BIlrrrSH AlJ.

i\llNISTHATlON
OF'

By A 1'i.\TIY,:-: OT.' MYSORE
PART I.
FIFTY YEARS OF
LONDON
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
1874
MYSOHB.

AT the present mOlllent, when bO lIIuch interest is eyinced
every,rbere on the subject of the education which is
being giyen to the young Maharaja of under
the of the Secrt·tary oi State for India, for the
purpose of tmining him fo- the future government of his
proyi1!Ce,:1 question of no less importance naturalh' sug-
gests itself to consideration, l1iz., how that province is
prepared to receiYe tbe native ruler. This que3tion
has been asked in several quarters, and "s it to
have elicited no reply, and as it is one of deep to
the natiYes 01 this province, we need no apology in coming
forward to take up the subject. And though we cannot
hut. feel dittident in venturing upon an untried field, WI'
shall be satistied if we so far succeed as to draw attention
to the great importance of the question.
The affaira of Mysore possess great interest not only
in the peculiar character of their origin but in the grt'at
consequenceR which are involved in tIheir future. Thc'
act by which the Earl of Morningtonresened the SCiOD of
the old ;\lysore family from his dIlJag6OJ1 and replaced
him on the throne of hill ancestors, whether it-e1!l1anateu
from an unwillingness to augment the dominions of his
allies ,in the Mysore campaigns or frOID a desire to con-
cilin.te the natives of the land (a policy of conciliation of
which Hyder had furnished such a sucCessful precerlent.
and which his bigoted son with such infatua.tion violated
to the ruin oiall his interests), or whether, what is more
B
probah!t:: than LItis singnla.r (jf generosity
h:1J its in t!IC of b',-'Ilest1 ilobjp tll incl,
which \\'<1:-; tht:.u l1:t_."! wbo::il'
syn.p3.thising interest in their welfare has made the
family reg[tl'(l him as their grt':1t idol, this an
stands out as :1 ,:.!-It)l'Li)ilS ft::ltnre i.n a (:a,reer of
and spljliutil.ln which marl·::.; tllC origin of every grent
empIre. But My,ort', if its rrt'f:tirs axe lwLtlngcil in strict
ucconhnc" \\'ith till' ,piri, of the policy now [wowed in
regurd to it by till) ];l Guvcrnnleut, is destined h)
play ,1, rar 1l1'll'l' ill:pNllmt in the future carel'"
(If peace, than l'rrn founders eyer UrefLIl10
of. \Ye do wt",:rl to Llilow out the snbseqUeIlt
"(':');l'5 of tb,· .",,'n(lnl C:ll'h!" of this Native State. v\ e
lH'l,tl dV;t':l \1;\ 111_' llJ;lllllcr in the ea.rl,'-'
:lltel education of it", thus iustalietl,
by tbe l)Ci\"fl!l, in the scrcwillg
(Jut of a fCYl'l1ne ill which clil't'ct interest in
titt, :..;.Lalll' ("f a pPfcentage ('l)lIll!,ission; ll()\\" the official
the Dewall, the 1 Jl'\)U'gL' of the suprerJiE'
GUYl.'l'lln:cat :u:<1 the fL llUll1i!ll'e of the Govern-
of led to the displa('('lll('nt of the fornH:'f,
alld tj) till' lJl:u:ing of the' COUIlL!'y illl/) tllt' inexperienct-d
h:Ullhi or tlw H:Lj'-1h at the (':triy a'gt\ of si '\t.CCtl, \vithout allY
gU;lrallt('(' for ih goYC'rntllt'llt :-oneIl as was obviously
necessary uudl'" tilt' cin:U[li,tllllees; lww Hi" Highness,
suw,rting til Iller lIi'glt"('t he Imd bis relations had fiuf-
fered at the hamls of til" Dewan, was illduceq to entrust
theaJwillistmtiull into tlw hands of his ignorant relations
and depencLlnts, who-.;e re-cki('ss IIJismftnagt-:lIlent soon le-d
to the rui1l of tl18 tinatlCd, tbe oppression of the ryots,
ana to the distllrbancps in N uggur, while all the time the
representatives of the Government passively looked on,
content with giving gClJeral adrrwnitions and {Jerhaps
not altogether indisposed towards a, consummation which
was rather desireu, and matters came ttMluch a pitch tlat
cyen tIw peacC':tbly dif.;)Josed Lprd 'Yilli:lIil Bt'll: i 11Ck W:lS
oulig\:cl to inh-l'ftTC and pl:1C(' (:O:lll: !"Y nri:
a::-; dc'cLu\;c'i by ililll
his a :1 luI itO\\" I be
thus nLtaiuf'd in the bpst' or e!L'('IHI(,)\,t} ,1
ubire, iirst silentiy felt :111'1 sllbs'clJul'utly openly asserted,
of nos::;essin
ff
thp (·ountry ": hsoJntt.'h· under tilt', nl(",,1: of
, 0 . "'
ri
h
ht6 anl1 public. uo We wish
to ent('r into 'L scrntin." of til(' plausible "nd ing"::""l>
(1p\"is(·J t.{) sqpport ttl;:ll'((:oncile the pr'<i."I.I:i.-
ceiveu idea of fl.bsorption of tbe province "ilh the l'(j,,-
ditions and tl'rms of it to sa,\·' t:.' he
Tory :.tatt'?-1i12n-Lords Stfl.nh·y aE41 CranbouruC'J and Sir
Stafford :\'ort],c0tr· lwicnc:s thr credit of haying onc"
anu [or ('\'l'r put end to th("S8 ha.rassing discus:siol:"';, :-',:,
sub\'crsl ve Llf the credit of the British Goyernment fur
goo,} hith and justice. The despatch penned hy t.he :"s:
named statesnl'Ln SE'tl,lcd t,he :\Iysore fin,d ly, "ull
in restoring the dYll:1sty to the pr[vilegesof :1.<1op'i(>)1 an(1
guarantpes held out by the Queen's procl:1.n:atioll, it h'lS
given that great charter of nativo princes a. reality [[!lei ,t
fresh continnation in their eyes.
But those who glory in tbe collapse of the, anlleX:1·
tion policy will do well llllL to forgd th;1t" hO\\'('\'I'r
deservedly the grasping Lendencies of that policy iu its
latter days lllOO' be (:ollilenllled, it hac its origin, or at
least recommended itself to an honest mimI. hy
considerations other than tbose of meueterritorial acq ui,:;-
tions, by a conviction of the iuherent inetiicieucy d
Xative Governments, and of the inevita:blenecessitl' of
direct Brit;"h management to ensure the protectiun and
prosperity of the people. In this utilitarian age, wh!"n
social institutions can only hope to stana by their capa-
- city to meet the wants of the people, no Queeu'» pro-
clamations or solemn treaties can protect Native St,ateR
iu the long run if the arguments for 3llnexlltion had real
B'
4
force ill t',,'Ill; if it were true: tllolt direct British rule i';
liIP ()Illy for all eviL;. Fortunatc!\, ,,'< soon as
tll{; first, clements of a:) onlerly .!!o';c·rllllWlli :1nd:\ cf'll'Llin
uC'grcc of materi[1( pruspc .. nty l1aJ Ut..:dl Lb'
c:1p:tcity of that rule to cope with the more difficult p!'O-
blcrn of social adv[1nc€ment to be severely tesled,
[lnd the p,'ctensions in L,vour har1 in consequence to
be sO!Lcwhi.lt l!JOt1L.·r:r,ted. The :Ll'gllltlcnt'6 f(:1' th8 Cl)!]-
tinu:lnce of :\ cLLi,'c :C;l:tt", will, IwverLheless, rcumin i1l'-
I'pl'fect until rnti\'c :Hlu,illist.rations can practically shuw
their to sLlpply till' \\'[1nt of the British GOVPl'll-
lllellt in the ",hove I'C'lJ('ct, to serve as the lIIediulll
through which ide:ls of social adv[lncement anu progre:;s
can reach the lIlasses in tillH'S of peace, [1nd as conser-
,,:ttiv€ [met:s ill ti"",,, uf []'<)ubl", This ,-iC'1\' of ,I:e
of States, though of recent origio, h:lS
;11rcady recl'iv('d ,SOllie C'oIlsiucr.u,ion; and nota;)Jy
:tIlHHlg,t its advocates si:t,,,]s fortll Major Evans 13,,11,
wbosl' y:niou» publications, clml'tH:.tcri/.2ci by n, eompll'le
gm"l' of tlw sulljed [lnd dc'pth of tbonght, have eHeeteo [I
revulution in the prevailind ide[1s Oil t.h" Ijllesti<.:;!> Bllt
the I"'W thenry st,ill rtllll3.ins as an iden,-a.n idea which
has not a, yet worked itself to any cOllsidf'rable extcnt
into the minds of those who have I'r:lc-tic:dly the destiny
of narin, aUlIJinistrati,Jlls if! their !t:tr,us, or assumed
allY definite shape of wurking. The des; rc for the reformi1-
tion of l'\ative Stall';; has everywhere been [lroused.
Scilldiah, H olbr, and J eypo()r are vying ,lith one another
to introduce into their govel'lllilents reforms [lnd improw-
ments suggl'sted by their Euglish advisers, J oudpot!1,
and othel',uisilliwaged States, have been taken in h"nd to
undergo a course oi under British supervision;
while minority of the rulers of Hydrabau, Mysore,
a.nd SOUle minor States, gives the British Governn,ent an
opportunity of introducing an improved administration
such as has never been known in India.n history. The
OF MYSORE, 5
pnblic nltI'1Jti(Jn, then:ftH'e, witl, dlt' g rt.:·at est
intd\-:..,t, t ht:.' Cf>urSfl of tilPSl' and n cr;ticrLl
lL-:.tinll (If th._, t.<'\perillll'tlt. ;1'; ca.rrird (:D ill (ILIe of the
I1i():,t. iIlllHWLlI,L of these cannot hut Pl'l)"\'(.' of
at the present llJOJn(lnt.
Till, pnH'ince of }[YSOI'C bas ('ujoyed peculiar aJ'illl-
for the successful carrying out of sneh an f'SPCrl-
lilpnt,. n. lew year::. it is rf',.:;tcred to natiyf' rule,
it \I'ill han' !Joen ncarl,' half century under Briti,h
It h:LJ tiH.
1
rare furtulle of enjoying u',ll'ing
this 1, lIg p"riod the continued rule of three spec:,dl."-
selected O/llC'N". Froll1 1834 to 18BO tile rei", (.f
gOYfrnlllfnt ',vel'.' held by G oner:d Sir i\hrk Cubbon,
well known f(lr his gr('at ability, judglllent, and
nIn;;lIkllllll'ly 01 hefl.rt. He slIcceeded by an olii"""
of great adllIinistrative powers and extensive €xperi{'Il('(,
in Indian affairs, who for nearly ten yea.rs ruled ov,'r tire
province, anu whose unceasing interest, in its wc!fan' Ira,
earned fur him the regard and eontidcnce of the nati I'!'
cOllJlUunity. And we a.re now in the fourtlr year of the
rule of :Ll1other distinguished officer, whose extensivA
acquaintance with Xl1tive States would seem to have I( d
to his selection for the task of successflllly preparing tlris
province for native rule. It is also well known that, with
the exceptiou of some misunderstandings in the ear;ier
years, brough t about chiefly by diff€rences of opinion
between the the head of the
Government and the English Resident at the court of t be
Maharajah, the progress of the 'administration met "'ith
no diflleulties or illJpedirnents on the part of the late
Maharajah, who, with singular devotion and attaclJlfwnt
to the Brit.iRh Governlllent,:r.1l aiong looked upon its
representatives in the province as the best guardiaus of
his own interests. After His Highness's demise. his
Ranees, following tra.ditions of the fauiily, have, with
implicit faith in the good intentiolls of the Governlllent,
TlHIT1:-:rr .\.I)1fl.\"ISTH.\.TIU:-;
U1U:sigllt>,_1 {llt,thl'ir drair.:;, into t b:-uuls of
ant1 1'l';l.Jih· iu all L11(':I:-;;l)"(',",
.
ti,-,Il,,: .;.;,:) ti1:lt 1 h" l"t , ,it Ci,)\':_'filllt(>Ilt !'LlVi' II:i.;! :: C;l'iil'
fiel(l fur Li.h::: C{Li.T'y Lug OUL ul 1111::; eXl-lel'luH'L
UpOll which the fuLnrfl of ""ative St,atcs be \\'"li
sait! to hang. \Y,· ,hel,l] therefOl'e pro<'cec1 to exalllillc
what has becl ,u','ul!'pii,;I,Ccl in this iOllg period of
British "dlJ\illistwliull; IIlut has been dOlle to promote
the llJatcri,d pl'''iperit\ allll ,ocial :tlh"nC!'lllcnt of the
pcuple, auel \\ lwt in LiJp \\'ay uf laying the f.QundatloJ)
of ft Pl'osp'.'rolh !1illlVC ruk.
It is a Ll.I.:·t in IJ:z1ian f.l.dnlinistration thi\.t,
r.otwith't-t :'tll CllC!l'l\lOU:-:. mass of writing, reporting)
and print in;..!', so it'\\" (Jf of Governrneut
should find :) ld:h t' i:t pnhllc t.hOl1g'ht [lIlc1 discussion. ()i'
Lt..: l,\. (:i-c)\'er:l!lll-'nt .... It_:partll1Cnt:; otLi.'l'
than iltl!!ledia.tdy COl1!lf'ct,{:d wit 11 then}; a res:llt
wl,ich C:Ul oIlly be atlriL"""llr, tlH cXc\llsivpncss, if llr,t
tht' :--iflc}'(,cy, with \vhich ::111 (-i-()\'l"rnl!ll'tlt tr:lllsactions :tre
couducll'd. Th", Governlll{'llt of Indi" h",ve of reccut
years :1cioplpll tho piau of pllblHling ;n the form of
slll'PI"lllCllts to their thzetlf'. P'ljWL.; supposea to be of
intf't"t'st to the Pllblic, bnt WP. tind in them muoy
rql()rls of a,gricllitural eXf'pri'Jl"ntf' "lid other stray sub-
jects, "-1' ra.rely COlliI' :tny tJOC1Ulients illustrative of
the great '1l1cstiollS upon "hicb the good government of
the country 'l'hr only SOl\l'Ct'S of information
on these lIwttcls ;l ",tibbie ,0 tbe uninitiated are the
Annual Acllninistr:Ltioll Hepotes of the several provinces.
----".. ..- 1": --
These r"purts h,ive been rCgLl,ariy puLlished for Mysore
frolI! 18(;1·13:3. They ;::;il'o the working ilnring tbe year
of eneh of the Hel2ml il"ll:ll'tments of which tbe govern-
Ulent is composed, and may therefore be regarded as,
embodying the collective wisdom of the whole govern-
ment agency. 'fhis is true to Borne extent. Where the
administration is characterised by B dear comprehensive'
plan ant1 ;'t, ut->ep insight into all till' df,tails of thl'
lif(' :lnd ilf the pcnpl," th(' l"l'Pld't lW(f)(l!('=-, 1'['(1-
I->,)rtil)!1'lCi,h' I,nt it i:-: 0l111t)
po\i(".\', :i.lIil lof pa,t-clnrlll'k ut tllH'OIl-
I1('ctcd lllC';l;o;nrl'S dc\"lc..;dl to llH'et the or Ill"'
or bnJllr;ht n,bont h} t111\ c,f
thc report:, prniotlg('11 n:CllT:lLivC' of the
and wants uf tbe "(]lllluistrCltiY8 lllacllinery, as distinct
fru:n an" r!Ic{·t,; em the pc,oJlI" nne! :, dry array O[ t be
fignr('tl rC';I!lt;-:; SilUWll ill the 3.1!lll1al stateulent, with
:lveraf,Ses and and conlparlsons with : ht'
previous illH1 UltJ:-;-,.:t.s, contributing in no
to out the ilupurtant o[ the adllJinistrfl,;.ilJi1.
Those will) 1!8Y0 tlH' (If reading through t!;,::-iC
l'epn}';s C'.J'llot !Jnt bt: struck with the thought 11()\\-
miuds of tileir authors beeollie h"bitnated to revel ill
figures as distinct. frolll hcts the illlport'lIlcc of ",hidl
alone C8,n gi,'p t.hese a value. Such as tiley ;In\
we shall to take it cursory glance of as
shown by tbcse reports.
\Vh"n the province w",s assumed undm' the
mentof the British Gov(,!,l1Incnt, instfllctions were iss:wd.
ha\'ing regard to the temporary nature of its rule, [liat
the cm ployed should be exclusi vely llati 'Cf" aud
that native institutions should be carefully rnailltain,·d.
These instrnctiolls "cre, on the whole, fa.ithfully obserY"cl
during the long pcrio,l of Sir Abrk Cuhbon's COIDlllis-
sionership ; for thuu:;il in consequence of the deteriomt ion
whi0h the native service had undergone, European offjcprs
had to be appointed to the charge of the four divisions in
wbich the 'province W:1S then divided, with a
assistant to each, the rest of tho agency employed Ins
entirely native, and the administration was conducted
upon practical rules intended to meet actullol wllnts, and
which were in accordance with the ideas of the people.
Speculative administration was yet unknown. Peace and
8
BRITISH AD)HNISTRATIOS
orac)" wn...:; :Ji. once l't'storcd to the province as the
of.-i regular gOY(,rlllHdlt. Thf' inejclenci' of the
\\",lS iC\\"t'l'ed \rhen",,'r it \'::L" 0pI1rc:-isiyt.:. alld. tu
the greatrelie! of the ryot, nUmerous cesses were aboiish,'d
which had originated in the prevailing idea of later native
governmpnts. that the sovereign had " right to turn to lIis
acco(!ut ilwi,Jc.nt i:l the life of the subject in retnru
for tlw \,l'o«'d,inn "fforckd to hilll, And:1t a later date,
t],,, aboliLlcm of th(· tr"lisil dULies in the track of asill1ila.r
measure LllTicll Ollt iu the British territories, created all
active tr<:Je ,,!ridl iJrunght high prices and prosperity to
the ryot ann all incr, ... -':iSI: uf revenue to the governmc·nt.
