthropology 225 Culture, Language, and Society Syllabus for Autumn 2012 Professor: Laurence Marshall Carucci Office: Wilson Hall, 2nd Floor, Room 124 Hours: Monday and Friday 3:10 P. M., Thursday 10:30 A. M. and by appointment Classes: Monday, Wednesday, and Friday at 10:00 A. M., Wilson, Room I-132 TA: Teal Young; Hours (TBA) Room II-119 Wilson Hall ____________________________________________
This course meets three times each week with mini-lectures and seminar-style discussions of assigned materials on Monday, Wednesday, and several Fridays. We shall attempt to reserve the remaining Fridays for discussion and summary questions from the preceding weeks. This is a sophomore level core class that necessitates considerable dedication in order to do well. As a Core 2.0 course in Social Science Inquiry, the class offers all participants opportunities to develop and demonstrate skill in critical thinking, analytical reading, logical reasoning, argumentation, and lucid writing. These are important intellectual abilities that will help you position yourself in a viable circumstance in your major and as a member of a complex society that bases itself on informed individual decision-making, democratic principles, and meaningful contributions to the collective whole. As much as we may value individual freedoms, those freedoms remain meaningless unless our decisions are based on logically consistent, scientifically and historicallygrounded arguments, and sophisticated multi-cultural understandings. Equally, our much lauded democratic principles cannot bear fruit unless they include active participation in community-focused endeavors that rest on shared responsibilities and negotiated discussions thoroughly grounded in logical argument. In order to gain these critical skills, students who enroll in this course must read the materials and actively engage in discussion. For those who fail to keep up with the assignments, the exams and project will prove extremely taxing. Students who desire a summary introduction to anthropology should plan to take Anthropology 101 instead of this class. Each student who remains in this course must, as an obligation of class membership, agree to participate and engage in discussion on a regular basis. You should come to class prepared to discuss the readings on the day for which they are assigned. Since knowledge can only be meaningfully gained through active engagement and discovery, it is important to get involved in the discussions even if it involves a degree of intellectual risk. Well-reasoned contributions to discussions, including perceptive questions, constitute 15% of your semester grade. In other words, your participation grade can raise you from a C to an A, or drop your grade from a B to a D. At any point in the course, you are encouraged to ask questions. If you have questions from the previous day's lecture or the reading assigned for that day, please ask those questions at the beginning of the class period. Such questions typically will benefit the entire class. Well- framed questions contribute to your participation grade. Should participation drop to a level where I begin to question whether members of the class are reading the required materials, I will ask you to turn in the notes from your reading. In addition, if participation fails to improve, a series of short quizzes, constituting up to 10% of the course grade, may be added to the schedule. To perform well on exams, you will need to attend lecture and discussion sessions regularly as well as read all assigned materials. In line with the desires of the class, the bulk of your grade will depend on two or three takehome essay exams and a field project to be written up as a research paper. A separate handout will explain the field project in greater depth. I strongly encourage discussion that focuses on the course materials outside of class; nevertheless, each person must do his/her own work on exams and, unless otherwise prearranged, on the field project. Make up examinations are not given. This course explores how social and cultural anthropologists come to understand human societies.

