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Common name: Scientific name: Production potential: Marketing potential:
Tilapia Oreochromis nicloticus, O. aurea, O. mossambicus, O. hornorum Tilapia rendalli, tilapia zilli Easy except tilapia grow slowly at temperatures lower than 70 F and die when temperatures drop into the 50 F range Potential: High Size: 1.25-2.0 lbs Market: Food
Temperature requirements: Growing: 80-87 F Spawning: Greater than 72 Lethal: 55 F Feed requirements: Spawning requirements: Protein: 25-30% Fat: 6-8% Maternal mouth brooders, spawn twice a month, 2,500 eggs/lb body weight, eggs hatch in 5 to 7 days. All male hybrids can be produced by crossing female O. niloticus and maleO. aurea.Or by crossing female O. niloticus and male O. hornorum. Stocking ratios for fingerling production is three females to each male. For food fish estimate at 1500-3,000 lbs. per acre. For food fish production in cages stock 8-15 lbs. per cubic food. Stocking densities in recycle systems depends on the quaility of the filtration used. However at harverst a goal of from 0.5-1.5 lbs pounds per gallon is desired.
Most common production systems:
Practical diagnosis and advice
Most tropical fish, including Tilapia, grow best above 80'F. If they need heat, and the water filter needs a UV stage, why not add a solar water heater to do both? Tilapia can live in fresh or salt water... That might allow us to raise the temp by making the pond a solar salt pond. In an ordinary pond, the sun’s rays heat the water and the heated water from within the pond rises and reaches the top but loses the heat into the atmosphere.
say. b. and then move on to the wind pump and the solar panels if I need more. Another suggestion (thanks bbob) is just covering the pond with a clear material (like plastic or glass) to retain heat. Optimum temperature 23 to 28 degrees centigrade. This basically means they have the right to put chemicals into the food of the fish that are not yet cleared as being safe.The net result is that the pond water remains at the atmospheric temperature. and graze on bottom organisms. The truth is. that the only tilapias that grow faster if they are treated with methyl testosterone are the "pure line" species. mozambique and T. The solar pond restricts this tendency by dissolving salt in the bottom layer of the pond making it too heavy to rise. Since "everyone knows" that female tilapia grow slower than male tilapia. Adults eat zooplankton and phytoplankton. nilotica and T. and the average growth rate will be higher than it would have been with half males and half females. however. Mouth-brooders A. Studies 1 with some species of tilapia show that "monoculture" (male only) ponds do not produce significantly higher yields than "mixed" (male and female) ponds. In a high activity (read: kids) area. as long as they send results in to the government. aurea or T. Reproduction: Female incubates eggs in her mouth. hornorum. Eggs hatch in 3 to 5 days and female guards fry for an additional 8 to 10 days after hatching. Now even the US government supports the use of reversal techniques by allowing all of the tilapia hatcheries who wish it to participate in what is known as an INAD. Almost every tilapia grower now uses hormone-treated fingerling tilapia. I will start with just the pond and wrap over it to raise the temp. Oreochromis aureus biology and culture. any females that are produced will tend to grow as fast as the original male tilapia in the pure line species. The following list broadly groups important tilapia species into mouth-brooders and substrate spawners. Spawn 3 or more times per year with 1500 to 4300 eggs produced per year. Then all of the fish in the growing tanks or ponds will be male. males of tilapia nilotica to female tilapia nilotica. Short Guide to Cultured Tilapia Species There are many tilapia species but only a few are cultured widely around the world today. . This basically reduces the time it takes to get the tilapia through the growing stage and hopefully allows for slightly higher profits from the sale of the fish since a farmer can grow more each year. If hybrids are produced using t. a. but bbobs idea of just floating bubble wrap on it is pure brilliance! And it will keep a little air on the surface of the water under the plastic. scientists came up with a method of treating all of the tilapia fingerlings with male hormones so those fish that would have been female now turn out to be male. Food: Fry eat zooplankton. These are produced by breeding. They also eat manufactured food. glass might be broken. I.
Average of three spawns per year with about 750 to 6000 eggs produced per year. Substrate Spawners A. Spawn and grow well in full strength sea water.000 eggs produced per year. b. B. a. They also eat manufactured food. Optimum temperature 25 to 29 degrees centigrade. Culture: Optimum temperature is 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.000 to 20. Adults eat phytoplankton. Optimum temperature 25 to 30 degrees centigrade. Spawning may occur at 7-week intervals with 12. Optimum temperature 23 to 28 degrees centigrade. phytoplankton and manufactured food. Oreochromis niloticus biology and culture. Food: Fry eat zooplankton. Food: Fry eat zooplankton. II. c. Lower temperature tolerance is 11 degrees centigrade. Eggs hatch in 2 to 5 days and the female guards the young for an additional 8 to 10 days. c. insects and other bottom organisms. Low temperature tolerance is 10 to 12 degrees centigrade. Adults eat zooplankton.000 eggs produced per year. Grows well up to salinities of 16 to 20 parts per thousand. a. Low temperature tolerance 8 to 9 degrees centigrade.c. Reproduction: Female incubates eggs in her mouth. Grow well in water up to 20 parts per thousand salinity. zooplankton. Reproduction: Both parents dig a nest and incubate the eggs and fry. Culture: Optimum temperature is 25 to 30 degrees centigrade. Oreochromis mossambicus biology and culture. Reproduction: Female incubates eggs in her mouth. . Can breed 6 to 12 times per year with 2000 to 10. Culture: Prefers temperatures of 25 to 30 degrees centigrade. Eggs hatch in 3 to 5 days and female guards young for 8 to 10 days after hatching. Tilapia rendalli biology and culture. Eggs hatch in 5 days. a. C. b.