Hoads we,." lLL the same tillle made to meet the wants llf
this increasin" tra,ll" with ;111 energy and economy un-
knO\\":l to tilt' lilc]'e rl'cdlt day::; of c1C'pfLrtlrlcntal
tiuli:-:'. 1110 01 jlblicc, ei\-il and criIninal
\I'as clln,1lJcted upon ;, "y;;irrn ;tnc! co(k of rules which,
t SOIlICwhf1t crlJde were intended to meet actual
"';Ulb:lllc1 wcrl' intelligible to th,' p('ople: 'end the judicial
oilier!'s were aided by a ',\'sLelll or pUllchayets which,
tbey conid not hf1ve risen l1bOH) the corruption
of thl' otlicers by wholll the,v wrri' cODvellcd in cases in
which illthwntiaJ interc;;ts were at st:11;(', contribute:l to
SOil(\' to popuhrisc the rules of jlHlicial administra-
tion, Ilut, a grave defeet in tlw s.'"stcrn was the great
latitilde of authority which eonfcrrerl ot! the govern-
lllent officf'!":', and which could not have been exercised
with scnlpulou;; adherence to justice amidst the general
corruption which then prevailed in the highest courts of
justice, The idea of it p.irc a.dministratiou calculated to
relel1se the ryot from <1 perpetual dep1mdencc On
the govemweut ofticers was quite in advance of the age,
and the want of it was felt by the ryot himself, then
scarcely emerging fro:n a. long impoverished condition
resulting from low prices a.nd high government assegs-
ments; whilst the feeling of persona.l attachment and
OF )lYSOTIE.
frirnoship \Ihiclt characteri,co the tben heau of thl'
goverl1Ill('!1t 1I1:1rle him indulgent to iu
1]('''0''[1(';, a["l EurlljJeal1, 11'11" tilled till' ,11 incip:d
utlicC':-5.ltl tLt.\ ;l(iIniulstrJtiull.
This stale of l!latters nat l"'", Ii)' ",tem.CleO the att<"lltiun
of :L suC"cessor accustomed to a lJlore orderly conclili,)]l
of thing, in British tNritorie;;, and he at once set :lDout
to efIect 1"l:fLlrms by the USU;l] ('xpel1ieut of organising
for I,'hich t,he way seelllco to be made dl"1!"
by the desire, then lll'gilllling t:o he openly :wowed by
Governl'lem. to absorb the province. The number of
diyisions into which the province was divided was rai,,,o
froIn four to eight, \\'hich prc;pLll"tionately increasc;d the
number of European ollirrrs requir,od for their snpeJ:int('n,
dellce, and this ,li dep:trtll1cntal organiscttio))" Ollce
thus commenceo has continued to the present (by wit il')l]t
intermission. Every fresh want, as it was kit, at once
gave risc to a new department, and many mon) have becn
added at the instance of the Central Governl!lcut ill tbe
unrestricted carrerof expansIOn which it has been uncler-
going ever since it was released from the tight
on new charges, especially those of esta.blishlllents, which
had been the ruling principle of the govt:rnment of the
East India Company. The !,l"ovince can now boast of
enjoying a greater number of depa.rtments a.nd a larger
European machinery than exists even in som,' of [he
British territories. \Vc have, at present, .besides the
ordinary revenue ano juilicial agency, enlarged as already
mentioned, a departlllent of accounts, a, department for
the registration of documents, an establishment for the
sUI'\'ey and settlement of lands, and another for the
investigation of Inam tenures. We have also sepa.rate
staffs of engineers for irriga.tion and for ordinary public
works,with additional estabiishments for the conservao(' y
of channels alll] for the control of D. P. W. accounts,
and a distinct departllJcnt for the working a.nd conser-
10

valley of The new policL' ;-;ysiC1Jl lW:3 bCt:n ill-
tl'odl1cCU ill 'one district of the province, [tllU th., recent
l)f ;tJ D,'pllry uf Police
would seelll to forebode Its further extension und .. '"
European agency, A large medic"l staff keeps charg.: of
the jails "nd hospibls, :lIld attends to s:tnit:try concC'ms,
w 11 i lst y i kd 111 :.:. () i () \" tl S:l re [t i tendeu to by Ul unicl p:tl
corporations, which :Ire hci:lgextellilcd to :111 minortrrluk
stations. F(;r t.i18 int.. i'I.·st::; of science and diffusion of
knuwledgH tL agcnc.y, a.
superintCtH.k'!lL llf agl'icuitnr{d cxperilocnts, and a mi:lor
agency ill of and horticultural
as well as a gOYPrlll:li;l1t press. The province has also
a scpar-:!.lc' Inilitaxy fot'l'c) under a European offieer, a,nd
enjoy.:.; .'1 Incal p'J:-il. TilL' dlcct (If thc:->e supposed i!ll-
pron:'IVt...'l1ts h to I he Tllltllber of Uw superior
grndp ofli(:ers {rOIH tllirty. the ir nuulber in the
day, of Gerwr:li Cl1bbon, to 1::;5, uf which less than
thirty IIlk-rior ftl'pointlllcnts, exclusively in the revenue
amI ieldici:tl dqmrtu!cnts, are alolle' helel by natives, the
n:!lJaindcr of this I:LI'!-;p staff consisting of European
ollieers, This sudden cxp'Lnsion of tlte )\uminislmtive
"geney opened a wide (lour to pcttron:'f'l:, ,Lild the Luge
number of appointments tlms 11l:"le interest, [1nd
not 111l,ler a definite systcw, eall only be expected to
b"ring in all acccs,,,ion"oi ct' eyen inferior talt'nt;
whilst tho Ilati"e service, whose inferior calibre, brought
about hy " systelll of u('gi'cct and discouragement, was
made the eXClbr for tiJi, br,ce influx of Europeans, have
by these t.S b,,"]l thrown into the shade more
tban eYer, Before, !J\>w,,,'cr, we enter into a further
eXllu"inati'Hl of the of this new rolicy on the
ad V:lllCement of the peoplc of the province, let us take
a cursory gl:mc.e at the worki,ng of the "ariona depart-
ments thns organised,
Taking for our guide the Adrnioistration Report for
OF ,['SO r, E. 11
1871-'2, the that, (I'I:) been \\'e sball fjrst
eX[lllline tlH' jncliri,d b,."nch of the 3<1n!inisU"lion. TIl
the or,Q':l.nisa,t ion \\-hic:b ;-auk place il11 t
tration of ci\il jll>tice, \\ lJiriJ Ilfld np tll llw l 1 'Ille bee'l
to a, considc]'a
1
J!p. ('xtc'nt hy f1t'par:lte n:ulYl'
courts, "':15, ill of Pnnj;1.h pLwul
cntiH,ly in the h8.1\1.15 of ft"\"; ;,(12 l,tl!c>.::rH, and it \Y,lS cniy
recently that tuc iir:::L prillciplt:! (if sf'P:,1fatiull cf
judicial from re\7ell nc f:EH tions 'Y:h at all by
the crc"tion "f cc)urts oj ;""i,;tants for th" trial
of suits in the tirst instance. There isstill a considemhle
amount of jl".;"licti(Jn in ,nits of swall \"aluo in the lnnds
of revenue arlJildars, tbe cogui7.ancc of larger snits,
:lS well "s the brgcr j'orti",' uf "ppellatc jurisc1icti,m.
vests in deputy COlllIlliMsiollf'rS and
who have the control of revenue and other administmt" \"0
work; whibt f1l1 ,mtiquatej system of <juasi.jndicial pro-
cedure in watters rehting to revenue and land, whieh was
introduced afl,pr t,he Punjab pattern, not yet been
authoritatively set aside. An attelllpt has very recently
been made to carry out a complete separation of judieial
functions in one division of the province by the appoint-
ment of moonsiffs after the system of the lIladms pro·
vinces. But even in this instance the proposal made to
divest the deputy commissioners, who are ill iUJIlledi'Lte
executive charge of districts, of civil functions, was
negatived, not bec'auso the necessity of su{)h separation as
rega.rds the public interests was doubted, but that the
keeping up of a certain aJlJOunt of jlldicilLi training in
these officers was considered of greater importance. 10 is
not intended to call in question the qualifications of
revenue officers for judicial work; on the contrary, a
certain amount of revenue training, by the knowledge
of landed tenllIes and customs of the people, and ron inti-
mate acquaintance with human character in its yt,l',ed
forUlS which it brings, has a tendency to enlarge the willll
1:2
and to produce a more dlicient of jllllici,,1 otiiecrs
than is La b& cxpeeted frolll ,:xelu3ivc: judici,tl training.
But to that strict aclberl'Lce l(J la\\, Lbe
rcgaxd fur i{"l', :lnJ attr'Il\.HHl tu \\-ilich
the interests involved in judicial matters imperati"c1r
require, the cOlllplete separation of judicial from revenue
functions llIay be regiln!Ca as the first essential of a gocd
judicial organisation, :Lml we trust it IlJay ere long be
into c.ffec: in this province.
There will still relUaill tllat grc:1t drawback in :.he
present systClll, the risLs to which justice is every lIOW
and then cxposeu hy tl1I' cRprice and sllortcoruings of
individual judges, especially at remote stations, not sab·
jeet to the check of public opinion. 'l'his evil often
assumes rn'))"'"()l1S l'!'()l'ortions under the loose SystClll of
seicctl"ll to public olli,t'> \\':lich Jll'en.ils. But even \\;th
the best 01 selections it is :1 possible: (',"il which it would
be \\('11 to provide for, and no !1rr!1ngement is so well
calculate(1 to llleet it as that of ol'igiuftl and appell:1,te
courts eOlilp()sed of more ,iran one judge, who, dividing
the work between them, disposing of t.he cmJaller suits by
a system of u-icuit courts, and sitting in joint judglIlent
under speci'll circulllstances, lIlay be expected to exercise
a nl1ltual healthy intluence llpOlJ ";Jell other. 1lys(}re
tloes not possess this advantage l""t'll in the composition
of its highest court, which, presided over by a single
European comlllissioner, exposes justice even in its high.
est stage LO the chancesof individual imppfections. We
do not. for a momellt underrate the nice discriminating
judgment which thA present head of the MYo()f'A judicial
administration brillgs to bis work; but even the highest
specimens of Englisll judges in India. cannot but be
strengt hened by the powers of discerning facts with
unerring certainty which honest native coadjutors can
bring to their work--an advantage which even the High
Courts of the Presidency towns .a.re now beginning to
OF )fYSORE. 13
recogni;:.;c, and \\-hieb e:tnllut Lut uc of \"aJul' ill n,
Pl'(l\'illce where the trniniug of efficient hOrtl':5t, I1aJ.iyc
.ilHlgcs is ;\li element Ilf r11(' ff)r
fl1tnre nat,jy(, n1ie. Tht" : .... y...:tt.'!i1 of jojnt ha:-;
unfurtllnately iu the Instance
ol the small cause rourt of Bn,ngalorc, in which it "'a,,
tried for :t ,,·bile but was eYentually put an el:d to by the
abolition of tb" native jUdg,>.
The U:lIU'litcd nUlllher of CLppeab and special appf'8.ls
is 1111i\'crs8.ll)' eondcmn('(\ the weakest poiut in Lhe
lndi"n judieia! ad,uinistrCLtioJ]. It is readily accounted
for as all evil rendered neeessary by the litigious charn('kl'
of the people, l,S if human nature were different iH'r"
frow what it is elsewhere, and as if it were sOll1ething
nnnatnral for :l party tu sed; :L remedy through all the
ebanllci:, \\hicb ,tre open to hilll, especially \I'll!"!
prolupted to it by the uncertainties which hang upon
justice under the present system. \\'ould so
much facilitate the simplification of judical app"a.ls as
an imfJl'Oved of the courts in a manner ,,11·
culated to command the confidence of the people. A!l
origin:1.1 court of two or judges in each of the
eight districts, t:1.king cognizance of suits lip to five
thousand rupees, of which there are '':0,000 annu:1.lly in
the whole pro\'iuce, with a small cause court jurisdiction
in sui ts up to one hundred rupees, which oom prise upwanls
of three-fourth" of t b e total numbeTc>f b'Ui:tB, and a singie
appell:1.te "ourt of three judges at the scat of gowrn-
ment, whilst rendpring the administra.tiol! of justice b,'
Illore proUlpt, efficient, :1.nd certain, would with
the necessity of the needless mUltiplication of CIvil
authority in numerous hands by relieving the amildars,
deputy commissioners, and commissioners Qf divisions
of their civil work. The last-uamed officers might eon,
tiuue to exercise an original i urisdictioD in suits of above
S,DOOrupees in value, 'of which t!lere were only 33 in
1.+
l>l:ITlSII
tile whole l'tioyincc in Bilt they could under
thiH nrr;lng8!nent give llIOn; tinlC Lu Lhe eY{'Il Illure
i!Lporta!lt. work of cl"!llIinat adluilli.,tTrlli')l1 and tv the
gcnerill C:ullt1'ul ut tile C'OlUl11Ct of !:-.(·r'"t:li.:-. and l}tll(T C'Ull-
cerns of the divisions. Some simplification of proC2dllrc
hy way of adapting it to the backward condition of the
people lI,ight ah, DC "clmntageously l11ade. If tbe pal"-
ties to tIl{! SUit: and were, accorihng
to old cllo.;torn, l'OHljH::-l:r·d to give' 111 the instnllce
detailed st"t,('llil'nb uf a!llhc facts of tbeir case, it would
serve to murol\" the 1;<.,1::1 of enquiry aud shut out ,Lil
opening for :lJat ::,hiftillt; of arguillenb; and
fabricatiun o( ('I"id('l,co which Ilw.ke the conduct of suits
by profes,.;iom,l pleaders" matter of speculative giJ.lllbii,1g
not knO\nl to, (Jt' tiHrll,C:":lL of) by the parties
Grc<ltt'L' enc(lu!.agcl!lL'llt :-;11uu](l b(, gi\,l'l1 to the parties
tbeir suits in person or through tbe means of
tltl'Lr relations ami friclHk Th" conduct of profl·ssional
plt;,,,Je;'i; sltolllil be brought 1J))(l"r f('guLttion, and the
judic;rLi pWCCSSe,'l prelil!Jinary to tbe enquiry and t!Jose
CUIHll'ctl,d with the execution 'J[ the jntlglllcnt shllulil
rcecil'c' greater attention. III a word, the tendency loa
too great imitation of the system of English eOUl"ts, whBre
the ,iu<lgc's duty is confined to pronoll"cillg judgnJ€nt on
tbe argulllfmtR advanced by the pleaders on both sides,
sllOuld be discouraged as unsuited to the circumstances of
the country.
Connected wiLh the ci \"il administration is the svstem
of registf'ring provided for by the
Act of tbe SuprelIlo Leg'islature, which has been extended
to the province. This Act for securing what is
technically called' preil.ppointed evidence': is.anecessary
measure for the end" of justice and tbe secHrity of
property. But its immeose length and cOlllplicated pro-
vision8,coupled with the serious penalties and risks which-
the ornissionordelay to registerdocumen.s iuvolves, have
i.YF )!YSURE.
]5
CO!l .... it irlto ;Ul (1c1tli1'-iIHI:d 2>CTl'\r fur tlh' p:::-tty
I)f the pn;)lic :1 pnhlication late;}
J.P(1l·:ll'c,.l L:IJ!!l t pVll dt it European pj,l11tel' of
('IviIl[)" 11i:-i I-:\\:l']'lt..::;(',''-; {)f IllJi:1Jlll._lllt'l'S. Tht> illsig'bt
r--: " -,
iul', L hl' ci l'Clllll,tancl's ,md eha,raeter of the i \'es, ami
the workin" of the !.wvcrnmPlH machinelY, which the
0" •
stm,\' of tbe writer on yarious subjects rlisplay, COll-
l"l'!lla,rkably wilh the (:J!!JllH.mp!a,cc renl:l..rks w'llicll
one lms \ode throngh in tbe otTIcial public:1.tions of
(; (,',;('! tl! lJ!' Ill. .--dnc!'} T L is li \"Ld y. thought!" ul writer gl \"I.:'S
hi, ()\, II (·xp,'riences of the Rcgilitration Act After rt'-
cOllutiu;:( tlw hopeless trouble he had to undergo to go';
sOllie puinb til' the Act explained, he p;oes on t.o observe
'til", tite )lu.nu:l.! ior Jlysore and Coorg,
whidl is no\\' h :ng Oil Illy t:d)[p, is enough to strike :l.lly-
Olll! wich disr11ay, and I cannot give 3, better general ilk:l
of it than by informing the re"der that iL consi,ts of 137
pages, with thirty·four lines to a. page, ,md from ten to
twelve wnn)s tu a line, There are provisions for instru·
rnents oi which the registralio';j is compulsory, for doeu-
Inpnts of which the registration is optional, fordocullJcnts
in hLngu:1.ge not understood by the registel'ingofficer, for
docurr,ents containing interlineations, blanks, erasures, ur
alterations; and in order th"t a person ignorant of the
law might be the more effl'ctually taken by surprise, it is
enacted that in nmn)' of the cases where tbe registration
is optional. a registered sha'!l take effect agn.lnst an un-
registerelidocu'lJem, In short the whole Act.is one that
would perhn,ps be a.dmirably suited to II country where
p.very lIlan's affairs ",re in the hands of his legal advi3er,
ani! whrl'c newspapers are to be found in every village
to remind people of what they are or a.re not to do, but to
shoot down such an Act into a. province like Mysore, or
indeed into [l,ny part of India., is an infliction which of
itself llIorc tll'il1 connterb:1,Ia.nces all the petty evils und
opprcilsions of a State.' HoW' different a.re these
16

n'lrUl.l'k;3 satisf<tcLury of bis
which th", Ili·gistrar-Gel1Prtt! fWllU:dy reports: If such
arc the fA '1.n tltlligh Lc\c.u E 11;,;:1i:.;h pLtiltt'rJ Wh:Lt
'liust be the effect of the Act Oil the uati \'C ry"t '!
Within five years of its first prolllulgation this piece of
legislation had to undergo a complete re-e1lactmeut which
ill nowise itilpio\'ed it in f('gara t,o its bulk or Lll,·
complexity \,t its pro\'isio[ls, \Vhl1t must be the effc": of
these repeat"d and cOluplie"ted legisl"tions upon the
iUitemt" n:ltiw p"pni:t: iUll "an be wauily illH<gined. It
may be wortity of cOliside,'"tlon whetber Governltl(·nL
lcgislatio!.l upon; his aud lliatters would nol be
cOl1sidemhly illll,fu \'c·d if II cunfined itself to tbe enuncia-
tion of the ,,,,,,,ntbl principles and requisites of
alltl leit tlll" prncedurr to be framed a.ccoi"Jing
(I' of ('ac,b Juca.! as to adluit
uf its "I kl'c,tion and in1 Ly the results of aetual
experwncp. Undersuc:h a, sY::-;U' 11 1 the principles
of 0:lch IlH'llonr." prescllu,d t') tlIP 1'"I,lic s\'p"ratcly, wuuld
be c1c3,rl\, irllpresseu Oil their ulinJs, the proceJllre
f'mdualiy growing with actnal experiellce would relllove
the hardships now ftucndant. on the suddt'n infliction of a
lout! and cOtr,ulicated Cllf.ctmetlt. Thpsc remarks do not
" .
a!lply to tl,C codes of "ivil ,"Ild uinrinal procedurt', the
importanee of which requires th"t tbey should be defini-
tely prescribed by the legisIM,nrr.
