Children's Coaching Event Key Notes DAY TIME | Self Esteem | Self Efficacy

NI Coaching Children Day: ‘Inspiring the Future of Sport’

Time 9.30 9.45 10.20 11.00 Theme Introduction & Welcome Children’s Coaching: An Overview Coaching the Whole Child – Multiple Outcome Coaching Workshop Opportunity 1 Lunch Workshop Opportunity 2 Workshop Opportunity 3 Depart Speaker Sport Northern Ireland Ian Stafford Sergio Lara-Bercial Various N/A Various Various N/A

NI Coaching Children Day: ‘Inspiring the Future of Sport’

12.30 1.30 3.00 4.30

Welcome

The Plan
Coaching Children Curriculum and child‐

centred coaching
Children’s development and the implications 

for our coaching
Current practice, key issues and make a start 

on addressing challenges
Ian Stafford Hutton Park Consulting

Key principles of good practice 
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Coaching Children Curriculum
Rationale ‘Children’s needs in sport are totally different to those of  other groups’   (sports coach UK 2011) Aims  Identify and describe generic children’s capabilities  that should help coaches understand these specific  needs. Explain the associated knowledge, skills and attributes  coaches required to develop these capabilities Train, develop and deploy quality, child‐centred,  children’s coaches 
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Lifelong participation and less drop‐off

Coaching Children Curriculum

Children who become healthy, happy adults Coaches who develop people, not just sports 

performers

Specialist coaches who plan fun and developmentally 

appropriate activities

Better performances at the highest level
sports coach UK Vision (www.sportscoachuk.org)
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Child‐centred Coaching
Coaches should: Focus on the needs of the child rather than the  needs/wants of others e.g. coaches and parents Account for the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and  values that children bring to the sport environment   Consider the child’s abilities, interests, and learning  styles/preferences Encourage children to be more active and take  greater responsibility for their own learning as they  progress
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Child‐centred Coaching
Improves children’s motivation Children take more ownership of their own learning Encourages peer interaction and communication  Promotes active learning using discovery approach Builds better child‐coach relationships Potentially reduces disruptive behaviour
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Child‐centred Coaching
‽ Need to adopt more balanced coaching methods ‐ ask, 

Children’s Development
Children develop: Physically

show and involve as well as tell
‽ Coaches might give children too much responsibility 

too early – progression needs to be appropriate to  stage of development
‽ Coaches might feel less in control ‐ can be 

Cognitively             Socially

uncomfortable for coaches to allow children to make  own decisions and having input into session content  and structure
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Emotionally    But do coaches really know about and consider all 

these factors?

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Physical Development
Growing bodies ‐ fragile but bouncy and 

Cognitive Development
Children have limited experience and ability to attend 

bendy

to and process information ‐ need more time to  process and act than adults
Children’s memory not as well developed as adults –

Developing systems – batteries may run down 

quickly but soon recover

KISS principle (keep it short and simple)
8‐12 yrs still seen as a major skill learning phase Coaches need to know about how children learn in 

Coaches –understand development and what 

you can and can’t validly ask of children  physically
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order to develop skills.
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Social‐Psychological Development
Young children have difficulty separating ability and 

Social‐Psychological Development
Coaches   Plan and coach to produce a task 

effort (learn about 10‐12yrs)
Ego orientation – may not be able to recognise their 

capabilities as a limiting factor; may blame lack of  achievement/success on not being good enough
Task orientation – see that effort can be a measure of 

orientation in children
 Encourage children to focus on effort 

achievement/success.  Children who are interested in  the task and put in a lot of effort, regardless of whether  or not they want to win are likely to feel more satisfied  and persist in sport
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rather than on comparing themselves  with others – praise effort, not just  skill
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Emotional Development
Children are less emotionally stable than 

Current Practice
As coaches, how much formal input have you 

had on children’s development and key coaching  implications?
Do you think the time has come for more  specific CPD or even qualifications in Coaching  Children? What do you think are the key gaps in your  current knowledge and skills in terms of coaching  children?
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adults 
Coaches need to understand what is 

important to children ‐ be sensitive and  patient 

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How much of your current practice involves 

Current Practice

Coaching Children

running sessions where all the children are  doing the same activity at the same time?
What do you think are the main issues in 

producing tailored sessions that hit the needs  of more children rather than just being aimed  at ‘the average’?
Any other key issues you feel need to be 

Why is it so important that we get it 

right?

addressed in children’s coaching and associated  coach development?
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Guiding Principles
Understand the  children you coach – how they learn 

The Plan
Coaching Children Curriculum and child‐

and develop
Develop a good rapport with the children – as a 

centred coaching
Children’s development and the implications 

group and as individuals
Show you are interested them as individuals, not just 

for our coaching
Current practice, key issues and make a start 

as participants
Work to produce more tailored sessions with  

on addressing challenges
Key principles of good practice 
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appropriate, differentiated activities
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Thanks for turning up Thanks for listening

THE END

Coaching the Whole Child – Multiple Outcome Coaching
Inspiring the Future of Sport Sport Northern Ireland – Jordanstown Sept 2012

Thanks for not throwing things Thanks for not shouting obscenities at me

Sergio Lara-Bercial Senior Research Fellow Leeds Metropolitan University International Council for Coach Education

An Audience with Mo Farah… Almost!

