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Nanotube Functionalization and Therapeutic Applications

by Alberto Bianco

Immunologie et Chimie Thrapeutiques, CNRS, Strasbourg, France

Immunologie et Chimie Thrapeutiques

NanoSOFT (Roscoff), 21-25 May 2007

The Allotropic Forms of Carbon


Carbone amorphe Graphite Diamant

Fullerne

Nanotube de carbone

Carbon Nanotube Folding

STRIP OF A GRAPHENE SHEET ROLLED INTO A TUBE Zigzag direction

Armchair direction

Movies from: http://www.photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~maruyama/nanotube.html

Types of Carbon Nanotubes


Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) presents only one graphene layer Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) presents several graphitic concentric layers

MWNT

0.1 m
200 nm 250 nm

SWNT
= 0.4 - 2 nm L = 20 - 1000 nm Bundles = 10 - 30 nm L = 1 - 50 m

MWNT
= 1.4 - 100 nm L = 1 - several m
HUMAN HAIR 10 m

Organic Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes


Functionalization using the oxidation/cut method
HO2C HNO3/H2SO4 CO2H CO2H CO2H HO2C CO2H

Organic Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes


Functionalization using the oxidation/cut method
HO2C CO2H CO2H CO2H HO2C CO2H R-O2C R-X R-O2C CO2-R CO2-R CO2-R CO2-R

Functionalization using the addition/cycloaddition approach


R R-X R R R R R

The Right Size of Nano-objects


Nanoscale devices are of the same scale of biologically important molecules

H HO H HO HO H H H OH OH O

Glucose

Virus

Cancer cell

Tennis ball

Water

Antibody

Bacteria

10-1

10

102

103

104

105 106

107

108

Nanometers

Nanodevices: Nanoparticles
Dendrimers Quantum Dots Carbon nanotubes

Biomedical Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

- Carbon nanotubes as substrates for neuronal and cell growth - Carbon nanotubes for tissue engineering and implants - Carbon nanotubes as biosensors for sugars, antigens, proteins, antibodies - Carbon nanotubes as substrates for engineered cell membrane surfaces - Carbon nanotube cell uptake - Carbon nanotubes for the delivery of therapeutic molecules

Substrates for Neuronal and Cell Growth

Since carbon nanotubes are metallic or semi-conductors, can they help to connect neurons which do not communicate because damaged?

Neuronal network

Carbon nanotube network

Courtesy of M. Prato and L. Ballerini

Substrates for Neuronal and Cell Growth


CH3 N CH3(CH2)5CHO CH3NHCH2COOH 130 C, DMF CH2(CH2)4CH3 350 C

MWNT remain adherent to the glass surface in the condition of cell culture Neonatal hyppocampal neurons grow on the dispersed MWNT, with dendrites and axons extended across the tubes Neurites travel in close contact with the nanotubes

Spontaneous postsynaptic current (PSC) shows the formation of functional synapses and it is indicative of neuronal network efficiency: neurons grown on the CNT display a 6-fold increase on the frequency of spontaneous PSC Growing neuronal circuits on CNT grids promote an increase in the network operation
Lovat V et al. Nano Lett. 2005, 5, 1107

Substrates for Neuronal and Cell Growth


Electric events are not related to an increase of surviving neurons in the presence of CNT

CNT

Control

Cell morphology (A-D, G, H) does not present differences when the cell are cultured on glass or on CNT

Density of neurons (E) and the number of neurite/cell (F) are equal when the cells are cultured on glass or on CNT

Carbon Nanotubes for Tissue Engineering


Collagen CNT

Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes - Composite materials - Reinforced fibers - Collagen matrix with embedded CNT Why collagen (Type I)? - Important physical and biochemical functions - Promise as matrix for regenerative medicine Applications as scaffold for - Tissue engineering - Biosensor components - Useful medical devices (to provide electrical signal for cardiac muscle)

CNT incorporated into collagen fibrils

Gelation and formation of a cell-seeded tissue construct

MacDonald R et al. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 74A 2005, 489

Carbon Nanotubes for Tissue Engineering


Analysis of the morphology of the cells embedded within collagen-CNT gels after 3 days : no cell morphology alteration and cell viability was above 85% along 7 days (Red: nucleus; green actin cytoskeleton)

SEM analysis of collagen-CNT matrices (0.4 wt% SWNT) : presence of fine fibers (arrowed) distinct from the typical banded fibers of collagen. CNT strongly interact with collagen forming intersections and blends.

