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Ephesians 11. Philippians 12. Colossians 13. I Thessalonians 14. II Thessalonians 15. I Timothy 16. II Timothy 17. Titus 18. Philemon 19. Hebrew 20. James 21. I Peter 22. II Peter 23. I John
Traditional Authorship Attribution Matthew Mark Luke John the Son of Zebedee Luke Paul Paul Paul Paul Paul Paul Paul Paul Paul James the brother of Jesus Peter John the son of
Conclusion Based on Main Reasons Why Result of Critical Research Does no Agree with Tradition Critical Research False False False False False True False True Doubtful True Doubtful False True False False False False Difference in style and vocabulary The existence of a highly organized church (I Tim 3:15), with definite creeds (I Tim 1:13, 4:6), and written gospels (I Timothy 3:16) seem presupposed in these three epistles. No internal evidence suggest Pauline authorship. The cultured language of the epistle could not have been derived from a Palestinian with a humble background. It is unlikely that a Jew, whose mother tongue was Aramaic, could write the polished literary Greek of the epistle. Author exhibits an extensive knowledge of Greek and Greek philosophical ideas. Highly improbable for an uneducated Galilean peasant. (Acts 4:13) Author introduces himself in II John and III John as John the Elder, a different person from Difference in style and vocabulary Style is sluggish, unlike Paul's violatile one. The obvious dependence of this gospel on the gospel of Mark (who is a non eyewitness)means that it could not have been written by Matthew, who would have been an eyewitness to most of the events. The John Mark referred to in Acts 12:12 could not have made the geographical mistakes committed by the gospel (Mark 7:31, 5:1-13) The internal evidence points towards a late date of composition, circa 100 CE. Certain historical errors in Luke-Acts made it unlikely that Luke was the author. Presence of Greek philosophy, mysticism and dogma that could not reasonable be expected of an unschooled Galilean peasant (Acts 4:13). Same reason as Luke. -
24. II John 25. III John 26. Jude 27. Revelation
Zebedee Jude the brother of Jesus John the son of Zebedee False False
John the son of Zebedee. Based on literary style a mid-second century document. No internal claim that the author is John son of Zebedee. John was a very common Hebrew name.
Galatians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians
Apostle Paul Apostle Paul Apostle Paul
A.D. 48 A.D. 50 A.D. 50 A.D. 45 John Wenham / John A. T. Robinson A.D. 55 A.D. 56 A.D. 57 A.D. 38
A.D. 50 A.D. 52 A.D. 52 A.D. 60 A. Harnack A.D. 55 A.D. 56 A.D. 57 A.D. 62
A.D. 48 A.D. 51 A.D. 51
1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Romans James
Apostle Paul Apostle Paul Apostle Paul James (half-brother of Jesus)
A.D. 55 A.D. 56 A.D. 57 A.D. 50-60
D. 60-62 A. 60 A. 57-62 A. 60-62 A. 64 A. 62-63 A. 60-62 A.D.D. 90's . 60-62 A.D. 63 A. 62 A.D. 68 A.D. 40 A. 68 A.D. 69 A. 60-62 A. 62-63 A. 60-62 A. 110 Paul Minear A.D. 85 A. Lamar Cribbs A.D. 65-80 John A. 60-62 A.D.D.D.D. 57-62 A.D.D. 64-67 A.D.D.D.D. 90's A. 64 A. 65-70 Jude Jude (half-brother of Jesus) Apostle John A. 60-62 A.D.D. 60-62 A.D. 64 A.D. 64 A.D.D. 60's F.D.D.D.D. 50-68 Matthew Apostle Matthew A. 62-63 A.D.D.D. 63 A. 60-62 A. 65-68 A.D.D. 63 A.D.D.D. Robinson A.D.D.D.Luke Ephesians Philippians Colossians Philemon Acts Titus 1 Timothy 2 Timothy 1 Peter 2 Peter Hebrews Luke Apostle Paul Apostle Paul Apostle Paul Apostle Paul Luke Apostle Paul Apostle Paul Apostle Paul Apostle Peter Apostle Peter Unknown A. 57-62 A.D. T.D.D. 60-62 A. 62 A.D. 64 A. 40 John Wenham / John A. 63 A.D. 60-62 A.
97 A.8 comment: Sin is indeed in man. but with the Spirit of the living GOD.7 comment: The last of the Ten Commandment told Paul of the lust of the sinful nature we all have. For apart from the law sin was dead. except the law had said. It is similar with the will of man and the law." ---v. 98 A."---v.D."---2. No one knows that lime has heat until we pour water on it. that being dead wherein we were held: that we should serve in newness of spirit.D. not in tables of stone. 98 A."---verse 6 Note: The letter of the law kills unless there is a Holy Spirit from GOD directly to us who makes it alive we are not delivered from the condemnation and dominance of the law. written not with ink. As an analogy we may refer to the heat in lime.D. 98 A.D. The water did not create the heat in the lime.Cor. we gladly obey GOD and not sin[6:16].D 90's A. Thou shalt not covet. but in fleshly tables of the heart. I had not known sin.D. 90's A. comment: This is the very new covenant of the new testament that GOD writes love for His holy law into our hearts and mind [Hebrews 8:10] "What shall we say then? Is the law sin? GOD forbid. 68 A. 90's A. "But sin.1 John 2 John 3 John Revelation Apostle John Apostle John Apostle John Apostle John Unknown Unknown Unknown A. No. and not in the oldness of the letter. produced in me all manner of evil desire. but by the law: for I had not known lust. As he wrote to the church at Corinth: "For as much as you are manifestly declared to be the epistle of CHRIST ministered by us. Than heat has an opportunity to show itself. 95-97 "But now we are delivered from the law. Then he burns all the more with the fires of sin though it is not the fault of the law. .D.D. But it is by GOD'S grace that the fires are extinguished.D.3:3. When we have come alive in CHRIST. taking opportunity by the commandment. but made it manifest. but no one knows it until man learns to know the law.