Anthropology is a broad discipline, the study of humans in all of their evolutionary, pre-historic, historical, and contemporary cultural diversity but, in this course, we restrict ourselves to the study of textuallydocumented and living societies. We shall adopt a cross-cultural, historical, and interpretative perspective in order to explore the idea that anthropology is an attempt to understand how human beings understand themselves and see their actions and behavior as . . . the creations of those understandings (Geertz, Interpretation of Culture). A good part of the course is dedicated to an investigation of the concept of culture as a dynamic social construct, constantly changing, and always negotiated and contested among persons differently positioned in the social order. The way in which the methods of ethnographic fieldwork and participant observation both enable and complicate this form of understanding, and the way in which such an understanding can be further elaborated through temporal/historical and spatial (cross-cultural and within group) comparison will form part of the material covered in this course. We shall begin with the study of small scale societies and then move to a consideration of life among members of complex societies. Such a comparative frame provides an analytically productive location to come to an understanding of larger issues like the dynamics of the nation state, the implications of immigration, transnationalism and world capitalism, processes of environmental transformation, and the global commodification of culture. To accomplish these goals, I have structured the course around a variety of readings: 1) a problembased text that views culture as a productive domain of symbolic materials that lend structure to human lives, 2) a series of essays by established anthropologists that assess several key theoretical issues in the field of cultural anthropology, (these will be available on reserve) and 3) exemplary ethnographies that focus on groups from the Kalahari Desert in Africa, from New Guinea, and from the American southwest. Equally, one of our framing ethnographies deals with language use as a locus from which we may come to a more sophisticated analysis of gender. Each ethnography we read complements or supplements materials discussed in the text. The first ethnography deals with issues of social relations (gender, kinship, and marriage) and the human life cycle among the Ju//huansi. In the middle of the course we shall explore issues of race and gender through a set of reserve readings. We then read a work about speech practices and the way in which these allow us to understand the connection between a viable theory of gender and the evidence embedded in day-to-day conversations that is required to support such a theory. Next, we shall explore a work on issues of rainforest depredation and other effects of globalization among the Maisin in Papua New Guinea. Last, we shall read a work on social change, the impacts of colonialism, and of political decision-making in the American Southwest. We approach these readings with the following goals: 1) to extract the key terms, concepts, and analytic frameworks that are provided by various anthropological perspectives, 2) to achieve an introductory knowledge of a few quite distinct societies with varied views of the world and approaches to exchange, interpersonal relationships, strategies of empowerment, conceptions of gender, of rank, and of cosmology, 3) to work to understand the operative logic that underlies the daily activities of people whose lives seem vastly different from our own, 4) to identify common structural parameters that cause certain societies to develop similar social contours in spite of rather substantial cultural differences that may separate them. Seminar-style discussions of the readings will alternate with lectures in order to provide a foundational knowledge of important perspectives in anthropology. In working through these texts, you will be reading from thirty-five to seventy-five pages in preparation for each class session. If this amount of reading exceeds your abilities or desires, please find a course with less rigorous requirements. Required Books (available at the SUB) Robbins, Richard 2001 Cultural Anthropology: a problem-based approach. Itasca, Illinois: F. E. Peacock Publishers. Barker, John 2008 Ancestral Lines: The Maisin of Papua New Guinea and the Fate of

the Rainforest. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Cameron, Deborah 2008 The Myth of Mars and Venus. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Chavez, Leo R. 2008 The Latino Threat. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Shostak, Marjorie 1981 N!isa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Course requirements: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Regular attendance and thoughtful, engaged, participation to include the discussion of ideas from the relevant essays and assigned ethnographies. (15% of your grade). Read course materials thoroughly and keep notes on all readings. (Professor Carucci will ask you to turn in notes as part of your participation grade if active participation flags.) A field research project and accompanying research paper (7-10 pages including at least two library sources and six field visits: described in a subsequent handout) (at least 25% of your grade). Midterm examination (25% of your grade). Comprehensive final examination (25% of your grade).

All requirements must be met for successful completion of the course. Extensions are seldom granted, and make-up examinations are not given. Incompletes are granted in extraordinary circumstances only. I reserve the right not to accept late papers. In addition to readings on reserve for the course, you should browse the current anthropology journals in the library: American Ethnologist, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (formerly Man), Current Anthropology, American Anthropologist, Ethnology. These journals will contain materials of relevance to our discussions and will assist with the reference sections of your projects. A note on cell phone or I-pod use: Cell phones should be turned off when you are in class and I-pods, PDAs and similar devices are to be stored in your briefcase or backpack when in the classroom (other than to check your schedule). If you use your I-pod or PDA as a note-taking device, you must clear its use in advance with Dr. Carucci. In such a case, I will ask you for print-outs of your notes to legitimize this special use of an electronic device. A note on plagiarism: While discussion and debate of the materials among members of the class is highly encouraged, it is also important that the papers you turn in represent your own work, not the work of fellow students, published authors, or internet commentators. This does not mean that you cannot quote or paraphrase published materials, but they must be cited and quoted in an appropriate manner. Any use of a quotation (three words or more in sequence: even one or two renowned words) should be placed in quotation marks. The author, date of publication, and page should follow, and the entire work should then be listed in a bibliography that forms the final page of your essay. For a website, the website address, author (and organizational affiliation, if available), and date of posting should be listed. For example, Durkheim, a classical social scientist, wrote about organic solidarity. If I wish to discuss

