1: polarization

Remember the tense atmosphere during the drawn-out crisis of the Gulf oil spill last spring and summer? There was polarization -- everybody blaming the other guy for the spill and the subsequent problems, deep divisions between left and right over the future of energy vs. environment. And there was frustration -- a widespread feeling of anger at corporate CEOs and government bureaucrats who appeared arrogant and out-of-touch. Then, after months of anguish, the crisis seemed to go away, at least from the headlines -- BP finally capped the gushing well, Washington promptly downplayed the environmental impact, and the American media quickly switched their attention to the electoral horse-race. But the feelings of polarization and frustration didn't go away. Like the vast plumes of spilled oil that settled stealthily into crevices of the Gulf of Mexico, they were submerged into a toxic pool of collective resentment. Americans' deepening dissatisfaction influenced the November election, when angry tea-partiers and disenchanted progressives took it out on the government by respectively voting for right-wing radicals and sullenly staying home. They're not going away next year, either. In fact, the oil-spill crisis was just a foretaste -- personally and politically as well as astrologically -- of what's to come during 2011. Two warnings about 2011 Expect America's ever-deeper right-vs.-left political polarization to flare up furiously during the early spring of 2011 (mid-March through April). And from the summer on through the end of the year -- in fact, all the way till the muchballyhooed month of December, 2012 -- look for the popular sense of frustration with corporate and government power to sharpen and begin increasingly spilling over in acts of defiance and rebelliousness that will evoke comparisons to the Sixties. That's on the national level. But "as above, so below": Most of us will be confronting these same forces of polarization and frustration in one area or another of our personal lives, as well. The secret to navigating them -- and to transforming them from anticipated disaster into unexpected boon -- is to understand the archetypes behind them, which the astrological planets and signs involved signify. To foresee accurately how they'll show up in your personal life, an astrologer needs to examine how these planets "transit," or pass over, your specific birthchart. But it's also possible to predict in general how they'll play out on the national and world stage. Polarization hits a peak That springtime polarization will be represented by expansive, potentially greedy Jupiter in the fiery, often impulsive and self-centered sign of Aries -- opposing cautious, potentially rigid Saturn in the airy, compassionate, but often

indecisive and passive sign of Libra. Politically, Aries here signifies the "red-state" right wing, while Libra is the "bluestate" left wing. Libra is a strong sign for Saturn -- representing a determination to preserve a hard-won status quo of rights, peace, or similar Libra-related concern (such as the health-care reform) -- but Jupiter's opposition from Aries will be reinforced by that sign's aggressive ruler, Mars, as well as the powerful presence of the Sun. The Aries side's strength is that it will come on strong and fast, but its weakness will be that it has no staying power and won't stay unified in a common cause for long. The Libra side's strength will be in listening to and seeking a common ground with the other, but unless it holds firm to tried-and-true principles, its tendency to waver and compromise away too much will be its undoing. Frustration on the rise The frustration that will sharpen in summer is represented by a planetary cycle well known among astrologers for its historic association with upheaval and revolution: the orbital interaction of Uranus, the topsy-turvily-spinning upsetter of established order, and Pluto, the tiny but potent planetoid that reminds us size is not always the measure of power. In the mid-1960s, the two came together in conjunction, beginning a new 127-year cycle of undermining the old "establishment" that will reach its next key turning point in 2011-2012, when Uranus will move into Aries, some 90 degrees away from Pluto in Capricorn. This point in a planetary cycle is the "waxing square", when, astrologers observe, that which was formerly latent and underground now makes itself openly manifest, like the sun breaching the horizon at dawn. People's rising disillusionment, on both left and right, with the extreme concentration of wealth and power in the elites of Wall Street and Washington (Pluto in Capricorn, the sign of dominance and control) will crest in overt acts of disobedience -some of which will be impulsive or even violent (Aries), others innovative or technologically based (Uranus). The new rise of violent anarchists in Greece and other parts of Europe, and the Web-wide exposure of state secrets on Wikileaks, are harbingers of these trends -- just as governments' and financial institutions' moves to squelch Wikileaks by fair means or foul portend the Pluto-in-Capricorn reaction. But the cycle can't be stopped -- too many creative people will find too many ways to permanently "subvert the dominant paradigm," as the old bumper sticker puts it, and move the world's culture closer to something like the "triple bottom line" economic reformers espouse, in which the environment and social equity (two values that gained their voice in the 1960s) are given equal decisionmaking weight with profit. Choose your revolution It may seem as though the oil-spill saga of 2010 -- which played out as these two astrological formations, Jupiter opposite Saturn and Uranus square Pluto, first began moving into place -- left no visible effect. Oil corporations continue to drill greedily in the deepwater Gulf -- and spill, though with less publicity -- after the brief moratorium the Democratic administration imposed raised so much Republican ire that it was lifted six weeks early. And the

