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STATISTICS

Name

........................................................................................

Statistics

zefry@sas.edu.my

CHAPTER 7 : STATISTICS

7.1 MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

(i) Ungrouped data – data that is not grouped into classes

(ii) Grouped data - data that is grouped in certain classes

7.1.1 Calculating the mean of ungrouped data

N

x

x

¿

=

Example 1:

Find the mean of 58, 67, 45, 73 and 77

Example 2:

Number 1 2 3 4 5

Frequency 5 8 4 6 2

Find the mean of the number.

7.1.2 Determining mode of ungrouped data

Mode is the value which appears the most number of times in a set of data (value that has the

highest frequency)

Example 1: Determine the mode for the following sets of number.

(a) 2, 5, 6, 2, 6, 7, 2, 4, 8, 2 Answer: ……………………………..

(b) 5, 5, 8, 10, 4, 4 Answer: ……………………………..

(c) 2, 2, 3, 4, 4 , 4, 6, 6 Answer: ……………………………..

Note: It is possible that a set of data either has more than one mode or has no mode.

Where

x - mean of the set data.

x – values in the set of data

N – total number of data

Statistics

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Example 2: Determine the mode of the number of pens a student has.

Number of pens 1 2 3 4 5

Number of students 6 7 5 3 3

Answer: ……………………………..

7.1.3 Determining the median of ungrouped data

When the values in set of data are arranged in either ascending or descending order, the value that

lies in the middle is the median.

Example 1: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Example 2: 21, 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14

Activity 1:

1. Calculate the mean, mode and median for the following sets of data.

(i) 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 8, 8, 7, 4 (ii) 5, 8, 12, 10, 5, 3, 7, 5, 20, 10

2. (i) Find the mean of 6, 8, 4, 9 and 11

(ii) Find the value of x if the mean of 4, 5, 6, 7, 11 and x is 7.

3. Find the mode of each following sets of data.

(i) 8, 6, 10, 8, 5

(ii) 2, 2, 5, 5, 11, 11

Median

4 numbers

4 numbers

Median =

Statistics

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4. Find the mean, mode and the median of the following data

Time ( hours ) 12 13 14 15 16

Number of cars 3 5 10 6 6

5. The following frequency distribution table shows the score of a group of students in a

quiz. Find the mean , mode and median

Score 5 6 7 8 9 10

Number of students 5 6 4 3 8 4

7.1.4 Determine modal class of grouped data from the frequency distribution table.

Modal class of a set of data is the value of class which occurs most frequently. The value of mode

can be obtained by drawing the histogram

Example 1:

The following table below shows the mark for 50 students in their Additional Mathematics test.

Find the modal class for the students.

Mark 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79

Number of students 3 6 13 10 7 7 4

7.1.5 Find mode from a histogram

Note: In drawing a histogram, class boundaries are used.

HISTOGRAM

Plot: frequency against boundary of the class

Frequency

Boundary of the class

Statistics

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Example 1:

The following table below shows the mark for 50 students in their Additional Mathematics test. .

Mark 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79

Number of students 3 6 13 10 7 7 4

Table 3

Complete the following table.

Mark Frequency , f Lower class boundary Upper class boundary

10 – 19 3

From the table, draw a histogram, hence determine the mode from the histogram.

Calculate mean of grouped data

¿

¿

=

f

fx

x where f is the frequency for each class

x is the corresponding class midpoint

Note :

Class mid point =

2

limit upper limit lower +

Example 1:

1. The table below shows the marks obtained by 30 students in a Mathematics test.

Marks 30 - 39 40 - 49 50 - 59 60 -69

Number of students 4 8 12 6

Find the mean for the marks.

Statistics

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Solution :

7.1.7 Calculating median of grouped data from the cumulative frequency distribution table

Median, m = L + C

f

F N

m

×

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

2

1

, where

Note: Size of class interval = upper class boundary – lower class boundary

Activity :

The following table shows the mark for 40 students in their Additional Mathematics test. Find

the median by using the formula

Mark 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79

Number of students 3 5 7 9 10 4 2

TABLE 1

Marks Number of students, f Class mark ,x fx

¿

= f

¿

= fx

L = Lower boundary of the class in which the median

lies.

N = total frequency

C = Size of class interval

F = cumulative frequency before the class in which the

median lies.

f

m

= frequency of the class in which the median lies

Statistics

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Solution:

Mark Frequency , f

Cumulative

frequency, F

10 – 19 3

7.1.8 Estimate median of grouped data from an ogive

OGIVE

Plot: cumulative frequency against upper class boundary

Cumulative

frequency

Upper class boundary

Statistics

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Refer to table 1

Construct a cumulative frequency table and then draw cumulative frequency curve (ogive)

From the graph, find the median weight.

Mark Frequency , f

Upper class

Boundary

Cumulative

frequency, F

Activity 2:

1. The following table shows the marks obtained by 30 students in Mathematics test. Find the

mean for the data.