Gal."---v. This ties in all together and we can see why by GODs commandments sin becomes exceedingly sinful and abhorrent to us.13. "For sin taking occasion by the commandment."---v. working death in me by that which is good. sin revived and I died. 6:2. Sin remains in us."---v. 1. The carnal does not fight at all.14 comment: GODs holy moral law of the Ten Commandments are spiritual as GOD Himself. cf. or according to my spiritual nature. a trained Pharisee could have been without the law. but readily yields to sin. . We are certainly carnal but no longer sold out to sin when we are born again.11 comment: Our sinful nature is indeed deceitful and desperately wicked above all things [Jer. I found to bring death."I was alive once without the law. 2:17."---v. Paul shows a strong hatred for the flesh and a sincere love or the law and all that which is good. They must have the wrong spirit as we shall see shortly in verse 14 because GODs law is spiritual. 9:27 " For we know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal sold under sin. and the commandment holy. he rather hates the law and follows his flesh. and by it killed me.Cor.17:9] and the commandment he is speaking of in every verse since verse 7. When we are converted and have our sins forgiven it should bring death to our carnal nature.15. that it may appear sin."---v. 7:7. is the last of the 10 Commandments that showed Paul and also us the lust of the flesh that is covetous and must be kept under.10 comment: The Apostle means to say: This I recognized in the spirit. "And the commandment.12. But sin. 3:21]. deceived me. "Was then that which is good made death unto me? GOD forbid. It is only by the Holy Spirit convicting us of sin and empowering us that we can be victorious over sin.9 comment: Amazing how Paul.12 comment: you will find many Christians today that will not say this of the Ten Commandment law of GOD but speak passionately against it.13 comment: It is well for us to look up all the verses in which the apostle Paul in the KJV says that which GOD forbids [Romans 3:31. that sin by the commandment might become exceeding sinful. which was to bring life. "Wherefore the law is holy. You wonder why. and good. they are Christians by name only. A carnal man never does this."---v. but it does no longer reign. but when the commandment came. and just. or as a new man. But like so many Christians today.
that. Paul speaks of the carnal nature inside us that is sold under sin."---v. that do I. warring against the law of my mind. So then with the mind I myself serve the law of GOD. dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me: but how to perform that which is good I find not. He is married to the "old man" of carnality [7:24."---v.17 "For I know that in me [that is in my flesh].13:23] no."---v."---v. but sin that dwelleth in me.19 comment: We would say. His is not referring to church members. " If then I do that which I would not."---v." For that which I do I allow not: for what I would. but sin that dwelleth in me."---v. or. " For I delight in the law of GOD after the inward man: But I see another law in my members. but with the flesh the law of sin. when I would do good.16 " Now then it is no more I that do it. they can't. it is no more I that do do it. " I find then a law. for the rest of this chapter. can the Ethiopian change his skin. and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.18 " For the good that I would I do not: but the evil which I would not. " Now if I do that which I would not.25 . that I do."---v."---v."---v. I consent unto the law that it is good. or the Leopard his spots? [Jer.23 comment: No doubt here that the apostle Paul compares the holy law of GOD with his unholy law of sin inside himself that is now in conflict since his conversion to CHRIST.21 He discovers that he is tied to a carnal nature from which he cannot escape. but what I hate. I couldn't help it. The law convicts and condemns him [7:7].15 comment: Surely.20 comment: In other words. Only a converted man delights in the law of GOD after the inward man! " O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death? I thank GOD through JESUS CHRIST our LORD.6:6]. He can't divorce himself from that nature.22. that I do not. evil is present with me. neither can we change ourselves. because it is not until chapter eight that the apostle presents the solution to the dilemma. the Devil made me do it.
Little children go to heaven. "Thou shall not" it sometimes makes us want to do it. The same is true of the Law. become death to me? By no means! But in order that sin might be recognized as sin. The law aroused in us the opposite effect than what was intended. "Do not covet. sin is dead. not intending to harm them. righteous and good. 11 For sin. produced in me every kind of covetous desire. This does not prove that the law is evil. 12 So then. but through the law. it produced death in me through what was good. Every parent who has ever made a rule for their children did it for the sake of their children. The Law intended to show us our sinfulness. 9 Once I was alive apart from law. A rule is Indeed I would not have known what sin was except made originally to help keep you from sin or mistakes.7 What shall we say. and the commandment is holy. then? Is the law sin? Certainly not! The law is not sin anymore than a rule is sin. deceived me. This shows it is possible to be spiritually alive before becoming old enough to accept Christ. then. the law is holy. For us to disobey the Law shows our rebellion. For I would not have known what it is inadequate to do it. When a law says. but when the commandment came. 13 Did that which is good. . through the commandment sin might become utterly sinful. so that through the commandment sin might become utterly sinful. 10 I found that the very commandment that was intended to bring life actually brought death. and through the commandment put me to death. only that we were evil and rebellious. coveting really was if the law had not said." 8 But sin. seizing the opportunity afforded by the commandment. Teenagers without rules may still do the same things that kids with rules do but the one with the rules show their rebellion. seizing the opportunity afforded by the commandment. sin sprang to life and I died. For apart from law.
by no means. but what I hate I do. holy life on our own. 19 For what I do is not the good I want to do. that is. it is no longer I who do it. Verse 7. as usual.14 We know that the law is spiritual. 17 As it is. ÎµÎ·Î³ÎµÏ‚Î¿Î¹Ï„Î¿. Is the law sin? The apostle had said. no. For I have the desire to do what is good. 16 And if I do what I do not want to do. it is no longer I myself who do it. in my I cannot carry it out. evil is right there with me. 20 Now if I do what I do not want to do. but it is sin living in me that does it. Law is only the means of disclosing. this sinful propensity. Spirit. Romans 7:6: The motions of sins. For what I want to do I do not do. but it is sin living in me. 18 I know that nothing good lives in me. Paul shows the WILL is eventually useless in overcoming sin. not of producing it. None of us can carry out the I cannot carry it out. In the next verses. I agree that the law is good. "Is therefore the law sin?" To which he answers. but these were not introduced by the light: they were there . the evil I This is a description of his life without the power of the do not want to do-. but I am unspiritual. sinful nature. as a bright beam of the sun introduced into a room shows.this I keep on doing. and now he anticipates an objection. but but he could not carry it out. which were by the law. did bring forth fruit unto death. sold as a slave to sin. 15 I do not understand what I do. Paul had the willingness to live holy. millions of motes which appear to be dancing in it in all directions. 21 So I find this law at work: When I want to do good.
Locke and Dr. but leaves him under the power of sin. I very far from charging the law with favouring sin. It recommends what is just. the giving offence to the Jews: and this is particularly evident in his use of the word I in this place. 2. discovering and condemning sin in all its most secret and remote branches. and injurious. for itself is its highest rule. In the beginning of the chapter. Romans 3:7. where he mentions their knowledge of the law. and says we. or. says the apostle. The law is holy. I had not known sin. only there was not light enough to make them manifest. he uses the singular pronoun. why am I judged a sinner? when he evidently means the whole body of unbelieving Jews. Taylor have properly remarked the skill used by St. just. He knew that the Jew would take fire at the least reflection on the law. but by the law Mr. Romans 7:5. to be applied as a rule both of passion and practice. turn of writing I ever met with. So. Romans 7:12. It is not likely that a dark. "What!" says this Jew. "do you vilify the law. which he held in the highest veneration. Romans 7:7. 3. Romans 7:14. which were by the law. where he represents the power of sin and the inability of the law to subdue it. and right. we should have done precisely what many nations of the earth have done. and therefore he very naturally introduces him catching at that expression. his demonstrating the insufficiency of the law under colour of vindicating it. Paul in dexterously avoiding. and good and forbids what is improper. And yet. and good. inRomans 7:4the 4th verse he joins himself with them. Hislaw is his will. If God had not revealed himself by this law. and speaks altogether in the first person. he says YE. so the evil propensity was there before. That the law requires the most extensive obedience. There is another circumstance in which his address is peculiarly evident. We have another instance of the same sort. but there was not light sufficient to discover it. but here. unjust. . That it gives sin a deadly force. subjecting every transgression to the penalty of death. and the sentence of death. and sin for acts of holiness. the motions of sins. and the commandment is holy. though it is plain he means all those who are under the law. and yet at the same time shows: 1.before. Thus he writes in vindication of the law. supplies neither help nor hope to the sinner. While the human heart is its own measure it will rate its workings according to its own propensities. who have not had this revelation-put darkness for light. and so to the end of the chapter. Romans 7:8-14. notwithstanding the law.Romans 13:1-7. by charging it with favouring sin?" By no means. he appears to leave them out. as much as possible. corrupt human heart can discern the will of God. But when God gives a true insight of his own perfections.
