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Processing Equipment

Design
5. Heat Exchangers
Lecturer: Pavel Hoffman
http://fsinet.fsid.cvut.cz/cz/U218/peoples/hoffman/index.htm
e-mail: pavel.hoffman@fs.cvut.cz
PDE-5 2
Tubular heat exchangers (HE)
Steps of HE design (more see exercises)
cold fluid2
warmfluid 1
M
1
, t
11
M
1
, t
12
M
2
, t
21
M
2
, t
22
Q
A
Symbol of HE and
definition of flows
t
11
t
12
t
21
t
22
counter flow
parallel flow
t
11
t
12
t
21
t
22
M
1
*c
1
< M
2
*c
2
fluid = liquid, gas, steam...
PDE-5 3
Example of given data:
- Mass flows of fluids: M
1
(kg/h; kg/s) M
2
(kg/h; kg/s)
- Temperatures: t
11
(C) t
12
(C) t
21
(C)
- Fluids physical properties:
specific heats c
1
(kJ/kgC) c
2
(kJ/kgC)
densities
1
(kg/m
3
)
2
(kg/m
3
)
Calculated data for this example:
- Outlet temperature of warmed cool liquid t
22
(C) = ?
- Amount of transferred heat Q (kW) = ?
- Needed heat transfer surface A (m
2
) = ?
- Pressure loss in HE p
1
(kPa) = ?
p
2
(kPa) = ?
Usual given data:
2 flows and 3 temperatures 4. temperature
1 flow and 4 temperatures 2. flow rate
PDE-5 4
1. Thermal calculations
(without heat loss Q
L
= 0 simplification)
Principle of conservation of energy in HE (enthalpic balance)
Q
1
= Q
2
= Q (exactly Q
1
= Q
2
+ Q
L
)
Q
1
= M
1
* c
1
* (t
11
t
12
) heat removed from hot fluid
Q
2
= M
2
* c
2
* (t
21
t
22
) heat transferred to cool fluid
M
1
* c
1
* (t
11
t
12
) = M
2
* c
2
* (t
21
t
22
) t
22
= ?
but the heat has to go through the heat transfer surface A
Q = k * A * t
L
A = ?
where is k (W/m
2
C) coefficient of heat passage (overall HT coeff.)
t
L
(C) mean logarithmic temperature difference in HE
PDE-5 5
2. Hydrodynamic calculations
For optimal fluid speeds w
opt
we can calculate (estimate) a total
cross-sectional area (clear area) of flows (they depend on
pressure loss p
Lmax1,2
)
f
1
= V
1
/ w
1opt
and f
2
= V
2
/ w
2opt
where is V
1
= M
1
/
1
and V
2
= M
2
/
2
For selected tubes diameter d
T
and length L
T
we can specify
numbers of tubes in 1 pass of the HE for both fluids
(d
Te
= d
Ti
+ 2*s; d
Tf
= d
Ti
+ s)
n
T1P1
= 4*f
1
/ (*d
Ti
2
) and n
T1P2
= 4*f
2
/ (*d
Ti
2
)
(or from a corresponding cross section area of an inter-tubular space = it is
outside tubes)
| d
Te
| d
Ti
s
PDE-5 6
Total number of tubes in the HE is
n
TT
~ A / (*d
T
*L
T
)
Number of passes in the HE (for fluid flows in tubes)
n
P1
= n
TT
/ n
T1P1
n
P2
= n
TT
/ n
T1P2
These numbers have to be integer numbers new calculations
for different speed, tubes length or diameter.
heat transfer area of 1 tube
PDE-5 7
3. Estimation of basic size
Spacing of tubes t depends on a method of their
connection in a tube plate (beading, welding see later).
For example is
t 1,2 * d
Te
We choose a HE layout and fromthe spacing we can calculate a
tube bundle diameter and consequently a HE shell too.
| d
Te
t
PDE-5 8
4. Strength calculations
According standards we can specify or check tube wall
thickness, shell wall thickness and tube plate thickness.