polarizing and frustrating challenges of 2011 could leave us feeling -- if we only read the headlines -- as if nothing is changing except to get worse. But down in the small print, where individual choices count and eventually add up to future headlines, we'll each be confronting our own local versions of these challenges. We'll have plenty of personal opportunities to choose the easy way of polarization -- yelling and bullying on the one hand, caving in and tuning out on the other -- or the hard way of listening to our opponents while making them sit down with us to hammer out real solutions. And we'll choose to deal with our rising frustration about loss of money and lack of power either by lashing out in some violent reaction, or by stepping out with some bold innovation.

The polarizing impact of science literacy and numeracy on perceived climate change
Seeming public apathy over climate change is often attributed to a deficit in comprehension. The public knows too little science, it is claimed, to understand the evidence or avoid being misled1. Widespread limits on technical reasoning aggravate the problem by forcing citizens to use unreliable cognitive heuristics to assess risk2. We conducted a study to test this account and found no support for it. Members of the public with the highest degrees of science literacy and technical reasoning capacity were not the most concerned about climate change. Rather, they were the ones among whom cultural polarization was greatest. This result suggests that public divisions over climate change stem not from the public’s incomprehension of science but from a distinctive conflict of interest: between the personal interest individuals have in forming beliefs in line with those held by others with whom they share close ties and the collective one they all share in making use of the best available science to promote common welfare

2 : how country use soft power to maintain their supremacy In the past decade, China’s “soft power” — global influence attained through diplomatic, economic, cultural, and other non-coercive means — has grown along with its international standing. Despite this development, the United States remains the preeminent global force in many areas of soft power. The United States exceedsthe People’s Republic of China (PRC) in global trade, and far surpasses China in GDP and foreign direct investment. It continues to be the dominant external political and military actor in the Middle East and political and economic influence in Latin America.It maintains robust, formal alliances in Europe and Asia, and far outweighs China in military spending and capabilities. However, many analysts contend that U.S. soft power has declined in relative

Beijing’s “win-win” diplomatic style has featured greater accommodation and an emphasis on short-term. while others believe that its implications are limited and that U. common economicinterests. Some analysts warn that China’s growing soft power reflects a set of well-funded.S. China’s proliferating trade. China has gained markets for its goods. Assessing China’s Soft Power Although Beijing has adopted a more accommodating and multilateralist foreign policy and has not challenged the global “status quo. and foreign aid accords with other countries. integrated foreign policy goals. economic. the ways in which the government links diplomacy. Since the end of the Cold War and the acceleration of China’s economic take-off in the mid-1990s. foreign aid resources. investment.” many experts disagree about the PRC’s capabilities and long-term intentions and as well as the implications ofChina’s rise. vulnerable to domestic shocks and public backlash in foreign countries. and the dramatic expansion of its global economic influence. providing other countries with foreign investment and aid projects without imposing conditions such as political and economic performance criteria. and some studies showa dramatic loss in global confidence in the United States’ foreign policies.and security relations with the . interests. strengths remain formidable. and intellectual and cultural influences remain formidable. and foreign aid. trade and foreign direct investment. have stressed mutual benefits. and represents a trend toward greater integration in the global community. Many countries appear to appreciate this style. U. Through these agreements.terms. China’s style of diplomacy and its foreign policy principle of “non-interference” have been characterized as sensitive to local conditions rather than imposing standards.Contrasting Diplomatic Styles The PRC has captured the attention of many developing countries due to its pragmatic approach to diplomacy. commerce.S. this argument goes. In the past several years. military might. Furthermore. Many countries continue to seek strong diplomatic. made possible by its own rapid development. and international esteem while. Others argue that China’s rise is limited in scope.S. Some experts argue that China’s rise poses serious challenges to U. developed to secure and advance China’s economic and security interests at the expense of the United States. access to raw materials.

