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FLUID MECHANICS

1. Absolute viscosity of a fluid varies with pressure and temperature and is defined as a function of: a) b) c) d) density and angular deformation rate density, shear stress and angular deformation rate density and shear stress shear stress and angular deformation rate

2. The force per unit length that an imaginary film formed on the surface of a liquid due to the intermolecular attraction is capable of exerting is known as: a) specific weight b) cavitation c) dynamic viscosity d) surface tension

3. The capillary rise (or depression), h, in a circular tube with radius r is directly proportional to the surface tension of the liquid contained in the tube. The relationship between h and r is: a) h=r b) h is directly proportional to r c) h is inversely proportional to r d) none of these

4. A branch of science which deals with the study of water and other fluids that are at rest or in motion. a) Hydrology b) fluid mechanics c) irrigation and engineering d) coastal engineering

5. A branch of hydraulics which deals on the study of fluid at rest. a) hydrostatics b) hydrokinetics c) hydrodynamics d) hydrology

6. A branch of hydraulics which deals with the study of pure motion in liquids. a) Hydrostatics b) hydrokinetics c) hydrodynamics d) hydrology

7. A branch of hydraulics which deals with the study of forces (including velocity and acceleration) exerted by or upon liquids of motion. a) hydrostatics b) hydrokinetics c) hydrodynamic d) hydrology

8. Fluids which have little resistance to change either in form or volume. It occupies all the space in which it is contained. a) Liquids b) Gasses c) solids d) atoms

9. Fluids which offer great resistance to change in volume. It occupies a definite portion in which it is contained. a) Liquids b) Solids c) gasses d) none of these

10. It is defined as the weight of a unit volume of a substance. a) specific weight c) heavy weight

b) light weight

d) density

11. For gases, the specific weight, which varies with the pressure and temperature, can be computed by the formula: a) =W/V b) =R/pT c) =P/RT d) =T/Rp

12. The quantitative measure of the amount of matter in a given body is known as: a) weight b) density c) specific gravity d) mass

13. It is defined as the mass per unit volume of a substance: a) weight density b) mass density c) relative density d) unit density

14. It is a dimensionless ratio of the density (or specific weight) of a substance to that of some other standard substance. a) mass density b) weight density c) relative density d) unit density

15. The property of a fluid which determines the amount of its resistance to a shearing stress is known as: a) surface tension b) dynamic viscosity c) kinematic viscosity d) absolute viscosity

16. A fluid property which refers to the intermolecular attraction by which the separate particles of the fluid are held together: a) adhesion b) cohesion c) explosion d) surface tension

17. The property of the fluids which is due to both cohesion and adhesion. If adhesion is greater than cohesion, the liquid will rise at the point where it comes in contact with another body. If cohesion is prevalent, the liquid will be depressed. a) vapor pressure b) surface tension c) capillarity d) none of these

18. The pressure exerted by the vapor as evaporation of the liquid takes place within the closed space is known as: a) gage pressure b) atmospheric pressure c) absolute pressure d) vapor pressure

19. The pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is transmitted equally and undiminished to every other point in the fluid is known: a) Venturi Principle b) Manometers Law c) Pascals Law d) None of these

20. When the gage liquid of an open manometer is deflected towards the point of connection, it implies that the gage pressure at the point of connection is:

a) zero b) equal to the atmospheric pressure

c) negative d) positive

21. At any point in fluid at rest the pressure is the same in all direction This law is known as: a) Archimedes Law b) Bernoulli Law c) Boyles Law d) Pascals Law

22. The pressure exerted by the atmosphere in every surface with which it comes in contact is known as: a) vapor pressure b) atmospheric pressure c) absolute pressure d) gage pressure

23. The pressure measure above the absolute zero is called: a) atmospheric pressure b) gage pressure c) absolute pressure d) vapor pressure

24. All of the following is true about absolute pressure, except: a) b) c) d) absolute pressure is measured above the absolute zero absolute pressure is the sum of atmospheric and gage pressures absolute pressure can be negative absolute pressure can never be negative

25. A pressure-measuring technique by means of tubes usually shape in the form of Us and utilizing the principles of hydrostatics is known as: a) planimetry b) barometry c) manometry d) bathemetry