Three genera are well-known namely Oreochromis. Spines are also found in the pelvis and anal fins. reasonable growth rate. Classification of the three genera Tilapia. Reproduction: Both parents dig a nest and guard the eggs and fry. fingerlings. Eggs hatch in 3 to 5 days. a. 1978. The forward portion of the dorsal fin is heavily spined. rooted aquatic vegetation and manufactured food. and sometimes adults. the Nile River as well as most part of African river and lakes. Toxemic Positions of Tilapia Most tilapia species of the tribe Tilapiani now being used in aquaculture were grouped initially into one genus. 1982). algae and manufactured food. Culture: Optimum temperature is 28 degrees centigrade. 1959 Trewawas. Adults eat aquatic weeds. Food: Fry eat zooplankton. Adults eat phytoplankton. They are laterally compressed and deep-bodied with long dorsal fins. b. There are usually wide vertical bars down the sides of fry. Grows well in full strength sea water. 1973. Physical Characteristics Tilapia are shaped much like sunfish or crappie but can be easily identified by an interrupted lateral line characteristic of the Cichlid family of fishes. Tilapia. . Six spawnings per year possible with about 6000 to 42. Tilapia zillii biology and culture. It was introduced in the Philippines in 1972.b. Tilapia and Sarotherodon. leaves. This species is naturally distributed in Palestine. ease in breeding. Sarotherodon and Oreochromis was based largely on the differences on their reproduction and feeding habits. B. Its rising popularity is due to their hardness. resistance to diseases. Optimum temperature 22 to 26 degrees centigrade. of which nile tilapia belongs to genus Oreochromis. Tilapia is a member of the family Cichlidae. Can tolerate brackish water.000 eggs produced per year. c. stems. and tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions including temperature and salinities. insects. Species which evolved as substrate spawner but guard their eggs were retained in the genus tilapia while those which orally rear their clutches were grouped into a new species Sarotherodon. Food: Fry eat zooplankton. c. Culture: Optimum temperature is 28 degrees. Low temperature tolerance is 12 to 13 degrees centigrade. The species within this genus were later classified according to differences in their mode of reproduction (Low McConnel. good taste. Lower temperature tolerance is 8 to 9 degrees centigrade.
well developed fins for swimming. Genus Sarotherodon (Paternal/biparental) Both parents stay close to each other. protect. female leaves nest to rear her clutch in safety. Genus Tilapia (Substrate spawners) Both parents guard. the genital pore. 3. Fry at first feeding are 4-5 mm and show feeble swimming ability. Fry survival high. By rubbing ink along the papillae of the tilapia. Fry are between 7-9 mm at first breeding. 2. and help move clutch to different nest sites. Genus Oreochromis (Maternal) Female solely involve in brood care. The female has three openings: the anus. The male has two openings just in front of the anal fin.Classification of Tilapia Species used in Aquaculture 1. aerate the breed. Eggs and fry brooded in oral cavity up until they are ready for release. The large opening is the anus and the smaller opening at the tip is the urogenital pore. Tilapia can be sexed when it has attained the weight of 15 grams. Application of ink or dark dyes to the papillae may increase the accuracy of sexing and may allow sexing of smaller fish. There is an extended period of care during which fry seek shelter in buccal cavity for safety. . First feeders have well-developed fins for swimming. Fry survival high. The genital papilla is usually smaller in the female. Fry survival relatively low. Fry brooded up until free swimming. Brood may not be collected once released. and the urinary pore. After spawning. sexes can be readily distinguished. Sex Identification Sex identification of tilapia is relatively simple.
The male establishes a territory and builds a round nest in the pond bottom. Materials: Seven (7) inverted (mosquito) nets. Females spawn every four to six weeks. The eggs are yellow in color. After hatching the fry remain in the mouth of the female for another four to seven days. The number of eggs per spawning is related to the size of the female.500 or more eggs per spawning. but may spawn sooner if the eggs are removed. 3. Feed them with the formula. the over population in the pond retards/slow their growth and causes the death of many. The size of the nest is correlated to the size of the male). The fry begin to swim freely in schools. Eggs hatch in about five to seven days. but the females reach only as much as 150 gms within the same period.Spawning The Nile tilapia is a mouth-brooder. Do this in 21 days. A kilo of hormone can feed 6. but may return to the mouth of the mother when threatened. . A female of about 100 grams may produce approximately 100 eggs per spawning while a female of about 100 to 600 grams can produce approximately 1. If the males and females would be put together. Tilapia Sex Reversal Male tilapia fish grow faster and much bigger than the females. it is not easy for harvest time because their growth or sizes would be varied. The males normally weigh from 600-800 gms in four months and can even grow bigger. The female then collects and incubates the eggs in her mouth. Formula SRT-95 (hormone). Females do not feed during incubation or the brooding period. (Usually the diameter of a nest is 30 to 60 centimeters. Place in the inverted nets (in the pond) the newly hatched fingerlings from the mouth of the mother tilapia.000 fingerlings. Because the female tilapia reproduces fast. 2. The female enters the nest and lays the eggs. Method: 1. The eggs are fertilized by the male.000 to 1.
This was discovered by Dr. . He did not keep the information selfishly but shared it with the people that now benefit from it. Rafael Guerrero of the Central Luzon State University in 1977. the fish will not change sex even when they are fed with the hormones. based on his doctoral thesis at the Auburn University. When 10 days are past. For this. he was awarded the TOYM award and the S&T IBM Award in 1987.The percentage of reversal when fed with this hormone is 95-99%.
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