United States even while cultivating ties with China Regarding China’s goals. it is to forestall possible “containment” rather than to pursue expansion. oil and gas contracts. Many analysts believe that economic development rather than military supremacy is the primary objective for China’s international engagement for a host of reasons — not the least of which are to raise the living standards of its enormous population. role in helping to maintain global security. capital. These twin developments have served as powerful drivers of China’s international trade and investment agreements as well as foreign aid. At the same time. in 2007.term.In energy sources alone.Many of these activities are tied to PRC pledges of foreign aid. to dampen social disaffection about economic and other inequities. compared to an annual rate of about 1% in industrialized countries. Beijing favors a stable periphery and knowingly benefits from the U. at least in the short. key components of its soft power. scientific and technological cooperation.S. and technology. Chinese growth has been driven by the development of overseas markets for its goods. To the extent that China may exploit its soft power for strategic ends. China’s annual economic growth rates routinely are in the double digits. they reached an annual rate of 11. and to sustain regime legitimacy after the demise of communist ideology as an acceptable organizing principle. China also is seen to have placed a priority in keeping stable and relatively tension-free relations with its primary export market.In pursuit of sustainable economic development. they argue. Access to energy resources and raw commodities to fuel China’s domestic growth has played a dominant role in these relationships. some observers contend that China’s most pressing concerns. Furthermore. are domestic (focused on economic growth and social stability). for example. the United States. Its energy demands are expected to continue increasing at an annual rate of 4%-5% through at least 2015.4 percent — the highest since 1994. and with other . This rapid and sustained economic growth has created voracious domestic appetites for resources.to medium. China became a net importer in 1995 (it became a net importer of oil in 1993). 43 China steadily and successfully has sought trade accords. and de-facto multilateral security arrangements with countries both around its periphery and around the world.

Chinese overseas operations already have begun to experience fallout from their activities: PRC oil drilling sites and well-workers have been attacked. and elsewhere in Africa. pales next to the national capacity and willingness of the United States to take on costly and difficult global tasks such as international disaster aid. As China’s international activities expand. The soft power potential that the PRC can hope to gain from such a strategy. nothing in Beijing’s current soft power approach suggests that it is willing to embrace such altruism.Somalia. many believe. China’s “win-win” approach to international interactions often is considered more symbolic than substantive.resentment. Cultural backlash may be heightened by the style that PRC foreign investments and construction projects have pursued to date — involving the import of Chinese workers instead of using the local population or providing substandard labor conditions for local workers.countries and regions. possibly garnering unfavorable publicity for the PRC and putting stress on the “win-win” approach. According to this view. or killed in Sudan. Moreover. it provides almost innumerable opportunities for international misunderstandings. kidnapped. Nigeria. they contend. a “win-win” strategy is a slender reed for maximizing comprehensive soft power. To date. The increasing availability of Internet and cell phones — China now has the world’s largest numbers of Internet and cell . Limitations on Chinese Soft Power. Beijing calculates that even the appearance of a more overt pursuit of its regional and global interests could prompt the United States and other countries to strengthen their alliances or form other groupings to counterbalance and deter China’s international outreach.Even with a “win-win” strategy. acquiring and maintaining an enhanced international presence brings with it certain complications.Foreign entanglements also could raise political problems at home for PRC policymakers. and repercussions. Such a development in turn could fetter China’s economic growth. Some Central Asian countries have grown concerned about the level of energy assets that China has been accruing within their borders and have moved to limit such acquisitions. Easy things are taken care of first. while inconvenient and difficult things are postponed.possibly indefinitely. tensions along these lines are likely to increase. Among other things. Moreover.China’s lack of transparency raises consistent doubts about whether the levels of aid and investment triumphantly announced are the levels of aid and investment actually provided.

where can they succeed? After all. including information about China’s international activities. progressive social views. relative religious unity (around a lack of belief). international public diplomacy programs.S. and military protection provided by the world’s great superpower. particularly in the wake of years of U.phone users — assures that growing numbers of Chinese citizens have more access to information. Europe possessed tremendous advantages when it launched its slow-running experiment in cradle-tograve welfare statism and post-national political unity many decades ago: historically dynamic economies. educated citizens. These large PRC government activities attract much international attention and give a “hard” edge to PRC soft power. and that “post-Christian Europe” was hardly a more-rational Europe. The result was something resembling a social-democracy Disneyland. The United States has little to match such centrally directed initiatives. a commitment (born out of sorrow and blood) to peace.S. 3 : centralizd planning relevant in todays dynamic economy Socialism and Central Planning Still Can’t Defeat Human Nature 12As we watch Europe’s unfolding debt drama. Beijing is seen to have advantages over the United States in that its overseas activities and investments are conducted by strong.S. may prove objectionable to the hundreds of millions of PRC citizens still living below the poverty line — much the way many Americans sometimes react to U. Yet human nature still prevails. the termination of — high-profile U. budget cutbacks in — and in the case of the U. overseas investment. Information Agency. But comparing only governmentdirected and -funded activities overlooks the huge advantage the United States has in the extent of its substantial global private-szector presence.S. soft power over hard power. Confirmation that China isinvesting millions of dollars in overseas projects. . and carefully managed democracy. it’s worth asking a question: If socialism and central planning can’t succeed in Europe. well-fundedstate-owned companies. that cradle-to-grave welfare benefits have the same impact on the work ethic and productivity of millions of Europeans as they had on millions of Americans. a virtual theme park for believers in nationalized health care. As noted above. doesn’t it? It turns out that the euro couldn’t turn Greeks and Italians into Germans. while at home unemployment grows and infrastructure development lags.

