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Compilation of Different Ball Games

Submitted to: Mr. Erwin Robles Submitted by: Rovick Dela Rosa Jo Marie Ingaran

Table Tennis
Also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight, hollow ball back and forth using table tennis rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. Except for the initial serve, players must allow a ball played toward them only one bounce on their side of the table and must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side. Points are scored when a player fails to return the ball within the rules. Play is fast and demands quick reactions. A skilled player can impart several varieties of spin to the ball, altering its trajectory and limiting an opponent's options to great advantage.

Equipments:
Ball
The international rules specify that the game is played with a light 2.7 gram, 40 mm diameter ball.

Table
The table is 2.74 m (9 ft) long, 1.52 m (5 ft) wide, and 76 cm (30 inch) high with a Masonite (a type of hardboard) or similarly manufactured timber, layered with a smooth, low-friction coating

Racket
Players are equipped with a laminated wooden racket covered with rubber on one or two sides depending on the grip of the player. The official ITTF term is "racket", though "bat" is common in Britain, and "paddle" in the U.S.

Basic Rules of Table Tennis


ADDING UP THE POINTS The winner of a match is the one who wins the first THREE or FOUR games (according to the competition) A game consists of 11 points There must be a gap of at least two points between opponents If the score is 10-10, the game goes in to extra play until one of the players has gained a lead of 2 points The point goes to the player who successfully ends a rally The score of the server is always announced first. SCORING A player scores a point when his opponent commits one of the following errors: He isn't able to return the ball. He returns the ball outside the opposite side of the table. He lets the ball bounce more than once in his own court before returning it. He touches the ball several times successively. He strikes the ball in volley (without it bouncing on the table) above his side of the table. He moves the table during play. He touches the net or a post. His free hand touches the table. He makes a bad service (see service)

RULES OF THE GAME: If the ball touches the table surface, it is declared in If it touches the side of the table, it is declared out A player is not allowed to strike the ball in volley, unless the opponent's ball leaves the table and I strike the ball in volley behind the table, in which case the point would be given to me. SERVICE The initial order of serving is decided by lot. Service changes every 2 points, except during periods of extra play where it changes each time. Service must adhere to the following rules : The ball rests freely on the open palm of the hand. The hand holding the ball must be above the level of the table. The ball should be projected upwards (at least 16 cm) The ball should be struck when it is falling and behind the table. The ball should first bounce in one's court, then in the opponent's court. Service can be diagonal and also in a straight line in singles Service can be replayed when : The ball touches the net or its supporting posts before touching the opponent's court (''let'' service) The ball touches the net then is struck in volley by the opponent without it touching his court. The receiver was not ready at the time of service.

DOUBLES Service must be diagonal, from the right half court (marked by a white line) to the opponent's right half court After that, play can cover the whole table, but each partner must take his turn.

Service changeover in Doubles: A1 serves to B1 (2 services), B1 then serves to A2 (2 services), A2 then serves to B2 , B2 serves to A1 and continuing in this way for every 2 services. Following service, each player takes turns to return the ball. In addition to the aforementioned cases in singles, a doubles team scores a point when its doubles opponents make one of the following errors : At service, the player lets the ball bounce on the left half court, on either side of the court. A player strikes the ball when it is not his turn. Obstruction is not an acceptable claim for players of the same doubles team.

Basketball
Is a team sport, the objective being to shoot a ball through a basket horizontally positioned to score points while following a set of rules. Usually, two teams of five players play on a marked rectangular court with a basket at each width end. Basketball is one of the world's most popular and widely viewed sports

Equipments:
Basketball (ball)
Is a spherical inflated ball used in the game of Basketball, Basketballs typically range in size from very small promotional items only a few inches in diameter to extra large balls nearly a foot in diameter used in training exercises to increase the skill of players. The standard size of a basketball in the NBA is 29.5 to 29.875 inches (75 to 75.88 cm) in circumference.

Basketball court
Is the playing surface, consisting of a rectangular floor with tiles at either end. In professional or organized basketball, especially when played indoors, it is usually made out of a wood, often maple, and highly polished.