Mark 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79

Number of students 3 6 13 10 7 7 4

Solution :

Mark Number of students, f Class mark ,x fx

Statistics

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2. The data below shows the scores obtained by 30 students in a game.

0 3 3 6 8 9 9 10 10 11

5 0 7 6 9 10 12 17 5 4

2 5 8 8 10 11 7 8 12 11

Using 3 scores as a size of class interval, construct a frequency distribution table for its data.

Then find

(a) the mean

(b) median

(c) modal class

Note : Students have to draw the frequency distribution table as below.

Number of scores x f fx

Cumulative

frequency

3. The table below shows the age of factory workers in 1995.

Age(year) 20-25 26-31 32-37 38-43 44-49 50-55 56-61

Number of workers 5 24 16 20 13 12 10

(i) Draw a histogram and hence estimate the mode of the data.

(ii) Find the median without using an ogive.

Statistics

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7.1.9 Determine the effects on mode, median and mean for a set of data when

(a) Every value of the data is change uniformly

Measures of

central

tendency

Added by k Subtracted by k Multiplied by k Divided by k

New mean Original mean + k Original mean - k k(Original mean)

k

mean original

New mode Original mode + k Original mode - k K(Original mode)

k

mode original

New median Original median+ k Original median - k K(Original median)

k

median original

1. The mean, mode and median of a set data are 7.4, 9 and 8 respectively. Find the new

mean, mode and median if every value of the set data is

a) divided by 2

b) subtracted by 4

c) multiplied by 3

d) added by 3

2. Find the mean of 12, 14, 16, 18, 20. By using the result, find the mean of 8 ,10 ,12 ,14,16

7.1 MEASURES OF DISPERSION

7.2.1 Finding the measures of dispersion of ungrouped data

Formulae:

(i) Range of ungrouped data = largest value – smallest value

(ii) Interquartile range = Upper quartile – lower quartile

=

3

Q –

1

Q

(iii) Variance, o

2

:

2

2

) (

N

x x

i ¿

÷

= o

( )

2

2

2

x

N

x

or ÷ =

¿

o , where

N

x

x

¿

=

(iv) Standard deviation, o : o = iance var

Statistics

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Example :

For the given ungrouped set of data, find

(i) range

(ii) interquartile range

(iii) variance

(iv) standard deviation

(a) 3 , 6 , 8 , 12 , 15 , 16

(b) 3 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 4 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 12 , 14

Statistics

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Activity 3:

1. Find range, interquartile range, variance and standard deviation for each set of the

following data.

(a) 10 , 7 , 19 , 13 , 14 , 10

(b) 4 , 3 , 2 , 7 , 9 , 10 , 12 , 6 , 15

(d) 4 , 12 , 15 , 10 , 7 , 6 , 1

2. Given that the mean of set data 5 , 7 , x , 11 , 12 is 9.

a. Find the value of x.

b. Find the variance and the standard deviation of the data.

7.2.2 Finding measures of dispersion of grouped data

Example:

For the following table,

Find (i) range

(ii) interquartile range using ogive

Age ( year ) Number of workers Upper class boundary Cumulative frequency

25 – 29 16

30 – 34 20

35 – 39 24

40 – 44 20

45 – 49 14

50 – 54 6

Solution:

Statistics

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7.2.3 Determining the variance and standard deviation of grouped data.

Formulae :

N

x x f

iance

¿

÷

= =

2

2

) (

var o or

2

o = ( )

2

2

x

f

fx

÷

¿

¿

where

¿

¿

= =

f

fx

mean x

standard deviation = ( )

2

2 2

) (

var x

f

fx

or

N

x x f

iance ÷

÷

= =

¿

¿ ¿

o

Statistics

zefry@sas.edu.my

Example 1:

From the following table, calculate the variance and standard deviation.

Mass ( kg )

Number of

students

46 – 50 3

51 – 55 7

56 – 60 10

61 – 65 5

66 – 70 6

71-75 9

Solution:

Example 2:

The heights of 100 men to the nearest cm are recorded as follows. Calculate the mean ( giving

your answer to one decimal place). Calculate the standard deviation for the height of the men.

Height , x(cm) Frequency, f

159 - 160 2

161 – 162 14

163 – 164 28

165 – 166 26

167 – 168 19

169 – 170 9

171 - 172 2

Statistics

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Solution:

Class

f x fx

2

x

fx

2

Activity 4:

1. The following table shows the number of durians sold in 50 consecutive days.

Number of durians Number of days

0 – 8 10

9 – 17 15

18 – 26 20

27 - 35 5

Calculate the variance and standard deviation

Statistics

zefry@sas.edu.my

2. The table below shows the distribution of marks of 120 students in a Physics test.

Marks

Number of

students

20 – 29 2

30 – 39 14

40 – 49 35

50 – 59 50

60 – 69 17

70 - 79 2

Calculate

a. mean

b. median

c. standard deviation

for this distribution.

7.2.4 Determining the effects on measures of dispersion when some values in a set of data

are changed.