not when our current president looks across the Atlantic and sees not a cautionary tale but instead a model for our American future. regardless of their intellectual capacity. and are unfamiliar with these circumstances. Centralized economic planning has also been criticized by proponents of de-centralized economic planning. Leon Trotsky believed that central planners. we’re all just people. however. as such planning may be based on either centralized or [2] decentralized decision-making. which the majority of voters lack.We can’t just shake our heads at the Europeans. Does he think that Americans are better at being French than the French? In reality. Most economies are mixed economies. criticisms The most notable critique of economic planning came from Austrian economists Friedrich Hayek and Ludwig von Mises. 4: reforms . distribution or all three of these functions. incorporating elements of market mechanisms and planning for [1] distributing inputs and outputs. conomic planning refers to any directing or planning of economic activity outside the mechanisms of the market. Hayek argued that central planners could not possibly accrue the necessary information to formulate an effective plan for production because they are not exposed to the rapid changes in the particular time and place that take place in an economy. For example. in a planned economy the allocation of resources is [3] determined by a comprehensive plan of production which specifies output requirements. Transmitting all the necessary information to planners to accumulate and form a [13] comprehensive plan is therefore inefficient. Proponents of technocratic planning have responded by saying democratic planning would be inefficient due to the time it takes to deliberate and vote on action in a direct democratic setting. every significant policy choice is dragging us closer to the model that is collapsing before our very eyes. Planning may take the form of directive planning orindicative planning. Economic planning can apply to production. An economy primarily based on central planning is a planned economy. operated without the input and participation of the millions of people who participate in the economy and understand/respond to local conditions and changes in the economy would be unable to [14] effectively coordinate all economic activity. it’s that socialism and real people simply don’t mix. Name one Obama administration policy goal that wouldn’t make us more European. Planning is an economic mechanism for resource allocation and decision-making held in contrast with the market mechanism. And if there’s one thing that history’s proven and keeps proving. Democratic planning would also be ineffective because various economic decisions require specialized knowledge. investment. From nationalized health care to more “progressive” taxation to state/corporate ownership models to a shrinking defense. The level of centralization of decision-making ultimately depends on the type of planning mechanism employed.

o Service delivery at the cutting edge level o Provide ‗continuity and change‘ to the administration. accountability and rule of law. as the primary arm of government. impartiality and . efficient and accountable apparatus for public service delivery built on the ethos and values of integrity. In recent times.The importance of the Civil Service to governance stems from the following: o Service presence throughout the country and its strong binding character o Administrative and managerial capacity of the services o Effective policy-making and regulation o Effective coordination between institutions of governance o Leadership at different levels of administration. there has been accelerated change globally brought about by technological advances. must keep pace with the changing times in order to meet the aspirations of the people. The civil service. greater decentralization and social activism. transparency. The purpose of ‗reform‘ is to reorient the Civil Services into a dynamic. The ramifications of these changes are being felt by government in the form of increasing expectations for better governance through effective service delivery.

The reform is to raise the quality of public services delivered to the citizens and enhance the capacity to carry out core government functions. objective stock taking of the current situation.neutrality. The ailments afflicting Indian civil services are: • Lack of professionalism and poor capacity building • Inefficient incentive systems that do not appreciate upright and outstanding civil servants but reward the corrupt and the incompetent . India‘s massive bureaucracy is maintained at huge cost by the country's taxpayer whose average income is among the lowest in the world. Prior to the developing the contents of Civil Service Reform. leading to sustainable development. who function at cutting edge and higher coordinating and policy making levels. there is a need for an open. But the public perception about the members of the civil services. which is. thereby. perceived to be corrupt and inefficient in governing the country. often. is that they are `burdensome low-performers' heading a highly bloated bureaucracy.