Carbon nanotubes as biosensors for sugars, antigens, proteins, antibodies

Electronic Sensors for the Detection of Antibodies


Carbon nanotubes as a platform for: - Studying of surface/protein or protein/protein binding - Electrical sensing of specific biomolecules - Detecting clinically important species (i.e. antibodies)

Non-specific binding (NSB) of proteins

Proteins simply adsorb onto carbon nanotubes via hydrophobic interactions Verification via AFM Demonstration of irreversibility using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) (a decrease of resonance frequency indicates mass uptake by CNT surface; level of detection down to 10 nM) Similarly, conductance changes (FET) allow to detect protein absorption with a level of detection down to 100 pM

Chen RJ et al. PNAS 2003, 100, 4984

Electronic Sensors for the Detection of Antibodies

Approach to avoid non-specific binding (NSB) of proteins No change detected with QCM

Proteins do NOT adsorb onto carbon nanotubes coated with polyethylene (PEO) chains

Verification via AFM

Carbon nanotubes coated with PEO chains form stable water suspensions No change on conductance

Electronic Sensors for the Detection of Antibodies


Specific binding between biotin-PEO coated CNT and SA (SA: streptavidin) QCM detection Electric detection

Specific binding between U1A-PEO coated CNT and 10E3 (antigen/antibody)

QCM detection

Electric detection

Observation of Carbon Nanotubes in a Biological Environment


The detection of pristine CNT in biological systems exploits the near-infrared (NIR) intrinsic fluorescence of the tubes and the absence of endogenous fluorescence from the tissues in this region Viability and proliferation of mouse macrophages are not affected under incubation with CNT (normal adhesion and growth, morphology and confluence) Detection of CNT fluorescence in the NIR region after cellular uptake The tubes into the cells present a significant broadening and red-shifting of the spectral peaks in comparison to CNT suspended in water using a surfactant (Pluronic F108) Displacement of the surfactant coating the CNT by proteins

Mechanism of internalization depends on the temperature and consists on the typical macrophage phagocytosis (active ingestion of 1 nanotube of ~1 m per second per cell) After the incubation with the cell NIR light emission is localized into intracellular regions probably corresponding to small phagosomes CNT can be used as fluorophores for the selective detection, imaging and biodistribution studies
Cherukuri P et al. JACS 2004, 126, 15638

CNT are photostable like Qdots (absence of photobleaching) and less cytotoxic

Carbon nanotubes as substrates for engineered cell membrane surfaces

Biomimetic Cell Surface Engineering


Biomimetic approach can be used to bridge nanomaterials and biological systems Surface modification of carbon nanotubes using glycosylated polymers designed to mimic natural cell surface glycans (mucins)

Integration of carbon nanotubes into physiological conditions Improvement of biocompatibilty Receptor-mediated cell-cell recognition studies
Chen X et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 6112

Biomimetic Cell Surface Engineering


Mucins, which are present at the cell surface, serve a dual role: 1) Molecular recognition 2) Resistance to biofouling (biofouling is the undesirable accumulation of microorganisms, plants and animals on artificial surfaces)

Do CNT coated with -GalNAc interact with the receptor at the cell surface? HPA is a hexavalent lectin capable of cross-linking cells and glycoproteins
Chen X et al. JACS 2006, 128, 6292

Biomimetic Cell Surface Engineering


Interaction between CNT coated with -GalNAc and the cell receptors

Specificity of the interaction between CNT coated with mucin mimetics and the cell receptors Cytotoxic effect of the complexes on the cell growth

Strategy to probe for biological process Monitoring the variation in a cells local environment by following the changes in the electrical, mechanical and optical properties of CNT

Biomimetic Bacterial Surface Engineering


Functionalization of CNT with galactose and interaction with galactose-binding protein at the bacterial surface

