You are on page 1of 5

Figure: Fire Tube

Figure: Fire Tube Boiler Figure: Water Tube Boiler Rankine Cycle

Boiler

Figure: Fire Tube Boiler Figure: Water Tube Boiler Rankine Cycle

Figure: Water Tube Boiler

Rankine Cycle

The Rankine cycle is a steam cycle for a steam plant operating under the best theoretical conditions for most efficient operation. This is an ideal imaginary cycle against which all other real steam working cycles can be compared.

The Rankine cycle is a steam cycle for a steam plant operating under the best theoretical

Basic Rankine Cycle

Steam turbine

A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion.

Steam Turbine Principle

The steam energy is converted into mechanical work by expansion through the turbine. The expansion takes place through a series of fixed blades (nozzles) and moving blades. Each row of fixed blades and moving blades is called a stage. The moving blades rotate on the central turbine rotor and the fixed blades are concentrically arranged within the circular turbine casing which is substantially designed to withstand the steam pressure.

Impulse turbine

An impulse turbine has fixed nozzles that orient the steam flow into high speed jets. These jets contain significant kinetic energy, which the rotor blades, shaped like buckets, convert into shaft rotation as the steam jet changes direction. A pressure drop occurs across only the stationary blades, with a net increase in steam velocity across the stage.

Reaction turbines

In the reaction turbine, the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form convergent nozzles. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor. Steam is directed onto the rotor by the fixed vanes of the stator. It leaves the stator as a jet that fills the entire circumference of the rotor. The steam then changes direction and increases its speed relative to the speed of the blades. A pressure drop occurs across both the stator and the rotor, with steam accelerating through the stator and decelerating through the rotor, with no net change in steam velocity across the stage but with a decrease in both pressure and temperature, reflecting the work performed in the driving of the rotor.

An impulse turbine has fixed nozzles that orient the steam flow into high speed jets. These

Gas turbine

A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a flow of combustion gas. It has an upstream compressor coupled to a downstream turbine, and a combustion chamber in-between.

Brayton cycle

The Brayton cycle represents the operation of a gas turbine engine. The cycle consists of four processes, as shown in figure 1-2 Isentropic compression (in a compressor) 2-3 Constant pressure heat addition 3-4 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine) 4-1 Constant pressure heat rejection (2)

A gas turbine , also called a combustion turbine , is a rotary engine that extracts

Closed cycle operation

Advantages of GT plant

A gas turbine , also called a combustion turbine , is a rotary engine that extracts

Very high power-to-weight ratio.

Low weight and size.

Less start-up and shut-down time required.

Low operating pressures.

Low cost of installation.

Low lubricating oil cost and consumption.

Disadvantages of GT plant

High operating cost

Part load efficiency is low

Less responsive to changes in power demand compared to reciprocating engines