• Outmoded rules and procedures that restrict the civil servant from performing effectively • Systemic inconsistencies in promotion and empanelment • Lack of adequate transparency and accountability procedures . 1994) It is well recognized that Civil Service Reform is not only necessary but also inevitable. It has as much value in governance as in socio-economic development. effective service delivery. accountability and responsibility in utilizing public resources which are the characteristics of good governance. "Good Governance" is being used as an all-inclusive .there is also no safety for whistle blowers • Arbitrary and whimsical transfers – insecurity in tenures impedes institutionalization • Political interference and administrative acquiescence • A gradual erosion in values and ethics • Patrimonialism 1 (World Bank. Civil Service Reforms and Good Governance A well-functioning civil service helps to foster good policymaking.

and civil society is ideal. Administrative reform focuses on rationalizing structures of government. Although comprehensive reform that involves governance. it requires sustained commitment from political and administrative leaders. and an effective and transparent system and process for control and accountability in government activities. Governance reform tends to refer to the improvement of legal and policy frameworks to create proper decision making environment. The challenge lies in finding and . the civil service. participatory systems for elements of civil society to become actively involved in policy and programme formulation and their implementation. Civil Services reform cannot be seen in isolation and it has to be undertaken along with administrative reforms for effective results. It is also too complex to implement all at once. but as a link between Civil Service Reform and an all-embracing framework for making policy decisions effective within viable systems of accountability and citizen participation. Few countries have undertaken comprehensive reforms and there are mixed results.framework not only for administrative and civil service reform.

These reforms raise the quality of services to the citizens that are essential to the promotion of sustainable economic and social development. The main components of Civil Service . and improving development performance through proper implementation of investment frameworks and the management of public expenditure plans and programmes. Enhancing the capacity of civil servants and improving their morale are critical to all these functions. civil service and civil society components. Components of Civil Service Reform Reforms must take into account the role of the Civil Service in the governance needs of the day and the expectations generated from it. strengthening revenue collection. managing aid effectively.linkages among the governance. The reform can contribute to the design and implementation of an equitable programme of social development. Civil Service Reforms and Socio-Economic Development Civil Service Reform aims at strengthening administrative capacity to perform core government functions. determining which require priority attention. CSR can contribute to macroeconomic stabilization by restoring budgetary stability.

in some cases even doubling them. Apart from its budgetary aspect. It also created posts for senior civil servants. However. In part. clearing their decisions . this growth has been stimulated by political considerations. the government has increased the number of their ministries. along with other jobs at other levels that enlarged the patronage capabilities of a number of political and bureaucratic leaders.Reform should pertain to the following: 1 Patrimonialism= monopoly of power + discretion – accountability transparency 1. this expansion has not been offset by a concomitant shedding of lower priority responsibilities or other attempts to eliminate redundancy. departments and officials. it accommodated more and more intra-party groups by offering more ministerial positions. this kind of expansion has stretched implementation capacity. and compounded coordination problems. Civil servants are spending more and more time in maintaining and/or clarifying their jurisdictional rights and boundaries. Size and Structure of Government Since independence.

Capacity building 4. and coordinating their activities through an increasing number of agencies. Similarly. Recruitment 3. 1. Once a ministry.through increasingly complex internal processes. Performance & Promotion 5. it is difficult to dismiss a government employee who has tenure guarantees. Professionalism & Modernity 6. it is difficult to abolish. Structure 2. even though its function may well have been transferred or may no longer exist. it has created vested interest groups at all levels that have blocked efforts at reform and rationalization. In addition. department. Accountability Although these kinds of expansion have serious impacts on the performance of civil . division and unit have been created.

The critical point is to retain the viability and integrity of a ministry by keeping . taxpayers receive vastly different values in return. they are difficult to compare systematically in either fiscal terms or in terms of quality of service. Even if political considerations warrant the appointment of new ministers. The number of ministries should be kept low.servants. these should be kept as ministers with a major portfolio within an existing ministry. Although world wide reduction in size of civil services is often under budgetary pressures and/or threats from donors and lenders. it is possible to make some tentative recommendations. Although the cost of running the government as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product is roughly the same in many countries. Rightsizing civil services This issue of civil service efficiency vis-à-vis size is critical. fundamental questions such as the number of ministries and internal cohesion and the integration of functions within each ministry are not looked into. Although limited guidelines exist on the appropriate size and structure of a ministerial administration.