We ne,!. CClftle to criminal adlIlinistration. This is
based upnu the penal code. with the code of criminal pro-
cednre aud tho other bws passed by the Government of
India, which !mve all been extended to the Mysore
proviucc. It is impossible not to feel some surprise at
the compbcency and eyen admiration with which the
this theoretic code is usually regarded, without
considering its effect on the interests of the people a.t
l&rge_ Theoretica.l minds ca.rried awa.y by the logical
perfection of the code forget the ev il effects of its a.rtificia.l
17
ddlnitir!I]s which not alt" i,!.!"\,tlwr h:l::-(:t1 Oil the p\lpnla.r
train of i(l(·:ts. Popllh.r definitiolls of:l natnl";l J
pansion to Inc-r-t !,ycry w'\\" \\-hi :l.Trit1{'i:ll
onc:s f?tallu under (If :utitki:'L!
exprtnsions which 5C'rve only to removc' thel!! flll'L[}er frunJ
popubr thought. It is undeniable that the code is 1lU,
underRtoo,j without grr,,\t effurt C\'01l by tbe
onkf'r:-: of Ko\,prnllH·!ll.. t.11(1111
1
H"b ca.rrip<1 in : lwir
daily traill of LhOlWhts, \\'hat be the ,,(Iee, upon
illit,('ratf' population of on their
daily pOlleenls! Popcllttl" exp,'riellcP C3,1l 0111\· d0s(,I';;'e
the code rr" II ct"Uel 'pipee of legislc.tioll, which, ill it,
t)wt. no de"'cript,iun (,f olrvl1ce might possibl\' be
left ont, hao fmmpd "wh wine and comprehensive d,·tini-
tioll:-i to llliJllrk scl'!OUS Crifll('S a,ud ci\'il
.'
under the s;uJJccategory, and in order that ,dl ttggravateu
cases might btl adequtttely met, has provided for OffC!lClci
exorbitttnt and often unlimited fines and imprisontl",nts.
It has placed the peace(1l1 citizen pqually witiJ the
. pro[essional Dacoit perpetually under the tender lIlerc;ic,
of a not immaculate ofliciltl hiemrchy. No one call be
sure that any lllolllcntary indiscreet act of his might not
bring bim under the grasp of the penal code, ttnd in so
bringing him, consign him to a punishment which tn
him may be a social death, under the prcvttiling ideas of
religion and custom, Compare the punishments awarded
for tbe same offences in different districts, by the con-
siderate Engli"ll judges of a Presidency court, and some
fast-going judges in a corner of the Mofussil, professing
abhorrence to the venality of the na.tive character; yeu
will find what an opening for cttpricious and barbarous
pnnishments the code affords. Where there is such un-
limited latitude for punishment, it is vain to expect that
it will be properly exercised. ·The administration on the
other halld, in having to deal with the statistics of such a
complicated catalogue of offences, numbering in Mysore
c
IJ!UTISH AD)II"ISTBATTO!'
:lO,OUO a llllU"lly, i;; [lpt to los(' sight of the extent an,1
effect of thh ]1('inoll:S and l11l)rC cLtngerou:-; crimes, whilst
the subordinate o{li(:t",l':-; with tl-li' Pf:,HT
country lJlect ,vith a cunsta.llt t("l1upLatlon i,p l1egh·:·t, llL'
more arduous duty of detecting these criuJes for the )JlO:'('
profitable dabhling in the minor 'luasi-crimiual OffCllCI·'.
A ;dmplct· coc1e, keq);r:g to popular ic1eas of crime. "lth
ccrt»int.,· mtlltT lb:ll1 sewrit.,)' of punishllll·nt in all "nli-
naryea",,;;, with excPI':ional powers confinec1 to special
court", is the real want of tbe country.
Tbese resuts of criminal administration in Brititih
territories becollJe aggrayatec1 in a provincial ac1millistra··
tion like t.h'lt uf :\J,\501'c. wit.h no public opinion ami less
carefullysclect,'c1 otlin:l's. ,wel where further, the functions
of the police riJP .-,Jlllinistl'r1tion of CrillJinal jll,tice
are pbced in the ,alOe hands. Strangely for sueL pro·
yinces the Icgislatl1l'C makes fLspeci3>j provision toenlt:tnce
the powers of the wagistrat";; of districts to thoso of As·
sistant Ses,ion8J uelges. wi th sc\'('nye:Lrs' imprisomncnt, a
pro,"isioll which, as It matter of oours( •. has beeD [nailed
of in Mysore. Oonceive the dIed of the magistrate of a
district, urged on hy the government to the deteotionof
erinJc on the one hand, and exercising the power of can·
"icting the prisoners brought before him on the other!
V,'h:1t inducement may it not afford [or false convictions
and a clean sheet of nnilctectt·d crime?
A new police. organised after the }lofnssil police of
the Madras Presidf'DC,Y and under European SUIlon-ision,
costing a lac ",nd a half of rupees per annuni, was intro-
duced into the town and district of Bangalore in 11:108-69,
and even before experience of its results could
be oht'1ineu, of its extension underEuropean
Bupervision to the rest of the province was urged in suc·
cessivereports as the onlyremedy for the present defective
sta.te of things. But a sudden revelation seelDs to
come' upon the a.uthorities in' 1871·7:2, in the "\luual
OF 1D
!'(lpnrt of \yhir'll iT W:1,:-; :-;L!tt\(l !h:tt -2.3 pl'r (·(·lit. ttl
year :.ltHl f)i.) CUlt. i!i onc rd' tlw
Hil'n 0;:' hart td ik plllli .. d1t·d 11LLgi:-;L<.'ri:Lily
;\'\11.1 d('n.!rt'l:dl:a.!h· for urfl'IH'(',",
Sueh J);:s beet] <LIlli" IlllhL ahl""·Ys be tlle' elket of Li.e",
new OI"g:ll1is<ttions, which nHlely sLlperseeli ng ali! C< <Lb-
li8hmcnts thn.t le:ls\ Imd the merit of trwl it ;OIl:UT i,l:-:I'
nf r111ty and r(,spuH . nJt::lllpt to build up 11:'\"
departll,eIlts with stray inat8rials of all el:1,"c8, willi'Hlt :1
dl:t.ractt"l· or ;;1, tradition :lbl-.H;t. t l1elll. and into which the
tiuctnating Enropp.an supervision of the present /I:l." i,
found totally inadcquu.te to infuse the llPCeSSu.ry lllonl
forcr, For:nnntcly this nnexpected result h:,s lllo<l.,,.:,[cd
the desire for the further extension of the Syst""l to
rernote \rhCrc;l force 0ftL;s deSC1'iption Blight.
an uncilcckcd sourcc of op[!rCSsioll. The hOPe of rci "'''l-
in;.; the police administration came thcnceforwanl to hi,
plac"d upon an improvcd village police, and "·n cllcrg(tic
head of tbe judicial :lchllini;tmtion who desen'c:1ly earned
the credit of ha.\'ing rou, .. eu the district officers to :1 selhe
of duty in this im!)ortant matter, unfortunately li.c(ilted
upon the strange idea of effecting tlw reform by llle'WS
of multifarious reports and returns and instructioll;; IJur-
rowed from a code intended for an organiseJ police,
These have proved an infliction on the District and 'l',,]uk
a.nthorities, taking "way much of their time which cOllld
more usefully be c1eyoted to the actuu.l·detection of crillJP.
'1'0 the uneducJted village police the instructions !!lnst
BilnpJy prove unintelligible. Those who deal with this
question lose sight of the fact thatnm organised police
rests on rules and and a -nus! police upon
moral forre. But this is not by subjecting the
village officers to the double action of a po! ice inspector
and a revenue amildar, and lUuch less by converting the
village headman into the last link in the chain of
oppresoing officials, instead of being the sympathising
d 9
.i.D:'l1!"ISTHATIO:\
n;prc",cntfttlYe and spo],;e . ..;m<ln for the yilhlgcr.s rtr.rl tllC'
at The (:omoinatiull of police
and IllagisLcrial innctinlls in the reYt'I1l.le ot1kcJ"s 1':' of
cour.'\, l")I)\'n LIl obk{"tiull, iUHJl'lI\'('llll'lli. \\.,,;:1 be
, ,
effected by taking away from them Lhe magisterial ["",'ers
in all but the smaller cases, ratber tban tbo police (unc-
tions which fortll a Il:ttural part of their
duty, Lndc·r th" arrangemont of separate ciyil cunrts
already sLlggc·,tPa, the COllllilissioner of t.he Division,
Sil pplenF>11 tt'll i i IH'C"{"s:-;ary by nn a5sif)tan t in each district,
can well tbe whol8 of the sessions and a con-
siderable port ion of Ilw highi'r magisterial work, to the
relief of t lw digtrid onkers and to the great of
the subject, Till' allt!ition of any magisterial or sessions
work to ,i"il eollt'tg \\'Olllt! be rm undesirable mc:<gllre,
u:-; fl .. 11 t ! iC)l'i ty ll:i-': ,II \\-,LYS i lle tendency to dt"Lcrio-
rat" the "har:wtcr ",}(1 diicicncv of snch courts, especi-
<Lily in the lower grade,;
Armng,'ments als,') .'xist in the eentral jail at llan-
g:tlore fnr giving the cOllvicted criminal a reformatory
couroe of prison discipline aceording t(J the latest prin-
ciples. The experiment, though in ewry way well con-
<IuQtetl, is rr.,ther expensi,'e, and may perha.ps after all
not proyC so efiectnal under a system wbich groups
together under the samc treatment cirminals of all
po:;itions and cl"sses, and d all shades of guilt, froll} the
professional Vacoit to the peaceful citi>len betrayed in a
moment of inalhcrction into the quasi·criminal offences
in which the pena: cod" <tbounds, The average anDnal
cost of e<tcb prisoner, which was before 1866,67, 39 rupees,
has now to ,3, rupees, or 7'4 rupees a, month-the
earnings of " hLourer in t he for the support of
himseli and family being Duly 3 or 4 rupees. The above
cost docs not iuclllJ" the large sl1ms spent in the con-
struction and repairs of jails, What needlessly adds to
the cost of jail IDanagement; is the extension of this
OF
':'1
exp,msiY(' SYScClll to all thn Ji,triets of the prn"ll\u,
ailllo::-.t eyery (Jut: of wbich bl"('lL pnv\-idc'c1 \yitll ,1"
most j;lil. :tll f'S:illJ:lt(1 pf thirty-..;ix 111(m:-;:l1H1
fllPP('S IlOW nLl(1(: {or fl bllilriin; .. r at. 1 r a;.;snu
l
tll(' only \\bich ha;:, llj'JII_'rl.o IJt >,u lil-Ui.(:d the
honour, altlHlugh it has ouh' a popniatioll ,,[ li,lillU,,,,,l
a.n :tV{'r;Lcrc cladv of ,]() orisonct's onlv.
• I:'" "
vY" lY)\\" pa", on to tllP departllJCnl,; of
the gOVC1T:lllcut, of which 1. t.'lU rd:lILillg to the
lllPnt ()f reve1lue is the ltllpnrtant. The l't'Yt'l.lle
of tht'l provilJCc ll(J\Y :llJ)Olllll tn In.) lacs of rupc'l''',
whIch ligtJrll it hn,s stood for some years past, [tlld I h"re
is no likelihood of ;tOY great fluctuations in the ["tun',
In faet, tlw efip(:t of tllftt nphef\.yal wh1ch t'1.kdl
r!acr I1tJI)tl ::un
c
1':'11 increflsl' of pric(". ;IJli1
Wllich, with prosperity to the rY<lt, brought :lll iI"",',"'1-
of revenue to the government, direcly by the incn',,'cd
value of the governmental share of the prouucc un",,!' the
then prc""iling bottayec, or division of the crop S,,'st0!l!,
and indirectly h," the StilJlUiU8 which it gave to iner,-nsed
cultIvation itnd to tlie improvement of tbe uther resources
from which the revenue is ,lerived, We say that these
elIectsattained their maximulIl some time back, and that
in the future there is 1lI0re prospect of a fall in prices rather
than otherwise. Of this revenue, itbout seventy-two lacs
is derived fro111 the land, viz. 30 lacs from dry, :2:'5 from
wet, and from garden, the remainde>r being yielded
by the rent of pastLU'es, excise on oCloffee, and other mis-
cellaneous items. T he wet land d6rives its irrigation {r,lln
the several 9.nnicuts across the Cauvery and other riYers,
entirely under the native g0vemment, in an
ingeniousa,nd inexpensive by ta,king ad vant :ll'e of
natural ba.rriers in the beds of the rivers, and from nu-
merous tanks, to which the large expenditure of Illore
reCAnt days has added little or nothing. The r;ce erup
which is ra.iSed on this description of la-nd is ,dlllost
cOn'_:"'HlIllC'tl wir.hin
c111H,":ttion, OIl 111 snperior soils,
n C'iv'C'k (j'(lltl the higll pric,-\:-: of h!Jt it wil!
fOrli: all itJlpl)ltant. (If tlH' \\"{';lltlJ of
province. The crops mised on dry lands. except a ,",'ry
small quantity of cotton grown in a single consi,t
entirely of the o"r1innn' gmins forllling food of ,h,'
popll]atiou
,
;-1,:1..-1 Gf wili('\ \\'it11 the exceptioll of oil-sc( cis,
little is o"[1"r:('(1. TIl<' pr')OIlCe o[ silk frolll llllllb",'ry
is-on the decline, but t!Jpre is a con,idemble extent of
gard2n cnltiY[Ltion, of areca-nut. rtnrl cocoa,-l1nt
plantatiol1s, which form ,,:dn:1blc articles of export.
There rot'" abo considcmu[" forest resources, and the
cultivation of coff('l' has added a new source of we"itll.
The bottaY,_'f'. or systrtn, hasing he-en
:!r:l(l: u; ly CO! nIl! ukd inlo ltloney, the Ltll(1s of pl'ovi nee
fui' lIJ'W.\- !"Cilr.;; Lht! bpndlt of a fixed IIloney
hut the Js:;;(':,smcn: \\,,1.'3 based on itn-
perfect 1I1,':tsmPlllcnts, did not allord sufIicient
seeun:.'!' to tbe ryot froll! the c"torcilms of offici;,ls·
A land e.nl'Yt\y find re\'cnlW therefore, fanned
UIlC of the ciClilents of tIl<' process wllich
cCHlllHcn('(-'d in It)') '1. It W;l·S wisely rc?'olved l1(lt to
burrow tbe "ystelu frolll :\Jadrns, where the survey
opera t Ions. di\'idul bel'" een totally independen t ilepart.
Illcnh, one for the d"l1l:l.rca,tiol1 oj the fields and for
the eventllill SE·ttkrHtmt of the rcwnue, and the other
for mcasmeItH'llt, ha 1'(' into a Jfluddle from which
the work has 111'Vl'r cxtric:lted itself, but the requisite
agency waR oDtaill(,(l from Bombay, which has at least
the credit of showinc.>; finished results. The depart-
ment was organised in lR52-63, when it was Cltlcuhtted
that the settlcnlCllt would occupy twenty years. Up
to the end of 18; lon, i.e. in nine years, the settlp!)Jent
was completed in eleven uut of eighty-one Taluks of the
province, and it was ill progress ill seventeen illore, 80
t.it:lt
,
al1owing ior ()\"('Il [l hi,L:lll'1' r;lJ!\' '-If l.Il'ogTI':.;;::.in fntnrC',
till' wurk 11I:1,.y Jlot be ;..::ot thr'_,u,:.:h wiLhin tWt'llly or
!'A,'ntv·fiv(' fro!ll (lli;-; Tile' of
tI: ":-;t' ('pcrai lon...; {'( ;"t iII t:!, :--I'\'!! ri t _\- \\ l:i(' h 1 ];, 'Y Y(' to
il1(1i'.:irltLl! i)y tht' :l!HI llf
anu the fixity and \!\OCkr:1tiull of hI'
l!ll:nt. Tilt' fOrlJl('l" is a 1l1edu.lllcai work wllil:h c-n::;ily
hilt tixlng of [1 [(l.ir ,:'ilc1 CI]l1ltiLLiL'
_'1:-i:-'t·SSUlC'!![ i8:t t:t-;,;, in "-,\·lJ;('h, though p.'rff'ct
('f]l1ality is w,t t'J he hoped for, it is of the greft("ot i,ll-
th:lt. ill! Lilt' circnn1Sta,llCE'S aiTeeting t he qnl<;.:ti(lll
should be fL!lly and thoroughly COlbidcl"pd frolll ''',n)"
point of view, so R!=; to spcnre a t:uflicicntl,Y fair an,1, \yb'lt
is morc a Htndcrnte rt ll'lt.
appear t,hflJ" the snrvey hfLR been in opera.tion fn!"