A. If every value of the data is changed uniformly

Measures Added by k Subtracted by k Multiplied by k Divided by k

New

Variance,

2

o

2

o

(original

variance)

2

o

(original variance)

) (

2 2

o k

2

2

k

o

New

Standard

Deviation, o

o

(original

standard

deviation)

o

(original standard

deviation)

) (o k

k

original

o

New Range

Original range Original range

range) original ( k

k

range original

New

Interquartile

range

Original

interquartile

range

Original

interquartile range

k(original

interquartile

range)

k

ile interquart original

Statistics

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B. If there are extreme values in the set of data

Range

Extreme values in a set of data will significantly increase the range of the set of data.

Interquartile range

Extreme values in a set of data will have little or no effect on the interquartile range.

Variance and Standard Deviation

Extreme values also significantly increase the value of standard deviation and variance but

standard deviation is affected to a smaller degree as compare to variance.

C. If certain values are added or removed

When a value is added or removed from a set of data, the effect on the measures of dispersion is

uncertain. In general, the range and the interquartile range are less affected as compared to the

variance and the standard deviation. Variance and standard deviation are more significantly

affected when the added or removed value has a greater difference from the mean.

Activity:

(a) The interquartile range and the standard deviation of a set of data are 5 and 2.5. Find the new

interquartile range and standard deviation if every value of the data is divided by 2 followed

by an addition of 10.

(b) Given a set of data 4, 5, 8, 12, 14, 18, 20. Determine the standard deviation of the set of data.

Explain how the standard deviation will change if a value of 100 is added to the set of data.

Activity 5:

1 The following table shows the results in five Additional Mathematics Test obtained by two

students A and B.

Students A 71 76 80 83 90

Students B 40 67 95 98 100

(a) Find the mean and the standard deviation of the result for each students.

(b) If a student with a more consistent performance is selected, which students would

be selected? Explain the reason for your selection.

2 Find the mean and standard deviation for the following set of numbers: 2, 3, 5, 8, 10.

Hence, using this result find the mean and standard deviation for

(a) five numbers : 7, 8, 10, 13, 15

(b) five numbers : 10, 15, 25, 40, 50

(c ) ten numbers : 2, 2, 3, 3, 5, 5, 8, 8, 10, 10

Statistics

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3 The mean for 7, 14, 2x, x, 16, 9, 10 and 2 is 8. Find the value of

(a) x

(b) the standard deviation

(c ) standard deviation if each of the number is added by 2.

Enrichment

SPM 2006

1. A set of positive integers consists of 2 , 5 and m. The variance for this set of integers is 14.

Find the value of m. [ 3 marks ]

2. Table 1 below shows the frequency distribution of the scores of a group of pupils in a

game.

Score Number of pupils

10 – 19 1

20 – 29 2

30 – 39 8

40 – 49 12

50 – 59 k

60 – 69 1

Table 1

a. It is given that the median score of the distribution is 42. Calculate the value of k.

[ 3 marks ]

b. Use the graph paper to answer this question

Using a scale of 2 cm to 10 scores on the horizontal axis and 2 cm to 2 pupils on the

vertical axis, draw a histogram to represent the frequency distribution of the scores.

Find the mode score [ 4 marks ]

c. What is the mode score if the score of each pupil is increased by 5? [ 1 mark ]

SPM 2005

3. The mean of four numbers is m .The sum of the squares of the numbers is 100 and the

standard deviation is 3k. Express m in terms of k. [ 3 marks ]

4. Diagram 2 is a histogram which represents the distribution of the marks obtained by 40

pupils in a test.

Statistics

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(a) Without using an ogive, calculate the median mark. [ 3 marks ]

(b) Calculate the standard deviation of the distribution. [ 4 marks ]

SPM 2004

5. A set of data consist of 10 numbers. The sum of the numbers is 150 and the sum of the

squares of the numbers is 2 472.

(a) Find the mean and variance of the 10 numbers.

(b) Another number is added to the set of data and the mean is increased by 1.

Find

(i) the value of this number,

(ii) the standard deviation of the set of 11 numbers. [ 4 marks ]

SPM 2003

6. A set of examination marks x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, x

4

, x

5

, x

6

has a mean of 5 and a standard deviation of

1.5.

(a) Find

(i) The sum of the marks,

¿

x ,

(ii) The sum of the squares of the marks,

¿

2

x [ 3 marks ]

(b) Each mark is multiplied by 2 and then 3 is added to it. Find for the new set of

marks,

(i) The mean,

(ii) The variance [ 4 marks ]

7. The mean for 20, 5 + x, 5 + 4x and 5 are 10. Calculate the value of

(a) x

(b) median

Upper class boundary

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

0.5

10.5

20.5

30.5

40.5

50.5

frequency

Diagram 2

Statistics

zefry@sas.edu.my

(c) standard deviation

8. The table shows the mark obtained by a group of students in a competition.

Mark 1 2 3 4 5

Number of

students

3 7 5 4

1

Find

(a) mean , mode and median

(b) standard deviation

9.