The administrative reforms must look into the role clarification. and cultural groups. An explicit political dimension becomes pronounced not only at the highest levels of policy and programme formulation. various practices militate in favour of these biases. regional and gender preferences.all the closely related activities in the context of a government's priorities within one administrative structure. religious. This enables ministry officials to carry out their responsibilities efficiently and to be held accountable for their performance. 2. religious. These stresses on recruitment and promotion become severe where . but also at the lowest levels of regulatory and control activities. Even where countries adopt a merit-based system. Recruitment Civil service recruitment and promotion hinge on several factors such as patronage versus merit. core governance issues so that optimum number of functionaries are available for effective service delivery without any spillage or leakage. the relative importance of ethnic. Such political pressures are most pronounced in countries with diverse ethnic.

either educated or unskilled and the government becomes the employer of last resort. With rapidly advancing technology and high degrees of specialisation in every field. where economies expand.economic growth has not opened up job opportunities for the employable. The changing trends in the society as well as the economy makes it imperative to stress more on technological knowledge and in areas such as human rights. There is also very little stress on testing managerial skills in the examination. thus making it a new economy job. However. The changes in our economy also create a need for specialists at various jobs. The entry and exit of civil servants from public service to private sector and vice versa. public employment tends to shed bias restrictions and even to use private sector practices to bring qualified people into the civil service. This may create the risk of competition feeding into the civil services even more insidiously . The recruitment examination for Indian Civil Services is of course one of the rigorous examination across the world. the country can no longer afford to put generalists in positions requiring specialised skills. will make the civil services jobs more attractive.

many maintain that lateral recruitment practices will help to bring fresh ideas and skills into government. The thrust is as much about enhancing merit-based systems to raise the productivity and motivation of existing employees as on streamlining and rationalizing the structure of the civil service. Yet a number of factors have to be balanced against these advantages. and that it will also provide incentives for current civil servants to perform better or risk being passed over for the prime postings. But that will at least help enforce accountability and be beneficial in the long run. Indian scholars and officials have produced an extensive and lively debate about ways in which civil service productivity can be increased and staff accountability and responsiveness enhanced. In the decades since independence. Karnataka‘s . The response of the organized sector to the deputation of its senior management and professionals to central and state governments is not clear.than it already has. On the positive side. There are differing opinions regarding the extent to which the civil service will benefit from the entry of outsiders.

which is needed to avoid the risk that the selection process becomes ad hoc and ends up demoralizing existing personnel. It is necessary to lay down an open and uniformly enforced process of eligibility criteria. The other touchy issues are the offer of market-related salaries and the process of selection. Beyond provisions for deputation to state enterprises and external aid agencies. . Governments also have to contend with union opposition to the offer of market remuneration to outside recruits for performing what the unions perceive as essentially departmental functions. selection and assessment to avoid charges of arbitrary and politically biased appointments. there are provisions in the rules of AIS and a number of state services to permit the deputation of senior officials to work in private sector or NGOs.Administrative Reforms Commission cautioned about the need to ensure that the skills which lateral entrants are expected to bring in were not otherwise available within the civil service. A final dimension relates to the mobility of senior civil servants across public and private sectors to gain exposure by working for short or long periods with the private and voluntary sector.

. so that training can be provided right at the induction level. Towards this end. rendering conventional approaches and practices of administration obsolete and dysfunctional. but not decisive. The gaps where the training facilities are not in tune with the new trends have to identified from time to time. delegation of enhanced powers.The challenges confronting expanded use of lateral recruitment are important. Capacity Building & Human Resources Development The training offered for civil service recruits is one of the most comprehensive training systems. The urgency for reforms in civil services is dictated as much by the imperatives of global developments as by the forces of new technology and communication which are shrinking distance and commerce. The issue must be addressed carefully in a phased and systematic manner. 3. a number of measures have to be taken for simplification of rules and procedures. which will allow governments to take full advantage of the benefits in terms of improved skills and motivation while mitigating against some of the costs in terms of political favoritism and demoralization.

There are differing approaches to the use of seniority and merit as criteria for promotion in countries following a similar hierarchical. open competition and selection by an independent agency. Subsequently. important elements in meritocracy and the motivation of employees are the opportunities for promotion. transparent rules and procedures. promotion—with its higher emoluments and enhanced status— remains a key element of motivation. placement in right jobs and the scope for skill upgrading and self-improvement. . as well as special factors affecting women in office and field jobs. decrepit housing and health facilities.better enforcement and accountability and speedy redress of public grievances. inter-sector mobility. Reforming and Restructuring Human Resource Management Building a motivated and capable civil service requires merit-based and nondiscriminatory recruitment. Strengthening Meritocracy in Promotion In the final assessment. It is equally important to address demotivating factors like frequent and arbitrary transfers. a poor work environment. which rests on the absence of political patronage. recognition and reward for performance.