26. A type of manometer which is used for measuring gage pressure with the use of gage liquid. This type contains an atmospheric level. a) differential type b) open type c) closed type d) none of these

27. A manometer used for measuring the difference in pressure between two points and does not have an atmospheric level. a) open manometer b) differential manometer c) closed manometer d) none of these

****28. The pressure, p, at any point,h, below the L.S. of a fluid at rest of unit weight is equal to: a) p= /h b) p=h/ c) p= h d) p=(h+1)

29. The center of a circle traced by the centroid of the submerged portion of a floating body is known as: a) center of buoyancy b) metacenter c) surface tension d) middle third

30. When the center of gravity of a floating body is farther than the metacenter when referred to the center of buoyancy( considering that the center of gravity is above the

center of buoyancy), the floating body is in: a) unstable equilibrium b) static equilibrium c) stable equilibrium d) neutral equilibrium

31. The hydrostatic force on any plane surface submerged in a fluid is equal to the product of the area and the intensity of pressure: a) at the centroid b) at the top c) at the bottom d) at the sides

32. The vertical component,Fv, of the hydrostatic force acting on a curved surface is the: a) b) c) d) weight of liquid below the curved surface weight of liquid(real or imaginary) directly above the curved surface weight of liquid within the curved surface none of these

33. The horizontal component of the hydrostatic force acting on the curved surface is equal to the: a) b) c) d) hydrostatics force acting on the horizontal projection of the curved hydrostatic force acting on the cross-section of the curved hydrostatic force acting of the vertical projection of the curved none of these

34. Any body submerged in a fluid is acted upon by and unbalanced force(buoyant force) which is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid This principle is known as: a) Bernoulli Principle b) Archimedes Principle c) Principles of Hydrodynamics d) Energy principle

35. The stability of any floating body depends upon what factor? a) b) c) d) weight of the body location of the center of gravity of the body metacentric height size of the body

36. The metacentric height of a floating body is the distance from the metacenter to the: a) center of buoyancy b) center of pressure c) center of gravity d) center of attraction

37. The buoyant force,FB, which is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid is acting at the: a) b) c) d) center of gravity of the body center of pressure bottom of the body centroid of the displaced volume of fluid

38. A floating body is said to be stable when the metacenter is: a) below the center of gravity b) above the center of the gravity c) at the midpoint of the body d) at the bottom of the floating body

39. The metacenter of the floating body is located at the point of the intersection of the buoyant force(BF) and the:

a) vertical axis of the body b) horizontal axis of the body 40. Capillary rise in tube is given by: c) h = (2 cos) / r d) h = (2 cos) / r

c) waterline section d) none of these

c) h = (2 cos) / r d) h = (2 r cos) /

***41. The pressure, p, at any point,h, below the L.S. of a fluid at rest of unit weight is equal to: c) p= /h d) p=h/ c) p= h d) p=(h+1)

42. If a mass of liquid is translated horizontally at a constant acceleration of a, tangent of the inclination, , of the liquid surface has a value of : a) tan = g/a b) tan = a/ (g+1) c) tan = a/g d) tan = (a+1)/g

43. The resulting liquid surface due to rotation of a vessel at a constant angular speed of has the form of a paraboloid of revolution about the axis of rotation given by the equation: a) h= r/(2g) b) h= 2 r2/(2g) c) h= 2r/(2g) d) none of these

44. The volume of a paraboloid resulting from the rotation of a vessel is: a) b) c) d) one-third of the circumscribing cylinder one fourth of the circumscribing cylinder one-half of the circumscribing cylinder none of these

45. All around genius born in Italy, known as a splendid artist and an excellent scientist, too. His name is: a) Michael Angelo b) George Gabriel stoke c) Leonardo da Vinci d) Blaise Pascal

46. In fluid flow, if the fluid travels parallel to the adjacent layers and the paths of individual particles do not cross, the flow is said to be: a) laminar b) turbulent c) critical d) dynamic

47. A condition of flow characterized when fluid particles move in very irregular path, causing an exchange of momentum from one portion of the fluid to another is : a) uniform flow b) non-uniform flow 48. The continuity equation: c) laminar flow d) turbulent flow

a) b) c) d)

relates mass rate of flow along a stream tube relates the relationship between work and energy requires that the flow must be laminar relates the momentum concept