Carm. if the law had not said. the strongest propensity is excited towards that which isprohibited. is irritated by its very bonds. i. 25." HOR. cupimusque negata. iv. and to desire especially to do that which is forbidden. xxxiv. and thus determined that thepropensity itself. Od." Audax omnia perpeti Gens humana ruit per vetitun.then sin is discovered. lib. ingratum est. Sick men long most to drink. would have passed for naturaland necessary operations. quod non licet. to be exceedingly sinful. because they appear to be inherent in our nature. 3:Quod licet. It is natural for man to do what is unlawful. ver. ver. Ib. "Luxury. xix. So strong propensities. "The presumptuous human race obstinately rush into prohibited acts of wickedness. E. as well as its outward operations. Eleg. lib. 4:Luxuria-ipsis vinculis. Thus LIVY. irtitata. like a wild beast. acrius urit. iii. and their sinfulness would not have been discovered. is sinful. lib. The heathens have remarked this propensity in man. nefas. iii." . 17:Nitimur in vetitum semper. Amor. The law is thestraight edge which determines the quantum of obliquity in the crooked line to which it is applied. Thou shalt not covet." And again. "What is lawful is insipid. "Vice is provoked by every strong restraint. who know they mayn't. and discovered too. ii. And OVID. sicut fera bestia. ver.
and Î¿Ï•Î¼Î·. represented as a murdererwatching for life. and his fierceness is irritated by restraints. iii. Romans 7:11. "I will do it. both in this and in the 11th verse. within him. and their correspondingpractices. Waterland translates the clause. evil and irregular desires and appetites of every kind. Xenophon uses Î±Ï†Î¿ÏÎµÎ±Î¹ÎµÎ¹Ï‚Ï„Î¿Î´Î²Î¹Î¿Î´ to signify whatever is necessary for the support of life. sin. by thus increasing the evil. on the evidence of those sinful dispositions. Taylor contends that all commentators have mistaken the meaning of it. and. Dr. and that it should be rendered having received FORCE. thelaw. taking ADVANTAGE. irritaturque retenta Et crescit rabies: remoraminaque ipsa nocebant. lib. this murderer can only destroy life in certain circumstances. and snatching at every means and embracing every opportunity to carry his fell purpose into effect. Verse 8. The word appears to signify.The same poet delivers the same sentiment it another place:Acrior admonitu est. Dr. becomes the instrument of exciting the evil propensity. and thus it is represented as being slain. fallen nature." . Prohibitions become incentives to greater acts of vice. taking occasion by the commandment I think the pointing. ver. Sin. There is a personification in the text: sin is. Thus the veryprohibition. for. condemns the sinner to death: so that he is dead in law. But sin taking occasion. he becomes the more obstinate. in general. exposes the soul to more condemnation. he takes occasion from this to work in the soul all manner of concupiscence. 566. METAM." But it is needless to multiply examples. has been felt and acknowledged by ALL mankind. That is. finding that the law condemns the object of his cruelty to death. wrought in me by this commandment all manner of concupiscence. "Being admonished. There are different opinions concerning the meaning of the word Î±Ï†Î¿Ï•Î¼Î·. this most wicked principle of a sinful. from. The miserable sinner has a murderer. impetus. although a sinner has the general propensity to do what is evil. and not after commandment. which we here translate occasion. to be wrong: the comma should be after occasion. whatsoever is necessary for the completion or accomplishment of any particular purpose. For this acceptation of the word I can find no adequate authority except in its etymology-Î±Ï€Î¿. as we have already seen in the preceding verse. yet he seems to feel most delight in transgressingknown law: stat pro ratione voluntas. Sin. because I will.
sin revived. for sin is the transgression of the law. had not power to slay the sinner. Taylor thinks that Ï‡Ï‰ÏÎ¹Ï‚Î´Î¿ÎµÎ¿Î´. and he was the more strongly incited to disobey in proportion as obedience was enjoined. where there is no statute by which such a fault is made a capital offence. This is farther explained in the next verse. was dead in law. and then the principle of rebellion. and the Jew died. he did not consider that the law tried the heart and its workings. The word ÎµÏ€Î¹Î¸Ï…ÎµÎ¹Î±. received force or advantage to destroy by the commandment. according to Dr.For without the law. without the law. The Jew was thenalive. with the penalty of death annexed. Where there is no law there is no transgression. it is generally taken to signify irregular and unholy desires. in his unconverted Jewish state. which we render concupiscence. Dr. but when the commandment came. which is sin. Taylor's hypothesis. but no power to pardon sin. But it seems also consistent with the apostle's meaning. the law was not re-enacted till it was given by Moses. means the timebefore the giving of the law from Mount Sinai. which took in the space of 430 years. the sting of death. which seems essential to the very nature of sins rose up against the prohibition. or to be. For without the law. had not the proper knowledge of the law-while he was unacquainted with its spirituality. as well as outward actions. what is contrary to the holiness and authority of GOD. and the Jew. sin was dead.11. and without the law that was given on Mount Sinai. signifies simplystrong desire of any kind. because he was not under the law subjecting him to death for his transgressions. This means. the time previous to the giving of the law. from the time that Adam sinned. . for. during which time the people were under the Abrahamic covenant of grace. He felt evil desire. to interpret the place as implying the time in which Paul. Sin in the mind is the desire to do. Thus the apostle shows that the law had authority to prohibit. See before. upon the first transgression. sin was dead. but he did not know the evil of it. Romans 5:13. Then the sting of death acquired life. It showed what was evil and forbade it. condemn. root out enmity. Romans 7:8. and no fault can be imputed unto death. All manner of concupiscence. or save the soul. anddestroy. the sting of death. Thus sin. but in the New Testament.