})JiW yt::a.rs, it:-; rcsnll':-; ha.':c l.-l'sted hy r11J
('xamillallon by any able oflicers vf local ,'xperience, wch
as would be thoui:!:ht necess,uy cspc('i,dly in tb" f'1('" of
geneml complaints of over,asseSSlllent and oppres-iuJl,
The reports "f the 3my",)" olilrers, allll the results of their
work, would seellJ to receive no more scrntiny t han a
IllPTC formal sanction by the head of the aduJi1listral iOIl
t\nd!\ few vague lucubrations in the annual reports, It
is not advocated that the practised judgment "I' the
officers who snpel-intend these opemtions shollld syste-
matically be subordinated to the upinions of the local
revenue authorities, in so far a.,q an independent
opinion maj' Sf'n't' to correct the errors incidenttLl tf) the
exclusive dCP'HlllJ('ll tal view of the matter ail Ie_
It is also true that a great deal of the colllplaints in these
mattersemaO!Ltesfroru the jealousies of conflicting d"pal't-
ments, aDd frollJ the grievaDces of influential1andholclers
who lIJay have been of their undue
by the operations of the survey, Furthrr. the of
any suddeu expansion of caltivation consequent upon the
survey setLlcllUcnt cannot in_itself be taken as a. teet of
'2·1
bcrLvy iLSSes.:;411f-mt., a:-'. Stich extension of ion C:ltl
DU1,\" ta,l.,:p pl:lct' nuder the inlinellcc of
;L s! rnng of property, and .!..;1\':t:C'l' Ii:':) iUHl ;l._cilYity in
the population t.ilitn <1t pn..:seut Brit
there is room for some misgiving th'1t in fixing an Itss,'SS-
Illcnt equal to, and in-wIne cases in excess of the prcs"nt
revenue, whidl d,_,"hlecl within th .. I:i,t twenty Y('<ll'S
lIncler til<' illflll"lIcf' of high priees, ;Ln
aSSCSSillt;nt, to(J. \\ llidl suhject to further ndllitions for
local ceShCS of ,LiJOut G per ('Put on all larllls, and ahout
1'2 per cent. Oil the \vc". the ,; rculllstances of the province
:.1.S an in Ll..ll(l cOl:ntry Jut pos:-:'4?ssing .-:>asy or <.:heap aCCCSR
to the gren,t lllluhb on the sea-coasts, 11I1\'e llot been
given the -'-'eight ,h10 to theru; and that the principle of
tlF)(]f'Tati<.:n ,,·hi,·!J \\:lS t)lO chi€l'f of tbe
S('ttk!llU1b; ic; abanuoIH:d nJ!Jcr the
uf land tu,xatiotl which It<1VC of gained currency
IUllongsl Incliltn authorili('s. An 1t'_"'<SIJl('tlt thns fixc,d at
" mtc; which can be ouly Jl"id unGer the most fn.yr,ur-
cir'--°llillstnnces of price is open to the risk ofbreakllJg
down under II Inti 01 pri(·co not altogether unlikely, "nd
mnst therefore be reg,1rd,·d as a m:txillHll!1 rather th,w a
pl'rpctual aBseS8lnent for average and even Ull-
ia\-onrable years.
The aSSeSBtrl(,llL lixe<! is to last- for thirty years. Tbis
principle of thirty-yeltrs' llurat!o!l of assessments wa.s
originad,l' introdured in the Yillage settlements of the
North-I\'cot Proyinees, where it was nltturallj consid(;red
undesirable to surrender [or ever the revenue deriv[J.ble
from tbl' large ext"nt of waste lands, though even here
the principle culiid not bp upheld without (jualific>ttion.
It was subsequently adopted in the totally different ryot-
war, or rather settlements of the Bombay
guided by the tea.chings of Mill in regard to
the tendency of land perpetnally to increase in value irre-
spective of any improvements made to it, and the conse-
CjIlC'nt of gOYl',l'llllH:·nt t;) :1 ft'dlll Slit·i;
lllcn:a.scd it is:1 \"t'J'.\- tl'l1]()tC
Ilntler tho of Illdi't. '1']1(' ttlC·nr.',
h:l:-; been snPP(lrtnl b.,- fn:jil thl' f:1d,
of tIlt' of b:l'viug' b(-ell paill
in kina, a;:; if this .l.rrallg-eu1ent were uot iIltclllit-ll fl.)]' tL"
convenience of I,he ryot, owing to the greater tiuctu:ltion:;
of \\".-,1. pr(!(lu("t! :tud t.lll:' still greater uncertainties of dt>-
,tJ:wd flJr lilrllJ in tbe fon'ler thy;; of no trade, and :LS it
th,' 1lluch wirier ,'x:ellt III ,11'.1- land had not always p:ti<l
H, hxed-llJ()lwy assc,s::;U"Lllt. 1 L i::; forgotten tlw.t this l'rin-
ciple totallv ccntroverts tbe now generally
tbeory d the bTld "o;seosment being a governrncJ;: tn
:md nuL:I ian,ljurd'" rellt. There is no f:tlhc:'
tlnLI1 ll1l' :1:fLt. thilty-years'
o\lght t.o iICt.tt'l' in regard to the security of Lllt' l'y:_.t'-'
than tile aIlnual assessment,s of forlll('r days. These
annual assessments are simply intended to Cl1:1iJ\f' tht'
ryots to fll:!,I;" the necessary alterations in the nXldlt of
tbeir holding_. but are in principle as undollbt·",ll,· :t
permanent invariable assessment as any settlelll"flt <:::1.U
possibly be, subject only to tbe extraordinary ri)\Lt e,f
government to put on additional burdens, cbiefly in tlll'
sbape of cesses to meet extraordinary demands, or, as
nnder the eircumstances of tbe presnnt day, to 'krjyc
additionally an income-tax from the profits of tbe \;1.ud as
from other SOlHC"S of income. This &u('ierrt th"ur} is
sounder in principle and of grea.terpr.!l<Cticai valu(' than
any lubitmry periodsfonhe dumtianai,o,ssessmenls SflCh
as proposed in tbe present surveys. Indeed, if the prin-
ciple of tbirty-yea.rs' duration conld work itself into the
people's minds so as to supersede their traditionary ideas
of tue permanency of tbe government a.ssessment, it can-
not but bavea.n unsettling effect on them. To the Indian
ryot, wbo is a landholder not a. farmer, permanencya.nd
not along lease possesses a charm. The operation of
llOyd P1li1t:lplc will h.1XC a. effcet tIi. jly,';ol'r> .
. \,-) til!' -"111"\ (','( is to occupy tliirt,y Yt':!r:.::, tile
:-:t,ltl. lii',--:L, IlJ;u1(_, w111 hll in work 1:'
to a cL;.-)('; :ll:d if tlH-' __ 'Il: ... tl'I,'j l'( ... COll-
eeiveuofthe r"paeity of lIative rule have allY (ounua[ioil,
matters would be "gain throwQ. into confusion, or call for
tbe services uf '" [r",:, settlellJent clcpl1rtrucnt .
. \ 'l'lCstiUll HJOrt' pertinent to our present pmposl' is
how this e:-:.t.aiJli;..;hlIll);lt, Wtlos:e work is not lik(,ly to
to a, close \\-itL;n tbe or 25 yea.rt:i. to be treatdl
at the approa.cbing l'f'.:,tol'ariolJ of the proyinc(:: to natl\-e
rule. r. 13o\\Tillg, who ill his Eastern experiences c()u-
"iurrs that the "[,crILti",,o of the survey ,.!'ford the o:dy
elfeetual ]11'01 I'ctiull o[ the cnlti vators ag:1inst the rapaci I,},
of thc' H:1-jail'<.; hCl't':"Liter, is of opinion that
est.:lldl:---hrllcnt should CUlil-iUlll' to COl111)iete the work.
But! ns rhe cont!puauc{; of sHeh au e:densive
agell(',Y native rule but he open to ubjection,
i,)ll nai;urally why t.he llatives, who have
ak!1.Ys been di,tinguished for "biiity in fl'vcnuc setde-
]LPllls. !1.]l(! \\ho poss"" P""u;inr aptitlld,· "nd facility for
dt'a!iu!:; witll the varion, qn(:stiOtls connected with the
oubject, should not be tr:lined fur the work: The exclu-
siw Europe,ul agency at present elllployerl in the My.,ore
Survcy of the Survey and SeLtlclnent Conllllis-
s;nr,,'r, it Superintendent and Deput.y Superintendent of
Snrvcy, ",ith 15 EUl'OPC"ll officers umler them, who, with
the snh(Iniinak na.tive agency, cost two lacs per annum.
Several uf the otlicero on t lIe list "ppear to have been
selected not for all)' previous Imowlpdge of the work, but
to hl1,ve been taken on for the purpose of traiuillg.
The ClllIllllissiuuer, in his report for 1870-71,
observes, 'A good deal w&.s done in the WfJ,y of consDli-
. da.tion and acquiring experience, whereas in the case of
the Mysore Revenue Survoy a Ia.rge proportioQ of the per-
sonnel is comparlttively young:ando! small experience; a.
'2:
13C>riod of COlUp:lratl\"C' chec1.:; til gn)\\'L!1 y,dllnLII;
and Tl(!('C's:->n.ry.' SUl'(:ly
not \W(';l :llld 111:1.,\' l),.)t Yt't ix L.lt.L" •
. \lIntil!'r ()r:..:, Ltli:--t.:d \...-ir II tiH' U!)jCl'l of
giyil;g s('c!lrit) Lll -LUH] (:l! tel:' Llfi':-:' auri oj
tll(' of gov('rnlllcnt is thl..' .1 C\-;Jli-
WiSSlOll for the investig:tllOI1 and ot lll;'llll
The work of this bolll ill iu; l)r'lu-
ciples and procc
r
j2rc, o!11y l)c dl':-leribed as a sCl'yill:
illlit:\tio!l of tl,,· ,,·steln. with its faults and eX('f';'
k!lvcs. Tb,.' gre:tt plnt:iple 0
1
the lmim settle-
went cousi,ted in what was called tbe CUfr<111ChiBrll"'Jl!
of the In;llll tenlIres i.e. ccnvcrting these tenures. whid.
were B'ore or It\sS SllUj('ct to r(-'strlcti\'e (;uudition" or
oninmlid title, into ,)I)sol11(c "aicablc property iu rd',rn
for an a!lullal p'tyrnent to goVertHllent as quitrent uf a
portion of the ass8ssable value of the Iallds. This
brought some addition to the govel'iln,ent n'yenuc, but
what Wfl." more importfl.nt, it converted this large II",", of
landed property, which was lying valueless under 1,(,8tl'ir--
tions formerly existing, into productive prupcrty of the
highest kind. But there was no special virtue in tbe
procedure arlopted in Madms. .On the contrary, though
the variec1 circulIlstances of an extensive Presidency
necessitated the organisfl.tion of a separate estabiisiltllent
for dealing with Iaaro tenures in Ma.dras, doubts wpre
even there entprtained in rega.rd to t.he comp,uati I"e
advantages of the investigation and registry of Inarlls
by such a agency without Joc9.Jlmowledge and
with all the risks of error attendant on the prep:uation
of English registers of Imi.1ll by them, a.nd of their
examination and revision in a central office. The lVork
to be done is more a simple registration than an investi-
gation, and it is pa.rticularly so in Mysore, where the
enquiry into the heirs of the present incumbents oi the
Ina.ws for the purpose of regula.ting thereby the terms
2cl
of ('llfranchis8111ent has been :.toanuuncd for unifonn l':ttcs
Y<lrlable witb t:l(> yalidit\" uf t,hc tC'llllJ't"::';' .\s Cul!l-

pld.t' l'c;:,'ist,(·r:-; of in the proi'incl', valitl and
ha\'p lWt'll pr("'V'"1l'c:il <t,t v:ll'ions tbe
settlement, if a few rules ill regard to terms of entrcll1-
chis€mcnt were hid down, could be easily complet'_',l by
the district autbol'itil'S in the coutse of one or two atllllw.l
scttlcTlJents ll[jlfn t.he Lasis of the verru,cular regist rrs,
and conTInued by ,-,·rtl;wular title-deeds which wiiI be
n,pprecirrtcd jnst as ',Yeli 'lS the more pompous but less
intelligil,I" English al'CaS, the crotchet of the M:ulms
system. Bnt as if tu jnsti(v the retention of a scpccrate.
agency i lli' :l1.'.-:;orl' IwillJ Commission, unlike tbat of
Madras. was till receatly v('sted with a civil jurisdictiou
in chill-;::; tl) occasioning
itWDll'.enil'lH'l' :lud Ilc('djp:-;s C');llpiiC'Ll,tiullS.
Ille!" ,,[ I!XCl'SS in tbe J nl"tl bol,lings_ tbe lllain difiiculty
uf thl! question, has in any c,,,c to be postponed for the
opl!ratiullS of tbe survey_
!lOW [lass to:1 ('.ur'or), of the iteltls of
rcwnne other thau the LInd-tax. ill order to illustrate
the principles which govern tbeir Coffee,
whicll i" tbe only item of wealth added to the reSOl,lrces
of till' ':ollntry uuder Bl'itibh ImmagclIl€nt, entirely by
pl'iv,!k elltcrprise, "nd the cnitiv;>tioll of which, buth in
the province and to a much !rtrger extent in the adjoining
British territories, atIol'lls an outlet for native labour, pays
in }lysnre an excise duty of four annas per nmnnd in lieu
of a lallll-ti1x, tbe alilunc;t, so contribnted to the rHenue
in 1-1'2 bemg 7:;,OUU rupees on 3,800 tons. Tbis
systeili. however desirable to encourage a new enterprise
at itR COll1lllenCement, is attended with too. many dis-
advantages to form the best permanent revenue arrange-
ment. It affords a. premium for careless and slovenly
cultivation, proves bllrdensorue to the industrious, and is
open to all the corrupting inftuences of fraud and evasion
o 111 E.
of duty flttclJl_h.nt on ,'ttl tax. Tile- exll
1
nt \)[ la,na
U"d"I' colll'e t'ulti",ltioll fly Emop"all' i, ,b iJ2.()IJ(]
nw.l hy !l:l-.. :t:-; Ltl!-' latt{'rt'x-
tlJ(' ill tIle prUFtl!'titHI ()£ :tL,.lllt, t'.\-\) :\'D<1!t
half 'to one, whilst the annual produce of c0!Tt'{' on
cst"V:; which PllYS duty is "bont live tbe Ij');l,'l:it)'
with tlw excis2 as the yield 1'1::1\,,,-
t.iOllS, These :lPU:d'Cllt.ly lloL\\iLll-
the ch:trge of apathy and slovonliness \Yhich
ir,.t·\:." L)( .... to"'!_,d nt\ p!:-..ntcl'.3, :::t.fC repl-':l..tl'J
in .ucccs,;i,'c :\lmu,,! repOl'ts, without "llY,[Lttem", t,)
exph1in w!J.,' the Europe'tIl pt'oc1uce 8hould pr()\, ,,',
deficicl1t ill cOlnpMisoll with tho nalive. ,\Yhcth('r it
ff'sult:.; fro!!l evasion df lluty by tho
phut.f'r:O-;l(J!'fr i!t! tlll'll' taking lipt'xLensive bn(b Uf'.'-!liclt
porti011S tiley are a.ble to bring under cultj,,;!tiull
1
or froltl the small patehes of native coffee cultiY"i ilHl
not being brought on the acreage returns, Dr [1'0111 ti,e
operattf}ll of :1.11 tbp:;e cause::;, it is ol.n-iuus
thM a s,ntl'lll \"h idl gi vo, seupe to such a. st ate of lh i ugs
stands in llct·d of correction.
An (xc·iso duty .lIluch in amouut is also levii'd
on several other products of the province, viz. lIrc'U1,llllC
, rupees), tobacco (120,000 mpees), coeOll-HUt.S
(37,000 rupees J, betel lcayes (44,000 rupees), l'('Pl'er
(3,000 rupees), cardamoms (-1;000 rupees), :tnd "piulll
(9,000 rupees), This duty is edlleatad not in lieu of, but
in addition to, :1 generally assessment on
the laud,; on which the products'aremised. The system
of ta.xing special valuable prodllct&, orthe trees on which
they are grown, after they come into bearing, is Due long
familiar to native Ilovernmenta, and still obtains in the
western coast districts of the M adras tii0ugh
now generally condemned on account of the
a.lld inegularities with "'hich the collection of the t",x
ill attended. It is supposed to ea,rry with it the rl'COTll-
3D
of ellC(lUr,lgil1g tIlt\ ('Ill! jY:ttinll uf tlwsc Pl'l)-
. -
dlicts by t04nJ f'Xl'111ptiol1 frOlJl t:1X ",hil.-, t,ht'Y flre in
gTO\YLi11 ancl (if Rl'Curilli-!" fro!!) tllC1tl bigh
rCYCnll('. 131lt :tlnill', t\J(' cl'('(lit ofpulting
on the tax in addition to a land asseSSllIent, a systelll
which no principles of l'CVCntw adllJinistration Call be
found to support. The ,itu:ttion of Jlysore as an inhml
province it. [rotil deriving n.n efts."