E. coli

Gal-SWNT
OH OH

E. coli

H HO H

H O H OH H O N H

= D-galactose-binding protein

Capture of pathogenic E. coli cells by sugar-modified carbon nanotubes

Gu L et al. Chem Commun 2005, 874

Interaction of Pathogens with Antibody-Carbon Nanotube Conjugates


The development of immuno-nanotubes is based on the conjugation of oxidized CNT to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and direct adsorption of an specific antibody (anti E. coli Ab)

Capture of pathogenic E. coli cells by antibody-modified carbon nanotubes

Green E. coli

Red Ab-CNT

Yellow overlapping

Immuno-CNT-E. Coli interactions are specific and through the antibody bound to the nanotubes and the antigens on the cell surface
Control Elkin T. et al. ChemBioChem 2005, 6, 640

Potential development of CNT devices for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of pathogens

Carbon nanotube cell uptake

Do Carbon Nanotubes Penetrate into the Cells?


Functionalized carbon nanotubes penetrate into the cells following two mechanisms: i) via an energy-independent mechanism (passive insertion and diffusion through lipid bilayer of the cell membrane nanoneedle penetration)
(Pantarotto D et al. Chem. Commun. 2004, 16; Angew Chem. Int Ed. 2004, 43, 5242; Cai D et al. Nat. Meth. 2005, 2, 449)

ii) via an energy-dependent mechanism (endocytosis, phagocytosis)


(Kam NWS et al. JACS 2004, 126, 6850; JACS 2005, 127, 6021; Cherukuri P et al. JACS 2004, 126, 15638)

NH O N O

Cell Uptake of Carbon Nanotubes via Energy-independent Mechanism


OH
H-Lys(FITC)-(s384-394)-Cys-OH S O N H N O O O N O

O HN HN O N O S CO2H O

Fibroblast cytoplasm localization

Fibroblast nulcear localization

Pantarotto D et al. Chem. Commun. 2004, 16

Capacity of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes to Penetrate Different Cell Types


HO O O
O N O NH3+ClOH

CO2H H N NH S

Lymphocytes T Lymphocytes B Macrophages


O N

MOD-K

H N

HN S HO2C

OH O HO O OH OH

OH

OH OH O O HO H2N O OH

OH H N O O O
HO2C O O OH

N
HN H N S O O NH O

Jurkat
HO2C O

S HN N H O O

NH

S. cereE. coli visiae

C. neoformans
N O O NH3+Cl-

OH

Kostarelos K et al. Nature Nanotech. 2007, 2, 108

Cell Uptake of Carbon Nanotubes via Energy-independent Mechanism


Functionalized carbon nanotubes penetrate into the cells at 4C Functionalized carbon nanotubes penetrate into the cells in the presence of the inhibitors of endocytosis NaN3 and DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol)

Cells Incubated at 4C

Cells treated with NaN3

Cells treated with DNP

Direct Visualization of Carbon Nanotubes into the Cells

NH3+ClO O N

Pantarotto D et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 5242

Nanoneedle Cell Penetration of Carbon Nanotubes


Functionalized carbon nanotubes penetrate like nanoneedles piercing the cell membrane without inducing cell death

CELL MEDIUM
NH3+ClO N O

Golgis complex chromatin internalised MWNT

nuclear membrane

CYTOPLASM

Carbon Nanotubes Spearing


A - Effect of a rotating magnetic field Cells on substate CNT CNT CNT B - Effect of a static magnetic field

Cell

Cell

Cell

A rotating magnetic field drives the carbon nanotubes (containing Ni particles) to spear the cells A static field pulls the carbon nanotubes into the cells The spearing action induces the nanopenetration of the cell membrane
Cai D et al. Nature Methods 2005, 2, 449

Control

500 nm

1 m

Cell Uptake of Carbon Nanotubes via Energy-dependent Mechanism


O N H O N H

O OH

O N H

HO
O O O N H HN NH

COOH

Alexa Fluor Streptavidin


H N S NH

Carbon nanotubes (100-1000 nm) conjugated to FITC (a) or fluorescent streptavidin (60 kD) via biotin (b) The protein-CNT non covalent complexes are uptaken by the cells and they are localized into the endosomes (c) The protein-CNT do not penetrate at 4 C (d) The free protein does not penetrate Penetration is time dependent (after 4 h the fluorescence reaches the maximum) and dose dependent The penetration is independent of the cell type and it is via endocytosis leading to the accumulation into the cytoplasm
Kam NWS et al. JACS 2004, 126, 6850