Score 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Frequency 3 2 2x 5 x + 4 4 3

The table above shows the score obtained by 30 students in a test.

(a) Find the value of x

(b) Find score mode

(c) If we represent the table by pie chart, calculate the angle sector for the students who

get score more than 3.

SPM 2001

10. (a) Given that 4 positive integers have mean 9. If a number, y, is added , the mean

become 10. Find the value of y. [ 2 marks ]

(b) Find the standard deviation for the set of number 5, 6, 6, 4, 7

[ 3 marks ]

11.

Mark Number of students

6 – 10 12

11 – 15 20

16 – 20 27

21 – 25 16

26 – 30 13

31 – 35 10

36 –40 2

Table 2

Table 2 shows the frequency distribution table for the marks obtained by 100 students.

(a) Calculate the variance. [ 3 marks ]

(b) Using the graph paper provided to solve this question

Construct a cumulative frequency distribution table and draw an ogive. Hence, find the

percentage of the number of students who get mark between 6 and 24. [7 marks ]

Statistics

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SPM 2000

12.

Mark < 10 < 20 < 30 < 40 < 50 < 60 < 70 < 80

Number of

students

2 8 21 42 68 87 98 100

The table above shows the mark obtained by 100 students in a test.

(a) Using the table above, copy and complete the following table.

Mark 0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79

frequency

2

[ 2 marks ]

(b) Without drawing an ogive, estimate the interquartile range for the data.

[ 4 marks ]

SPM 1998

13. The mean of set data 2, k, 3k, 8, 12 and 18 in increasing order is m. If every number in

the set data is subtracted by 2, the median for the new data is

8

5m

. Find

(a) the value of m and k [ 4 marks ]

(b) Variance for the new data. [ 2 marks ]

14. Set X consist of 50 score, in a certain match, has mean 8 and standard deviation 3.

(i) Calculate

¿

x and

¿

2

x

(ii) The sum of a number, 180 scores with mean 6 and the sum of the square of a

number, 1200, are removed from set X. Evaluate the mean and variance for left

data in set X. [ 7 marks ]

SPM 1996

15. The mean for the list of number x – 2, x + 4, 2x + 5, 2x – 1, x + 7 and x – 3 is 7. Find

(a) The value of x [ 1 marks ]

(b) Variance [ 2 marks ]

Statistics

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SPM 1995

16.

Number of class Number of students

6 35

5 36

4 30

The table shows the number of students in a class. Find

(i) the mean

(ii) the standard deviation, for the number of students in every class.

(b)

Age Number of people

1 - 20 50

21 - 40 79

41 - 60 47

61 - 80 14

81 - 100 10

(Solution using graph method is not allowed)

The table above shows the age of 200 people in a village. Calculate

(i) median

(ii) Upper quartile, of the age of the people. [ 6 marks ]

17. (a) Given a list of number: 3, 6, 3, 8. Find the standard deviation of the number.

[ 2 marks ]

(b) Find a set of five possible positive integer with mode 3, median 4 and mean 5.

SPM 1994

18. Set A is a set that consist of 10 numbers. The sum of the number is 150 and the sum of the

square of the marks are 2890.

(i) Find the mean and variance.

(ii) If one number is added to the set of numbers in Set A, (in case mean is unchanged),

find the standard deviation of the 11 numbers.

19. Find the interquartile range for the following data:

10, 24, 11, 18, 8, 26, 19, 13, 17, 16, 25

Statistics

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SPM 1993 P1

20.

Mark 1 - 20 21 - 40 41 - 60 61 - 80 81 – 100

Number of

students

5 8 12 11

4

The table shows the mark obtained by a group of students in a Monthly Test.

(a) By using graph paper , draw a histogram and hence determine the mode of the data.

(b) Without drawing an ogive, find the median.

(c) Calculate mean mark.

Answer :Enrichment 1

1 11

2 (a) k = 4

(b) mode = 43

(c) 48

3

2

9 25 k m ÷ =

12. (a) (b) 21.78

4 (a) 24.07 (b) 11.74

10 (a) m = 8, k = 2 (b) 32

2

= o

5 (a) 15 , 2 . 22

2

= o

(b) (i) k = 26 (ii) 5.494

11 (i)

¿ ¿

= = 3650 , 400

2

x x

(ii) New variance = 1.5

6 (a) (i) 30 (ii) 163.5

(b) (i) 13 (ii) 9

12 (a) x=4 (b) 19

2

= o

7 (a) x = 1 (b) 7.5 (c) 5.958 13 (a) (i) 34 (ii) 2.449

(b) (i) 33.16 (ii) 49.44

8. (a) 2.65, 2, 2.5 (b) 1.108 14 (a) 2.121 (b) 3,3,4,6,9 or

3,3,4,5,10 or 3,3,4,7,8

9. (a) x= 3 (b) 4 (c) 168

o

16 (a) (i) 15, 64 (ii) 7.628

10. (a) y = 14 (b) 1.020 17 13

11. (a) 61.26 (b) 70% 18 (a) 56.5 (b) 52.17 (c) 51

Statistics

CHAPTER 7 : STATISTICS 7.1 (i) (ii) 7.1.1 MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY Ungrouped data – data that is not grouped into classes Grouped data - data that is grouped in certain classes Calculating the mean of ungrouped data

x

x

N

Where

x - mean of the set data. x – values in the set of data N – total number of data

Example 1: Find the mean of 58, 67, 45, 73 and 77

Example 2: Number Frequency 1 5 2 8 3 4 4 6 5 2

Find the mean of the number.