revcnue, T.dIlll {,llsti!lll:3 I.)D ('xtcnsiYt' frnnti('r w,lllld
be uot oniy ,1illicult of ""Ii"clioll, hilt wOlild clash -,,-ith
the 11 lP 1'(' cllligllU'llUl pr,lie,\' ailopkd in th"
British tf'n'it(lrics, a,nd t!il:' t:;.,:.eiRe uudl'rthc ,
seelllS tn ha,e be"11 to as the only Jl1('tU1H o[ rc-
coul'ing : lie' for n, cllstorns l'eV011Ull which it cannot
othcl'lI'i:;,' ,1'Ti\'('. ],uL:'l policy which thl1s place,; the
unl} of tJ!L' 1,royinGc under
in the pro(lucc
or the 1 Canll()t be sUllnd; but the IHost
rd'jc:r.! iou:"Lbb) fea.tnres. of t.h('f:,I\ I'nn3ist. in the OPPOl'-
t,t)llltit's; for frrt,ud fLlll1 jJi'Lty n.ntl nCt'(lIess
which they gi vc ris{) to, :tnd in a. great
any to GoverIllnent,
for b,. far the greatest portion uf this sOllrce of revenue is
dpI'ivcd from the areca-nut clllciv:Lt,ion of 'I few Meulnaud
or Hill T,tillks o[ tllo N u.sgor di vision, which In their situ a-
tion :tnd cli!lJatc cnjoy exccpLion:d advnntages similar to
those of the wOHter Ii co:,st for tllio description of cultiva-
tion. What little tobacco is raised in the province is
mostly coufiued to :t few 'falukR adjoining the \Vcetern
Ghaut". l'bc dut.}' realised in the rest of the province
and on the atlter arliel", is quite insignificant, and only
proves" source of petty interference nud oppressiou_
If the loss of reyenue from this source is cousidered
too great '1 s,wrifice for the Government to undergo, can-
not the sphere of iucidents be restricted to the few
Trunks where the a.reca.-Dllt is grown UDder exceptional
W1it'r;' it IU:i,Y pcrLlp:-; IJl..:' plls:-:iLl l ,
V) 1'{J:l\Crt: the' :lito a high Lt.:T (If :-h.;t'<";:;lllt'llt nn 1,1H'
larHl i t;:j tf, in:-.t(':u.I qf C(ll'l LlI-ILiCl''': V\f'llIl'llt
or u\' 'I';!it ir!t,/;I.' pro\"i:wt", :Ll!d it to
sen.caJ uther artit'ic:-i w!licb arc U1Un' 01' Ie':::,::; Itllpl'(H.luetiYt'
OfreVl'flUL! '? How tloes the policy of
gOI'Crllll/nJlt ill this r<"pcct ('ontr:tst 'rith lhG lilwml prill-
ei ptes rtf t:n::a.til)n which ('\"t'n goverllllll'li t:-., ulH_h·r
) nt., :l(t' ll::'Ldopt. The
f:l,,;:l:h (d Tr:L\'a.D(·nn) ,-'ufn--'llrl(,l'pd f(\J' the beJJetlt (if llis
his ) [:-rln. iu :l ('('!lsidcra-ole CXt,I'jlt of
iand known:to Sirbr P:Lt:tlllR--a distinct ,)"(1111,
and more than, tho t-f
bncl!0rd ll<''''-,l-(I:tys lvll,tweed 011 behalf of the Illt]i,Lll
1:1.1111:-:. ill and pa,l'tnkillg 1IJ' ':'1: of
th" eil:llw"tcr of the of fo:'udltllordi; inl-heir !,"il:lk
donmills, His lIighnesR further abolished the tobeco
1lJ(ll1opoly, alld reduced the illJport duties Oll the article
at l\ C('c;t to t.he of fOllr or five lacs of rup",'s per
:1.111111111, III,lIsL the Co(:hiu Sirka,j" went th" length of v
up the duty altogether,
Besides the above taxes on land and agricultllm' pro-
ducts, taxes are IC"ied in Mysore on houses (15\1,000
rupees), shops (85,000 rupflesi, looms (75,000), oit 1l1ilb
(13,000 rupees I, carts (34,000 mpees), and cloths of local
Dlanufacture (5U,000 rupees). The taxon houses is col-
lected at rates varying froru cight:II.Il.ll!Mo1:totweive
per house upon ]·11 ,000 housescmly(!)ot of a Lotal nJ]lu-
ber of a inillion r:ouses in the pro-vince, the remainder
being exempted as belonging either .to the agricultural
population, or to special classes a! inhabitAnts who from
immemorial custom have been exempt from the
Any pra.ctised revenue can readily conceive
the irregularities attendant on the operation of such
• partial tax, with the. wide la.titude which is givt:n in
the iliscriwina.tion of what constitutes the agricultural
32
llHll'ISH AD)Il:-lISTlLU'IOC':
popuhtion;, whether it ('JlIUraCd the (o["erlners, kn:tl1ts,
ur ontduol' :ltld hOll:-itlllO Id sen·an nt the ;1 U; l'i:.;LS,
11110. '\yiIo funn the c]a,s::.:e", L() t'x{'lupt,iol1;
and further in the a"t;e:;Slll.mt ot mt0> bO wiLlely ran;;iug
as from eight annas to twelve rup<,cs. The other itelu, of
t<\x are open to objection chietly on account of the sillall
a.mullnts reah:wd fn .. nll thel1l. But fL ta.x on loows, ;uld
anotber all t110 cloLhs nmllufactnrf'd out of those IOOIllS,
<\fford a striking of the manner in whic.h II)c111
llianufactlll'c:-:o luc<-d are enCt)nr:lgeu and <1e·
vcloperl b.\· tbe :;roVt'rtlllteut, not to mentiolJ the fl"ltH.\g
fL!J,d corrnptio11 with which an exeise duty such as
that on e]':Jths he' The· tax on can:-,
unjust if Icyied 011 tl1<> agriculturists, who p"'y n, sepa-
l':1tc- jcw:!.! ('\':-'S 1', ll' lu:t.intPtlflUCn of the road:::.; fLud
if t!wy are to b.; "xelJlpLCd tl"e t,,, carries with it aii the
ol)j(,ctionable [":llures :ltt('tldant on: 1)(' assessment of the
house-U,x :t< already dcserib,-.d. Considering that the
country :l!. hrge is pun-I.\' ill its cha.ra(;ter,
and thnt the intention of lllOst 01 tlw ,tbove t:1X,'q
to reach the non-agl'ieultul'alpnpu\;.t,tion who contrihute
notiring to the support of how lUuch relief
Iroll) pdtv annoyance could be afforded to the people
at lu.rge without any of tl1e govcrnluent rcn:>llue,
if the above taxes were rcst,ricted "s llJUllicipal sources of
revenue to towns, where alone Lhey would rca.lly
productive, and where tlwir operation Cl!.n be better
brought uuder cbeck. Btlt the principle of releasing the
ryots as hr as practicable from the tralllmeis of the petty
officials has !!lade no progress, and perhaps b:1S no
existence in the policy of the British adlllinistration of
Mysorc, which Reell;S to be only relmHkable for the
tenacity with whieh it clings to small items of revenue on
the one hand, and on the other for the c:o..travagance with
which it wastes the revenue in organising useless e:;tab-
lishments.
OF
The people of owe enlirelv 1" t1", Hriti,h
ndtllini:-:t:r:ttitHl the intrnJllctiull of a t:D:: OIl lit in
t h,' felfln of lli'a, \" \. Cllll rt, st,a .. tH p:::. 1 . .":2:{O, (ll() I'll 'I,
-::l;\'!i;P \,Ill a!! eX{A(,l1tJ
1
ll f 190J)(lt)
rupe(',,), anll for t!lI:::r rq.dstration
all after the forllls into force in British tcrritori,'"
of reccnt yeMH.
of r(,\'CllUC, 11 ,,,.,.ewr , which a:l:1ie]t,rj
tho bighcs:. deyelopmcnt, and still cont.inues 10
both in an,1 clsCllhl'l,t ... is what is calleil tlw
Abkari,lvhich ('ooRist.,; o[ a taxon tbe consurnptionol opiri-
tuous The mpid growth of the yice of dl'l1'1kcn.
ness-'a fOI'I!ll.'rly unknown tt) all but :1 few [1liS('l,J-
laneuu, Ci:1>iSCS, chidly of lown population, Oil" of
which C,111 engagl\ 1 h.:
d well- wisbers of society. The gOYL'rn" I C(lt
have hitherto looked upon the question too exclnsi \'c'l),
as one of rm'cnuc, and the rapid growth of the ",'il, "'''
iudie:t!..'u hy the increasing revenue frolH this source,
has ni:v('r s('riou:sly cnga.ged their attention; and if their
thought hns ever been given to it at 301\, they hn.ve COll-
Koled thco)selves with the idea tbat an enhanced mte of
duty affords the only possible check on drunkenness,
The Abkari embraces two separate articles, Toddy,
whioh is a fcrnJCllted liquor drawn elsewhere [rolll Pal-
ruyra and cocoa-nut trees, bllt in Mysore excl nsively frolll
the da.te, when fresh and unadulterated, a,nd indulged in
in lllOderate quanti tics, afi('),rds a Dutritious bevemgc' t.o
the pOOrt'l cla.sses of the populal;ioo. As the lig uor is
drawn from trees which are ,scattered :IliJ.l over the coun-
the revenue derivable, from it is difficnlt of dirceL
ma.nagement by government officer". The lLlonop,)iy of
the sale of the article has therefore of hte ycu,rs bpen
rented out. Under this system the revenue or rent pay-
able to government being fixed, it becomes the interest
of the renter to extend the and consnmption of the
l>
3-1
l3ltlTltilI .\D)l!"IS'rllAT[Oo.:
;1,rtidp a,H JIluch ;1,8 pos:::.ibll'. :_l,S c\"ery :::uclt pxL.'n:;,ion
SO Jl1Ucb pnre gain to hilllsdf. SoJtJl'ti!llcs
1
\rlth the
(]c:::Jirc of tt:!lcl('ll('Y on the: p::.rt I)f ttw
renters, govcflllHtHlt give out n':llts, liCit t!J the·
bidder, hut upon a system of sealed tenders, or by :1 pri-
vate arrangement, which only opens:t door to johbery
and shuts ont tl,,, from thM, increase of tho
revenue whicb is l'lsewhcre dpri\'ed und('r a SystClll of
open honest ':()ll1petiri.on: [lnd for no advJuate object,
for tlll'rc C:!llllot be " more f:1l1:wious idea than that
the mo(k of Vi ving th,' rl'nt can at all affect the niLtuml
desire of the renLer Lo d,'rive the highest income froU1
his contract.
Arr:l,d" the other source of tho Ahlmri revenne, is
;], Epil'it di;-;lillcd 11'(;LJ j;l,gg(\r.v, rxct'ssive in
whidl (BOre ruinolls cuu:;cquenecs upon the n:.1tive
eonst,ilutiol!. This branch of m\l'IlUC is now managed
undcr what is called the Su(ldcr distillery system. The
stills for th" manllf:wtllre of the article are estal:iished
at "ithin cnclnsell premises, under
the supervision of governuwnt otl1cers. The
required for sale is supplied from these stills on the
payuHmt of a. duty to government upon the quantity
t"ken Ollt. '1'he goverument t,'LX thlls oears upon the
. ,
rwtu3.1 consllmption. tl.nd it cau be increased to such
an extent 3.8 i;o a, serious restriotion to the con-
sumers, though, where the unfortunate men, as is usua.lly .
the ons(', are irrcsio;tihly led to indulge in the evil, the
effec!. or 3.ny snch inem,Re of price may,be simply to add
to their own ruin, the ruin of their family ani! their
property. 'rho evils incident to the Sudd('r distillery
systelll arc the opportunities which it offers to smuggling
in connivance with the government servants baving the
supervision of the distilleries, and the tendency it haB
to bring into general consumption the strongel' spiritq
which are 80 ruinous tbe native-constitution. Arrack
present pa.y:-; ill ,l ant, .... · of 1--0
rupeC's p('r galiuJ}, The (",>.;t, wir-·h rl'a:--;ol1:l,hlc- prnllt.-)
of 1)\l:..;:hL to hf- lLilll:h 1I1la,_,!' 1
htlt ;t S\':-;kltl \\'hilll pLlf'l"'S llO l"l'str!ctioll llJl()1l
the scller: ill tu llri(Q, tito is :::iold v) the'
unfort.una.te COllSUI:l(!r a.t 1 rupees per gallon. TlWl'l' ('all
be no free tmdc in tlIP restricted sphere of a. UlUllOpolr,
and l\ C;LSC this, deepl,\' [..fleeting tile
intere>;tH of tile p,")pk, it i6 !lut ouly proper but l Ii"
Jnt:; of thl.! gO\'i'rnlTlcnt tn ;,,:;;snm'-.' tuore dll"Cetly
rUbpotl:;iblliliY oi supplylug Lv tlw peop!e at reasoil:,tlJ:e
prices slleil tl. ocs(:riptiun of the Mtiele 11S is not : ikel,;-
to provo rniw"ls tu their health; and if this is snpl'lc-
lllcuted hv "greater attention to the restriction of tl""
nnw"..,. 01 -hops, ,be 11<)"1"> of "all', the ql1alit.,· "",]
IJUllllLity "f t.he "rticle sold, points which, thuugh a.kl.)'s
fonning esscnti"l elements in Abkari aoministr,"tioll, rLre
not now sufficiently attended to, uuder f:1lsc iJcas of
free tmdl\ some check' to the spread of the evIl lllay
be hopod for.
SOUle features in Lha m'loIlagemcnt of this hraneh of
revenue not necessarily connected with it, point to th'lt
WIlOt of reg'lrd for'the convenience of the people whieb
unfortunately so characterises the Mysore adillinist,rn.-
tion. The renters of the toddy oontra.ct need only
possess a. monopoly in the sa,le of the a,rticle, hut in
Mysorc they 11rc also given the mon1)poly of all the
date trees in the province, and the·cultivators of land 11re,
under severe penalties, prohibited from cutting them
without permission-a penuissiern which, it need hftrdly
be sa.id, is not ea,'lily obtained, The unfortunate J f1nd-
holders, in their struggles to clear their lands frolI! the
rank and wild growth of these trees, are led into nu cnp
of aifficulties and petty oppression, The more proper
system would of course be to give the renter8 only
the use of the dotte groves on gov6T1lmllllt la.nds, and
.. ,
to j,-':1,YC Lo IHake their y,:iLI! ur
hol(lcl's f0r rEly tnan"" today that lJtay 1w l'l':jllirc:d trolll
trees sitn:1tet1 on their hn(L;. This \ynnlc1 ill nn \ray
diminish tIlt,. gUYl:rnll1Cnt rCYPI11H-', l.wt SlH:_h for
releasing the ryots from needless restrietions do not ,;eem
to enter into the policy of the government, and cwn
when t.llf'ir prinei],]c is recognised, their neces,;::: is
not suflicirntly f,;It to hring them into pmcticitl op
0
ra.·
tion. But not only the price of the lble trees, coven
their an: g'\"('Il ill Illonopoly, for the insignitie11nt
re,'cn,,,, of fiit"(,11 hundred rupees in one division, t],,'rehy
placing a ,·ms'iko·,!hlr' nlllIlber of the poorer populfttion,
who li\?(' lly thl' of 1118 .. tS fronl these leaves,
under the ['cllclel' ltICly:i'es of the renter.
Thn rlC!1Sj· forests ;t,lOllg the ann
dh' klSU of i Ill' (3 haqts. conbtining tE':lk n.nd
other ya:l1abk tillli)c)' for purposes, as well itS
the jungllJs [JJ()n' i"!'Lllel, whieh yield large '!uan.
I itics of srindal woo,}, all imrurL,,"t itelll of the wealth of
tit" province, belong to "nd for the better
spcurity of their rights ill thCill, govcmnlent assumed "nd
still continue to claim. " monupoly of the above descrip.
tions of timber, which wherever growu, whether on public
or litnds, bcco!lw the absolute property of the
Ht[ttt1. 'l'his system necessltrily conllicts with private
rights ill hnds, "!lel the govern mont seem to be so far
alive to the fact tlt,.t the 'I'aluks, lately brought under
survey, the·), Imvc, in view to fre" the cultiva.tor from
all future interlHcnce, ordered the reserved description of
trees situated on privatt' Il1nds to be felled, a work which
entails DO ,mall [l,monnt of If.bour on the deptLrtlllenti
in of f,)rests. How does this contrast with the
system pnrsucd in the ILdjoining British territories. where
the goverumeut do not find it neceSSMY for the pl'Gcection
of their jnnglc trees to interdict the growth of the salIle
description of timber on privatI( lands as private pro-
perty The m,wopoly, !locs IlJ:lf:h
evil in t.he: of tc':d,: :;!l11 t.il,--'
I)f which ;:-:. C01dillL'·:i tu tlli' flt:'n:->l'r wllL'l"c
n .
\'Pr\" lir.Ut\ !·,riY I j \: h ilJ, 11;17. It prUYt'.4 H'ry
ini!ll"iuils in UL,,,,t' of wOlJd. \',\.lll;1,b\{' tJ':"'l',
is "vcry e-aprici011s in choice of soils :11111
for its growth. It docs n(,t, thrive much in dc!}st' .in]):!.!,'s
or in t.hick pLLnt'1,tions. hut in
the Uliunt:r jUliglcs and on the cUi-!'t':-) of rich and well-
cttlti\·":,,ij I,tnds. TInt:<s Ill<' cult;""tor eRn ha\'o no
in:t tree \,IJi('.!; CO!lSiJeft'll solely the pri\p\'rt,y'
of g".ermlJont, and the growth o[ which only pr(I\'"o
to bitll d and risk at the rmnds of tile
gO\'t'l'r1wpnL oflicia Is, it hi:-l constaut codea,'.-ullrto
rout 0
1
1: the: plant till' 1:1n111('Il: it :;(;nuina.tcs. :l.l1d thlh :lll
axiom;:v" ue,;trlletion of this illlporti1nt itelf! of '.':D,ddl
takes phco. Without wholly abandoning the
ment llIunopoly in sandn'!, IlJattel'S wight be IlltH'h [111-
proved if the cultivators were encouraged to grow tit"
on tbeir lands, 011 the condition of dcli\,l't'ing
them exclusively to government at a fixed half-price.
With the view of securing grcl>ter efficiency in the
w&nageltH'nt of ihese governlllent forests, they h"vo of
Inte years been plrwcd umler lL sepa.r:1tc establishltlent.
'rho remote situation of thc-sc denRe forcst.s and t.he· great
waste which was taking place in them by indiscrilH j nato
felling, undoubtpdly called fOl" the tmdillidcd attention of
a speciaJagency for their protectian; 8;nd if three or four
gbod working men, of rell.l forest experience, were n.p-
pointed each to one of these large forests, some Ilselul
results might be expected in the way o[ their better con-
aervaney, of facilitat.ing their natuml reproduction and o[
gaining real furest experience. The smaller jungles,
wore within the reach of the villa.ge population, might
continue to be managed more cheaply a.nd with leos
mOOllvenience to the people bv the ordinary
oiihrrls, by snell Jl('W knowl"clgl' ns Lhi' professi,,:]nl
111l'l':4 lllt....:lt r;11ghl fr()tll t.illte to titlll' he to givL' out
Lu :he \\'ot:lt1. J.-)l1t tile W;1nt of :1,
special working agency really felt, hns been pefluittl'.! to
develop itself into n large ndministmtiyc machinery, with
the nsu"l result of vtLgue useless :;pcclli:ttions, expcri-
Oll'llts illl[lCrf,,(;(:y trice! ,w,l !1Londuncd, nlHI real \Iork
giving \VfL,Y for ihcl!,s:=: l'Pporting sho\\ of
tion, and t:'xllPJl:'I\"t' est:-d)liS!ll11cnts opening a. door to
patrona,ge thp :lppointl1l(:nt of young gentlemen of
liberal crlllcatt:ol/ - :1tllfltCllr foresters, who are expcctled
to pick up stra,\' kll"wl,',b;,' "8 they grow, n,nd devclup a
passion for "dllliuisL,ntivc tLnthority instead of work.