Cell Uptake of Carbon Nanotubes via Energy-dependent Mechanism


Proteins spontaneously adsorb onto oxidized carbon nanotubes via non specific binding Non covalent protein-CNT conjugates are transported via endocytosis into different cell lines After release from the endosomes, the proteins express their biological functions as demonstrated for example by induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death) using cytochrome-c (Cyt-c)

Complexes between CNT and different proteins CNT BSA

spA

Cyt-c

Kam NWS et al. JACS 2005, 127, 6021

Cell Uptake of Carbon Nanotubes via Energy-dependent Mechanism


CNT affect the transportation of protein cargos into the cells Proteins are internalized by CNT because they do not intrinsically penetrate into the cells Protein-CNT are localized into the cytoplasmatic endosomes No fluorescence is detected into the nucleus Endocytosis is inhibited at 4C, where little uptake is observed in comparison to 37C
Proteins do not penetrate into the cells Intracellular internalization of protein-CNT

37C

4C

Carbon nanotubes for the delivery of therapeutic molecules

Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes as New Vectors for the Delivery of Therapeutic Molecules
Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with nucleic acids and proteins Application on bio-macromolecule delivery

Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with bioactive peptides Application on vaccine delivery

Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with small bioactive molecules Application on drug delivery

Formation of supramolecular complexes based on charge interactions Application on gene delivery

Carbon Nanotube Transporters: DNA


Development of carbon nanotubes for: - DNA delivery - Cancer therapy The biological system are transparent in the near-infrared (NIR) region (700-1100 nm) while carbon nanotubes have a strong optical absorbance in the same spectral region When DNA functionalized carbon nanotubes penetrate into the cells, NIR laser pulses trigger endosomal rupture and subsequent translocation of DNA into the nucleus When carbon nanotubes are functionalized with molecules targeting cancer cells a continuous NIR irradiation causes the death of those cells that internalized the nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes (~150 nm) functionalized with a 15-mer ssDNA labeled with Cy3 green dye

Kam NWS et al. PNAS 2005, 102, 11600

Carbon Nanotube Transporters: DNA


DNA-CNT are internalized by the cells and accumulate into the cytoplasm The penetration mechanism is energy-dependent because at at 4C the cellular uptake is minimum

Irradiation by applying repeated, short (few secondes) laser NIR pulses provokes the release of DNA from the endosomes and DNA nuclear translocation (yellow color indicates co-localization into the nucleus) Increase of fluorescence is an indicative of DNA unwrapping and release due to endosomal break Continuous NIR pulses (808 nm) increase the temperature of the solution eventually triggering cell death

Carbon Nanotube Transporters: Proteins


Cytochrome-c (Cyt-c) is a 12 kD protein which induces or activates apoptosis (programmed cell death) when injected into the cells Cyt-c-CNT complexes are uptaken via endocytosis The treatment of the cells with chloroquine induces the rupture of the endosomes and the release of the protein into the cytoplasm Cell apoptosis occurs after Cyt-c migration into the cytoplasm Carbon nanotubes are able to deliver active proteins which eventually display their biological function

Punctuated fluorescence indicates vesicle localization

Diffused and uniform fluorescence indicates vesicle release by action of chloroquine

Kam NWS et al. JACS 2005, 127, 6021

Carbon Nanotube for Anticancer Therapy


Irradiation by applying repeated, short laser NIR pulses changes the morphology of the cell that have uptake the CNT-DNA complexes Cells not incubated with the CNT-DNA complexes are undamaged by NIR pulses Prolonged irradiation (2 minutes) induces extensive death of cells with CNT-DNA complexes Cell death is accompanied by CNT aggregation, even visible to the naked eye

Kam NWS et al. PNAS 2005, 102, 11600

Carbon Nanotube for Anticancer Therapy

Cell death provoked by NIR irradiation is exploited for cancer therapy Carbon nanotubes are functionalized with specific ligands that recognize and target cancer cells Folate receptors (FR) are markers of cancer cells

