# International Mathematical Forum, Vol. 7, 2012, no.

28, 1381 - 1391

Some Results on Geometric Mean Graphs

S. Somasundaram Department of Mathematics Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli - 627 012 Tamil Nadu, India somumsu@rediffmail.com

P. Vidhyarani Department of Mathematics KG College of Arts and Science Coimbatore - 641 035 Tamil Nadu, India vidhyaranip@gmail.com

S. S. Sandhya Department of Mathematics Shree Ayyappa College Nagarcoil - 629 807 Tamil Nadu, India sssandhya2009@gmail.com

1382 S.Somasundram. S. square of a path.Ponraj and S. union of Keywords: graphs. E) with p vertices and q edges is said to be a Geometric mean graph if it is possible to label the vertices x∈V with distinct labels f(x) from 1.Vidhyarani and R. Sandhya [4] and their behaviour studied in [4] and [5]. nK3∪Cm . Terms are not defined here are used in the sense of Harary [1].crown. P. mG denotes the disjoint union of m copies of G. R. Geometric mean labeling was introduced by S. The join G1+G2 of two graphs G1 and G2 has vertex set V(G1) ∪V(G2) and edge set E(G1+G2) = E(G1) ∪E(G2) ∪{uv. Vidhyarani and S. The vertex set is denoted by V(G) and edge set is denoted by E(G). u∈V(G1) and v ∈V(G2)}. Introduction The graphs considered here will be finite.S.Ponraj in [6]. Sandhya Abstract A graphs G= (V. nK3∪Pn. Mean labeling was introduced by S. Harmonic mean labeling was introduced by S. Here we prove that Cm∪Pn. The union of two graphs G1 and G2 has vertex set V(G1) ∪V(G2) and edge set E(G1) ∪E(G2).Somasundaram and R. Ponraj [2] in 2003 and their behaviour studied in [2] and [3]. 2 … q+1 in such way that when each edge e = uv is labeled with f (uv) = ⎣ f (u ) f (v) ⎦ or ⎡ f (u ) f (v) ⎤ then the edge labels are distinct. P. square of a path are geometric mean graphs. In this paper we investigate geometric mean labeling of union of some graphs. . crown. undirected and simple graph without isolated vertices. nK3. Somasundaram. geometric mean graph. Graph. Cm∪Cn.Somasundram.

Note 2. Geometric Mean Labeling Definition 2. The set of labels of the edges of Pn is {m+1. n≥1. umu1 and Pn be the path v1v2 …vn. the vertices get labels from 1. Define a function f: V (Cm∪Pn) → {1.2 In a Geometric mean labeling of graphs. m}.. 2….1 A graph G = (V. Now we prove the following: Theorem: 2. In this case f is called a Geometric mean labeling of G. Hence Cm∪Pn is a Geometric mean graph of m≥3 and n ≥ 1.3 Cm ∪ Pn is a geometric mean graph for m ≥ 3. 2… q+1 and edge from 1. E) with p vertices and q edges said to be a Geometric mean graphs if it is possible to label the vertices x∈V with distinct elements f(x) from 1. 2 …q. 2… q +1 in such a way that when edge e =uv is labeled with ⎡ f (u ) f (v) ⎤ (or) ⎣ f (u ) f (v) ⎦ then the resulting edge labels are distinct.Some results on geometric mean graphs 1383 2. m+2…m+n-1}. . Cm and Pn are geometric mean graphs [6]. . Proof: Let Cm be the cycle u1u2 . q +1} by f (ui) = i f(vi) = m+i 1 ≤ i ≤m 1≤i≤n Then the set of labels of the edges of Cm is {1.. 2 ….

1 (1) (2) 7 5 (5) (6) 6 (7) 8 (8) 9 (9) (10) 10 11 2 (3) 3 (4) 4 Figure-1 Next we have the following: Theorem 2. v1. . m}. 3 …. u2. n≥3. Somasundaram. u3… um. q+1} by f (ui) = i. Proof: Let Cm be the cycle of the vertices u1. .1384 S.. Hence Cm∪ Cn is a geometric mean graph. 2. 1 ≤ i ≤m 1≤i≤n Then the set of labels of the edges of Cm is {1.4 Cm∪Cn is a geometric mean graph for m ≥ 3. 2 …. Sandhya Example Geometric Mean labeling of C5∪P6 is given below. f(vi) = m+i.. S. Vidhyarani and S. u1 and Cn be the cycle of the vertices v1. v2 …vn. P. Define a function f: V (Cm∪Cn) → {1. m+2 …m+n}. The set of labels of the edges of Cn is {m+1. .