e. therefore. forbidding it under the penalty of death. but because then no law condemned them? Sin. and the strength of sin is the law. Hebrews 12:4: Ye have not yet resisted unto blood. i. or made them subject to death. sin was dead. When. How were men living before the law. in Scripture. Romans 7:23.e. as to its condemning power. and get the dominion over us. For though sin was in the world from Adam to Moses. to surround and beset us. it takes occasion thence more earnestly to tempt and allure to the violation of it. and this sense the antithesis requires. to bring us into bondage and subjection.) sin revived. and I died. James 1:14-16. so that death reigned from that interval by virtue of Adam's sinalone. and so slew them. from the law of Moses. WhenceChrysostom. Romans 5:20. to .e. that so it may more effectually subject us to death and condemnation on that account. he deceived them. then. And in this sense the apostle seems to say. yet it was not imputed unto death. Genesis 3:13. i. it finds a law which threatens death to the violater of it. but when the commandment came. when God had forbidden. and I died. condemning us to death for transgressing it. which brought death into the world. whichentered that the offence might abound. elsewhere. but when the commandment came. toentice us. but I was living. and to do all that Satan. represents sin as an armed and flagrant adversary. as to its power of condemning to death. doth. Romans 6:12. sin revived. as to its power of condemning. or until the law was given. Hebrews 12:1. even over them who had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression. which is the word used . 1 Peter 2:11. It is here said to war against the mind. Romans 7:11. against a positive law. the grand enemy of mankind. How did they die when the law came but by the law condemning them to death? Sin therefore revived. for the sting of death is sin. it got strength to draw me to sin. Ï€ÏÎ¿Ï‚Ï„Î·Î´Î±ÎµÎ±ÏÏ„Î¹Î±Î´ Î±Ï‚Ï„Î±Î³Ï‰Î´Î¹Î¶Î¿ÎµÎµÎ´Î¿Î¹. Sin is. forbidding it under that penalty. without the law. and reign more unto death. sin revived. the law was added because of transgressions. and next. and takes all occasions to effect it. i. on pain of death. Thus.e. which it received first from the sin of Adam. Whitby paraphrases the verse thus:-"For the seed of Abraham was alivewithout the law once.Verse 9. by virtue of a law which threatened death. means.21. 1 Timothy 2:14. Galatians 3:19. to war against the soul. which law being delivered by Moses. and to work our death. The phrase. and to condemn me to death. Satan thence took occasion to tempt our first parents to transgress. ÎµÎ¶Î·Ï€Î±Ï„Î·ÏƒÎµ. (i. must be then dead. without the law. I being not obnoxious to death for that to which the law had not threatened death. sin was dead. Î±Î¼Î±ÏÏ„Î¹Î±Î´ÎµÎºÏÎ±ÎµÎ³Ï‰Î´ÎµÎµÎ¶Ï‰Î´. represented as an enemy that seeks our ruin and destruction. that sin was then (before the law was given) comparatively dead. the eating the fruit of the tree of knowledge. when there was no law that did threaten death. before the law was given. by tempting us to the commission of it. striving against sin. I was alive without the law once Dr. the law. it had again its force to condemn men as before to death. therefore. upon those words.
by transgressing it. to whom he had been showing the absolute insufficiency of the law either to justify or save from sin: I do not intimate that there is any thing improper or imperfect in the law as a rule of life: it prescribes what is holy. worketh wrath. . Genesis 3:13. or no such sense of the Divine wrath as where a plain Divine law. Ifound. He lives a dying life. The LAW. Romans 4:15. is violated. taking occasion Sin. just. independence. and good. die. deriving strength from the law. is not less so. It is well known to scholars that the verb Î±Ï€Î¿ÎºÏ„ÎµÎ¹Î´ÎµÎ¹Î´ signifies not only to slay or kill. but also tomake wretched. Verse 10. And by it slew me. threatening death to the transgressor. for it comes from a holy. because where no law is there is no transgression. to soothe his countrymen. And the commandment Meaning the law in general. Wherefore the law is holy As if he had said. sooner or later.convince us of the wrath and punishment due to them. Verse 11. and must. (See Clarke on Romans 7:8. Subjected me to that death which the law denounced against transgressors. just. and see the Septuagint. and good God. and the COMMANDMENT. subjecting us to wrath. which is to regulate the heart. deceived me. but it neither pardons sin nor purifies the heart. Verse 12. which was ordained to life. therefore. and good. is holy. without affording any strength to resist sin or subdue evil propensities. All is excellent and pure." See Whitby. which is to regulate the whole of the outward conduct. Leviticus 18:5. threatening death and condemnation. and that the law.) deceived me. for it only presented the duty and laid down the penalty. drew me aside to disobedience. that it condemns transgressors to death. See the preceding note. in loco. but he is miserable in both body and mind by the influence and the effects of sin. to be unto death. and it is because it is holy. or a living death. the rule of righteousness teaching those statutes which if a man do he shall live in them. promising me gratification honour. Sin. Thou shalt not covet. for to her history the apostle evidently alludes. and uses the very same expression. just. ÎµÎ¶Î·Ï€Î±Ï„Î·ÏƒÎµÎµÎµ. Every sinner is not only exposed to death because he has sinned. and rendered me miserable during the course of life itself.
we know that the law is spiritual This is a general proposition. and yet say it is the cause of our death?" The apostle answers:-God forbid! Î³ÎµÎ´Î¿Î¹Ï„Î¿. without hope of reprieve or pardon.Verse 13. who has not fled for refuge to the hope held out by the Gospel: for. to alarm and awaken sinners. Nor do we find that true repentance takes place where the moral law is not preached and enforced. dispositions. and good. and it reproves and condemns every thing. Verse 14. that the law did not answer this end merely among the Jews in the days of the apostle. or to see the nature and necessity of the death of Christ. it is just as necessary to theGentiles to the present hour. and that the law and the commandment are holy. therefore. For. The law is not to be considered as a system of external ritesand ceremonies. And let it be observed. when we saw it subjected us to death by a law perfectly holy. by the law. The law. at best only heal the hurt of the daughter of my people slightly. nor even as a rule of moral action: it is a spiritual system. thoughts. is the grand instrument in the hands of a faithful minister. it reaches to the most hidden purposes. in this sense also. Thus it appears that man cannot have a true notion of sin but by means of the law of God. by no means: it is not the law that is the cause of your death. . Jesus Christ is the END of the LAWfor justification to them that believe. It would be almost impossible for a man to have that just notion of the demerit of sin so as to produce repentance. might be represented what it really is:-ÎºÎ±Î¸Ï…Ï€ÎµÏÎ²Î¿Î»Î·Î´Î±ÎµÎ±ÏÏ„Ï‰Î»Î¿Ï‚. an EXCEEDING GREAT and deadly evil. as well as to be a rule of life. And it was one design of the law to show the abominable and destructive nature of sin. it was sin which subjected us to death by the law. and desires of the heart and soul. Those who preach only theGospel to sinners. For this I have already given sufficient reasons in the preceding notes. and he may safely show that every sinner is under the law. just. that sin. if the law were not applied to his conscience by the light of the Holy Spirit. in the apostle's autograph. "Do you allow the law to be good. and sold under sin. just. but sin. it is then alone that he sees himself to be carnal. concluded the above sentence. Was then that which is good made death unto me? This is the question of the Jew. that is contrary to eternal truth and rectitude. justly threatening sin with death: which law was given that sin might appear-might be set forth in its own colours. and good. and probably. and consequently under the curse. with whom the apostle appears to be disputing.