Irradiation of overexpressing FR cells = cell dead Irradiation of normal cells = cell alive Cancer cells internalize the fluorescente tubes functionalized with folic acid Normal cells shows minimal internalization because of PEG effect (inertness or blocking of non specific binding)

Carbon Nanotubes for Anticancer Therapy


Carbon nanotubes are functionalized with specific ligands which are recognized by tumor cells

Liu Z et al. Nature Nanotechology 2007, 2, 47

Delivery of peptide-based synthetic vaccines

Carbon Nanotubes as Suitable Scaffold for the Presentation of Antigens to the Immune System
Development of vaccines based on synthetic peptides
nm

1.45

- Peptide antigens are poorly immunogenic - Conjugation to protein carriers (BSA) are necessary to improve the Abs production - The carrier presents the peptide to the immune system in the correct conformation - Protein carrier are intrinsically immunogenic - Generated Abs present low specificity - Inert carriers system are ideal
0.45 nm
1.34 nm

Molecular model of a helical peptide-CNT conjugate

1.36 nm

Peptide Antigens Conjugated to Carbon Nanotubes for Synthetic Vaccine Delivery


Ac-Cys-FMDV O
H N

N O O

O O O N O O O N O N

1)

(4) in DMF, 3h

2) Ac-Cys-GSGVRGDFGSLAPRVARQL (5) (Ac-Cys-FMDV) in H2O, 6h

6
Ac-Cys-FMDV O HN N O O S

NH2 O O N

H N 1) Boc-Lys(Boc)-OH, DIC/HOBt in DMF, 3h 2) TFA, 2h O O O N O in DMF, 3h N O O O

O N H N O

S Ac-Cys-FMDV

O N O

3)

4) Ac-Cys-GSGVRGDFGSLAPRVARQL (Ac-Cys-FMDV) in H2O, 9h

Pantarotto et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 6160 Pantarotto et al. Chem. Biol. 2003, 2003, 10, 961

Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)

Immunological Characterization of Peptide-Carbon Nanotubes

Antigenicity is the capacity of a peptide antigen to be specifically recognized by an antibody The peptide antigen should adopt the correct conformation when bound to the carrier system The conformation should be the same as in the case of the native structure present in the protein, which contains the peptide epitope

Immunogenicity is the capacity of a peptide antigen to elicit an immune response

Molecular model of the complex between a helical peptide-CNT conjugate and an antibody fragment (Fab: Fragment antigen binding)

Antigenic Characterization of Peptide-Carbon Nanotubes

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis


120

80 RU

Bis FMDV-NT 7

40

Mono FMDV-NT 6 FMDV-peptide

0 0 200 400

Ac-NT Time (s) 600

Carbon nanotubes are a good multi-presentation system since they are able to present the peptide antigen with the correct conformation for the antibody recognition Carbon nanotubes do not perturb the secondary structure of the peptide

Immunogenic Characterization of Peptide-Carbon Nanotube Conjugates


FMDV(141-159)-BSA Control-peptide-BSA CNT

6 Log10 antibody titer 5 4 3 2 1 0


Free peptide Mono conjugate 6 Bis conjugate 7

Coating antigens
FMDV(141-159)-BSA Control-peptide-BSA CNT

- High antibody (Ab) responses - Bis-conjugate generates higher levels of Abs than the mono-conjugate - Carbon nanotubes devoid of the peptide are non immunogenic (no antibody production)

Delivery of nucleic acids

Delivery of Nucleic Acids by Carbon Nanotubes


Single-stranded DNA sequences are able to wrap around carbon nanotubes - DNA assisted dispersion and and separation of carbon nanotubes - Sequence dependent DNA carbon nanotube sorting

Zheng et al. Nat. Mater. 2003, 2, 338

Carbon nanotubes for the delivery of DNA, plasmid DNA, RNA - Gene transfer applications - Genetic vaccination

Complexes Based on Positive-negative Charge Interactions

1 base = 1 negative charge

Positive charged carbon nanotube

Cationic macromolecules, such as peptides, dendrimers and liposomes in general achieve effective delivery of DNA leading to pronounced toxic effects at cellular level