Be careful – it’s a jungle out there....those 

kids could eat you!
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Coaching the Whole Child – Multiple Outcome Coaching
Inspiring the Future of Sport Sport Northern Ireland – Jordanstown Sept 2012

1. Children – ‘Them Crazy Little People’

Session Outline: 1. 2. 3. 4. Children – ‘Them Crazy Little People’ A Coaching Children Domain? Coaching the Whole Child – Can we? Should We? Implications for Practice

Joan Manuel Serrat: from his song of the above title:
‘Them crazy little people don’t know about timetables, or costumes, and we think we have to domesticate them. Hey boy! Stop f****** about with that ball, don’t say that, don’t do that, don’t touch that!’

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1. Children – ‘Them Crazy Little People’

1. Children – ‘Them Crazy Little People’

It is obvious that children are not miniadults, but don’t take my word for it…

It is obvious that children are not miniadults, but don’t take my word for it…

1. Children – ‘Them Crazy Little People’

CHILDREN ARE NOT MINI‐ADULTS AND CANNOT BE COACHED AS SUCH We need specialist 
children’s coaches!!!

How are children different to adults?

Coaching Children Curriculum

2. A Coaching Children Domain?

49% of Children are  2. A Coaching Children Domain? involved in  80% of Coaches work  with Children (North, 2009) Competitive Sport (School Sport Survey  2010)

Sport’s  potential to  develop  children  beyond the  field or track (Gould et al,  2008)

Impact of  Early  Experiences in  Future  Performance  Levels (Balyi, 2001) 

Impact of Early  Experiences in Later  Participation Patterns (Côté, 1999)

Potential Negative  Impact of Sport (Strachan, Côté and  Deakin, 2011)

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3. Coaching the Whole Child: Could We, Should We?

3. Coaching the Whole Child: Could We, Should We?

3. Coaching the Whole Child: Could We, Should We?
Integrated Outcomes of  Sport Coaching: Technical,  Physical, Tactical, Mental  and Personal & Social

3. Coaching the Whole Child: Could We, Should We?
For instance, with 4 to 6 Year Olds: (from Wildcats new resource)

Synergistic  Development and  Interdependence

3. Coaching the Whole Child: Could We, Should We?
7 to 8 Year Olds: 

3. Coaching the Whole Child: Could We, Should We?
9 to 11 Year Olds: 

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The 5 Cs for Positive Youth Development
Based on the work of Dr Richard Lerner and colleagues (2005) in Positive Youth Development in the USA: Children as Resources to be Developed,  not Problems to be Managed

The 5 Cs for Positive Youth Development
Based on the work of Dr Richard Lerner and colleagues (2005) in Positive Youth Development in the US: Competence Confidence Connection Character Caring

Contribution to Self  & Community!

Focusing not on what they lack, But what they can become.

The 5 Cs in Sport

What
Being able to do things Self-Worth and SelfEfficacy Positive connections with people and environment Respect for rules, sense of R&W, empathy Being able to find own solutions to problems

How
Developmentally Appropriate Activities Self-referenced success, reward effort, learning to cope with failure Understanding benefits, work with and help others
Being in an environment that respects rules and one another

What
Self-Worth and SelfEfficacy

How
Self-referenced success, reward effort, learning to cope with failure

Confidence isn’t just about feeling good when things go well. Confidence is about staying afloat and on task  when things go pear‐shape so things can go well again.

Coaching Children Curriculum

Think by themselves and understanding, not just repeating
Adapted from ‘Coaching Children Curriculum’, sports coach UK, 2011

Coaching Children Curriculum

What
Self-Worth and SelfEfficacy

How
Self-referenced success, reward effort, learning to cope with failure

What
Self-Worth and SelfEfficacy

How
Self-referenced success, reward effort, learning to cope with failure

Motivational Climate – Joan Duda
Research shows that people tend to understand competence or ability in one of  two ways: Mastery‐Orientation:  Competence is understood in a self‐ referenced way. From this perspective: ‘I am happy when I improve on  myself’. Performance‐Orientation:  Competence is demonstrated only  when beating others:  ‘I am happy when I prove I’m the  best or very good at something’.