solely respects the unregenerate. That by the former is theknowledge. of the former." This opinion has. in the apostle's letter. in opposition to the spirituality of God's holy law. by the latter the cure. saying. true of himself. The expressions. to fulfil the lusts thereof. but destroyed its influence and disgraced its character. he is at enmity with God. that appeared unto thee in the way. Therefore by I here he cannot meanhimself. The Scriptures. I am carnal. in such a state. never was a more complete or accurate description given. a man is in a state of death and enmity against God. Of the carnal man. This was probably. or any Jew while without Christ. and had not as yet heard those blessed words: Brother Saul. . It requires but little knowledge of the spirit of the Gospel. Romans 8:5. Romans 13:14. In all these things the spiritual man is the reverse. either personating a Jew under the law and without the Gospel. and be filled with the Holy Ghost. and the Spirit of God dwells in him. He minds the things of the flesh. and he. or to be carnally minded. that the apostle is here demonstrating the insufficiency of the law in opposition to the Gospel. But I am carnal. in opposition to thespiritual. the Lord Jesus. To be in the flesh. most pitifully and most shamefully. or prevailed there. he mindeth the things of the Spirit. sold under sin. and the law of God.9 the word carnal in this verse. and in . This is St. The soul of such a man has no authority over the appetites of the body and the lusts of the flesh: reason has not the government of passion. it is spiritual. Paul's own account of a carnal man. that "the apostle speaks here of his regenerate state. In this and the following verses he states the contrariety between himself. Now the apostle begins this passage by informing us that it is his carnal state that he is about to describe. mortifies the deeds of the flesh. place these two characters in direct opposition to each other. in the flesh. Of the latter he says. Romans 8:5. to see that the apostle is. nor any Christian believer: if the contrary could be proved. or showing what his own state was when he was deeply convinced that by the deeds of the law no man could be justified. and after the flesh. he lives in a state of friendshipwith God in Christ. Acts 9:17. and of the scope of this epistle. here. the argument of the apostle would go to demonstrate the insufficiency of the Gospel as well as the law. by the Spirit. his passions submit to the government of reason. hath sent me that thou mightest receive thy sight. The work of such a person is to make provision for the flesh. on all hands.8. 8:5. must be true of all others in the same state. and that what was. not only lowered the standard of Christianity. While unregenerate. of sin. sold under sin. Romans 8:6-9. It is difficult to conceive how the opinion could have crept into the Church. the beginning of a new paragraph. therefore. I believe it is agreed. in Romans 7:5. his soul has dominion over the appetites of the body and the lusts of the flesh.But I am carnal.
Those who are of another opinion maintain that by the word carnal here the apostle meant that corruption which dwelt in him after his conversion. which is under control. had been sufficiently significant of all he meant. nor. to any Christian in that state. indeed. opposite epithets are given to grace or holiness. 1 Kings 21:20.14. in its strongest sense. The sale of slaves they saw daily. although there may be. cannot be applied to St. And if a man be actually sold to another. they yield not up their members as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin. Paul after his conversion. 15. sold under sin. And of the Jews it is said. and the apostle compares the dominion which sin has over the man in question to that of a master over his legal slave. Christ came to deliver the lawful captive. and he acquiesce in the deed. Isaiah 50:1. in their utmost depravity. i. hence he adds. the captives became the slaves of their victors. which is the characteristic designation of an unregenerate man. for your iniquities have ye sold yourselves. though used by the apostle to signify a state of death and enmity against God. to describe the full depravity of fallen man. because the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has made them free from the law of sin and death. From all this it follows that the epithetcarnal. why add to this charge another expression still stronger? We must therefore understand the phrase. and by them were sold to any purchaser. But the word carnal. Now. as implying that the soul wasemployed in the drudgery of sin. 1 Macc. yet the man is never denominated from the inferiorprinciple. and take away the prey from the mighty. their slavery was as complete and perpetual as if the slave had resigned his own liberty. that it was sold over to this service. but this opinion is founded on a very great mistake. when regular cartels were not known. and sold himself: the laws of the land secured him to his master. after justification. he . Whatever epithets are given to corruption or sin in Scripture. the remains of the carnal mind. and had no power to disobey this tyrant. which will be less or more felt till the soul is completely sanctified. Anciently. and joined themselves to the heathen. This state of bondage was well known to the Romans.. and could not misunderstand the emphatical sense of this expression. then he becomes the legal property of that other person. sold under sin. until it was redeemed by another. and WERE SOLD to do mischief. Then. for. Romans 6:13. This is one of the strongest expressions which the Spirit of God uses in Scripture. they are free indeed. Universally through the Scriptures man is said to be in a state of bondage to sin until the Son of God make him free: but in no part of the sacred writings is it ever said that the children of God are sold under sin. if the word carnal. but from the superior principle which habitually prevails. is not sufficient to denote all the evil of the state which he is describing. for sin shall not have the dominion over them. Behold. Sin is here represented as a person.Whom the Son maketh free. They forsook the holy covenant. 8:2. By these different epithets are theunregenerate and regenerate denominated. It implies a willing slavery: Ahab had sold himself to work evil.
Verse 15. For. and he concludes in the last verse. and under the absolute control of my tyrannical master: I hate his service. The apostle speaks here. or principle. on the carnal man's character. and wills and chooses what the other does not practise. the mind. This principle he expressly tells us. the word here denotes an employment of adifferent kind. or sin that dwells in us. clause of this verse is a general assertion concerning the employment of the person in question in the state which the apostle calls carnal. Romans 7:18. And it is very . sold under sin. Romans 7:22. to denote the continued employment of God's saints in his service to the end of their lives. therefore it is evident that those two principles. I am carnal. or rational faculty. in a person who was carnal and sold under sin. that sin had a full and permanent dominion over him. or figurative persons. Romans 7:16. here. Who. assents to the law that it is good. or sensual appetite. WORK OUT your own salvation. says Dr. the law of the mind. Î¿Ï…Î³Î¹Î´Ï‰ÏƒÎºÏ‰. What I am continually labouring at I allow not. but the rational faculty. But what I hate. The otherI. holy. that which I do. is the inward man. because it determines the general scope of the whole passage. residing and counteracting each other in the same person. he only asserts the fact. representing two different and opposite principles which were in him. that these two principles were opposite to each other. he divides that I into two I's. Romans 7:25. for he could find no other inward man.-Smith. Romans 7:23. but am obliged to work his will. I do not acknowledge to be right. and sold under sin. without blaspheming. and is used by the apostle. I allow not. and does those things which the former principle allows not. Taylor. I am a slave. Romans 7:23. are reason and lust. Philippians 2:12. The one I. or law of the mind. just. Romans 7:23. means a work which the agent continues toperform till it is finished. The Greek word ÎºÎ±Ï„ÎµÏ•Î³Î±Î¾Î¿Î¼Î±Î¹ which is here translated I do. and nothing could rescue him from that state but a stipulated redemption. can assert that the apostle is speaking this of a man in whom the Spirit of the Lord dwells? From Romans 7:7to this one the apostle. transgresses the law. or profitable. the law in the members.could not redeem himself. denotes the Jew in the flesh by a single I. and therefore the man who now feels the galling dominion of sin says. I have been the more particular in ascertaining the genuine sense of this verse. because he had nothing that was his own. This principle he expressly tells us. not of the manner in which the person in question became a slave. that do I. or principle. is the flesh.