This will help in reducing political pressures on the careers of civil servants. but less competent. Performance & Promotion . A clear demarcation line can be drawn between the two with the establishment of such boards.7. Singapore consistently promotes people entirely according to merit and it is common to see younger officers supersede more senior. 2002. officers. 2 National Commission for the Review and Working of Constitution (NCRWC). Malaysia follows a system of promotion and annual salary progression based upon a new performance appraisal and remuneration system. A statutory body Civil Services Board (CSB) can be created to look into issues such as transfers and promotion of Civil servants 2 (NCRWC. 4. As there should be cohesion between the political masters and the civil servant for ensuring good governance.―mandarin‖ structure of civil service management. the civil service board can be used to delink civil service performance issues from politics.1). 6.

is a complicated one. The Annual Confidential Report process is also meant to be used in training and human resource development. career prospects and decisions on premature retirement. and crossing efficiency bars. In most states. without generating unnecessary conflict. . the formats are uniform for all the employees regardless of the nature of functions. the framework for performance appraisal has important consequences for the motivation of employees. subjective and unilateral character of ACRs in all states has reduced its utility for public agencies and alienated employees. confirmation. The question of how employee performance should be systematically evaluated in a fair and reliable fashion.Reforming the Annual Confidential Report Process Because of its impact on salary. Although supervisors have the right to provide continuous feedback and guidance to employees. Discussions between the evaluator and employee being evaluated are infrequent and typically only take place if an adverse remark is being entered. Annual Confidential Reports (or ACRs) are the principal means of periodic formal appraisal. However. the non-transparent.

In the near term. The following table summarizes the nature of changes required in this esteemed service for better performance. efforts can be made to revise and update the ACR format and incorporate more department-specific feedback. • Commitment: to the Civil Service • Core values: Integrity and neutrality • Precedent: Follower • Work: Exclusively in policy and ministerial support roles . A Performance Appraisal Model will be of great use in reforming Annual Confidential reports 3 . Improvements can also be made without much difficulty to improve the consultative nature of the ACR process and the feedback managers provide to staff.Serious efforts to reform the system of performance assessment are urgently needed. Change in Mindset A paradigm shift in the nature of civil service/servants is required to cope up with the emerging demands and the changes in society and economy.

• Aims: To lead the development of a major policy area • Experience: widens experience by brief tenures in public sector • Training: Fast stream • Orientation: Status Quo • Monopolistic • Commitment: to public service • Core values: Integrity. • Training: Career-long development and learning • Orientation: Change . Impartiality and delivery • Precedent: Creator • Work: varies roles between operations. policy. specialist skills and ministerial support • Aims: To deliver the outcomes of a major policy area • Experience: widens experience by taking a private sector role.

• Competitive Challenges to Civil Service Reform Lastly.using our advantage of being the world's only superpower in a dangerous way . and the term "Always Coca-Cola" is being muttered by all of Europe.by interfering and forcing our culture on countries that do not want to be "Americanized. China's youth today can . and threats on our power and freedom. Have we gone too far in our economic Americanization of the world? Some will argue that we have .the globalization by the U. the term has a different. Not even the most communist nations of China and Russia are immune to this rapid invasion of American culture. Big Macs are being ordered throughout the entire world. The American economy is an ever-present force in the world today. in the end.S. Over the past few decades. • Developing communication between all the stakeholders. Now. in today's world. Pepsi ads now clutter the streets of every big city in China. although they have no idea what the phrase means. • Political support and will • Management capacity to implement reforms • Nurturing support from civil servants themselves • ‗Safety nets‘ must be in place for people adversely affected • Reforms must reflect the political and institutional environment of a country." It is my belief that Americanization gives other countries a false sense of the American way of life and. of the world. but similar meaning .S. causes hatred for the U. "Americanization" referred to the movement where immigrants were developed into Americans. The following would be required to counter the challenges. 5: americanization In the early 1900's. it is important to recognize that the reform mandate will throw up greater challenges. American capitalism has rapidly taken over the entire world.