49. Velocity head is: a) V2/2g b) P/w c) 32.2 ft/sec.sec d) none of these

50. When the amount and velocity of fluid passing at any section at a given length or reach is constant, the flow is said to be: a) turbulent b) steady c) uniform d) continuous

51. The greatest mathematician, physicist and engineer in ancient Greece (287 212 B.C.). a) Bernoulli b) Archimedes c) Pascal d) Newton

52. Consider a roller coaster running with great excitement in an amusement park. The speed of the roller coaster decreases when it is at the top of the steep slope, and it increase towards the bottom. This is because: a) b) c) d) the potential energy increases and kinetic energy decreases at the top the potential energy decreases and kinetic energy increases at the top the potential energy is the same and kinetic energy decreases at the top the potential energy increases and kinetic energy remains the same at the top

53. Prehistoric relics of irrigation canals were discovered in __________ and it has been confirmed that the canals had been constructed more than 4000 years BC. a) Egypt and Greece b) Mesopotamia and Greece c) Egypt and Mesopotamia d) Mesopotamia and Babylon

PROBLEMS 1. A mercury barometer at the base of a mountain reads 735 mm Hg. At the same time, another barometer at the top reads 590 mm Hg. Assuming no density variation and the specific weight of the air is constant at 0.012 kN/m3, find the approximate height of the mountain. 2. Shown below is a vertical trapezoidal gate submerged in sea water ( = 10.10 kN/m3). Determine the magnitude and location of the hydrostatic force on the gate. w.s 1.80 m 2.70 m 1.50 m

3. A cylindrical vessel 30 cm in diameter and filled with water rotated about the vertical with such a speed that the WS at a distance of 8 cm from the axis makes an angle of 45 with the horizontal. Find the speed in RPM. 8cm 45 15cm 15cm

4. A reservoir of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has a mass of 500 kg and a volume of 0.315 m3. Find the carbon tetrachlorides weight, mass density, specific weight, and specific gravity. 5. A cylinder weighing 450 N and having a diameter of 1 m floats in sea water (=10.10KN/m3) with its axis vertical as shown. The anchor is 0.30 m3 of concrete (=23.54 KN/m3). What rise in the r will be required to lift the anchor off the bottom? 1m new w.s. r w.s. 0.30m

6. A masonry dam, trapezoidal in shape has a width of 1.20 m at the top and 8 m at the base. It is 15 m high with water flush at the top. If the masonry weighs 23.5 KN/m3 and the coefficient of friction under the foundation is 0.80, determine a) all the forces acting on the dam; b) where the resultant pressure intersects the base; c) the intensity of pressure at the heel and the toe; d) the factor of safety against overturning and sliding; and e) if the dam is safe.

15 m

7. The center of gravity of a ship in the upright position is 10m above the center of buoyancy of the portion below water, the displacement being 15MN and the ship is tipped 30 causing the center of buoyancy to shift sidewise 8m. a) is the moment righting or overturning? b) What is the magnitude of this moment?

10 m

BO 8. An open truck mounted tank 10 m by 2.76 m by 2.4 m high is 2/3 full of H20. a) What greatest horizontal acceleration can be given to the truck without spilling any amount of water? b) What is the force on the rear wall ? c) What is the force on the front wall? d) If the truck travels at a constant speed of 36 m/s, how much water is spilled?
motion a m/s2 10m

2.4 m

9. Curve MN shown is 3 m long, determine; a) PH, b) PV, c) P, d) Location of PH, e) Location of PV Drawing

4m

2m

10. In the figure shown, with 35 liters/sec of sea water , specific weight of 10.10 KN/m3 flowing from 1 to 2. The pressure at 1 is 100 KPa and at 2 is 15 KPa. Point 2 is 6 m higher than point 1 . Compute the energy the energy lost in KPa between 1 and 2 if D1 = 30 cm and D2 = 10 cm. 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

D D C B A B C B A A

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

C D B C B B C D C C

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

D B C C C B B C B A

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

A B C B C C D B A A

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

C C B C C A D A A C

51 52 53 A C ******

INDICATED