from which nothing can deliver him but a principle and power proceeding from the fountain of life. Deteriora sequor. Eun. in which. I esteem it highly. yea. it appears intended to answer a tacit but very obvious objection. Vivus. The Jew might allege: "But the law is holy and spiritual. Met. I see the right. and I assent to it as good. I glory and rest in it. Mens aliud suadet. domineering over the light and remonstrances of reason. I add.easy to distinguish these two I's. a measure of the light of the Spirit of God shines. and yet the wrong pursue. my passion that persuades. ver. 19. the inward man. as a right rule of action. but SIN that dwelleth in me. My reason this. aliudque cupido. OVID. convinced of its truth and excellency. proboque. 70. TERENT. Video meliora. And is not this enough to constitute the law a sufficient principle of sanctification?" The apostle answers. ver. (and expressed it in nearly the same language. vidensque pereo: nec quid agam scio. and yet still be under the dominion of lust and sin. or principles. A man may assent to the best rule of action. sciens. or law of the mind." The sentiment in this verse may be illustrated by quotations from the ancient heathens. one flesh. Galatians 5:17. Romans 7:17: Now then. "No. and the other spirit. The I he speaks of here is opposed to indwelling or governing sin. in every part of this elegant description of iniquity. it is no more I that do it. For instance. --------indignum facinus! nunc ego et Illam scelestam esse.) which some most monstrously tell us was the state of this heavenly apostle. Condemn the wrong. wickedness is consistent with a sense of truth. These two different principles he calls. and I approve it too. which ought to be observed. and therefore plainly denotes the principle of reason. et me miserum sentio: Et taedet: et amore ardeo: et prudens. when vindicating the claims of the Gospel against those of the Jewish ritual! Thus OVID describes the conduct of a depraved man:Sed trahit invitam nova vis. where he speaks of their contrariety in the same manner that he does here. vii. And we may give a probable reason why the apostle dwells so long upon the struggle and opposition between these two principles. many of whom felt themselves in precisely the same state. . lib. in order to show the sinfulness of sin.
E. -----------But I am overcome by sin. I burn with love. and what he wills not he doth. Whate'er may do me good. Sed quia mente minus validus. Although prudent. is more powerful than my reason. ii. i. quae profore credam. 8. Which is the cause of the greatest evils to mortal men. truly. For. he who sins does not will sin.An unworthy act! Now I perceive that she is wicked. and intelligent. Quae nocuere. and am vexed at it. and seeing. but wishes to walk uprightly: yet it is manifest that what he wills he doth not. Med. Î¸Ï…ÎµÎ¿Ï‚Î´ÎµÎºÏÎµÎ¹ÏƒÏƒÏ‰Î´Ï„Ï‰Î´ÎµÎµÏ‰Î´Î²Î¿Ï…Î»ÎµÏ…ÎµÎ±Ï„Ï‰Î½ Î¿ÏƒÏ€ÎµÏÎµÎµÎ³Î¹ÏƒÏ„Ï‰Î´Î±Î¹Ï„Î¿Ï‚ÎºÎ±ÎºÏ‰Î´Î²ÏÎ¿Ï„Î¿Î¹Ï‚ EURIP. ver. HOR. sequar. Epist. had that same kind of religious experience which some suppose to be. neither do I know what to do. Ep. but to be even the standard of Christian attainments! See more examples in Wetstein. 1077. I perish. v. however. 7. Î´Î·Î»Î¿Î´Î¿Ï„Î¹Î¿ÎµÎµÎ´Î¸ÎµÎ»ÎµÎ¹Î¿Ï…Ï€Î¿Î¹ÎµÎ¹ÎºÎ±Î¹Î¿ÎµÎ·Î¸ÎµÎ»ÎµÎ¹Ï€Î¿Î¹ÎµÎ¹. Î±Î»Î»Î±Î´Î¹ÎºÏ‰ÎµÎ±Î¹ÎºÎ±ÎºÎ¿Î¹Ï‚ ÎºÎ±Î¹ÎµÎ±Î´Î¸Î±Î´Ï‰ÎµÎµÎ´Î¿Î¹Î±Ï„Î¿Î»ÎµÎ·ÏƒÏ‰ÎºÎ±ÎºÎ±. fugiam. I with joy pursue. quam corpore toto. Paul in his best state. ÎµÏ€ÎµÎ¹Î³Î±ÏÎ¿Î±ÎµÎ±ÏÏ„Î±Î´Ï‰Î´Î¿Ï…Î¸ÎµÎ»ÎµÎ¹Î±ÎµÎ±ÏÏ„Î±Î´ÎµÎ¹Î´Î±Î»Î»Î±ÎºÎ±Ï„Î¿ÏÎ¸Ï‰ÏƒÎ±Î¹. lib. Thus we find that enlightened heathens. not only the experience of St. ARRIAN. with horror view. both among the Greeks and Romans. and I am wretched. Francis. And I well understand the evil which I presume to commit. 26.Chrysostom: Î¿Ï„Î±Î´Ï„Î¹Î´Î¿Ï‚ÎµÏ€Î¹Î¸Ï…ÎµÏ‰ÎµÎµÎ´ÎµÎ¹Ï„Îµ . Passion. More in my mind than body lie my pains: Whate'er may hurt me. The whole spirit of the sentiment is well summed up and expressed by St. and active.