Than we check thermal dilatations (low cycle fatigue) of the HE
assembling and working temperatures are different, tubes
and shell temperatures are different too. It is very important
for fixed tube plates.
More you can see in next lectures and exercises.
PDE-5 9
Vmnk tepla s pevnmi trubkovnicemi
HE with fixed plates
p
2
p
1
Vmnk tepla s plovouc hlavou
HE with floating head
p
2
p
1
Vmnk tepla s vlsenkovmi trubkami
HE with hair tubes
p
2
p
1
Vmnk tepla s kompenztorem v plti
HE with bellows expansive joint in shell
p
2
p
1
Vmnk tepla s ucpvkou v plti
HE with packing in shell
p
2
p
1
Pklady vmnk tepla a jejich
konstruknho een podle SN 690010
Examples of Hes and their design
PDE-5 10
Vmnk tepla s pevnmi trubkovnicemi, pepkami v mezitrubkovm
prostoru a dvma tahy v trubkch
HE with fixed tube-plates and baffles in inter mediate tube space and 2 passes in tubes
1 9 3 5 6 4 7 8
3 2 9
1 Pepka Baffle plate 6 Trubky Tubes
2 Patka Support, footing 7 Pevn trubkovnice Fixed tube plate (Welded like flange)
3 Vstupn hrdlo Outlet neck 8 Pruba Cover with flange
4 Segmentov pepka Segment baffle 9 Vstupn hrdlo Inlet neck
5 Pl Shell
PDE-5 11
Trubkov vmnk s plovouc hlavou
HE with floating head and 2 passes
3 2 9
1 9 10 3 5 6 4 7 8
Dilatace
Dilatation
1 Pepka Baffle plate 6 Trubky Tubes
2 Patka Support, footing 7 Pruba pro kapalinu A Cover for fluid A
3 Vstupn hrdlo Outlet neck 8 Pruba pro kapalinu B Cover for fluid B
4 Segmentov pepka Segment baffle 9 Vstupn hrdlo Inlet neck
5 Pl Shell 10 Pevn trubkovnice mezi 2 prubami
Tube plate fixed between 2 flanges
PDE-5 12
Vmnk trubka v trubce
HE type tube in tube
Stavebnicov vmnk trubka v trubce
HE type tube in tube connected in series
Vlnovcov kompenztor
Bellows expansion joint
Ucpvkov kompenztor
Expansion point with packing
PDE-5 13
Trubkov vmnk s U trubkami
HE with hair pin tubes
Dilatace
Dillatation
Deflegmtor
Deflection plate (baffle)
PDE-5 14
O
>
t
TRC
i
n
D 2
Rzn typy vmnk tepla, vk a trubkovnic, hrdel a pepek
Various type of HE, heads and tube-plates, necks and baffles
Typy spoje trubkovnice s pltm
Type of joints of tube plate and
shell
=1,7 =3,5 =3,5 =3 =1,2
=1,2 =1,7
=2,5 =2,2 =1,2
=1,7
f
TR1
plocha odpovdajc jedn trubce
area corresponding to 1 tube
Odhad vnitnho prmru plt VT (D
i
)
Estimation of shell internal diameter
t
t
=1,15 =1,00
PDE-5 15
Svarov spoje trubek s trubkovnic
Examples of welding of tubes and tube plate
Redukovan dlka trubek zvisl od vnitn konstrukce vmnku tepla
Reduced tubes length depending on HE design (baffles)
Trubkovnice vevaen do plt nebo pruby
Tube plate welded in shell or flange
Stupovit otvor
Two diameters of hole
Drka v trubkovnici
Groove in tube plate
pro s
p
> l
max
l
max
~ 45mm
pro zavlcovn
for beading
l
R
=Min[0,5
.
l
1
;Max(0,7
.