This newly (,Tl',,[cd cHL1hli.')l!nent consists of a
a,m1 3C\'Cn :1s::;iRtflnts, lllOstly t':tIJ-
pluycll i n r:l ti \'/' work, with sn h-assist:tnt conscr-
\'etta!'s, forest raugc}';;, awl other wurl,;ing C'Rtn.ulishnlcnts,
cm:ting 7J,OJ0 rupees per ,wntlm; ,ul<l tile forest revenue
of Lhe province for 1871-7'2, amounting to :j'20,000 rupees,
which is deri \'nd by the sal,' of the tilllber in the market,
and which usetl fornlcrly to be srcmed with little cost to
government, has now to bear lIt establishments
,weI expemes of 160,000 rupees, or 50 per ccnt. But;ts tho
",",ist,wtconservfLtors C,mllO! he )ongcontcut to do honest
worl, on their present of 250 rml 350 rupees, while
their fellows of tlw sallle social st,ending in the re\'cnue
administmtion draw from 1,000 to 1,500 rupees, the
next stage of increase of salaries way be BOOI1 eXjwcted
to come :tbout; :tnd as Ilwasnres for taking over all
the district forest under the forest department, with of
courscadditiolml cstablishrnents,havealso received "anc-
tion, very litclo of the rcyenue from this source Cltn be
expected to r"nmin to GovernlDPut, And we may perhaps
here"fter Le t,,;d that it is uselul to lay Ollt the
whole, revenue in the development of the forest resources
for the future benent of the Mahltrajah'l! governuHlDIi. '
30
The annnal report. of the conscry:ttor of krests for
1871 .. iQ. is ttll d\WllllH"1L. It i., \1( f'llllI'SC, as
all thcsl: a:'(', too !(lUg ;11111 tOll [ul r of ti.:.:l.ll' .. :,,s to
he pa.6ilv IllfL...;ti'rc·d. OIlt' S('ei;Hl uf Lllt' f(·put't tell::; ns
wh:tt :"lditiol1s \I:,,"c heen m:tdc to the St;Lte turesL", lh,:,
by lieW piarltatiolls. but by the Silllplc process of ,it,-
fll30rcating awl tmnsfering ;tlready existing forests {; 'Ul
the J'PVl'liU(' Lu Sllpl'!'visiuu. Allot-her
secLion shows how the Illca,sures adopt.ed f 0r the for"5t
conserv"ncy h:wc ,1('\',,\opc,l fon,,'; offences for t\l,;
benefit of the people. A t,hird scction is devoted to ex-
plaining wlnt improvclllents and Ilew roads have been
made to sceurG c:,sy :tccess to the forests, a,nd f'.'r mal, ing
which the over'-(rowll public works esta,blishmt'!lts wClllil
Sl'CllJ tu I"LW lIu Elsc\\'lJCrc we a,re told hc)'..\' "
firmer grCLsp has IJccu Ia,id on the llliscelln.ncons product"
of the juugles, though not altogether withollt illCuflVt"
nicuoo or ha,rdship to the people, flS pointed out in till>
of .. coffee planter, to which reference has
alreu.Jy beca w,\Ale. Gut the description of the l1lain
worky of the dcp:l.ftmcnt, viz., the progress /UiJ,dp, in pbn-
t.a.tiODS lind in pl'Omoting reproduetion of forests byarti-
ficial:;nd Datuml- moans, is, we are sorry to one
continued ooeOl1l1t of experiments which have been tried
and failed, After narmting how the te&k plantations
a'temptod in severa} pl .. ces have for the most part failed,
how nea.rly all the seculings of the EucIli1yptus plante"l
out have perislwd, how the capricious refuses to be
nurtured hy the not over affectiunatecare of a govern-
lIlent etltablishmr<nt, such of the Boeds BS:germinatc dying
away in tbe first hot weather, and this whetber the sneds
Me sown by dibbling under Da.tural shade or along with
chilli seed in well ploughed grounil, how the fuel pln.nt,,-
tions tried f"rtljer froIU the hills have perished even more
OOlDl'letely, ncarly all tb(' h"vc been gruwn
by seeds put down in pits or by thetmlllplantiog of
sc(\(lFng.,;; h:},ying perished, ilf)!l.vst COllSi\r\':ttor ,;!o('s on
to Jl1:t]-.;(' the rt'!ll:1rks on piV't of
S1l1}jc(:,t.
• It is DOW little Illore thau a }C'U siuce tb," !irst, nl
tbeRe phntations wag enclosed, aDll it is p9rhaps to
speak of them definitely, The results, however, are 1Wt
,atisfadon', have becH formed at all tbe phn-
tations, an,l qi)\'Cll in pits OYC'1' [in area of S'lme 1.I)GO
acres, in :Hl(lit.ion tn ",!tieb SOllIe 30,00:') \VCl'C
planter! nul fmlll l"Ho(,fie . .;, but the Dtllllber of the ("tsllal-
\\'as The Talnl.;s whpre fuel has to he
formi I way P"lt'!,"""s arc [1>:t rule blessed with but a
rainfrtll; \\-(> n0 In{'ans of Ollr p1a.ntatio lS,
and it is of eo!]!'.;" out pf the 'lllcstion to expect to he able
to \\'H.t(·1' '''1<.11 :l!'t"h Iw hRond, AIlll();;t a.ll th·.· lanel
LL;';'l'il llP c:ovurt,d \\-ith bnl:-,hwi)()u and bushes .....
I.e is Lfllt' th:Lt jf l.n' and thn ,qrass
vicarcll frortl young' trl!'..;S, tih' reproduction
on 1.Il\OO<' Irwd" as e"idcnced '" till' ,laoli!.!;inalnlli planta-
tion, is good; but it is nut su1licicnL. :tnd it will certainly
not do to rely on such <tIano, 'l'J,e lIJore I 1001, :tt the
subject the more eert"l,ln it appl'ar:l to me that to f::row
IUI,I Rucccssflllly \I'ill entail a loLl' hC'l1"icr expelliliture
th",n ,,1. tin;t appen.rctl ,,,,cessary, '\'hc ground Itlust be
workc(l either by the plough or by digging sllflkiently
large holes (not less than three feet cube) to emlire the
seedlings growing well. Excepting in a small portion'
of tile piantfltions it is impossible to work a plough
owing to the hrusll\\'ood on the ground, and to
this brushwood would entail an enormous expenditure_
Ploughs [).r( thi.; yCf1t' being used wherever pmcticable,
and I shall bA able within the next three weeks to llloY
" specirtl repllrt on tbc<e matters before the Chicf Com-
lIIissionm for bis consideration and orders.'
What can be expected under the circml1.3L'lDces?
However feasible thelle plantations may be found in the
OF
4l
jungles of t hi' wp.:.:.terl1 Cl);1st nIulL'!"
flr thf 110:w\ 1':lin,; whicb tlll'Y al,hflng" CI".'l1 tt,,'r,'
oi !.!;(j\'t'rtl!llt'nt phLuL:Ltiuns !iilHL
• . J 1'.' \', i i
tllrn (;Ilt, [!) hI' :-:'lll:·d .11111,:...!,L' P
LLLIUIH irrig:1ti':'Hl wLLil :-it'i'il!ch llis-
on thi:-i side of tho Ghn.ULS, when' 1':tJ n-
f,,11 is so "canty, auu this is more so brlher aW>1Y f rOlL ,ill:
tihn.lH. r:wgcs, wl",rL' til,: fuel is mol',: w:loted tlmn in thf'ir
illllllcdiaLc vicinily, And :1fr."r ,LlI, IWI.I :Iittlc these uuubt·
('fTorts of govern!:lC!lt, eYl:ll \\'h('re Ruccessful, could
BJ,I CO the illllllense virgin forest,; Ivhich alreiluy ,·:,:i"t,
\Vould not the government do well to contine thellbd I','s
to the st.l'ict of allowing
th"l!! tilnuLy ,,,',,,',1' f:trility i,lr ualm'a] :e,;
fa.r th·' LLltl::; of tiw present J'lY ;1';; ('()Itl-
parco wiLh fumll'!' tillws will "ulllit, to open (,lLS),
of .wec,s to thcm for thc supply of fuP]
to the more dist"-nt 'l'alub, and for the rest to gi \'()
every to the to tad
and 0'1 tlH'ir i:1nfb with all that cal'e, witil in';·
gatioll where I1CCC8"l£Y, which they alone Cl1n be trusted
to give? Unfortunately the last is necl1ssarily a slow
process ill the present circumstances of Mysort', where
the petty oppressions and interferences of gOVl'rtllll('DL
officials and a n:1rrow policy on the. part of gOVl1flllllC'llt
have hitherto proved unfavourable to the growth of 'l.
Bense of property and a feeling (lOf independence in the
minds of the htnuholders, Tbe above ruggesti,ons would,
&II already explained, reduce the uecesRity of a sepltrate
establishlUent to the conserVllncy and working althe few
huge forests only, and perhaps to the 1V0rking of one
or two experimenta.l jungles, Yet in the face of all
the ioregoing facts, would it be belisved tha.t proposals
for the forest department taking over c\J.a.rge of all the
smailer district forests, with an endless opening for addi.
tional est&blishments, have been mooe and I13.Dctioned, in
"I'd,,)' periJ"!,, tlJ:lt the.\' Illay have all opportllnitv of
trying jn :-\tcriit· the ('xpprilllcnt-l which
Ltill.,d ill tlH' IJlOl'e to Gh:-Lut
Th<-, COl1SPl'Yator win<ls up his rqwrL with
a notice of the incollvenience cxpericuuctl [I"OIU ftCfjllC'llt
changes in the shff of the Enl'opean oflice),5, owing of
course to lc,we all(1 other usual causes. and of the
increa.s·:; of olliec wor\;, both in the Wtty of correspollJl'[]Ce
anel th,' CXltlllinlltioll ,,( returtls and :V.'COUtlts, ti«'l'cby
IIlI iloubt incliuling t,h" waut of" persom.! assisbnt aud
sorue ,ulditional l·;;tailiishllJents, the usu"l sequel of all
these uq],:1uisa.tiollS.
[n WJ inst"nCl' It,,;; the passion for departtnelltal
orgallis:ttioll ntL:tilwd ,.;ncil development as in the case of
tl", pub! if: "'ur];,.;, Th is d"partmcnt, which in the days
of Cllhbl'll f'()ll:.;istc(l of only a few
ing otlicer:-;, t,hrough native :tgoneYl has
IlO\Y to CllOl'JtlOl1S propurtion.::" It in
e:lt'l, "f the eight rii,tl'ids int" which the province is
divi(kd, a. st.rLil of enginc'(lrs for hliililings a.nd r030ds,
and :t one for irrig:tLion works, third
lllinor for the snpcl'intentknec of the river ch:tnnels.
It cOllsists in all of !Hl lc>ss tkm thirty engineering officers,
bCoides " large gmllo, nil of whom arp Euro-
IJeans, there heillg only;t fcw n,"ti\'OS in the lower grades.
The allnual cost of these establishments is a.bont 450,000
rupees, \\hilst the auuual expBllditure on public works
which they superintend is 800,000 rupees, the former
being in the proportion of more than 50 per cent, to thp,
latter. It is a fact worthy of note, and it is t,rue generally
in Inui,t, that the useful work done by a. department
varies inversely with the dimensions which it ltSSlImes.
SOUle considerable .. dditions of public buildings have
been marle to the province, viz., the public otlices a.t
Bangalore, and a Humber of jails, some hospita.ls, school
But.in works of lllOl'e immediate use. tu the.
public the progTI':':.-; llla-dl' in l'l'fTllt -,"Pitrs.
with wIt'll InrI be,," :l((,DlIlplishclt in th,
nf of it,\\" and
ch:,:\p 113.ti\'e :l!.:.C'IlCY. Til{' ('x('(·11('llt. IIp!Hl \\ hich
the proY!!lc{: (':"111 jllSlly pi'itJf_' itH,lf W;I:-, \\"01"1\ nf
the inst-lIlCnt;"""d perilla. 'I'llc sllbsCI]Il,,,j "ddit.io"s
TIlaU{', save one or two hrge Lridt-!;e:-:, h:1vC 'iuite
inconsidemble, the larf.\cst cxpc:,diture vf recent years
Oil conJUlunic.1ti' .. ns Ut ing ("hiefl,\' d:'voted to the np-
hL'ep of the :llrea,,]y existing ro"ds, portions oi evell tilesl'
b<,ill" "r'LlIll,dlv 111[1<1" 0\'('" to t he district revenue fluthn-
.
rities for lJlaintenance. '1'he extent of roads now l!l:lill-
tained in f('j1:tir by the public works Ufpartlllcnt alll(llIIlV;
to only '2.,0'::0 llliles. V niler the h'"ad of irri!!,ltion works
Lhe I"Lel' a<lJitiollS l!:t\-" uecll quite incollsiduablc, COill-
pnl'l..·d ! ILl' r:xiJ:-;tlJlg natiyc wod,s ill the
proviDe(., both in the Wily of tauks and annicllts across
the belt" of rivers for irrigal,ion purposes. Th" 8rirama
I>cvar Alluicnt, built across the Hevalli riwr, ill t hI'
pla.cc or old rtlinell ()nes, is :tn clwellent work of I'c(,<'IlL
d&ys, but the cost, it is believed, is too large to make it i1
very TCllIuuemtive undertaking, especially when tak,'n
together with the money which is being still expenued
upon the subsidi3l'Y c1Ul,nnels which arecoDsidered IlCCPS-
sary, Auothcr annicut WitS built i!;CrORS the ulilloor
river, commanding aD ·irrig:.ble,e.rea assessed at abollt
10,000 rupees, of whicb, bowever, 8.00nsider:tble portion
lies waste, owing, it is snPPOSI)d,to heavy assessment.
More than a lac of rupee$ have been spent on the
improvement of the ohannelof ·the large native-bailt
Soolakaray tank. But the work, -owing ,to fever, SCfiuty
popUlation, and other causes, does 'Dot ooem to bave heen
t&ken advantage of to any considerable extent for pur-
poses of cultiva.tion, and tbe survey. depu,rtwent now
bope improve matters by the bait of a low assess-
ment for {our or five years, with the certainty of a
BIU'l'ISIl
hC:1\"Y LJ1!u\yl!lg. :\.itOgl'thct, the' a,bscncc
nf :Lny ;,L1.Ll'llJ'.'Ut"" of ;utJ()l1f!;
:t;lIJUat l't'tln'ns ;-'[:(;111 to tilfLL till: :tdmllli;;·
tration has not llJuch Lv UW,iHl Cl'(:;.iiL lur i:l llirc-c-
tion, whilst the repairs of existing tanks have :Lnll
nrc still being. to a b l':.;e extel1t executed hy the lli<rict
rcvenne fLllt.b.ritie."'i.
lJ lllkr Ci""l1l1bUUlCCS it might be imaginrd that
sntllctc·J i t grounds for c:1.rrying out 3. reductioll in
this csta,bli';\1I1Icnt, \\hich is a lllatter of such
obviou:, nl.'cessit./ inr Llcilita.ting tho restor'-l.tion of the
pro,-i:}!>' tn 11l1Li .," nde. Bnt ouo is surprised :Illd as-
toni,dlc<ilo Ji nd t h:1t tit" cicrmrtlUcnt hns now sudll"tlly em-
harked Ilplln:L Ill'\\' cnl:ct:r whieh would seem to Jnstify
it:-\ :llld l'\'cll without any lilnit
nt' They not to.) (It'id :Lll,Y longer in Iu.rge and
jill portttll t projects, II pon \\' II if' 11 it 1':" I!sua,ll y though t their
knowleuge co;.dll Ll' to bear with ad-
":Clltagc. They has', tai;r-l1 to the Illlllll>ier task of repair-
ing :-;y:.dYlll!Ltically 1'1 l:1rgv number of ta,nks
\Y1LIi \vhich the and them
gr:1<]n,dl.,· to:1 fixed sL,l,llci3,l',[ "f ""'fety. Their P"OPOS:l]s
for this oi,ject would scelll to h:1ve received the sanction
of ;.!,l)vcrtllllcnt. \Ve Me lloL <1c'lll"illted with t.he line of
:1rgulHent used in SUjJpol'l of the scheme, but one argu-
mont n,cl] lI'e arE' ,"ware of, wl,iGh mighL mise a smilein
the Ilniniti'lkd fOltll"r, but which would seem to have
pru\'d " stopg',p to lmy objections on the part of the
govcrnllll'tlt. It WitS seriously argued that, if n, ciepart-
lIH'llt of revenue SlIt'V"f were to lay their gras,) on the
cOlllltry iot' tl1<' next t WOLl ty or yen,rs for the unpro-
ducti ve work of and re-assessing the land, is
there not grel1ter ren,son why the of public
works should not quit their hold on the province until
they could see aU the productive irrigation works, small
and great, plaeed.upon a fixed standard of safet)'! How
OF MYSOIlr:. 45
could the go-':errHllcnt. with theil' 1(1('30,:': Of:1; coulltry
iog for wa.ter. resist SOi('nHl :1ppea.llf1::td.l: tu tht!lll ',)
The questi0n doc'::;' not, Sc0i.:'lll to bcr'n
ea.rrihl without 01':"1 di-::. . ...:.(,'!lt:ent YIl!",:. III
aJwinl.:.:.tr;:,tion report cf l.soS-GD, l>I\\Ting. rcfpr-
rin;; to an appiil".ation Itlade by hi\[) for the ,("!'I'ices of:1
Illllistry for each 'raluk, makes tIle following rCIlICtrk, :-
'The !l.UlOllnt applied for was 1110derate, and til" prin-
ciple inoicatp,l, nail lei.)', Lh:lt all but of major
illJl'orli'Il(.e ;,hould b., c:trried ont by the revenue o11iccrs,
atill appears to lIle inllerently ill respect of :, pro-
vince which will, in all prouability, be in :1 few years
consigned \0:1. native ag"ucy. The existing systemeannot
.be expected to hold togctlwr the tilne cornes for
ILUl{]in,!l; O\"t'l' to ?tlahrtraja ; and it- \yill
bccollw lll'C""Sary eitber to lll:;int:1in the departmcnt on
its pr('scnt footingwithollt regard to His HighneRS'" senti-
ments, or it will he suddenly withdrawn, when there will
be 3. uiR:1strons collapse. It therefore of irn port-
&nce tb3.t Ill! work" that eim be eliminated safely from
the control of the public works department should be
dealt with by the revenue officers, and that strenuous
efforts should be made to insist npon the amild:;rs attend-
ing more closely to this hranch ilf their duties, giving
eacb of tbem tbe assistance mentioned, namely, a m:;iRtry
IUld a mutsaddL These views a.re believed to he in
aooordance with the opinions exprPSSed by the irrigation
oommittee, whose f"('o;olutions ha.l-e been forwarded to the
supreme government, and they cerblliimly correspond wrob
sentiments of the leading nllltivesof the country. A
vast number of works in eonnanbion with repaif"s be
carried !Jut, and without entering into a.ny invidious Co!ll-
pari.eon between their execution by either branch of the
aervice--a. comparison which is unnecessary, as 80 much
Ie now done by contract, there can be no question that
toime of the publio works officers. is loovalnable to be
4G
IlHITIS!f
frittered MI'a,y 011 winor t"nk rep"irs to the detriment of
their ot.her dllt.ies. But to 111:11\..) Lhun 0\"('1' to
the ryuts, except for lipk'>;'IJ aLt'r the wurks h;1YC
been put in repair would not answer; moreovei', there
a, special payment made by the ryots in the shape of a
bnk fnnd, which IVMmnts their l,)oking to goverl!l!lpnt
[.1r all replLirs not coming nnder till; hoa,d of npkf'f'p.'