. Theorem 2..6 nK3 is a geometric mean graph for n≥1 Proof: Let the vertex set of nK3 be V = V1 ∪V2 vi3} and the edge set E = E1∪E2∪ Define f : V (nK3) → {1. ei2. 2. where Ei = { ei1. .Some results on geometric mean graphs 1385 Example: Geometric mean labeling of C5∪C7 is given below 1 (1) (2) (8) 6 5 12 (5) (12) (6) 7 (7) 2 (3) 8 (9) (10) 3 (4) 4 11 (11)10 Figure 2 9 Note: 2. ei3} . 2. 3n}. Hence nK3 is a geometric mean graph for n≥ 1 …. 3 …. The set of labels of the edges of nK3 is {1. 3 …. 1 ≤ j ≤ 3. q +1} by f (Vij) = 3(i-1)+j 1 ≤ i ≤ n.. vi2 .5 Cm∪Pn and Cm∪Cn are mean graphs [2] as well as Harmonic mean graphs [5]. En …∪Vn where Vi = {vi1.

. Example: Geometric mean labeling of 2K3 ∪ P5 is given below.. The set of label of the edges of Pm is {3n+1. ei2. . Somasundaram. 1 (1) (3) (2) (4) (6) 4 (5) (7) 8 (8) 10 (9) (10) 2 3 5 6 7 Figure 4 9 11 . Proof: Let the vertex set of nK3 be U = U1 ∪ U2 ∪ U3 . 3n}.7 nK3 ∪ Pm is a geometric mean graph for n≥ 1. S. Hence nK3 ∪ Pm is geometric mean graph for n≥ 1. Vidhyarani and S. P. vm Define a function f: V (nK3 ∪ Pm) → {1. q + 1} by f (uij) = 3(i-1)+j f (vi) = 3n+i 1≤i≤n 1 ≤ j ≤ m. ui2. m≥ 1. Where Ei = { ei1. 3n+2. Sandhya Example: Geometric mean labeling of 3K3 is given below 1 4 (1) (2) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 7 (8) (9) 2 3 5 6 8 9 Figure 3 Now we have Theorem 2.. . m≥ 1. 3n+m-1}. The set of labels of the edges of nK3 is {1. 3 …. ui3} and the edge set E = E1 ∪E2 ∪E3 … ∪En ... 2. ∪Un Where Ui = { ui1. ei3} Let Pm be the path v1 v2 . 2.. 3 …. .1386 S.

1 ≤ i ≤ m.9 nK3. Proof: Let nK3 be the n copies of K3 graph. 1 4 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (9) 7 (7) 2 3 5 6 12 (12) 8 (8) 11 (11) 9 (10) 10 Figure 5 Note 2. . . ∪En The set of label of the edges of nK3 is {1.. …. 3 …. q +1} by f (uij) = 3(i-1)+j f (vi) = 3n+i 1 ≤ i ≤ n . m≥3. ∪Un Where Ui ={ ui1. Example: Geometric mean labeling of 2K3 ∪ C6 is given below. ui3} and the edge set E = E1 ∪ E2 . . nK3 ∪ Pm. Let the vertex set of nK3 be where Ei = { ei1. 2.8 nK3 ∪ Cm is a geometric mean graph for n ≥1.Some results on geometric mean graphs 1387 Theorem 2. . ei2. Cm be the cycle of v1 v2 ...1 ≤ j ≤ 3.. ei3} . 3n+m }.. nK3 ∪ Cm are also Harmonic mean graphs [5]. ui2. U= U1 ∪ U2…. . m≥3. 3n} and The set of label of the edges of Cm is {3n+1. 3n+2 . vn v1 Let us define a function f :V( nK3 ∪ Cm) →{1. Hence nK3∪Cm is geometric mean graph for n≥1. . 2.