Self-Determination Theory – Deci and Ryan (2000)
Coaching Children Curriculum

Children carry these ‘thinking modes’ around and the important thing for us is  that which mode they favour has an impact on their behaviours, learning and  coping strategies in sport.
Coaching Children Curriculum

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What
Self-Worth and SelfEfficacy

How
Self-referenced success, reward effort, learning to cope with failure

What
Self-Worth and SelfEfficacy
Ego-oriented climate
Coach’s Cues Constant comparison between athletes Athlete Responses Lower self-esteem

How
Self-referenced success, reward effort, learning to cope with failure
Task-oriented climate
Coach’s Cues Self-referenced judgements of competence Athlete Responses Enjoyment

There’s a little problem though…

Focus on demonstrating superior performance

Anxiety Health Risks (i.e. unhealthy eating)

Focus on effort and improvement (emphasis on personal development)

Sense of improvement Overall well-being

Low tolerance of mistakes

Not taking any risks Frustration when a mistake is made

Mistakes are part of learning

Risk taking Using mistakes as learning opportunities

Favouritism towards more capable athletes

Cliques and Segregation

Cooperative learning

Supporting each other

Coaching Children Curriculum

Coaching Children Curriculum

Motivational Climate – Joan Duda

What
Self-Worth and SelfEfficacy

How
Self-referenced success, reward effort, learning to cope with failure

What
Self-Worth and SelfEfficacy

How
Self-referenced success, reward effort, learning to cope with failure

Mindset – Carol Dweck
Research shows that people can also understand ability from a different  perspective but also in one of two ways: Fixed‐Mindset:  Ability level is fixed and there isn’t much you can do about it. From this perspective: ‘You either have talent or you  don’t’ Growth‐Mindset:  Ability level changes over time as a  direct result of effort and hard  work. From this perspective  ‘The harder you work, the more  talented you get’.

Children also carry these other  ‘thinking modes’ around which also impact on  their behaviours, learning and coping strategies.
Coaching Children Curriculum Coaching Children Curriculum

What
Self-Worth and SelfEfficacy

How
Self-referenced success, reward effort, learning to cope with failure

What
Positive connections with people and environment

How
Understanding benefits, work with and help others

Some ways in which sport enhances Connection:
- Positive response to guidance - Offering new experiences with new people - Allowing time for cooperation - Promoting empathy, sensitivity and friendship - Stating and understanding the benefits of sport - Fostering exercising choice - Belonging to something bigger then oneself - Taking a leadership role - Developing Conflict Resolution Skills - Promoting parental involvement

Coaching Children Curriculum

Coaching Children Curriculum

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What
Respect for rules, sense of R&W, empathy

How
Being in an environment that respects rules and one another

What
Being able to find own solutions to problems

How
Think by themselves and understanding, not just repeating

In your coaching practice, do you/could you? • Work with players to develop a code of conduct for practice? • Encourage players to talk with each other and evaluate performance at the end  of each session? • Encourage players to thank the coaching staff after each session? • Expect players to put out and take back equipment? • Talk with players about their behaviour before a game? • Encourage players to shake hands even after informal games in practice  sessions? • Have a discipline system for unfair play in practice? • Bring in a qualified official for some practice sessions and encourage players to  discuss the reasons for decisions after the game?

Tell me, and I will forget.  Show me, and I may remember.  Involve me, and I will understand. ‐ Confucius, 450 B.C.

Coaching Children Curriculum

Coaching Children Curriculum

Adapted from ‘Coaching Children Curriculum’, sports coach UK, 2011

What
Being able to find own solutions to problems

How
Think by themselves and understanding, not just repeating Independent Athletes

4. Implications for Practice Plate Spinning or Integrated Delivery?

Facilitative/  Collaborative
‐ Athlete driven (highly Involved in  the decision making process) ‐ Flexibility within a clear plan Leads to… ‐ Learning is contextualised ‐ Focused on player needs ‐ Aimed at developing understanding  and not just technique ‐ Encourages social learning

High Motivation and Enjoyment

Ownership of Learning Technically and Tactically  Proficient Athletes Group Identity and  High Cooperation

New Knowledge Generation
Coaching Children Curriculum Adapted from ‘Coaching Children Curriculum’, sports coach UK, 2011

Summary: It’s a WIN-WIN Situation
Imagine...
TACTICAL & CREATIVITY Support children and young people as they  create their own solutions to problems i.e. OK guys, we are down to 10 players and  there’s 20 minutes to go in the game, you  have 2 minutes to discuss what you would do  in that situation... And do it...

Specialist Coaches  that plan fun and  developmentally  appropriate sessions

Life‐long Participation  and Less Drop‐Out  Rates

Children that  become active,  healthy and  happy adults...  Coaches that  develop people not  just players

Better performances  at the highest level!

Coaching Children Curriculum

Adapted from ‘Coaching Children Curriculum’, sports coach UK, 2011

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Let’s hear it from the horse’s mouth…

Coaching the Whole Child – Multiple Outcome Coaching
Inspiring the Future of Sport Sport Northern Ireland – Jordanstown Sept 2012

Thank You - Questions?

NI Coaching Children Day: ‘Inspiring the Future of Sport’
Workshop Title Venue

A B C D E F

Inspiring a Passion for Sport (Graeme Foreman) Motivating & Communication with Young Participants (Sarah McQuade) Coaching Children with a Disability (Elaine Reid / Aubrey Bingham) Coaching for Decision Making & Creativity (Ian Stafford) Child Learning, Coaching Process & Planning (Sergio Lara-Bercial) The Fundamentals of Movement (Tandy Jane Haughey & Robin Gregg)

Indoor 3G Area B Throws Area Sports Hall 2 Sports Hall 1 Indoor 3G Area A Indoor Sprints Area

NI Coaching Children Day: ‘Inspiring the Future of Sport’

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