III t.he next l'cport we are told th:1t the Govern-
ment of India, the carrying out of the repairs
in two districts as all C'xperiment, one by the depart1llent
of publi" works a11<l tbe other by revenue offic;;rs, .in
view to thc' aetnal results being compared, As the de-
partment of l'ublie works h"s now taken over of
the entil\, work, proh"Uy the latter experiment ffliled,
" fUlllbnlcllt;ll f:clhcy inl'oll'",1 ill all these des('.r,ptions
i, Lbe cJ!lJp:lrison which i, attCttlptcl1 to be Illade hi·tween
th" fi,,;,IH'd work of t sf'icntifk eil::,;ineer and the ruder
l'Xcclltions of mvclllw ollieers, 't'lwl'c are very erroneous
in r,'gat'd to some innate c:1p'lcity in revenue "fiicet'll
for tboole works. Th" },,"Ll is between the
results of expensive engineers devoting their
attent.ion to the execution of tllt'se small works, and their
execution by cheap professional Ill,1istries of local experi-
enrc, acting untIer the orders and supported by the influ-
ence of tho local revenue vtliccrci, and guided by the'
principles ,1Dd instructious which the scientific engineer
can always with gre"t advantage give in such 1llatters.
Not even so, 'l'ile real compa.rison is between the govern-
ment unt1ert,,,king this enormous responsibility in numer-
ous scattered wo!'ks to IV hich they cannot sufficiently
give attention, and which must inevitably lead to even-
tual waste and corruption, a.nd their making over these
BIDSIl works to the interested landholder upon suita.ble
terms and conditions. Such an experiment a.ppears to
ha.ve been successfllily liried soon after Mr: Bowringjoined
the pro,iuee, aud there is no reason why it should not be
OF
developed a.nll extended. The Lif in
:'lIy:..un! 1.:1;1)' pn)\-'c :-'OUJ(; obstacle_ bilt t.il l ' l\'\-..:'llUC
til!)! i ti...:":, W 1 t11 vf the ('()JTl! pt j nihil" nee of ha \-j ng
to spl.'ud IllO!lf'Y ti1C'tnsci yes, (:,L!1 t<t:;i!y :30(- to the works
llCinrr I..B:1iutailled in ctlic:iency hy the
n
eYe'!) greatl'r fallacy is the habit of Yiewing tbe proyin('c
lid one destitute of all rewiniwences of pr'tctical knu'.,;-
lctl::.V· alul cxp?ri{'!;cc in tL, ':-'t' ll)frl tCfS of daily inte.rt';:-;t to
the people, if ha.d not from time iUlIuelllo-
extcIl,;"" irrig:tt,,,n worl"" to which indeed little lns
been a<.lded by the adillinistra.tion, a,nd a,g if tht'se
work" ha.ye not been maintained iu to
dAY, tuough not occasional accidents froUl bxity
of supef\·j:-iion awl (N;HI the risk to which the
pt'cldiar c(-lll:i({lll'ii.l:OU of t til' ground in this prcoYinec
exposes these works, and as if the single act of repair
now proposed to be done to them ca.n for eyer gnar:mtPl'
the salety 01 works which haye lastcd up to thiti I illl",
and which ca.n hcrc(1ltcr be ma.intained only by
oontinllcd care alld attention,
We have already the first instalment 01 tbis gigcmtie
polioy ill the sbape of an estimate of 6:1,000 rupees for
tbe repair of twenty-three small tanks possessin[; an iITi-
ga.ble area of about 100 rUpdes value under each, or
of about 3,000 rupees under a.ll of them. Consider that
the assessment of irrigated lauds in ,tbe :province amounts
to tWEnty-fi\'e lacs of rupees,Mld,thatthere are upwal'lls
of 20,000 01 these small' tllinks, whllitendlesli career of
ruin to the revenues of tbe province may not tbis rate of
progresu in vol ve? These small, insignificant tanks in the
higber parts of valleys a.re of little va.lue except in the
Mulnaud Taluks, with tbeir abunda.nt raiDs. They ha,yc
very .limited capacities for holding water,eompand with
the OOIIt of bunds wbioh . have t.O be raiad; their beds
are rapidly silted up, s.nd owing to the percolation of
water which ta.kes place in Bnch . uneven 8urfaces, what
little W:lt!'t' is l'c'('ciyf'u ura,ilH'd :LW:\Y: whilst
thp irrig:1blL" in :-.u(;h nnc\ ro :dw:i.Y::'
Th",.--;(' <";tllSPS hay(' It-·tl to tlh) ""()rl.;:,,,; htll!l,:!"
wort' OJ less :1.b:u!c1Olh)i..l, dw ar,," cnlti\";Ull)ll of tlv'
in the bed of the proving (Uore p,'oiitaL",; or
to their being given over to the care of the indiviun;,1
landholder who lJlay happen to have any lands umler
them, itself to the ]',rger tan\;,
/wlo\\'; which "n' alone of ,'nlue to any cons;,kr-
[thle extent, phcillg [hUll it.: ,uch condition of efiicif'n8Y
as to stand against any oecasional accidents to the smaller
tank" !l.bil\'c. It 11m)' be useful, therefore, to have tbe
llcritii of this question tllUl'onghly investig!l.ted by the
light of tlw knowledge of the local revenue o!licl>rs
and of rc"l r1<'ttivc eXlwl'icnce, before the goverlllnent
fl1,':I1('I' cl)n,mit t\"'lJh<,h,,·'i to a p"li"y which may h'!l.d
to grmt cOlrll'liC:ttiotls in the futnrc'. In one disLricL a
rC\'('Il11(> ot!iccr, impelled by " d",iI'P for personal dis-
tlnttioll, bas, in a single year, hy the application of a
lilLie prc",ul'C, caused tlr0 r.l'ots by compulsory labour
to eXl'cute an amount of IVor], to all tbe t!l.llks in hi" dis-
trict which the public works ikp:ll'tillellt may not hope
to accolllplish in seveml years, or \\'ithont an enorillous
outb}' of money. Such 11 preSSlll'i'. a little more legally
:lIlU systematically applicd, with due regard to the
feelings arid convenience of the people, under the
guilhnce of general instructions furnished by the engi.
neering departlIlent, and '1ssisted by small contributions
of go\'crnllll'nt money for the stone and work,
mi(!ht place all t\Jese tanks in an efficient condition in the
course of a year or 1.11'0, without the necessity of a resort
to any sllch gigantic scherue as the one under notice.
Under the arrangerllcnts. made by Mr. Bowring, as
already noticed, a considerable amount of public works
is executed under the orders of revenue officers. This
comprises as large an. extent.. of roads as the public
·JIJ
work.:; Ittl;'; char;:..:-\.' of, by fal' the' er
ber (·f Lud·;;-:.. the !Htll!)\" r(lp:lir:-; of (;i,"j! hl.lddil1.:..',:-;.
,u;nlli"tl (U ;l,IIlOnil.ts l·n npw:lnl-:.
of a, l:H: of rnpl·t'S df pt.b;ic J\,\'('[:lH" fl:ld :l/)O({t, fL !:tC" :ind
.t luI! fron.; the' \yll!ch :H2
b.l,· an Ct):-itillg only 23,000 P,T
annUIII, beiug only 10 ecnt. upon tho o'lthy ()Il
the works. The establishment consists of a n"tiyu o'Ul'-
vcyor attac:hel1 to each district) SUllI0 of which
of tnen do :1S Mood \vork as any engineering oBiecr)
though thro\\'11 into the "hade by (ut,LI neglect awl ,ji,,-
coumg"IlIClJt, and by Taluk m"istries, who, though not
possessing "11." scientific knnwledge, h,1\'e pecnliar
tnde for elaine; cheap, good work. If the "y;tem W(T"
awl itllproT;cd, the Europea.n sLllI
might !J.e l'cluccd to t['8 H1Wlii nUlllber required fill' til·.,
charlie of tho few large special works a.nd for genera I
snperintendence, guidance, and instruction, which 0; L;:;-ilt
to be their, province. But with each SllGCCS3tVe ymr
the pr<:!."pect of a n"tivc engineering agency bec'H!J,'S
moro remote. In fact the auministration reports tell Ll;
that tbe experiment of training na.tive engineers provctl
a failnre, owing, it is alleged, to the dislike of natives of
good f"mily to the active professional life of an engirlPer.
What a melancholy prospect thi1l for:a province which,
not many years back, saw its puMie works excCilted
chieH y through nati \'0 agency,Bolld whioh even now can
show n:Ltives,at 'least, witlhllllgood capa.bilitieol as
, could be desired, not to mention ,the unemployed native
energies in the neighbouring 'provinces which arc so
easily available. But the revival of a decayed art, or
rather the introduction of a new one, is a alolV, arduOlls
process, which cannot be expected to thrive under Lh'J
summary and impatient treatment of government, with
its indifferent acquaintance with men and with its want
of sympa.thetic interest and care. But a IDore serious
E
50
BRlTISIl\Vm"ltiTnA TIO"
illlpC'c:!illll'llt, to ,he slIccess of these experiments is the lust
of which, onCl' tasted, bas ;), b!ndenr.y tu breed
in (kn:l:tlllcnt", :t ((ll' pxciq:-:ivl'nr;-;;.;, fl.ucJ
, '
for making an alcbymist's secret of their proiession:l,1
lmowledgc.
As prc\'iouslv rclotTed to, a considerable portion o[
the expenditu ... ' on l'qhti<.: works is provided for from
what ,"'0 c:l,llcd ,]j,Hid fllml-;. 'rbese funds arc derived
frOl(] loc"l ce"scs levied on the amount of the land and
other SOllrccs of n:vrnllc', :tt hrllf an anna per rupee, for
tbe purpose r)f pt"Oyidlll;.' local (\)ads, school bouses, and
other local "hj,'ct,;. Tili, rate is r:l,ised to one :l,nna in
tlw rupee in the T:tlllks hrollght under the survey set-
tlenwnL wh'lst " ;"rt
1
,('r cC'';,' of an n,uditional annl1 is
coil!·ct·ed on n: \,-\ __ t f()rthc rnaintcnanCf,
of works. The ley)' of it would be
1V'1ll1<1 ,:wo tile cn!riv,ttn:'s from arbitrary de-
lilCmds for laiJ(JI(r, but the rri:;n of compulsory l,'tbone is in
as full swing ;lS in the pfoyince of :\!.:,,'sore, rather
indent! incre:lsinp; with every new department that is or-
ganised fllld brought to bear on the cultivators, It totally
unsettles tIl" people's minds, aud contributes more tban
anything else to induce tbl1t l1path
r
,tic listlesE character
for which the ;\1Y80re ryot is so freely condemned. The
administration report for 1870-71 puys :l compliment to
the deputy superintenc.1ent of Ha8sfLn for having induced
the ryots by his porsomtl intitwnce to contribute their
labour frc<3 t'j the formation of rO!l.ds for which· ample
funds are provitlrd by the local resses, and the officers of
the Mysore district doubtless hope for even warmer
acknowledgment for their exertions in the same direction
in last year, These terms, 'persnn{/l influence' and 'volun-
tal!f [tlbolll',' only l1dd ridicule to the cruelty of these
I!xactions, made by selfish, :1r\,itra.ry minds, im pelled by l1
desire for personal distinction. These dema.nds for
labour are ofren made without any regard to the feelings
OF MYSOHE.
;")1
and convenience of t.he peoplo, not nnfrp'jll0ntll' 111
a w,,,tefnl <llafllwr for ideal illJPl'O\'clllf'nts in \\,j,ich
the yilbge popllbtiol1 ,10 not. 'Ylllp.thise, 0r for ;lIlll",tlll'C
works which h:1.vO to be "bandon,,']; lI<I(1
as readily for the supply of persollal wams as for public
purposes, and involve ,tltogether an amount of pelly
oppression destructive of all idc:ts of right anti llltlC-
pendcllce ill the llii,,,ls elf the p(,ople. It is Ulllloubt,·,11y
desirable to st.imulate a desire in the ryots to their
villages in gfJod rondition by t.he p],mting of trees and
topes, and attending to the clelLiIliness of streets a,"tl
other impn)vclncnts. But this cltn be only brought
by the arduous labours of winds, kndcr
to the fcelinl's of justice, fairness, and right, striying
to excite a feeling of _elf-pride in the villagers and
inducing them to feel thc want of such imprOYCllwllts
under strictly arrangements. Tnc
arbitrary exercise of authorit.y, which is too oftcn tbl' tlm-
dency of the Indian public official, must post-
pone buch a result.
The result of all this bungling policy io the maHer of
public works is the hopeless postponement of the long
contempla.ted Mysore State Railway. After going for
several years througb all Lhe delays and contradidory
opinions which attend the discussion of these quest.ioIlS in
India, a railway from Bangalore to Mysore was even·
tually sanctioned three years a.go,the requisite stnff of
government engineers were appointed (thongh wiser
heads would have preferred the taking up of the
work by trained English contractors),ltnd the surveys
of a line were completed at a cost of upwards of a
lac of rupees. Matters thus seemed ready for a start,
and the trade of Mysore, languishing after the c\'ssa-
tion of the Ia.rge expenditure attendant on the late
Maharajah's court, was looking forward to some reviva.l
from this undertaking; when suddenly, by one of those
.2
ncci(tcnts which h::tyc rd htlc become COllllj'lon owing to
thr· of' n.nl h(lriti;1,::, an:} tlw in which
Inrlian po;il"il>s are (,llvdopccl. the r('purt
I'.r 1:"::71-"/2 that thl' St:ttr: Ha,ilway is
wdefiu[t'eiy pO'':ItpUl1L'J) OCtug givell t.o Lhe wore
urgent irrigation projects. \Yhat the nature anu scope of
these projocts arc, :tnu how little they are calculated to
rt.dd to tbf' C'xisting S(J11fC('S o[ which bu,\'c t.aken
:lJvanta{c of every 1l,ltural facility, have already been
noticed. A t'xtcnt of 111nu lies under
tbe €xi:;ting river chan ill'!:-;) anu :1, gr('atd{'al more is imper-
fectly cultivated, Til,·, \l rgent of the province is not
irrigation, but Iii., :1",j cnLl'rprisc in the culti"",tor, and
II' h:lt c:m evoke t iJe Itl '" 'lIcc""f III I y "" that great civiliser
of llloclern Jays-till, milw".\' With the increase of
actl\"lry and \\'lJic!J :\,/"c sun' to corne in the
train (11' tl!c,-.;c qllici·;cl' lll('ans ()f L .. and (;ornmuni-
ratiull, WI_' IJ,;-'y hopC' for fl incrc<t-ij(' of
,mel giLrden cultiv"tit'll, for which the
prl)\"iJl('I.' i;-; pr'ctIliarly n,daptcrl" The usnal rii\'('r:)ity of
pr",llIcts l",twcctl the district.s bordering 011 tlte GhllUts
atill H('n,rcr the roa.st, and the irnportn.nec of two
capit[1l" like :'IIy",)re and would lllake the line
iL fait· lwcra-gc one in rcspect of protit,,; and in such a.
rail \I'll)' the British Government lllay hope to lea.ve a.
far lltore c('rtllin lcg'wy to tlw future N·,tivc State than
in the money frittered away in sc:ttterod irrigrltion works.
We shall not t,he reader with any lengthened
remarks on the other departlllents of the state machinery,
which, not bearing directly on tho natural wants of tbe'
people are regarded as of secondary importa,nee. Of·
these, however, tlw dppartllwnt of educa.tion reqnires
special notice., it is the most potent'instrurnellt in
modern days for in;""proYing the conditiou
a.nd IJ.S such it deserves every attention from a Govem_'
ment engaged in the imporUmt task of/preparing a pro-
OF
53
vince for career nf pr,)sppl'ity lUHlcr n;l"tisc rnh". 'rhc
value of ec1Uf'.atll
l
l1 i:-'. nnt Hle,L:-;Ul"cJ hy the
dirc('L insLrnctloll inqnrLc·J. Tilt' Illl)r:L/ intllkllC'(; which
the ;'Lnd with tIll' edtll,:!,t,i0!l:L!
institutions arc "Lie to c:,(c'rcise by tileir e"a ",pic, C'-,n·
duct, awl tone of thought, is '1t least of ("FlU! illlport·
anee. The Ch,1UgC in cha,ra,cter, thought, a.nu SQutiuwnt
by which alone imprOYClI1eut "'Ill Le effected, is
lIlueh llH>re ttw indirect fruit of education than iLs
direct eOnSC11l0l1ee. AntI ,,·here. as in India, the after
life of the stll,l,'nt is so. dificicnt in the healthy stilllullB
of a public career and of .'1 public opinion, it becomes pro-
lllor,· illlpOi'tCLnt thlLt his should
be turned to most account by infusiug into his mind
thp :1..ho\'o uf T:!t,
na,ture of ,he work which tllP. cduea,tional
in India Imve before them may not be in1.ptly compare,!
to what ,illlilar inst.itutions ha,d to accomplish in tll»
earlier periods of Ellfope,m civilization, They would
attr[\in their higlwst if they conld be m'lLit)
so m3.ny centres of independent thought dissewinating
healthy influences not only amongst the young, but
bringing the old, and European, into intellectual
communion with ('ach other, free from the$wall instincts
and narrow views and 'despotic tone ·elllgendered by
the immense official life wbich ,overhangs the country.
