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Ornamental fish keeping and its propagation has been an interesting activity for many, which provide not only aesthetic pleasure but also financial openings. About 600 ornamentalfish species have been reported worldwide from various aquatic environments. Indian waters possess a rich diversity of ornamentalfish, with over 100 indigenous varieties, in addition to a similar number of exotic species that are bred in captivity Fish species/types suitable forbreeding Among the indigenous and exotic freshwater species, the varieties having good demand can be bred and reared for commercial purpose. Species that can be produced easily and popular as commercial varieties are coming under egg-layers and livebearers. Livebearer species
Guppies (Peocillia reticulata) Moly (Mollinesia sp.) Sword tail (Xiphophorus sp.) Platy.
Goldfish (Carassius auratus) Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi) Zebra danio (Brachydanio rerio) Black window tetra (Cymnocro-cymbus sp.) Neon tetra (Hyphesso-brycon innesi) Serpae tetra (Hyphessobrycon callistus)
Bubbles-nest builders Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) Red-line torpedo fish (Puntius denisoni) Loaches (Botia sp.) Leaf-fish (Nandus nandus) Snakehead (Channa orientalis)
Guppies (Peocillia reticulata)
Red wag Platy
Rosybarbs (Puntius conchonius)
Indigenous dwarf gourami
A beginner should start the work onbreeding of any live-bearer followed by goldfish or any other egg-layer for getting acquainted with the procedures on handling and maintenance of brood fish and young one. Good knowledge on the biology, feeding behavior and ambient condition of the fish are prerequisites forbreeding. Live food like Tubifex worms, Moina, earthworms’ etc. for brood-stock and larval stages need special attention. The larvae similarly need infusoria, artemia naupli, plantons such as rotifers and smaller daphnia during the early stage. A unit for continuous production of live-food is, therefore necessary for successful maintenance of the unit. In most cases breeding is easy, but larval rearing might require special care. As a supplementary feeding the farmer can prepare on-site pelletted feed by using local agro-produce. To avoid health related problems, a proper water quality needs to be ensured by installing biofilters. The ornamental fishes can be bred at varied periods of the year. Some tips for the successful production of ornamental fishes
Ornamental fish culture unit of CIFA
Breeding and rearing unit should be made near a constant supply of water and electricity. If the unit is located near the streams, it will be excellent where the unit can receive portable water and the rearing unit can be made flowthrough. Constant availability of agro-based byproducts like oil cakes, rice polish and wheat bran, and animal-based protein such as fish meal and prawn-head meal, will facilitate preparation of pelleted diet for thefish. The brood-stock selected for breeding should be of superior quality so that they produce quality fish for sale. It is advisable that the young ones could be grown till their maturity. It not only gives enough experience of handling the fish but also helps in controlled selection. Breeding and rearing unit may be established preferably nearer to airport/railway station so that live fish could be easily transported to internal market as also for export. A fish breeder could concentrate preferably on a single marketable species to streamline management measures. Proper knowledge on market demand, customer preference and overall, the operation of a marketing network through personal contacts and public relation is desirable. Pioneer and expert groups in this field may always be kept in touch with to keep track of recent developments in marketing as well as research advancements, through training.
Economics of small-scale breedingand rearing unit for live-bearers Sl. Item Amount No. (in Rupees) I. Expenditure A. Fixed Capital 1. Low cost shed of 300 sq. ft. area (bamboo 10,000 frame with net covering) 2. Breeding tank (6’ x 3’ x 1’6”, cemented, 4 10,000 nos) 3. Rearing tank (6’ x 4’ x 2’, cemented, 2 5,600 nos) 4. Brood stock tank (6’ x 4’ x 2’, cemented, 5,600 2 nos) 5. Larval tank (4’ x 1’6” x 1’, cemented, 8 9,600 nos) 6. Bore-well with 1 hp pump 8,000 7. Oxygen cylinder with accessories (1 no) 5,000 Sub-total 53,800 B. Variable Cost 1. 800 female, 200 male (@ Rs. 2.50/pc. of 2,500 guppy, molly, swordtail& platy)
Feed (150 kg/yr @ Rs. 20/kg) Different types of nets Electricity/fuel (@ Rs. 250/month) Perforated plastic breeding basket (20 nos @ Rs. 30/pc.) 6. Wages (@ Rs. 1000/month) 7. Miscellaneous expenditure Sub-total C. Total Cost 1. Variable cost 2. Interest on fixed capital (15% per annum) 3. Interest on variable cost (15% half yearly) 4 Depreciation (20% of fixed cost) Grand-total II. Gross Income Sale of 76800 nos. fish @ Rs. 1/pc., reared for one month (@ 40 nos/female/cycle from 3 cycles/year, and considering survival of 80%) III. Net Income (Gross income – Total cost)
2. 3. 4. 5.
3,000 1,500 3,000 600 12,000 2,000 24,600 24,600 8,070 1,845 10,780 45,295 76,800