Potential of Carbon Nanotubes on Gene Delivery


NH3+ ClO O N

II

10 nm

50 nm

Plasmid DNA condenses on the surface of the cationic carbon nanotubes forming supercoiled and globular-like structures

Pantarotto et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 5242 Singh et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 4388

Gel Electrophoresis of f-CNT:DNA Complexes

A. SWNT-NH3+ 1 2 3 4

B. SWNT-Lys-NH3+ 1 2 3 4

C. MWNT-NH3+ 1 2 3 4

OC SC

OC SC

OC SC

+/-

Control 1:1

2:1

10:1

Control 1:1

2:1

10:1

Control 1:1

2:1

10:1

- A shift in the gel is indicative of the formation of the complex and of its stability - A strong decrease in the fluorescence intensity and an increase in the upward shift of the free DNA bands is correlated to an increase of the +/- charge ratio - Cationic single-walled CNT are not able to fully condense DNA - Cationic multi-walled CNT are most efficient in condensing DNA

Delivery and Expression of Plasmid DNA by f-CNT


1.2E+05

1.0E+05 B-gal Expression (RLU/well)

8.0E+04

6.0E+04

4.0E+04

2.0E+04

0.0E+00 Nave DNA only SWNT:DNA SWNT:DNA SWNT:DNA SWNT:DNA SWNT:DNA SWNT:DNA 1:1 2:1 4:1 6:1 8:1 10:1

- The charge ratio between NH3+ at the SWNT surface and the phosphates of the DNA backbone is a determinant factor of the resulting levels of gene expression - SWNT:DNA +/- charge ratios between 2:1 and 6:1 offer 5 to 10 times higher levels of gene expression compared to DNA alone - This first generation of functionalized carbon nanotubes is less effective for transfection in vitro than lipid:DNA system

Characterization and Expression of Plasmid DNA by f-CNT


MWNTox-NH3+ MWNTox-NH3+-DNA

Formation of the complex detected by gel electrophoresis shift

Cationic carbon nanotubes are able to transfect the cells although less efficiently than lipofectamine The level of transfection is dependent on the +/charge ratio Cationic carbon nanotubes display a reduced cellular toxicity in comparison to other transfection systems

Gao L. et al. ChemBioChem 2006, 7, 239

Delivery of Plasmid DNA Using Carbon Nanotubes


Alternative approach for the solublization and the preparation of cationic carbon nanotubes: conjugation of CNT to polyethylene imine (PEI)

Liu Y. et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 4782

Delivery of Plasmid DNA Using Carbon Nanotubes


PEI functionalized carbon nanotubes are as effective for transfection in vitro as PEI alone

PEI functionalized carbon nanotubes are uptaken via endocytosis and display a reduced cellular toxicity in comparison to PEI

Delivery of therapeutic agents to cells

Carbon Nanotubes for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy


An ideal therapy for cancer would be one whereby all tumor cells are selectively destroyed without damaging normal tissues Most of the cancer cells should be destroyed, either by the treatment itself or with the help from the body's immune system, otherwise the danger exists that the tumor may reestablish itself The promise of a new experimental cancer therapy with some indication of its potential efficacy has led to work on an approach called boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) BNCT is a binary radiation therapy modality that brings together two components that when kept separate have only minor effects on cells. The first component is a stable isotope of boron (boron-10) that can be concentrated in tumor cells by attaching it to tumor seeking compounds. The second is a beam of low-energy neutrons. Boron-10 in or adjacent to the tumor cells disintegrates after capturing a neutron and the high energy heavy charged particles produced destroy only the cells in close proximity to it, primarily cancer cells, leaving adjacent normal cells largely unaffected Development of water soluble carborane-CNT conjugates able to target cancer cells
N Me H Na+ Me H N EtO