7.1.2

Determining mode of ungrouped data

Mode is the value which appears the most number of times in a set of data (value that has the highest frequency) Example 1: Determine the mode for the following sets of number. (a) 2, 5, 6, 2, 6, 7, 2, 4, 8, 2 (b) 5, 5, 8, 10, 4, 4 (c) 2, 2, 3, 4, 4 , 4, 6, 6 Answer: …………………………….. Answer: …………………………….. Answer: ……………………………..

Note: It is possible that a set of data either has more than one mode or has no mode.

zefry@sas.edu.my

3 Determining the median of ungrouped data When the values in set of data are arranged in either ascending or descending order. 3. 5. 15. 7.my . 11 and x is 7. 18. 9 Median Example 2: 21. 6. 8. 9 and 11 Find the value of x if the mean of 4. (i) 1. 4 (ii) 5. (i) (ii) Find the mean of 6.. 8. the value that lies in the middle is the median. 5. 5. 17. Calculate the mean. 10. 8. 4. 4. 5. 4 numbers 19. 5. 10. 12. 11 zefry@sas.1. 2. 5. (i) (ii) 8. 20. Number of pens Number of students 1 6 2 7 3 5 4 3 5 3 Answer: ……………………………. 6. 5 2. 10 2. 6. mode and median for the following sets of data. 11. 4. 8. Example 1: 3. 7. 5. 7. 7. Find the mode of each following sets of data. 8. 14 4 numbers Median = Activity 1: 1. 8. 16. 7.Statistics Example 2: Determine the mode of the number of pens a student has. 8.edu. 3. 9. 20.

class boundaries are used. Find the mean . Find the mean. mode and the median of the following data Time ( hours ) Number of cars 12 3 13 5 14 10 15 6 16 6 5.Statistics 4. Mark Number of students 10-19 3 20-29 6 30-39 13 40-49 10 50-59 7 60-69 7 70-79 4 7. HISTOGRAM Plot: frequency against boundary of the class Frequency Boundary of the class zefry@sas.my . Find the modal class for the students. Modal class of a set of data is the value of class which occurs most frequently.1. The value of mode can be obtained by drawing the histogram Example 1: The following table below shows the mark for 50 students in their Additional Mathematics test. mode and median Score Number of students 5 5 6 6 7 4 8 3 9 8 10 4 7.1.edu.5 Find mode from a histogram Note: In drawing a histogram. The following frequency distribution table shows the score of a group of students in a quiz.4 Determine modal class of grouped data from the frequency distribution table.

my .49 8 50 .Statistics Example 1: The following table below shows the mark for 50 students in their Additional Mathematics test. draw a histogram. Marks Number of students Find the mean for the marks.39 4 40 . Mark 10 – 19 Frequency . Mark Number of students 10-19 3 20-29 6 30-39 13 Table 3 Complete the following table. 30 . The table below shows the marks obtained by 30 students in a Mathematics test. Calculate mean of grouped data x fx f where f is the frequency for each class x is the corresponding class midpoint Note : Class mid point = lower limit upper limit 2 Example 1: 1. f 3 Lower class boundary Upper class boundary 40-49 10 50-59 7 60-69 7 70-79 4 From the table.59 12 60 -69 6 zefry@sas.edu. . hence determine the mode from the histogram.

N = total frequency C = Size of class interval F = cumulative frequency before the class in which the median lies. fm = frequency of the class in which the median lies Size of class interval = upper class boundary – lower class boundary Activity : The following table shows the mark for 40 students in their Additional Mathematics test. Find the median by using the formula Mark Number of students 10-19 3 20-29 5 30-39 7 TABLE 1 40-49 9 50-59 10 60-69 4 70-79 2 zefry@sas.7 Calculating median of grouped data from the cumulative frequency distribution table 1 2 N F Median.my .Statistics Solution : Marks Number of students.edu. fm Note: where L = Lower boundary of the class in which the median lies.1. m = L + C . f Class mark .x fx f fx 7.

8 Estimate median of grouped data from an ogive OGIVE Plot: cumulative frequency against upper class boundary Cumulative frequency Upper class boundary zefry@sas.my . f 3 Cumulative frequency.1. F 7.Statistics Solution: Mark 10 – 19 Frequency .edu.