Durkheims concept in his own words, I might say: Complex societies are held together by organic solidarity which works to build social cohesion since the different parts of the aggregate, because they fulfill different functions, cannot easily be separated (Durkheim 1933: 149). In contrast, a paraphrase might note: According to Durkheim, complex societies are held together by organic solidarity which, on account of the interdependent functions fulfilled by various members of the social group, is not readily disrupted (Durkheim 1933: 149). Note that paraphrases also require citation. In either case, the bibliography must then list the source: Durkheim, Emile 1933 The Division of Labor in Society. New York: The Macmillan Company. Other citation and quotation formats found in the Chicago Manual of Style are also acceptable. However, any segment of writing which claims as your own the ideas or phrases of others is plagiarized, an academic offense of the highest order. If you have questions about proper approaches to citation and quotation, please speak with Dr. Carucci. Plagiarized essays (or segments thereof) will receive an F (0% credit) for the entire assignment and, if the offense is judged by the anthropology faculty to be intentional, the student's name will be sent to the Dean of Students and Associate Provost. These officials have the power to suspend or expel a student who is found guilty of plagiarism. As you write, I encourage you to quote and paraphrase materials freely, but please use an accepted format to credit your sources. I will correct your citation format on the first paper but, if the problem persists, I will deduct credit for a failure to adopt an acceptable citation/quotation framework. Citations help to situate your arguments by placing them in a field of distinguished others who have worked on similar problems. They often reposition your ideas, moving them from unfounded personal opinion to researchbased statements. At the same time, to use the ideas of others without giving credit is a form of academic theft. As several renowned authors have recently discovered, it is a form of theft that is readily traced and rigorously punished. Daily reading assignments (to be completed by the day listed below): August 27th

Introduction to the Course. Check registration status

Culture: An Anthropological Concept Coming of Age 29th Robbins, Richard Chapter I Geertz, Clifford 1973 Thick Description, in The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books, pp. 3-32. Contexts and Performances: Situating Anthropology


Rosaldo, Renato 1989 Introduction: grief and a headhunters rage. In Culture and Truth. Boston: Beacon Press, pp. 1-21. Wikan, Uni 1991 Toward an experience-near anthropology. Cultural Anthropology 6(3): 285-305.

September Labor Day 3rd No class. A day to honor the efforts of the 99%.

Fieldwork: comparative practices

5th Malinowski, Bronislaw 1922 Introduction: The subject, method and scope of this enquiry, Chapter I in Argonauts of the Western Pacific. New York: E.P. Dutton. pp. 1-26. Briggs, Jean 1970 Kapaluna daughter, in P. Golde, ed., Women in the Field. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 19-44. Carucci, Laurence Marshall 1997 Shifting Stances, Differing Glances, in Flinn, Marshall, and Armstrong, eds., Fieldwork and Families. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Guidelines for Field Research Projects Posted Visualizing others 7th Video: Off the Verandah, Strangers Abroad Series Preliminary Ideas and Anthropological Knowledge 10th Robbins, Richard Chapter II

Ethnography as Edited Narrative (Writing as Cultural Construction) 12th Clifford, James 1983 On ethnographic authority, Representations 1(2): 118-146. Keesing, Roger 1989 Exotic Readings of Cultural Texts, Current Anthropology 30(43): 459-77. Ethnography as a Process of Social Construction

14th September - 3 October Ethnography: 14th Read Shostak, N!isa. The Story of a K!ung Woman

Be prepared to discuss Shostak, Introduction - p. 72.

Ethnography: Historical Processes and Routine Practices 17th Robbins, Richard Chapter III Comoroff, John & Jean 1992 Goodly beasts, beastly goods. In Ethnography and the Historical Imagination. Boulder, CO.: Westview Press. pp 127-154. Cultural Construction and Social Practice 19th Robbins, Richard Chapter IV Turn in Outlines for Field Research (approximately 1 page) The Ju/hoasi 21st Discuss Shostak, pp. 73-150. Receive First Exam Questions Interpretative Frameworks, Contextual Frames (from Praxis to Event; from Event to Analysis) 24th . Begin viewing film, N!ai.

The following works are on reserve to assist as you pursue your research. They will not be thoroughly discussed in class, but can contribute significantly to your ability to develop a methodology of research and a theoretical frame to use to analyze your field research materials. Spradley, James P. 1980 Participant Observation. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston. pp 39-72. Sanjek, Roger 1990 The Secret Life of Fieldnotes, in Fieldnotes. Ithica, N. Y.: Cornell University Press. Clifford, James 2000 Spatial Practices: Fieldwork, Travel and the Disciplining of Anthropology in Routes: Travel and Translation in the late Twentieth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 52-91.


Finish the film: N!ai: the story of a !Kung Woman. (This should take about 15 minutes.) We will use the remainder of today's class time to discuss the research process. Since we have no assigned reading, it is also a good time to pursue library sources to support your research This includes working to discover a viale theoretical framework to be used for your analysis, as well as finding other research on your selected group, or a comparable group or social situation.

Envisioning the Kalahari 28th October The Ju/hoasi, contd 1st Discuss Shostak. Review pp. 213-270. Discuss Shostak, pp. 151- 211.