Very far, h()wever, from rea.lisiug 'fIuriha. iliigh ideal are
the ednca.tional institutions of Mysore. 'The agency
employed in their rnanagement,though -it'cOOlprises all
the paraphernalia of directors, inspector£, and school-
masters, is conspicuous by the absenceofany distinguished
men of reputation throughout the wholed its ranks,
whilst it is too often characterised by a tendetcy to forln
into small cliques of relations and friends, irrespective
of qualifications. The operations of this 4epartment
OOfllmand' no sympathy frorn the administrative heads
51
(j[ t llt' goYel'nmrnt, ,vl!o 8vinee little interest in the con-
el"n1-"'; llf the :;ciltJl)l OJ' tlI,
1
:l.ft,,_'f CJ·l'cet' nf tl'.,-·
except pcrha.ps by way r.A at the
annual distribution of prizes to the Rtudcnts, deploring
the eyil of the increasin:.i 11llltlbcrs of students ",ilo worry
thclJl for gCl\'crnment 1'Il)i':"YIJJL'I1t. The schools further
do not enjoy tIl(, SlIpport, "!hl co-opcrn,t,ion of scll'Jol
oon.rcls of nati vc ;1·1; ,1 Ell f( 'peao lllClu bers, site 11 as would
be in a l-';UJ;:W,ll'd provi nee in encouraging
tllC healthy de"ciup'll!,nt uf Lh,' s,."cicnt and diffusing
educ:1tional ideas 1,a:OOgot LilC pcople :1t large. The life-
less in which nnder Hach cirCtl1nstanecs the
u8u:d rnoc1iculll uf 1011 is i!lIporLed in thCSL'schools,
or is d,'vonrcc1 1)\, the ,("il"lIls ,,"tlcr the pressure of
tl"' ('xn:l!ina,ticn;-il ('Y(,ll in of their half-
fJl:t-.:.tA'}-';, eLl! !J"lve liGtlC' effl.:·ct in pro'lJotiug Ell
he:,lthy i\evdopllll'"t of chltmctl'r, tiIou;,';ilt, a",l senti- '
lJll'nf. Tile vivifyinf,! ",flICIt :LfC to
fOrlt) of cbaraetf'r arC' rfhe
few wl:o pltSS though the higher COlHS" of knowledge
IJl"'.Y hlt'"c opportunities of imbibing the elelllents of an
iutellect"allife frulll the great l1utbors wholll they study,
. and Illay turn out earnest sY'lJpatilisC1S ill the welfare of
thr-ir country, Though unfortunately high edllc8,tion has
of late suddenly f:tllen out of l:1vour in ludi". But under a
system which prescribes but one Jl)onotonoU8 course of
general studies for all sehoob. wiLhout any practical or
scientific education, the grcltt llliLSS of students who quit
the schools in tlwir lower grades,go out into the world with
a vague incompictc smattering oi history and theory of
mathematics, which so()n forgotten, without useful
knowledge or information of any kind and more unpracti-
c:11 and with much less of character than their uneducated
brethren. Besides the bighN and middle-class schools,
large numbers of village or Hobli sohools- have been
recently opened for the instruction of the ohildren ofthe-
OF
rum\ poPUlntiOll, :111<1 the \ar"c nnltlcrica\ rC;;l1\t,s "'hiclt
11lst,itntio[J,"; a,blc t,l) .-.;hn\\', tina a P:ll'il'..;ra,ph
in the (If the l!lor;tl and prc'grc':';s (1,1111
conditiotl of LIdia presentel] to P:ll'\ialllcnt ful' the ye,rl'
1871-1-],. Uwing- to the a.oscncc of a.n sys/".cnl
of eaucation tl1t:, l'lll':d of the pro\"inc('!
ilH' wore the coa.st, auy
:tttr'lIlpt j,l) tcad, t.\leIJl tbe elClllcnts of education C;U1n<>t
be 'lithollL o',tlll, usc, but it tll(l.\ he" pprcltended whetl,,'l'
tbe ulldlf!'",cd ,ystelll "uopted, ",hid} is neither English
nor Ycrnacular, and tho worthlessness of the masters, lU;lY
not prove lJIore d,;structive to the indm;trial chamcter of
tbo rcOI'!c Ibu b(ucfici,d .
. :\ .. lln:· lii!l :lir{'ady h:d! wailc to the abandonlllt"l1t
of tbe l'ngincl'rillg as:1 bilure, and no other elIul",
of any kincl h:1vC been Ulade in the w:.y d eitLer spccict\
or inuust,ri'11 euucatiun, The fact which will p('rh"IH
best the extf'llt of eUuc:l.tional interest in t:w
province if" tlmt there is not a single institution
which brings together the European and native in
intellectual conference. 'What different effects may !lot
be produced by three or four earnest, highly educated
Englishmen, fresh with English ideas, worl'ing at, the
head of each of the I:uge schouls in tbe province, aided by
native assistant masters and. bCla.rds of Enropean 'lnd
nati ve members,
The operations of the memcal estabiishlllents:tre con-
fined to the smali jail population, ,o.nd other public esta-
blishments in the chief towns. The vital statistics of the
province at large, which they so . .extensively report upon,
are in no ways influenced by them, and the thouf<ands
who a.nnua.lly perish of fever a.nd other periodic disen'es
do not como under their c3ore. English medica.l know-
ledge cannot exercise any considera.ble beneficia.l illi'''-
ence on the people until grea.t:scientific minds a.re brollgbt
to the work of o.dllpting it to the constitution, ·diet,
56
BRITISH AD)JJ:-;rSTRATIOCI
:lnd ('xncriC'llC(',;; of t,llE; .11n.tivC-. Hnt the sllHtller
1l1P;I.;iI11:U ()f tr:tining rn(;tiic,tl pl1pils fl)[, ellip!oYPlt'11t..; in
the Lli:::;tricb" a,::-:, hr ;t" tlwy ('<Ill be has not
made any progress in the province. The sl11lerin,eud"nt
of agricultural experiments has come 1,0 the conclusion
that no i!IJfl"uI','ment is fca,ciblc in the nn,tivc system of
agriculture, tllllUgh this LLlest IlUhby of the Go\'crnmcut
way be expeeLcd yet to run its can'er of exprrnsion auu
death. Of this, and ,;i,niL,," csp('ri'llcnts, i, will suffice
to stato that the Ol'cc;ssil.,' of impr'wul1lt'nt or the value
ot English ,,-ud knuwl,',1"" is llo, doubted, but
that in the lll"nn,'r iu \\'llicl1 tllese ,)S periments are
carried ou, without :my rl'ir,rcncn to the or
\\',wtH of the couotry, rHO !nrtir'ip'ltion by the people,
exciting uldy :1 t,""[.!or:\l'y ;Illen>t it! the smull
of Europea.n tlll'Y eyelltu;Llly (lie a:; exotics,
leaving 110 HJark-; t)f'hind
Before concluding part of til!) subjcc
i
;, a few
word" un SiIL1d:1,., or irregui1r c;\V:l,lry of the :\Jysore
!;ta{.c, tIl'LI' ilot be "itllOUl interest, ('.spccialiy as thttt fome
is nO\1/ nndcl'guillg fl, of docill!:l,tioll wIdell is occa-
siouing smuo discontent. 'This, with H, corrcspoI1(ling
force of Ihrr or inbntl',Y, forms the contingent which the
Nati\'e bl:tte maintttills under the terms of the treaty.
The Sillalhrs in pcertieultu h'lYC a great de,d of tradition
about them, and they arc in great repute ,uIlongst
the people. They formed an importa.ut element in
Hyder's forces, and rendered some good services in the
ea.rlier periods of administration. 'I hough since
subjected to that l;»rccr of neglect aud decay to which all
native institutions tire expooed !lllder British rnangement,
and though the clIl1raet.er of the force is undergoing a
.'" gradual deterioration by the clliistmen t of the miscdlane.
ous idle classes, whilst 'no efforts arc to arrest tha.t
system of corruption which is inherent in all old native
institllUons, the forceia admitted to po8.'!eS$ muchendn.·
OF MYSORE.
57
ranee. ch",mctcr, sonse of uuty ",nil re<ponsibility .. '111U t,)
rcw]er gllotl pn1iet' in lll:lintainiug of tht"l
n..ncl in l"':;Cdrt dnti('s,. It. is, howc·,·er,
chieily \":tinea Oll rLC('[)llI1C of the it gi\"es
to the 10(;;11 of hUfSc:c, ;ltHJ on aCcnUllt of tlw
hononmhie clllploylllCnt it holds out to the f<1spcct<1bl"
<1nd cOllserv;1tive chesseR of the ;\Il1holl1"cbll, :\1arat:1, "'Ild
othrr lllilit:lry ;1nd "" furnishing a specimen
of;1 COlUp;1l':1ti\"eiy ChC'1P lllilith, enlisted from the
conset'vi1ti vc cl",,"os interested in peace, so I;1re ill other
parts of Indi:" U utortunCLtcly dw tbt ha, now gOlle forth
to reduce the numbers of this useful by
one half for :hr: purpose of providing funds for public
works. The In(,:<SlUt' mav not be open to so
llHICh if then' ()f the StlYing not
being speat in mn,king the rem:.iuder of the est:.ulishment
more costly, or in other useless expenditure. The point.
however, to which we wish to draw a.ttention is the ten-
dency of the measnre to elimin:1te all the men of service
a.nd charader by the offer of pensions and other induce
ments, and to reduce thp. remainder more compldely to
that mercenary condition which makes all military forces
in India n. source of danger. 'fhis effect is especially
brought out in the case of the higher officers in"intiucnce,
viz., regimentdars and resaldars, commandants and d,,-
puty commandants, of whom it js ·rep<M't.ed that forty out
of a total number of forty-t,wo"o;re proposed to be
by the offer of pensions, whidbthey are told they may
not hope for hereafter. The neceeliit;yof such a sweeping
measure which ca.nnot heeoonomicalto government in
consequence of the large amount ol,pensions which it in-
vol ves, cllon only be justified by a .general inefficiency of
all these higheroffioers, which C&IU1ot spea.k weH tor past
European snpervision ; or what is more probable, itmay
result from that desire lor patronage, or tlr the introduc-
tion of more European officers. in the pJ.ce ol&he native,
-,
HHI'l'lSll AD;II"lSTTIATIO)/
ac11fl i II i:-:t 1':1 t i(): L
il the pr();..;I'C':"\:-; (,f a tifty ye'l" t's' nc1ullnis-
tration of Heat r:-dll(: to ['nil with
the introduction of peftce and order and the first elements
of" regul:u gO\'Nnmcnt. All i(1cas of further improve-
ment took the furm of ft COminll(',l introdnction of new
departments, one "fter "'locher. :liter the fashion of those
organised ill the lIlorl" :Hl\,:lllCL:d DriLi::h Territories, but
with much less life. \\'itlWllt"li1Y grl"\sp of their roal prin-
ciples, and without 'll1y <:u:':P"'11(,11811" :"tempt to ac1apt
them to the circlllli't'lllecs of till' proyi nee, The depart-
ments unda such CilUll"statlCOS lilt YO 11:1d ft shorter career
of usefulness than els'.'\\"cre, The life :md activity at-
tendant OIl th," fi,st c, 't1ct'i'li"" ",,>1 urC;<lnis:1tion of a new
to wh:tt wa.;-; :-:.iilqJly :Ul imitfLtion,
and the l1S11:ti ,'xcitl'llll'llt of <:h:lilC\" <1i,;(1 out. :Lt "II early
date; thougll kqJt in ehcek lui' :L \\'b ile by thl' vigi-
lant Cllll Lr"l "f tilC lllUre th,:mordinn,rily able adm iJlistmtor
who int,wtll1ccr1 these chlmges, tlw (kp"rt>11l8nt soon
aSSUll1l'ci UllllllW:'«"lLbl" with tbe ill\'<ll'in,ble
result in cy"ry ill,lauet: of displacing n:.tive by European
agenc.y, a.nd with t:!e usual of the (::\aillls,
interestR
1
allli of govl'rtltllcnt oflicia.ls
throwing into till' h:1.l:kgroutHl the intercSLS welfare
of the public, AnJ if :tl1Y illst"nccs of more tbil,n ordi-
n:trily gross failurt·s cropped up. they only supplied
arguments for a further of the European
agency. 'fhe revenues of the province. notwithstanding
that they have oC>\lbicd themselves, and notwithstanding
a considerable l't'dnction of the household or palace
charges of the are rtllllost fully absorhed by
these expensive eRtablishrnsnts, As for the preparation
of the government for mltive rule, it was an idea never
seriously thought of for a considEmtble time; and, though
of more recent years the qnestion had to be recognised
a.nd solvpd, tbc rrdnction <.d 1 he UYCl'gruwJ) gOH'l'ntlH.:'llt
lUachinl'!'y, which 1:0:.<1 ncc(':-:;sal"Y p1"clirui!Jar.\", iJflS
sueh:t prubl(,tll a:; to k:l..d to t:.c
tiun df tbe b.:i!l!--;" put uc'f. \YiH'11 tile
lll'o\"incl' \\"a:-::. hy (-i!)\"l.'rnl!I{'llt.
t11" bto with his usual ,:W; b;LC
ro:d ob3bcle to t!Jp rcstoratio!l of the pI O\-illCC to hilll
would hp prcsrntcrl hv the <LgCllCy ill
the pruYiuct', :twl he is to h:L\"C .'l..'11\(·,l the Go\'ern-
IIH'Ut wlwt.hc!' ell" officers employed in the COlllllLIssioll,
who:::.e C1J1p!nytilcnt wuuld j"st by til:: of
the countr)', were to be the judges of the propel' tilll!! for
such re8tomtioll. This was iu Hl3n, whet! the European
agenCY";1S 8/liall, :tnd what wonld h3.ve been his feelings
alll1 conffl,j(ll; jf i;.' I,:talil ,_,J to !\Co tbcenorlllolls propur-
tions ana CUJllpiiC;tLiolls which ,bat :1geney has now as-
sl1Ined, and froll! which extl'ic:1tion seems all bllt hope-
less. Illinds canllot f:til to llee timt it is not
in empty forms and expensive or even ill
the material works which tilcyn,ig-:Jt r.ooomplish, that the
real foumhtion for a native rule lies; 'bllt tiJat it ratlH"I'
consists in the instruction and tmining of the I1:ttil-es.
and in giving thew,in bet, the patelltialiLy of evolving
the elements of a good government for themselves.
To the considera.tion of this question Wli shall I.duress
ourselves in the second portion otthis :PIPer.
BlllT ISH I STRATIO:'I
which cit:trc:c:riscs the <.kpccrtlll"uts of the
ad II Ii J i i" t raL [( Ill.
Sue!1 hC211 the progr(>ss \If tifty .'/l'·U'C;' adlllinis-
trati(ln of Ht-,ll prn.:.:Tl';;;'s to 8"n t,tltl \\"ith
tIl(' intl'oducLillll ()f PC-:l('f; and ot'der an,l the
uf [1 I'l'gllbr gou'rn:ncnt. .\[1 of flll'tlll'r iLllPl\)\'C:-
1I1f'llt took tlw fOl'lnof;\ (.ollt,lnll('ll intl'ocll1ctioll of new
flt.'p3.l'tJncmts, on(: after the fashion of those
org:lllised ill. tll\.: It;l)l'l' JJl'iLi:-:h T('l'rltoril's, lHlt
with IllUeh Ie", lik. witllOut :',ny gr;1,sp of [iwir real prin-
ciplc:-\, and without :lll)" cOII-11H'eLH?nsi\'c at,tempt to adapt
them to the rirClll<l,t:ll1CCS of the proyinGc. Thr Jcpart-
ltH'Ilt.:;; tllnkr sue h ci l'clllilst.anccs ha;ve h:HI n shvl'ter career
of llsefulness than els,-,,·cre. Tlte life :lnd [,,;tiyiLY at-
t"nd:Hlt (Ill the nr:.;;t Cl)tlL'cptil)ll :l/Jfl of n.. nl'\\"
\\'1'1\- to \VhcLt sllJlply at! imitation,
the nsw'd of dind ont :Lt. :'111 (':arl,Y
,latt): alltI though l;;rpt. in iut' ;1, while by t)w vigi-
l:llll (,dutrol ,,{ the 1l1Orc tilatl()l'Jinltri/yab/c aJrninistr;ltor
wbo intJroullccd these the dt.'p'1rtlllent soon
n,SSUllll,J witll tbe: ill\';t.riable
rf'fmlt in of displacing na,Livc by EnrOpe:lll
agcnr,y, :LllJ with 1,1O llSU,,! consequcnce of the daillls,
interests, and of ofiicirds
throwing into the h,"d'ground the interests l1nd welfttre
of thp pllhlic. And if :ltly iLlst:mces of more tban ordi-
n"rily gross f[.iluf<'s cropped up, they only supplied
arguments for a further of the European
agency. 'fhe revenues of the pl'Ovincc. notwithstanding
th"t t.hey have doublet! themselves, anJ Botwithstalluing
a consi.1emble re<luction of the household or pnjace
chflrges of the ,,1 [tilaraj,l,b, [tre almost fully absorbed by
these expensive establishmsuts. As for the preparation
of the government ior n:ltive rule, it was an ide", never
seriously thought of for a time; and, though
of more recent years the qnestion had to be recognised
OF
50
and soIVt
1
c1, tile' ]'()t1nctioll of t.he oycl'gro\Yu gO\"Crnlllcllt
BlU('hillcry, which is n. prclilJJlwuy. ilflS
suell :1, prniJh'tll rt,.c.; to to t;;e
tiun lli the suhj,'" bi!l;" i'I<l,'finitcI,' put 011. \\"hen tile
province il.s:-;nlllC'd by U}(· 13ritish Ci-uHl),IlIIH'nt
1,111' :\Lth:--"l'"Lj:i.hJ WtLll his l1;-;l1al ;-;:1\y that
tIn.: n:al ob::,Vtcle tll(' l'c:=;.torntiu!l of the pro\'iuce to hill)
\""ul<1 he by the Engli,b agency i:ltruJucl.el in
t.he prU\'inCl\ anLl is st:ltCll to h:Lve :1.81\('(1 the
llH'llt. Whl!lhpl' tIL: olHcul'::> cIllploYl:tl in the COIJlllllSsioll,
\\'ho.:;c elnplo,Yl!lL:llt wuulJ b.-· [o-::..t by )ratioll of
the eountry, \\"L'rt' t:) be tbe jUdgL'S or prupcl' LiIH!'! for
::'l1ch rc:)tm';I,tion. rrhis was it) U:s:31}, when the EUrOpe:LIl
agency was slt:ail, anu what \\'0111<1 ha.ve been his feelings
3.1Hl C01Jf:hiu]j if iII' l!:til Jiy'.'L1 to tll(-' f'n0I"10011."; Ut'0f/ul'-
ti(Hb and :"1gCll{,Y ..... H()\\'
wllwIl, :11](1 frolll ",hi .. h l'xtrie:Llion sei'n.s :lil bllt hnpe·
less. It<:lkcting lllin<1s C:1ll110L fail Lu """ th:it it is not
in Clupt,Y and expensive cstabljs!nncnts. or cn'l! iu
the Hl<ttcri:l.l works wbieh they n.ig:lt !l.CCmilplish, tbat tbe
re::d foumhtioll for :1 wltivc rule lies; (JUt ti,aC it mth"r
consists in the instruction "nel training of the n"ti \'cs.
[lnd in gi\'ing of c\oh'ing
the clements of [I good government fur themselycs.
'I'o the consideration of this question \\It' simi!
ourselves in the second portion of thllipaper.

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