Statistics Refer to table 1 Construct a cumulative frequency table and then draw cumulative frequency curve (ogive) From the graph. find the median weight. f Class mark .edu. The following table shows the marks obtained by 30 students in Mathematics test. f Upper class Boundary Cumulative frequency.my .x fx 10-19 3 20-29 6 30-39 13 40-49 10 50-59 7 60-69 7 70-79 4 zefry@sas. Find the mean for the data. F Activity 2: 1. Mark Frequency . Mark Number of students Solution : Mark Number of students.

construct a frequency distribution table for its data. Find the median without using an ogive. The table below shows the age of factory workers in 1995.Statistics 2. Number of scores x f fx Cumulative frequency 3.my . Then find (a) the mean (b) median (c) modal class Note : Students have to draw the frequency distribution table as below. 20-25 5 26-31 24 32-37 16 38-43 20 44-49 13 50-55 12 56-61 10 Age(year) Number of workers (i) (ii) Draw a histogram and hence estimate the mode of the data. 0 5 2 3 0 5 3 7 8 6 6 8 8 9 10 9 10 11 9 12 7 10 17 8 10 5 12 11 4 11 Using 3 scores as a size of class interval.edu. The data below shows the scores obtained by 30 students in a game. zefry@sas.

7. : = var iance zefry@sas. By using the result.14. 18.edu. mode and median of a set data are 7. 14. The mean. 2 2 N where x x N Standard deviation.1. find the mean of 8 .4.Statistics 7.12 .k K(Original median) original median k 1. mode and median if every value of the set data is a) divided by 2 b) subtracted by 4 c) multiplied by 3 d) added by 3 Find the mean of 12.1 MEASURES OF DISPERSION Finding the measures of dispersion of ungrouped data Formulae: (i) (ii) Range of ungrouped data = largest value – smallest value Interquartile range = Upper quartile – lower quartile Q3 = – Q1 Variance. : 2 (iii) (iv) 2 (x i x) 2 N or 2 x x .9 (a) Determine the effects on mode.10 .16 2. 20.2. 16.1 7.k k(Original mean) original mean k original mode k New mode Original mode + k Original mode . 9 and 8 respectively. median and mean for a set of data when Every value of the data is change uniformly Added by k Subtracted by k Multiplied by k Divided by k Measures of central tendency New mean Original mean + k Original mean . Find the new mean.my .k K(Original mode) New median Original median+ k Original median .

8 . 6 . 9 . 10 . 15 . find (i) range (ii) interquartile range (iii) variance (iv) standard deviation (a) 3 . 12 .my . 8 .edu.Statistics Example : For the given ungrouped set of data. 5 . 6 . 12 . 14 zefry@sas. 4 . 7 . 16 (b) 3 . 8 .

edu. Find range. 11 . a. 19 .2. 7. Find the variance and the standard deviation of the data. 9 . 10 . 7 . Given that the mean of set data 5 .my . (a) 10 . 7 . 1 2. 6 . 3 . 7 . 12 . 2 . 15 . 7 . Find the value of x. 10 . 12 . 10 (b) 4 . Find (i) (ii) range interquartile range using ogive Number of workers 16 20 24 20 14 6 Upper class boundary Cumulative frequency Age ( year ) 25 – 29 30 – 34 35 – 39 40 – 44 45 – 49 50 – 54 Solution: zefry@sas. 12 is 9. variance and standard deviation for each set of the following data. b. x . 14 . 13 . 15 (d) 4 .2 Finding measures of dispersion of grouped data Example: For the following table.Statistics Activity 3: 1. 6 . interquartile range.

Statistics 7.2.my .3 Determining the variance and standard deviation of grouped data. Formulae : var iance 2 f ( x x) N 2 or = 2 fx x f 2 2 where x mean fx f f ( x x) N 2 standard deviation = var iance or fx f 2 x 2 zefry@sas.edu.

calculate the variance and standard deviation.172 Frequency.Statistics Example 1: From the following table. f 2 14 28 26 19 9 2 zefry@sas.edu. Calculate the mean ( giving your answer to one decimal place). Height . Calculate the standard deviation for the height of the men.160 161 – 162 163 – 164 165 – 166 167 – 168 169 – 170 171 . Mass ( kg ) 46 – 50 51 – 55 56 – 60 61 – 65 66 – 70 71-75 Number of students 3 7 10 5 6 9 Solution: Example 2: The heights of 100 men to the nearest cm are recorded as follows. x(cm) 159 .my .

Number of durians 0–8 9 – 17 18 – 26 27 . The following table shows the number of durians sold in 50 consecutive days.35 Number of days 10 15 20 5 Calculate the variance and standard deviation zefry@sas.my .edu.Statistics Solution: Class f x fx x2 fx2 Activity 4: 1.