Backboard (basketball)
Is a piece of basketball equipment. It is a raised vertical board with a basket attached. It is made of a flat, rigid piece of material, often plexiglass.

Basic Rules of Basketball


Number of players If you want to play basketball for fun, you have the possibility of playing on your own. But you can also play team games with either 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 players on each teams. Teams can be mixed, with boys and girls, or not. On a competition level, a team is made up of 5 players playing on the court and 5 players sitting on the bench that can be used for substitution during the whole period of the game. Positions Each player is assigned a position when playing. This position is usually determined by the height of the player. The tallest player on the team usually plays center also known as position 5, while the medium size ones play forwards / position 3 and 4. The shortest players then play guards / position 1 and 2. Scoring A player scores when he manages to throw the ball into the basket, with the ball passing through the basket from above the hoop. Scoring a basket increases the teams score by 3, 2 or one point. If the player successfully shoots from outside of the 3 points line, the basket is worth 3 points, otherwise it is worth 2 points. It is also possible to score one point when shooting from the free throw line, after a foul for instance. Violation A violation occurs when the player breaks one of the rules of Basketball. A violation results in the awarding of the ball to the opponents. It can also result from the player taking more than 2 steps without bouncing the ball on the floor. This is called Traveling. Another example of violation occurs when a player stops dribbling and then starts dribbling again or when he bounces the ball with both hands on the ball. We call this a double Dribble. A violation is also committed if you twist your hand, when in contact with the ball, beyond the vertical, bringing it under the ball. This is called Carry, as the hand must always remain on the top of the ball.

Fouls A foul is an illegal action that can be committed by player from one team against a player from the opposing team. Basketball is generally said to be a non-contact game. If contact occurs beyond what is deemed to be reasonable, or if a player thereby obtains an unfair advantage from it, a foul is committed. There are two types of fouls. The first are called defensive fouls. They occur when the offensive player is being fouled by the defender. Defenders should not block, push, trip, strike or hold the player in possession of the ball. The second ones are the offensive fouls. For example, a player in offence commits a foul when charging into a stationary defender. Referee signals
Administrative signals

Scoring signals

Violation signals

Volleyball
Is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules. It has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since 1964. It is also the national Sport of Sri Lanka.

Equipments:
The court
The game is played on a volleyball court 18 meters (59 feet) long and 9 meters (29.5 feet) wide, divided into two 9 m 9 m halves by a one-meter (40-inch) wide net placed so that the top of the net is 2.43 meters (7 feet 11 5/8 inches) above the center of the court for men's competition, and 2.24 meters (7 feet 4 1/8 inches) for women's competition (these heights are varied for veterans and junior competitions)

Volleyball (ball)
Is a ball used to play indoor volleyball, beach volleyball, or other less common variations of the sport. Volleyballs are round and traditionally consist of eighteen nearly rectangular panels of synthetic or genuine leather, arranged in six identical sections of three panels each, wrapped around a bladder

Basic Rules of Volleyball


THE SERVE Server must serve from behind the restraining line ( end line ) until after contact. Ball may be served underhand or overhand. Ball must be clearly visible to opponents before serve. Served ball may graze the net and drop to the other side for point. First game serve is determined by a volley, each subsequent game shall be served by the previous game loser. Serve must be returned by a bump only. no setting or attacking a serve. SCORING Rally scoring will be used. There will be a point scored on every score of the ball. Offense will score on a defense miss or out of bounds hit. Defense will score on an offensive miss, out of bounds hit, or serve into the net. Game will be played to 25 pts. Must win by 2 points. ROTATION Team will rotate each time they win the serve. Players shall rotate in a clockwise manner. There shall be 4-6 players on each side.