l
1
; l
2
)]
PDE-5 16
Rozmry ovlu vepsanho do nejvt neotrubkovan plochy
Dimensions of oval inscribed in the biggest area
without tubes
Nebezpen prez trubkovnice
Dangerous section of tube plate
Pevn trubkovnice vmnk s plovouc hlavou, vlsenkovmi
trubkami nebo s ucpvkou, seven mezi prubami
Fix tube plate gripped between two flanges
Pevn trubkovnice s pivaenm dnem proveden jako protipruba
plt vmnku s plovouc hlavou, vlsenkovmi trubkami a s ucpvkou
Fix tube plate with welded bottom(head)
PDE-5 17
Plovouc hlava se zmkem Floating
head with on lock flange
Plovouc trubkovnice proveden jako protipruba vka
Floating tube plate made as an counterflange of a head
Trubkovnice s pivaenm dnem u vmnku s plovouc hlavou
Tube plate with welded bottom of HE with floating head
Geometrie vlny kompenztoru
Geometry of flexible bellows wave
Typy svarovho spoje trubkovnice s prubou
Type of welded joints of tube plate and flange
Nedoporuuje se
Not recommended
PDE-5 18
52% NaOH DN40;
140C; 1680kg/h
Vlnov kompenztor
Bellows expansion joint
Nosn konstrukce
Supporting structure
Trubkov odparka
Tubular evaporator
Odluova
Vapour-liquid separator
Odparka na zahuovn roztoku NaOH
Evaporator for concentration of NaOH solution
Odparka: 36 TR C33,4x2,77-2500 Nikl
Evaporator : 36 tubes from nickel
Nekond. plyny
Inerts
DN15
Brdy
Vapour
400kg/h
0,1MPa
DN120
Pra
Steam
188C; 1,2MPa
DN50
42% NaOH
2080kg/h; DN40
DN25
kondens.
Recirkulace itn
Recirc. for chem.cleaning
DN40
Pozn.: Viz pklad o pltovanch ocelch. See example with cladded steel
PDE-5 19
Tube arrangement in tube plate
30
t
t
t
t t
t
t
t
60
45
90
equilateral triangle square
Triangl: better space utilization (more tubes in the same
shell diameter)
Square: easier cleaning of space between tubes (e.g.
spraying)
Tube pitch is: for beaded (expanded) tubes: t = (1,25 1,50) * d
Te
for welded tubes t = (1,2 1,4) * d
Te
Estimation of a shell internal diameter see p. 14 and example on the next page.
PDE-5 20
Estimation of tubular HE internal shell diameter
Tubes in equilateral triangle
Tubes in square
t
t
f
T1t
f
T1t
= area corresponding to 1 tube
PDE-5 21
Crosshatched area equates to an area of 1 tube in a tube plate
PDE-5
22
Tube plate area that is equivalent to 1 tube (pitch of tubes is t).
f
T1t
= t
2
* 3 / 2 f
T1t
= t
2
Tubes minimal plate area = minimal shell internal area
4
*
*
2
1
i
cutout t T Ttot Ttot
D
A f n A
t
= + =
Shell internal diameter
t t
cutout t T Ttot Ttot
i
A f n A
D
+
= >
1
*
* 2 * 2
For tube plate totally full of tubes (without any cutout against
inlet etc.) is
t
t T Ttot
i
f n
D
1
*
* 2 >
PDE-5 23
15 , 1 *
* * 2
t
Ttot
i
n
t D >
00 , 1 *
* * 2
t
Ttot
i
n
t D >
O
>
*
* * 2
t
Ttot
i
n
t D
= 1,15 = 1,00
D
i
....... shell internal diameter
t ......... pitch of tubes
n
Ttot
.... total number of tubes in HE
PDE-5 24
Example:
Specify a minimal internal shell diameter of a circular evaporator
with these parameters:
Number of tubes n
Ttot
= 1250;
External tubes diameter d
Te
= 32 mm;
Tubes pitch t = 1,5 * d
Te
= 1,5 * 32 = 48 mm;
Tubes are installed in equilateral triangle.
Area of central circulation tube ( ~ 600 mm) is A
CCT
= 282 600 mm
2
;
area of cutout for steam inlet is A
cut
= 120 000 mm
2
.
