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11 Fukushima Disaster -
Hiroyuki KAMEDA*, Tsuyoshi TAKADA**, Katsumi EBISAWA*** * Professor Emeritus, Kyoto University and Technical Counsellor, JNES ** Professor, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo *** Vice-President, Japan Nuclear Safety Organization (JNES)
General Remarks This is an engineering article, but not on segments of individual technology. It will discuss what are major missions to engineers for realizing nuclear safety under earthquake and tsunami environments. The nuclear safety is being seriously questioned by the people of Japan since the Fukushima I accident. The question has enough reasons to be asked in the presence of the accident that should have never happened. The final judgment is to be made by the people of Japan. It is critically important to use appropriate technology for nuclear safety. But more importantly, appropriate decision mechanism should be established to implement appropriate technology. It is the issue of “technology governance”, the main subject of this article. The importance of technology governance was raised previously 1). Its concept is clearly defined herein on the basis of thorough discussion 2). Engineers’ mission should be i) establishment of technology governance, ii) enhancement of individual and integrative technology for nuclear safety, and iii) societal communication (nuclear risk communication). The article is thus very Japanese, but we believe that issues discussed herein are universal. We recognize that some countries do exercise excellent framework of technology governance. But for other countries, especially new-comers in the nuclear business, it is strongly hoped that lessons learned from the Fukushima accident and described herein be carefully incorporated in their nuclear development processes. Definition and Action Criteria of “Technology Governance” With reference to the established concept of “risk governance” in the area of integrated risk management 3), we propose the following definition “technology governance”: Technology Governance = Totality of actors, rules, conventions, processes, and mechanisms concerned with how relevant technological information is collected, analysed and communicated and management decisions are taken. The following action criteria are critically important in establishing the technology governance for seismic-tsunami nuclear safety: i) Science-based hazard model~ Field-based judgment and scientific imagination leading 11
to appropriate risk models ii) Risk-based technology options~ Beyond-design hazard regions / alternatives based on cost~benefit (safety, BCM, etc.) trade-off under risk constraint iii) Technology assessment incorporating “total process and total system” of nuclear safety iv) Safety decision standing on technological ethics~ accountability and transparency v) Risk communication in the decision process~ purpose = trust building vi) Multi-disciplinary collaboration~ Fill perception gaps These items will be discussed in more detail in the presentation. Remarks for Implementation The discussion was made mainly with recognitions on the Japanese situation, where lack of technology governance was, we believe, a major reason for the Fukushima accident. Unless a right decision mechanism be established, the Japanese nuclear energy production will fail to recover supports of the people of Japan and also of the international community. We do have technology and practice to realize nuclear safety under the Japanese seismic environments. But the mechanism of implementation needs drastic enhancements. Establishing technology governance should be a key issue in the upcoming new Japanese nuclear regulatory authorities. References 1) Hiroyuki Kameda, "Engineering Agenda on Nuclear Safety from the 2011 Tohoku-Pacific Earthquake", Proceedings of the International Symposium on Engineering Lessons Learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, March 1-4, 2012, Tokyo, Japan, keynote presentation, pp.102-121. 2) Hiroyuki Kameda, Tsuyoshi Takada, Katsumi Ebisawa and Susumu Nakamura, “Prevent Recurrence of Nuclear Accident (3); Agenda on Nuclear Safety from Earthquake Engineering”, Journal of the Atomic Energy of Japan, Vol.54, No.9, September 2012 (in Japanese). 3) Ortwin Renn, “Risk Governance towards an Integrative Approach”, IRGC White Paper No.1, International Risk Governance Council, September 2005.