7.4 Determining the effects on measures of dispersion when some values in a set of data are changed. Added by k Subtracted by k Multiplied by k Divided by k 2 (original variance) 2 (original variance) k 2 ( 2 ) 2 k2 (original standard deviation) Original range (original standard deviation) k ( ) original k New Range Original range k (original range) original range k k(original interquartile range) New Interquartile range Original interquartile range Original interquartile range original interquartile k zefry@sas. Marks 20 – 29 30 – 39 40 – 49 50 – 59 60 – 69 70 .my . mean b.Statistics 2. Measures New Variance.2. The table below shows the distribution of marks of 120 students in a Physics test. 2 New Standard Deviation. If every value of the data is changed uniformly A.79 Number of students 2 14 35 50 17 2 Calculate a.edu. median c. standard deviation for this distribution.

Variance and Standard Deviation Extreme values also significantly increase the value of standard deviation and variance but standard deviation is affected to a smaller degree as compare to variance. 5. 8. 14. Find the new interquartile range and standard deviation if every value of the data is divided by 2 followed by an addition of 10. 8. 3. 15. 5. the effect on the measures of dispersion is uncertain. (b) Given a set of data 4. 3. 13. 10 zefry@sas. 10. Activity: (a) The interquartile range and the standard deviation of a set of data are 5 and 2. 2 Find the mean and standard deviation for the following set of numbers: 2. 8. 8. C. 20. using this result find the mean and standard deviation for (a) (b) (c ) five numbers : 7. 12. 3. 8. which students would be selected? Explain the reason for your selection. 10.5. Interquartile range Extreme values in a set of data will have little or no effect on the interquartile range. Explain how the standard deviation will change if a value of 100 is added to the set of data.my . If a student with a more consistent performance is selected. Variance and standard deviation are more significantly affected when the added or removed value has a greater difference from the mean. 25. 18. If there are extreme values in the set of data Range Extreme values in a set of data will significantly increase the range of the set of data. Hence. Students A Students B (a) (b) 71 40 76 67 80 95 83 98 90 100 Find the mean and the standard deviation of the result for each students. If certain values are added or removed When a value is added or removed from a set of data. 40. 50 ten numbers : 2.Statistics B. the range and the interquartile range are less affected as compared to the variance and the standard deviation. 15 five numbers : 10. 10. Determine the standard deviation of the set of data.edu. Activity 5: 1 The following table shows the results in five Additional Mathematics Test obtained by two students A and B. 5. In general. 2. 5.

The sum of the squares of the numbers is 100 and the standard deviation is 3k. zefry@sas. [ 3 marks ] Use the graph paper to answer this question Using a scale of 2 cm to 10 scores on the horizontal axis and 2 cm to 2 pupils on the vertical axis.my . A set of positive integers consists of 2 . Calculate the value of k. What is the mode score if the score of each pupil is increased by 5? [ 1 mark ] SPM 2005 3. Score 10 – 19 20 – 29 30 – 39 40 – 49 50 – 59 60 – 69 Number of pupils 1 2 8 12 k 1 2.edu. 10 and 2 is 8. The mean of four numbers is m . x. Express m in terms of k. Diagram 2 is a histogram which represents the distribution of the marks obtained by 40 pupils in a test. The variance for this set of integers is 14. Table 1 It is given that the median score of the distribution is 42. a. 9. 16. 14. 2x. b. 5 and m. Find the value of m. [ 3 marks ] 4. Find the mode score [ 4 marks ] c.Statistics 3 The mean for 7. Enrichment SPM 2006 1. draw a histogram to represent the frequency distribution of the scores. [ 3 marks ] Table 1 below shows the frequency distribution of the scores of a group of pupils in a game. Find the value of (a) (b) (c ) x the standard deviation standard deviation if each of the number is added by 2.

A set of data consist of 10 numbers. Find for the new set of marks.5 50. (i) The sum of the marks. (i) The mean. x4. x 2 [ 3 marks ] Each mark is multiplied by 2 and then 3 is added to it.Statistics frequency 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0. 5 + 4x and 5 are 10. [ 4 marks ] Without using an ogive. (b) Another number is added to the set of data and the mean is increased by 1.edu.5 40. (ii) The variance [ 4 marks ] 7. x6 has a mean of 5 and a standard deviation of 1. Calculate the standard deviation of the distribution. The sum of the numbers is 150 and the sum of the squares of the numbers is 2 472. (ii) (b) The sum of the squares of the marks. A set of examination marks x1. x2.5. calculate the median mark. 5 + x.5 Upper class boundary Diagram 2 (a) (b) SPM 2004 5. Find (i) the value of this number. Calculate the value of (a) x (b) median zefry@sas. x3. (a) Find x.5 30. x5. (a) Find the mean and variance of the 10 numbers. The mean for 20.5 10. [ 3 marks ] [ 4 marks ] SPM 2003 6. (ii) the standard deviation of the set of 11 numbers.5 20.my .