N3
Me

CNT o-DCB
N Me

NaOH EtOH
H Na+ H N Me EtO

Zhu Y et al. JACS 2005, 127, 9875

Carbon Nanotubes for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy


Mammalian carcinoma cells (EMT6) are transplanted into the right flank of mice Maximum boron concentration is achieved on the tumor cells after 30 h in comparison to blood and tissues (lung, liver, spleen) The amount is slightly lower than the desired level for effective BNCT [30 m(boron)/g(tissue)] The low concentration on the different organs supports the preferential uptake by tumor cells The efficient accumulation is guaranteed by the nanotube delivery capacity since the free carborane derivatives generally show no adsorption or retention on tumor cells The mechanism of targeting of carborane-CNT is unknown A passive accumulation of macromolecular drugs in tumor cells is favored by an increased vascular permeability and a decrease in lymphatic drainage system in cancer cells

Saline solution

DMSO

Carbon Nanotubes for Drug Delivery

The conjugation of a drug to carbon nanotubes might have several advantages: i) ii) iii) iv) Increase of the solubility of the molecule Decrease of the aggregation phenomena Improvement of the efficacy owing to the internalization capacity of CNT Modulation of the drug activity against different types of cells (mammalian, bacterial, fungal) Reduction of the amount of drug administered

v)

Delivery of Antibiotics by Carbon Nanotubes


Amphotericin B (AmB) is a potent antifungal agent for the treatment of chronic fungal infections AmB is highly toxic for mammalian cells (likely because of the formation of aggregates which reduce the solubility in water) New approach to carbon nanotube functionalization: preparation of nanotubes carrying one or more therapeutic agent with: i) Recognition capacity
HO H N O O N O O O OH OH NH2 OH O OH O OH OH OH OH O OH

ii) Optical signal for imaging iii) Specific targeting

O S HN N H O O NH

AmB

HO2C O O OH

FITC

Wu W et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 6258

Effect of AmB Conjugated to Carbon Nanotubes

OH OH

O O N

O O O OH OH NH2

% Apoptotic and/or dead cells

HO H N

OH O

OH O OH OH O OH

60 50 40 30 20 10 0
g /m l) g /m l) g /m l) l) l) tro l) g /m g /m Co n g /m g /m (1 0 Am B l) l

O S HN N H O O NH

HO2C O O OH

(1

(2

(5

(1 0

(2 0

NT

NT

NT

M W

M W

M W

NT

NT

The conjugation of AmB to carbon nanotubes clearly reduces the toxic affect of the antifungal agent on mammalian cells (Jurkat cells)

M W

M W

M W

NT

(4 0

Antifungal Activity of AmB Conjugated to Carbon Nanotubes


Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)* in g/ml
C. parapsilosis ATCC90118 C. famata (c.i.) C. albicans (c.i.) C. neoformans ATCC90112 S. cerevisiae (c.i)

AmB + SWNT-NH3 MWNT-AmB SWNT-AmB

20 > 80 1.6 1.6

20 > 80 0.8 1.6

> 80 > 80 6.4 13.8

5 > 80 0.8 0.8

2.5 > 80 0.8 1.6

*The MIC corresponds to the lowest concentration of compound that inhibited visible growth of the organism. Results given are mean values of two independent determinations performed in duplicate. C.i.: clinical isolate. In this table, the MIC values for MWNT-AmB and SWNT-AmB refer to the concentration of AmB in the conjugates (approximately one third by weight).

AmB-CNT preserve a high antifungal activity When equal amount of free and conjugated AmB are administered the CNT conjugates are more potent against certain strains The reduced mammalian cell cytotoxicity and the increased antimycotic activity can be explained with: i) ii) iii) iv) Rapid internalization of AmB into the cytoplasm by the CNT reduces the possibility of disruption of the cell membrane Prevention of aggregation Increased solubility of the drug Binding to CNT and the presence of multiple copies of AMB per CNT favor the interaction of the drug with the fungal membrane

An appropriate conjugation increases the effectiveness of a drug (i.e. AmB) decreasing its cytotoxicity

Health and Environment Risks of Nanomaterials

Reports on the Health and Environment Impact of Nanomaterials

Report: 253 Pages CARBON NANOTUBES: 157 times

Report: 64 Pages CARBON NANOTUBES: 17 times

Conclusions and Perspectives


Advantages of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes
Control of the functionalization Lack of immunogenicity Reduced toxicity No apparent tissue/organ accumulation

Factors to be Carefully Addressed


Quality of the starting material (carbon nanotubes) Control of the preparations Long-term toxicity