The Complexities of Ju/hoasi Life: Aging and Life's Reflections 3rd Discuss Shostak. Review pp. 273 - 332. **First Examination Due Language, Thought, and Classification 5th Witherspoon, Gary 1980 Language in Culture and Culture in Language. International Journal of American Linguistics 46: 1-13. Basso, Keith H. 1988 Speaking with Names: Language and Landscape among the Western Apache. Cultural Anthropology 3: 99-130. Whorf, Benjamin Lee 1956 The relationship of habitual thought and behavior to language. In Language, Thought, and Reality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp. 134-159. First Research Visit. No formal class meetings on research days. You may, however, arrange a time to meet with Dr. Carucci to consult about your research project.


October 8th March 9th Long term reading assignment is Camerons work: The Myth of Mars and Venus Layers of Identity Construction 10th Yanagisako, Sylvia and Carol Delaney 1995 Naturalizing Power. In Yanagisako and Delaney, eds.

Naturalizing Power: Essays in Feminist Cultural Analysis. New York. Routledge. Anderson-Levy, Lisa 2001 Colliding/Colluding Identities: Race, Class and Gender in Jamaican Family Systems. In Linda Stone, ed., New Directions in Anthropological Kinship. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Kinship, the Gendered Body, and the Meta-language of Science 12th Martin, Emily 1991 The egg and the sperm: how science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles. Signs 16(3): 485-501. Cameron pp 1 - 40 Linguistic classification and the gendering of humans. 15th Discuss Cameron, pp. 41 - 79

Tarnished elopement: Men are to Women as Mars is to Venus 17th Discuss Cameron, pp. 80 - 141.

Gender rules and daily performances 19th 22nd Discuss Cameron, pp. 142 - conclusion Second Research Day

Gender as a component of identity formation 24th Film: Michael Kimmel's On Gender: Mars, Venus, or Planet Earth

Performing Identity: the Multiple Sites of Identity Formation Robbins, Chapter VI, Marks, Jonathan Replaying the Race Card Anthropology Newsletter 39 (5): May 1998 (reserve) American Anthropological Association Official Statement on Race Anthropology Newsletter 38 (6): September 1997 (reprinted in Applying Anthropology by Aaron Podolefsky and Peter J. Brown. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2007. pp. 19596). (reserve) 26th

Research report due (single page update and copy of all notes and references to date) Receive Exam II Questions Interpersonal Relations: Kinship and Family 29th Read Robbins, Chapter V

October 29th - November 19th Read Barker, Ancestral Lines The Institutionalization of Social Hierarchy 31st November Assertion and Protection of Rank and Power: Negotiations in Negative Exchange 2nd Robbins, Richard Chapter VIII Exam II due today Hegemonic practices/local reformulations 5th Gewertz, Deborah and Frederick Errington 1991 The new traditionalism: tourism and its transformations. In Twisted Histories, Altered Contexts, pp. 25-57. Bunten, Alexis Celeste 2008 Sharing Culture or Selling Out? American Ethnologist 35 (3): 380395. Gender and the Cultural Rendering of Religion 7th Discuss Barker Introduction Preface - p 56. Robbins, Richard Chapter VII

Men and Women in Gokler 9th Discuss Barker, pp. 56 - 110. For those who would like comments on their projects, drafts are due today.

Veteran's Day 12th No Class Today

Cultural Logics and Daily Practices


Discuss Barker, pp. 111 - 169.

Regionality and Comparative Practice 16th (film)

Cultural Complexities 19th Discuss Barker, pp. 171 - 214. Dr. Carucci at AAA Meetings. Final Research Day. Rosaldo, Renato 1989 Imperialist Nostalgia. In Culture and Truth. Pp. 68-90. New Tropes of Inclusion/Exclusion 26th Sahlins, Marshall 1994 Goodbye to Tristes Tropes, In Borofsky, R., ed. Assessing Cultural Anthropology. New York: McGraw Hill. Ong, Aihwa 1996 Cultural citizenship as subject-making. Current Anthropology 37(5): 37-762. November 28th - December 7th Read: Chavez, The Latino Threat Interstitial lives 28th Discuss Chavez. Review Intro - p. 43.

The Politicization of Moral Identities 30th Discuss Chavez. Pp. 44-95

December Cultural Boundaries and Psycho-Social Insecurities 3rd Film: In the Shadow of the Law

Marginality and (Re)Negotiation of Identity 5th Discuss Chavez. Review pp. 96-151. Final Drafts of Projects Due. Receive Final Examination Questions

Daily Practices and Political Dilemmas 7th Discuss Chavez. pp. 152 - 188.

Final examination week 10th 14th Our exam will be held on December 10th at 4:00 P. M. in Wilson I-132. Final exam papers may be submitted on D2L. If you choose to submit a printed copy, it must be turned ,in no later than 5:50 in Wilson I-132.