the mean become 10. is added . [7 marks ] zefry@sas. If a number.Statistics (c) standard deviation 8. [ 3 marks ] (b) Using the graph paper provided to solve this question Construct a cumulative frequency distribution table and draw an ogive. SPM 2001 10. 6. mode and median standard deviation 0 3 1 2 2 2x 3 5 4 x+4 5 4 6 3 9. calculate the angle sector for the students who get score more than 3. Hence. Find the value of x Find score mode If we represent the table by pie chart. 4. 6.edu. [ 2 marks ] Find the standard deviation for the set of number 5. (a) (b) 11. (a) Calculate the variance. 7 [ 3 marks ] Mark 6 – 10 11 – 15 16 – 20 21 – 25 26 – 30 31 – 35 36 –40 Number of students 12 20 27 16 13 10 2 Table 2 Table 2 shows the frequency distribution table for the marks obtained by 100 students. Mark Number of students Find (a) (b) 1 3 2 7 3 5 4 4 5 1 mean . Given that 4 positive integers have mean 9. find the percentage of the number of students who get mark between 6 and 24.my . The table shows the mark obtained by a group of students in a competition. y. Find the value of y. Score Frequency (a) (b) (c) The table above shows the score obtained by 30 students in a test.

Find (a) (b) The value of x Variance [ 1 marks ] [ 2 marks ] zefry@sas. estimate the interquartile range for the data. 8. are removed from set X. 180 scores with mean 6 and the sum of the square of a number. 2x – 1. has mean 8 and standard deviation 3. the median for the new data is (a) (b) 14. 3k. The mean of set data 2. x + 7 and x – 3 is 7. copy and complete the following table. [ 4 marks ] 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 SPM 1998 13. Mark Number of students < 10 2 < 20 8 < 30 21 < 40 42 < 50 68 < 60 87 < 70 98 < 80 100 The table above shows the mark obtained by 100 students in a test. in a certain match. The mean for the list of number x – 2. 0-9 2 [ 2 marks ] Without drawing an ogive. 5m . k. 12 and 18 in increasing order is m. (i) (ii) Calculate x and x 2 The sum of a number.my .edu. 1200. the value of m and k Variance for the new data. 2x + 5. Evaluate the mean and variance for left data in set X. [ 7 marks ] SPM 1996 15.Statistics SPM 2000 12. If every number in the set data is subtracted by 2. (a) Mark frequency (b) Using the table above. x + 4. Find 8 [ 4 marks ] [ 2 marks ] Set X consist of 50 score.

8. The sum of the number is 150 and the sum of the square of the marks are 2890. (b) Age 1 .Statistics SPM 1995 16. 19.60 61 . (i) (ii) Find the mean and variance. (in case mean is unchanged).80 81 . 17.edu. 19. 8. [ 2 marks ] Find a set of five possible positive integer with mode 3. 24. 11. find the standard deviation of the 11 numbers. 18.20 21 .my . Find (i) the mean (ii) the standard deviation. Set A is a set that consist of 10 numbers. If one number is added to the set of numbers in Set A. 16. for the number of students in every class. [ 6 marks ] Given a list of number: 3. 26. 13.40 41 . median 4 and mean 5. Number of class 6 5 4 Number of students 35 36 30 The table shows the number of students in a class. 17. 6.100 Number of people 50 79 47 14 10 (Solution using graph method is not allowed) The table above shows the age of 200 people in a village. (a) (b) SPM 1994 18. Find the interquartile range for the following data: 10. 3. of the age of the people. 25 zefry@sas. Calculate (i) median (ii) Upper quartile. Find the standard deviation of the number.

(a) 2. x 2 3650 (b) (i) k = 26 (ii) 5.4. Answer :Enrichment 1 11 2 (a) k = 4 (b) mode = 43 (c) 48 1 3 m 25 9k 2 4 (a) 24.7. (a) (b) 21.958 13 8.3.Statistics SPM 1993 P1 20.5 12 (ii) New variance = 1. 2 22.26 (b) 1.121 (b) 3. 64 17 10. (a) (b) (c) By using graph paper .5.3.16 (ii) 49.80 11 81 – 100 4 The table shows the mark obtained by a group of students in a Monthly Test.8 (ii) 7. find the median.2 10 11 12.5 (a) x=4 (b) 2 19 (a) (i) 34 (ii) 2.20 5 21 . k = 2 (b) 2 32 (i) x 400.494 6 (a) (i) 30 (ii) 163.108 14 (b) 4 (c) 168o (b) 70% 16 (a) (i) 15.44 (a) 2. (a) y = 14 (b) 1.6.78 (a) m = 8. (a) 61.4.10 or 3.17 (c) 51 zefry@sas.9 or 3.5 9.5 (b) 52.3.449 (b) (i) 33. Without drawing an ogive.020 18 (a) 56. 2.edu. (a) x= 3 11.40 8 41 .74 5 (a) 15 .628 13 (b) (i) 13 (ii) 9 7 (a) x = 1 (b) 7.07 (b) 11. Mark Number of students 1 . draw a histogram and hence determine the mode of the data.60 12 61 . Calculate mean mark.4.5 (c) 5.65. 2.my .

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