astronomers. and excited to rebellion against God. nay. I consent unto the law. which are capable of very high . And by means of these we have seen even scoffers at Divine revelation become very eminent in arts and sciences. Verse 18.ÎºÏ‰Î»Ï…Ï‰ÎµÎµÎ¸Î±Î±Î¹ÏÎµÏ„Î±Î¹ÎµÎ±Î»Î»Î¿Î´Ï„Î·Ï‚ÎµÏ€Î¹Î¸Ï…ÎµÎ¹Î±Ï‚Î·Ï†Î»Î¿Î¶. It is true that many of the most eminent in all the above branches of knowledge have been conscientious believers in Divine revelation. yet there are some faculties that appear to have suffered less than others. he yet possesses extra-ordinary powers. properly speaking. for which there is condemnation in the law. but acts in it. confused. Verse 16. no principle by which it can be restored to purity: fleshly appetites alone prevail. For to will is present with me Though the whole soul has suffered indescribably by the FALL. and the brute runs away with the man. some of them have blasphemed it. Verse 17. Even the most unconcerned about spiritual things have understanding. by which the whole soul is darkened. Now then it is no more I It is not that I which constitutes reason and conscience. mathematicians. This is inbred and indwelling sin-the seed of the serpent. darkening my understanding. power. published-to be without religion. the operations of the wisdom. perverted. or as a tyrant. For I know that in me. There is no principle by which the soul can be brought into the light. If then I do that which I would not. that dwelleth in me-that has the entire domination over my reason. If we lust after any thing which is afterwards prohibited. that the law condemns it. a principle which is. not of the essence of the soul. but no cure. I show by this circumstance that I acknowledge the law to be good. and goodness of the Most High. as its lord. because their concurrence with the Divine principle is so necessary to the salvation of the soul. whom they call nature. or rather have received larger measures of the supernatural light. some of our best metaphysicians. andwill. experience that in an unregenerate man there isno good. and perverting my judgment. and ascribing to an idol of their own. reason. judgment. So we find here that there is a principle in the unregenerate man stronger than reason itself. but the case of the others proves that. by leaving God out of his own work. fallen as man is. and that therefore it must be evil. chemists. but sin-corrupt and sensual inclinations. physicians. the flame of this desire burns the more fiercely.
The will is right. and the doctrine of will (absurdly called free will. but what shows its fall in the most indisputable manner is its enmity to sacred things. Verse 19. and laid to the charge of the former what properly belongs to the latter. who will carefully watch the operations of this faculty. it has been considered so fell a foe to God and goodness that it is bound in the adamantine chains of a dire necessity to do evil only. When the apostle says. but is without ability to perform: it has no power over sensual appetites. or opposed to evil.cultivation and improvement. Nay. but can only command through the power of Divine grace: but this the person in question. and even by those who had theseventh chapter to the Romans before their eyes! Nay. so far that it consents to the propriety and necessity of obedience. and what systems of divinity have been built on these mistakes. or it will destroy the soul for ever. throughout this chapter. There is not a man in ten millions. as ifwill did . In short. not subjected. his carnal mind is not subject to the law of God. because sin is in opposition to God: hence the apostle says. his soul revolts against it. Let an unregenerate manpretend what he pleases. the unregenerate man. The truth is. neither indeed can it be.e. of itself. but the passionsare wrong. For the good that I would I do not Here again is the most decisive proof that the will is on the side of God and truth. as if the very essence of evil dwelt in it.-It is not the WILL that leads men astray. in these the principle of rebellion dwells: it nills evil. It discerns and approves. therefore sin must be destroyed. There is no reducing this fell principle to subjection. this almost only friend to God in the human soul. fearing. And it is not only incapable. whereas the apostle shows. The will. it cannot be subjected. ifsubjected. while the whole sensual system is against him. loving. for any truly religious acts. most conclusively. it must be destroyed. men have confounded the will with the passions. to will is present with me. i. But the evil which I would not And here is equally decisive proof that the will is against. has been slandered as God's worst enemy. it is SIN. and sin isrebellion against God. his conscience knows that he hates religion. but the corrupt PASSIONS which oppose and oppress the will. it wills good. it is found almost uniformly on God's side. as is generally supposed. he shows that the will is on the side of God and truth. has not received. that will find it opposed to good and obstinately attached to evil. while every other faculty appears to have been in hostility to him. There has been a strange clamour raised up against this faculty of the soul. and serving God. the soul seems capable of any thing but knowing. it would cease to be sin. that the will was regularly on God's side. It is truly astonishing into what endless mistakes men have fallen on this point.
and that it has not been extinguished by sin. that is.not essentially imply what is free) has been considered one of the most destructive heresies. humanly speaking. of the person represented here by the apostle. that is. Even Satan himself cannot do this. though a free principle. therefore. To will is ever in readiness. he must gain its consent. and because it is will. to acknowledge the excellence of this good. 2. without which he could not be in a salvable state. 1. as it respects its nilling of evil and choosing good. it must necessarily possess this power. and although it can do no good unless it receive grace from God. it is solicited and consents to sin. yet he can neither conquer the one nor perform the other till he receives the grace of Christ. that it has nopower to do good till it receive that power from on high. or been saved as an inert. without which there can be no actual salvation. it is said. We know that the eye has a power to discern objects. The law was never designed to give these-it gives the knowledge. from a conviction of that excellence. then. it lies constantly before me. it is ever at hand. not the cure of sin. of God. in various cases. to distinguish between that and evil. resides the salvability of the soul. the unmerited kindness. till he seeks and finds redemption in his blood. has no power by which it can subjugate the evil or perform thegood. "But does not this arguing destroy the doctrine of free grace?" No! it establishes that doctrine. but farther it cannot go. yet. Thus God in his endless mercy has endued this faculty with a power in which. Ï„Î¿Î³Î±ÏÎ¸ÎµÎ»ÎµÎ¹Î´Ï€Î±ÏÎ±ÎºÎµÎ¹Ï„Î±Î¹ÎµÎ¿Î¹. because it is a free principle. and before he can get it to sin. This will. but without light this power is perfectly useless. I find not. The plain state of the case is this: the soul is so completely fallen. It is through the grace. and no object can be discerned by it. Let such persons put themselves to school to their Biblesand to common sense. So. which supposition would go as nearly to prove that it was as incapable of vice as it were of virtue. yet it is impossible toforce it to sin. and the honour of the grace of Christ is maintained. the man is unregenerate. Here. But it has power to seegood. properly speaking. but how to perform that which is good. absolutely passive machine. Yet. There is a good sentiment on this subject in the following words of an eminent poet:- . that the soul has such a faculty. To will is present with me. though he nills evil and wills good. the free agency of manis preserved. and without this the soul must have eternally continued under the power of sin. and he is seeking justification and holiness from the law. and to will it.