PLAYING THE GAME ( VOLLEY ) Maximum of three hits per side. Player may not hit the ball twice in succession ( A block is not considered a hit ). Ball may be played off the net during a volley and on serve. A ball touching a boundary line is good. A legal hit is contact with the ball by a player body above and including the waist which does not allow the ball to visibly come to a rest. If two or more players contact the ball simultaneously, it is considered one play and the players involved may not participate in the next play. A player must not block or attack a serve. Switching positions will be allowed only between front line players. ( After the serve only ). BASIC VIOLATIONS Stepping on or over the line on a serve. Failure to serve the ball over the net successfully. Hitting the ball illegally ( Carrying, Palming, Throwing, etc. ). Touches of the net with any part of the body while the ball is in play. If the ball is driven into the net with such force that it causes the net to contact an opposing player, no foul will be called, and the ball shall continue to be in play. Reaching over the net, except under these conditions: 1 - When executing a follow-through. 2 - When blocking a ball which is in the opponents court but is being returned ( the blocker must not contact the ball until after the opponent who is attempting to return the ball makes contact). Except to block the third play. Reaches under the net ( if it interferes with the ball or opposing player ). Failure to serve in the correct order. Blocks or spikes from a position which is clearly not behind the 10-foot line while in a back row position.

THE COURT PLAYING AREA Both indoor and outdoor courts are 18 m x 9mi (29'6" x 59'). Indoor courts also include an attack area designated by a line 3 m (9'10") back from the center line. Lines on the court are 5cm (2" wide). NET HEIGHT Net height for men, co-ed mixed 6, & outdoor is 2.43 meters or 7'11-5/8". Net height for women, 7'4-1/8". The height of the net shall be 8'. BALL The ball weighs between 9 and 10 ounces. Ball pressure is between 4.5 and 6.0 pounds

Sepak takraw
Is a sport native to the Malay-Thai Peninsula. Sepak takraw differs from the similar sport of volleyball in its use of a rattanball and only allowing players to use their feet, knee, chest and head to touch the ball. It is a popular sport in Southeast Asia.

Equipments:
Court
The sepak takraw sport is played on a similar to badminton double sized court Area of 13.4 by 6.1 metres (44 20 ft) free from all obstacles up to the height of 8 metres (26 ft) measured from the floor surface (sand and grass court not advisable). The width of the lines bounding the court should not be more than 4 centimetres (1.6 in) measured and drawn inwards from the edge of the court measurements. All the boundary lines should be drawn at least 3.0 metres (9.8 ft) away from all obstacles. The centre line of 2 cm (0.79 in) should be drawn equally dividing the right and left court.

Net
The net shall be made of fine ordinary cord or nylon with 6 cm to 8 cm mesh. Similar to a volleyball net.[14] The net shall be 0.7 m in width and not shorter than 6.10 m in length and taped at 0.05 m from tape double at the top and sideline, called boundary tape.

Ball
The sepak takraw ball shall be spherical in shape, made of synthetic fiber or one woven layer. Sepak takraw balls without synthetic rubber covering must have 12 holes and 20 intersections, must have a circumference measuring not less from 4244 cm (1717 in) for men and from 43 45 cm (1718 in) for women, and must have a weight that ranges from 170180 g (6.06.3 oz) for men and from 150160 g (5.35.6 oz) for women.

Basic Rules of Sepak Takraw


Sepak takraw is played between two teams of three players; the left inside, right inside and back. The court is about the same size as a badminton court (20 by 44 feet) and the net is 1.52 metres high. Traditionally balls were hand-woven from bamboo or rattan, but most modern ones are synthetic. Basic rules and scoring are similar to volleyball. Each team is allowed a maximum of three touches of the ball to get it back over the net to the other side without letting it touch the ground. The first team to score either 15 or 21 points, depending on the rules in play, wins the set. The team that prevails in two sets wins the match. Play starts when the server is tossed the grapefruit-sized ball by a teammate while keeping one foot in a small 'serving circle'. He then must kick the ball over the net with the other foot. After that, volleyball rules pretty much apply, except for the fact that the ball can't be touched by the hands or arms. Top takraw players have to combine great foot-eye coordination with quickness, anticipation, power, flexibility, and acrobatic skills.