Sandhya Theorem 2. ….…vin} and the edge set E = E1 ∪ E2 . . . of G are similarly defined. Somasundaram.12 The square G2 of a graph G has v(G2) = V(G) with u. ei2. . The power of G3. n≥3 Proof: Let the vertex set of mCn be V = V1 ∪ V2 ∪ … ∪ Vm Where Vi = { vi1.. Vidhyarani and S. v adjacent in G2 whenever d(u. G4 …... P.… ein} and Define f: V(mCn) →{1. 1 ≤ j ≤ n.10 mCn is a Geometric mean graph for m≥1. mn} Hence mCn is geometric mean graph.v) ≤ 2 in G. ∪Em where Ei = { ei1. . S.. 2. 2.1388 S. Definition 2. Example: Geometric mean labeling of 3C5 is given below: 1 (2) (1) (7) 6 (6) (12) 11 (11) 5 (5) 2 (3) 10 (10) 7 15 (8) (15) 12 (13) 4 (4) 3 9 8 (9) Figure 6 14 13 (10) Note: 2.11 mC4 is also Harmonic mean graphs [5] . q +1} by f (Vij) = n(i-1)+j 1 ≤ i ≤ m . 3 ….vi2. The set of labels of the edges of mCn is {1.

. Define f : V (Pn2) →{1. q+1) f ( ui) = 2i-2. .. un be the path Pn Pn2 has n vertices and 2n-3 edges. Example Geometric mean labeling of P52 is given below (2) (4) (6) 1 (1) 2 (3) 4 (5) 6 (7) 8 Figure 7 Definition 2.14 The corona G1 G2 of two graphs G1 and G2 is defined as the graph G obtained by taking one copy of G (which has P vertices and P copies of G2 ) and then joining the ith vetex of G1 to every vertices in the ith copy of G2.. 2≤i≤n (1 ≤ i ≤ n-1) (1 ≤ i ≤ n-2) by f( u1) = 1 The label of the edge uiui+1 is 2i -1 The label of the edge ui ui+2 is 2i Hence Pn2 is geometric mean graph.13 The graph Pn2 is a geometric mean graph.Some results on geometric mean graphs 1389 Theorem: 2. Proof: Let u1. Here we restrict ourselves to corona with cycles. u2.. 2….

un u1 and let vi be the vertex adjacent to ui (1 ≤ i ≤ n) Define a function f: V( Cn K1) → {1. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. Example: Geometric mean labeling of C5 K1 is given below . Proof: Let Cn be the cycle u1 u2. Somasundaram.. S. 3 ≤ i ≤ n.15: The crown Cn K1 is a geometric mean graph for all n≥3..q+1} by f( ui) = 2i-1 for f( ui) = 2i+1 for f(vi) = 2i for 1 ≤ i ≤ 2. …. Hence crown is a geometric mean graph for all n≥3. P. Vidhyarani and S.1390 S. Then the edge labels are distinct. Theorem: 2. Sandhya The graph Cn K1 is called a crown.2. 3.

Received: November. Communicated 5. Pure and Applied Mathematics Science.Vidhyarani and R. Ponraj. Somasundaram. Ponraj and S. Somasundaram and R. 3. Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences. Narosan Publishing House Reading. 2011 . 6.S. Ponraj and S. F. New Delhi 1998. Ponraj. Ponraj. 153-160 (Accepted). 210-213. Somasundaram. Somasundaram. National academy Science letters. “Geometric Mean Labelings of Graphs”. S. 26 (2003). S. P. Department of Mathematics. Sri Paramakalyani College of Arts and Science. 58 (2003). “Mean labelings of graphs”. 30E (2011). 2. 29-35. Somasundaram and R. R. Ponraj. Harary. R. S. S. Graph theory. Alwarkurichi-627 412 for his valuable comments in revising the paper.S.Some results on geometric mean graphs 2 (1) (4) 10 (10) 11 1391 1 (2) 3 (3) 4 (9) 9 (8) (5) 7 (7) Figure 8 (6) 8 6 Acknowledgement: The authors wish to express their thanks to Dr. R.Communicated. “Some Results on Harmonic Mean graphs”. S. References 1. Sandhya “Harmonic mean labelings of Graphs”. 4. “Some Results on Mean graph”. Sandhya.