In 1996. It goes without question that American globalization is very evident in today's world. workaholism. America was a great model of democracy. In a recent French poll of images that come to mind when thinking of America. "On my side of the street. Americans are stereotyped by globalization as being shallow. militiamen videotaped those brave enough to speak. causing many nations to incorrectly stereotype America. 67% of those polled said "violence" and 49% "inequality" as opposed to only 20% who said "freedom" and 4% "generosity" (3). and the newest films from Tom Cruise for entertainment. As it happened. Russia." "In your movies and your materialism. When they get hungry. the opening coincided with a protest being held to call for a referendum on the president's use of power. someone ordered Always CocaCola. and shortsighted. Americanization seems to have the opposite effect than what was imagined. William Jefferson Clinton. an amusement park in Shanghai which duplicates typical American attractions. and the Fifth Amendment" (4). Here. but also causing wrong judgments to be made about American life. There. someone spoke of the eternity of the Belarussian nation. "As an American I was asked about Paul Revere. In Singapore. the Chinese can eat at any of 130 McDonald's restaurants or get takeout from Boston Chicken and Domino's Pizza (2). What happened between those ten years that would drastically change the way Europe and the world view American life? Even President Bush isn't exempt from this kind of stereotyping. . I'm asked about Paula Jones." writes Simon Tay. causing many people to wonder how long it will take before Canada becomes part of the United States (5). Thomas Jefferson. words like violence. In Europe. Tim Synder writes that only a little more than ten years ago. the most popular answers are "a ventriloquist's dummy" and "the Forrest Gump of American politics" (3). Americanization is not only changing the world. Tim Snyder writes. In 1998. has been having its share of American culture. and the Constitution. a Harvard grad and lawyer from Singapore trying to explain this misperception (6). too. I left ill at ease" (4). a new McDonald's opened across the street from a government building in Minsk. When looked at around the world.not only watch The X-Files. Baywatch. and disrespect for authority are all synonyms for the "American Way. but also go to the American Dream Park. American companies now control most of Canadian industry. spoiled. Across the way. their colleagues kept the hamburger line in order. Canada is also having problems with Americanization. we don't see the real America. When asked to describe President Bush in France.

through its rapid spread of technologies.S. But is he the only one responsible? Who's really to blame for September 11? Look no further than the clothes you wear. That's why they just want to kill America. in Israel. This is why the Osama bin Ladens constantly speak of "American arrogance" and how America is "emasculating" the Muslims. warns that Americanization not only creates hatred for the United States. Is this the image we want to globalize for the whole world to see? Americanization gives the world the wrong view of America. The Israeli government. overturning cultures and traditions wherever we go" (1). the man behind the first World Trade Center bombing. Charles Krauthammer writes in Timemagazine that. but also allows the people who foster this hatred to do something with it . By raising taxes and tariffs on foreign companies and investors. And globalization. with rings in our noses and paint on our toes. a few countries like France and Germany are making plans to slow Americanization. in an attempt to slow down Americanization. However. Jihad Online (1). Osama bin Laden for a time was running a multinational JOL. crazy revolutionaries. blame McDonald's. or else drastically lowered. also super-empowers them to do just that. and creating new Osama bin Ladens. move money or communicate by satellite phones or Internet. but also causes many nations to hate the "American Way. these countries are making it harder for American companies to profit overseas. though. compared to the rest of the world. "For the rest of the world. now requires their radio stations to devote half their airtime to Hebrew songs (6). a cultural rebellion is taking place. These companies are the icons of Americanization the renewed movement which is taking over the world. (1) Americans think of their culture as relatively conservative. the food you drink. "America is no mere international citizen. we are the revolutionary society. kept track of all his plans on a Toshiba laptop. and blame Coca-Cola. Ramzi Yousef. more dominant than any since Rome. destroying traditions. Also. It is the dominant power in the world. so not to threaten other nation's traditions and beliefs. Blame Nike. Thomas Friedman writes: The American message particularly tells young people around the world that we have a better way than their fathers. will it take another September 11 to figure this out? Americanization must be stopped. we are wild. It makes it much easier to travel. Americanization is now in full swing and sees no end in sight." It may have even caused the terrorist attacks on September 11. Despite this recent surge in American culture over the world. These are only the exceptions to the rule of American globalization. in an article published in 1998. Many people blame bin Laden solely for the recent terrorist attacks on the U.through technology. particularly because many Americans perceive it as a great achievement. This causes a threat to many nations around the world. . Thomas Friedman.American globalization not only wrongly stereotypes us.

Pascal Zachary writes. As G. is the answer . Americanization. these people believe. or more importantly. Of course.the change that the world is looking for. who's to say that America has the answer? What gives us the right to assume that American culture is the way of the future? These questions should have been answered first. alter expectations and create new realities" (3). If he is saying this statement now. before American culture took over the planet. America is in a position to re-shape norms. what will the world be like if America continues this trend in ten years? How about even twenty years? How far will American globalization go. will it ever end? . Lewis Lapham expresses the same opinion in his "American Rome" essay.Accordingly. like it or not" (6). if the world really does want change. He says that it is America's job to help out the world and "cleanse the world of its impurities" (3). "We are all Americans now.

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