Bowling
Is a sport in which players attempt to score points by rolling a bowling ball along a flat surface, usually a wooden or other synthetic surface, and either into pins or to get close to a target balls.

Equipments:
Ball
Bowling balls vary, depending on the type of bowling game. Ten-pin balls are large, up to 27 inches in circumference (approximately 8.59 inches diameter), and have as many as five holes for gripping purposes. The balls come in various weights as high as 16 lbs, with the size and spacing of the finger holes often smaller on lighter balls to accommodate smaller hands. Different kinds of balls are available for different styles of bowling. There are balls for curving and balls for bowling straight. Balls for other games vary, e.g., candlepin balls which fit in the palm of the hand need no holes. Unlike most sports, the ball can be different weights based upon the player.

Shoes
Bowling shoes possess an intermediate style between regular dress shoes and the athletic type

Gloves
A bowling glove is a glove with a metal wrist support and a textured face that offers support in order to enhance grip. There are different glove styles, including those with a full metal finger design and ones with an uncovered portion for the middle and ring fingers.

Basic Rules of Bowling

The Standing Area or Approach: This is the area where you will select your bowling ball, line yourself up and throw. The approach area is approximately 15 feet long and ends at the foul line. The foul line is a solid dark line where the"lane" begins. The approach is marked with approach dots or line up points that are used to increase the accuracy of your throw. It is important to remember when releasing the ball to not let your feet cross over the foul line which seperates the approach area and the lane. The Lane: The lane is a straight narrow surface that is 60 feet long and approximately 41.5 inches wide. It is usually created with wood or a synthetic material. At the end of the lane are the bowling pins. The lane also has one gutter on each side of it. If your ball goes into any side of these gutters it is deemed to be a "gutter ball." You will notice that there is a difference between the lane and the approach area. The lanes are treated with an oil so that the bowling ball will glide over it's surface. A lane will be coated with at least 18 milliliter (ml), or as much as 30 ml of oil. It is important to remember not to touch any part of the lane with your feet. The lane is very slippery and crossing it is considered a foul. Any pins knocked down during a foul will not count towards your score.

Scoring is the most confusing thing to beginner bowlers. Even with electronic scoring, bowlers often wonder how the scores are generated. The highest score a bowler can recieve is 300. This is a perfect score with strikes in all frames. You have two bowling attempts in each frame to knock down the pins. Here we will show you some examples on how to score each frame, a spare, or a strike.
Basic Score Card

Above you will see that Mr. Bowling in frame 1 scored 8 pins. The score was gathered by adding the 5 and the 3 in the smaller boxes within the frame. On Mr. Bowlings first bowl, he knocked down 5 pins. On his second bowl, he knocked down 3 pins. The math 5 + 3 = 8.
Scoring a Spare

A spare is when all of the bowling pins are knocked down in the two allowed throws in one frame. A spare is indicated by a / as you can see in frame 2. To score a spare, you must wait until the bowler bowls his or her first throw of the next frame. The number of pins knocked down in the first throw after the spare is added to 10 (which is the score of the spare) In the example above an 8 was scored in frame 1. Then in frame 2 a spare was scored following a 6 in frame 3. So how did the player get 28 points? First thing you do is take the score of 8. You then add 10 points for the spare. You then would add the first score listed in frame 3. In this example Mr. Bowling knocked down 4 pins in frame 3 giving him 4 points. The math 8 + 10 + 4 = 22

Scoring a Strike

A strike is when all of the bowling pins are knocked down in the first throw. A strike X as you can see in frame 2. To score a strike, you must wait until the bowler bowls the next frame. The number of pins knocked down in the frame after the strike is added to 10 (which is the score of the strike) In the example above an 8 was scored in frame 1. Then in frame 2 a strike was scored following a 6 in frame 3. So how did the player get 30 points? First thing you do is take the score of 8. You then add 10 points for the strike. You then would add the score from frame 3. In this example Mr. Bowling knocked down a total of 6 pins in frame 3 giving him 6 points. The math 8 + 10 + 6 = 24.