without power to do what is willed. All I can say at present is that I find my good soul. I find then a law I am in such a condition and state of soul. Verse 20. not only theancients. to account for some misconduct of his relative to Panthea. that we havetwo souls. . sin continually prevails. Thus. I am convinced that I have two souls. but also many moderns. and thus subjects my reason and domineers over my soul. have trifled. vol. I am constrained to do evil. under the power of such habits and sinful propensities. and my passions. wish and abhor the same thing. to show what is evil. Romans 7:18. therefore. encouraged by thy presence. It is no more I My will is against it. but when the bad soul predominates. Left free the human will. whom Cyrus had entrusted to his care:-"O Cyrus. POPE'S Universal Prayer. and desire. as the one is only will. in his life of Cyrus." See Spectator. evil is present with me. evil is at hand. and all will continue to do so who do not acknowledge the Scriptural account of the fall of man. Two principles are continually contending in me for the mastery: my reason. ÎºÎ±ÎºÎ¿Î´Ï€Î±ÏÎ±ÎºÎµÎ¹Ï„Î±Î¹. has got the better of my bad soul. it lies constantly before me.Thou great first CAUSE. 564. my reason and conscience condemn it. Thus I am in perpetual contradiction to myself. that thou art good. Verse 21. the principle of rebellion exciting me to sin is equally present. a Persian nobleman. This strange self-contradictory propensity led some of the ancient philosophers to imagine that man has two souls. it could not at the same time pant after viceand virtue. And that myself am blind. Yet gave me in this darkestate To see the good from ill. when the good soul rules. and it is on this principle that Xenophon. No. but. viii. causes Araspes. a good and a bad one. in which the principle of sin works. I undertake noble and virtuous actions. which has possessed itself of all my carnal appetitesand passions. that when I would do goodwhen my will and reason are strongly bent on obedience to the law of God and opposition to the principle of sin. That. a beautiful female captive. And binding nature fast in fate. wish. to obtainwhat is wished. Who all my sense confined To know but this. as the will to do good is constantly at hand. or to perform what is desired. to bring forth fruit unto death. least understood. and the lively comment upon that doctrine contained in the seventh chapter of the Epistle to the Romans. if I had but one soul. It is certain. But sin that dwelleth in me-the principle of sin. on which the light of God shines.
under the influence of which the man generally acts.htm http://www.T. Do not copy without written permission. and in this sense the apostle most evidently uses it in Romans 7:23.errantskeptics. ÏƒÏ…Î´Î·Î¸ÎµÎ¹Î±.errantskeptics.5 A.org/DatingNT. as Hesychius renders it.org/Dating-1Thessalonians. professional translation Dating the New Testament The following chronological order of the New Testament books is based on the opinions of several hundred conservative and liberal scholars. D. D. Electronic copies are not allowed.5 Thessalonians Date for 2 2 32 51.htm http://www.9 51. Copyscape Protected. D. CHRONOL ORDER OGICAL YEA R AUTHOR AD 33 A.2 51. The listing of individual scholars and their dates for each book of the New Testament is provided in the links at www.2 A. in this verse.3 N.The word Î´Î¿ÎµÎ¿Ï‚. F NUMBE RANG DATE DOCUMENT R E OS Jesus Christ's Death SCHOL EARL ORDER and Resurrection ARS Y LATE Date for 1 1 35 50.4 Paul Paul Paul Listing of Individual Scholars by Name and Their Opinions 13 14 9 http://www. 51. must be taken as implying any strong orconfirmed habit.errantskeptics. 51. law. Permission is granted for up to 100 paper copies for Sunday School classes.errantskeptics.org/Dating-2Thessalonians.htm Updated 3/30/2012 Copyright Errant Skeptics Research Institute.org/Dating-Galatians. 51.9 Thessalonians Galatians 3 39 50.9 52.htm .
htm Paul Paul Paul http://www. A.htm Paul John Mark 61.htm http://www.1 D.4 D.org/Dating-Colossians. A.9 60.errantskeptics. 56.htm 65.6 66.htm http://www. A.2 D. 61.org/Dating-Philippians.errantskeptics.5 Matthew http://www.org/Dating-Romans.errantskeptics.3 D.6 D.errantskeptics. 68.errantskeptics. 64.errantskeptics. A.org/Dating-2-Corinthians.6 A. A.8 42 55.org/Dating-1-Timothy. 69. 62. D. 65.1 31 63.org/Dating-The-Gospel-ofMark.1 Corinthians 7 8 6 11 18 12 2 10 20 20 15 17 1 16 21 3 4 2 Corinthians 5 Romans 6 Philippians 7 Philemon 8 Colossians 9 Ephesians 11 12 10 James (Modified) N/A 1 Timothy 13 Titus 14 2 Timothy 17 16 15 18 Date for the Gospel of Luke Hebrews Acts 5 19 61 66.7 38 55.4 Luke Acts.2 36 59.org/Dating-James.errantskeptics.htm http://www.7 (1) http://www.errantskeptics. 66. 69. 65.htm http://www.7 61.org/Dating-The-Gospel-ofMatthew.errantskeptics. A.9 40 60.org/Dating-Titus.8 63.htm 64.3 D.1 62.3 D. 55. A.2 64.2 D.htm http://www.1 63.1 D.0 56. 55.4 A. A. 70. 64.4 D.org/Dating-Ephesians.9 51 47.7 Date for the Gospel of Matthew 1 Peter 34 71 31 70 65.org/Dating-Hebrews.1 65.htm http://www.2 56. A.1 38 60.0 52.errantskeptics.htm http://www.8 James http://www.errantskeptics.2 D.htm Luke Author Unkown(2 67.htm http://www.6 60. A. 61.7 50.2 35 62. A.errantskeptics.6 D.htm http://www.org/Dating-Philemon.3 Peter http://www.1 42 56.org/Dating-The-Book-of67.errantskeptics.errantskeptics.htm 60. A. A.0 19 20 38 64. 54.org/Dating-The-Gospel-ofLuke.errantskeptics. A. 68.0 Date for the Gospel of Mark James 37 71 69 60.2 D.0 D.htm http://www.errantskeptics.htm http://www. 57.errantskeptics.8 59.0 D. A.5 Paul Paul Paul Paul Paul Paul http://www.8 64.org/Dating-1-Corinthians.errantskeptics.org/Dating-ModifiedJames James.5 ) http://www. 61.5 D.org/Dating-1-Peter.org/Dating-2-Timothy.9 D.6 60. A.htm .
org/Dating-3-John.org/Dating-1-John.htm John the http://www.org/Dating-Jude.6 D.org/Dating-2-Peter.errantskeptics. 94.5 Apostle John.4 D.7 Peter http://www.errantskeptics. 92. 93.htm http://www.3 Apostle John the 89.errantskeptics.2 Peter 22 26 4 23 24 25 27 21 Jude 22 23 24 2 John 26 3 John 25 Revelation 27 38 90.6 Apostle John the 92. A.htm http://www.9 Date for the Gospel of John 1 John 29 60 32 68. 89.org/Dating-The-Gospel-of86.org/Dating-2-John.5 John (3) John the 90.htm 89.4 71.3 D.1 83.2 D.2 Apostle http://www.8 D. 75.errantskeptics.htm . A. A.htm http://www.4 32 86.3 D. 68.org/Dating-Revelation.errantskeptics.htm Jude http://www. 93. 69. A.2 A.errantskeptics. A. A.5 85.8 D.0 32 86.errantskeptics.8 32 67.
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