PDE-5 25
tubes bundle
central circulation tube
evaporator shell
steam
inlet
cutout for better steam
distribution in tubes bundle
PDE-5 26
Total minimal area of tube plate
cutout CCT Ttot Ttot
A A t n A + + =
2
3
* *
2
2 2
2896753 120000 282600
2
3
* 48 * 1250 mm A
Ttot
= + + =
Minimal internal diameter of evaporator shell
mm
A f n A
D
cutout t T Ttot Ttot
i
1920
2896753
* 2
*
* 2 * 2
1
~ =
+
= >
t t t
PDE-5 27
Connection of tubes with tube plate
Beading (tubes expanding)
in smooth holes in holes with small grooves in holes with grooves
s
30
s
T
d
1
d
2
d
1
d
l
a
s
30
s
T
d
1
d
2
d
1
d
s
1
a
l
s
30
s
T
d
1
d
2
d
1
d
l
a
for p 3 MPa
~0,3
~0,3
0,50,7
36
easy replacing
lower strength
difficult tubes replacing
higher strength
PDE-5 28
Parameters of grooves:
- 5 7 small grooves deep c. 0,3 mm and width c. 0,3 mm
- 1 2 grooves deep c. 0,5 0,7 mm and width c. 3 - 6 mm
Maximal working temperature is c. 300 C (danger of loss of elastic stress
loss of tightness).
Minimal allowable length of beading is
l
min
= 10 mm or l = min {(1,5 2,0)d
T
; (s-3);45}
Maximal allowable (effective) length of beading is l
max
= 45 mm.
If the tube plate thickness s has to be thicker
than 45 mm (for example owing to too high
pressure difference) we can use this design
Beading principle is that expanded tube has plastic deformations but tube
plate elastic. So the tube plate compresses tubes.
l
s
s
s
T
s
T ~
s
T
1,5s
T
2
30
2
s
T
d
1
d
1,5s
T
1,2s
T
s
d
2
30
s
T
d
1
d
2
d
2
1,5s
T
external fillet weld V + koutov svar p front butt weld with groove
s
T
= 2 4 mm for s
T
4 mm s
T
2 - 3 mm + for Al always
PDE-5 29
Tubes welding
It has very good tightness, it can be used for temperatures > 300 C.
Disadvantage is that in case of need a change of corroded tube is its
removal difficult (weld must be grinded away).
Examples of welds types:
PDE-5 30
Combined joints
Tubes are beaded and than welded.
The joint is used if there are requirements for very high
strength and tightness. It is reliable for dynamic loading
(stress) of HE.
Technological process of tubes Technological process of tubes welding
beading in tube plate in tube plate (under shielding atmosphere)
PDE-5 31
tube plate
tube
beading cones
expanding cone
Tool for tubes beading:
3 beading cones and inside is expanding cone (it moves along the tool
axis and so its beading diameter increases.
PDE-5 32
Double wall tube plate
The design is used for danger fluids (e.g. radioactive liquids in
atomic power plants, poisonous fluids ....)
welded part of tube
auxiliary stainless steel tube
(welded to the basic tube plate)
basic tube plate strength
beaded part of tube
tightness check-up
PDE-5 33
Baffles in tube bundle
Purpose:
Fluid flow direction and higher speed > (heat transfer
coefficient)
Supporting of tubes and keeping of tube pitch
Better conditions for buckling stress (shorter buckling length)
Lower tube vibrations owing to dynamical effect of liquid flow
More baffles:
> (W/m
2
K) < A (m
2
) (lower capital costs)
but > p
L
(kPa) higher running costs
(power for pump)
PDE-5 34
One segment baffles
(P
1
, P
2
, P
3
)
D
h
p
=(0,60,8)D
t
p
=(0,21,0)D
P
1
P
2
P
3
P
1
=P
3
tube plate
draining
hole in baffle for draining
bottom
Segment baffles = flow outside tubes
Baffles shape and location, neck location etc. depend on a type of fluid and HE (e.g.
moisture condensation from gas.
These baffles are very often used in HE (all baffles are the same, simple design).
PDE-5 35
P
1
P
2
P
2
P
1 P
2
Double segments baffles
(P
1
, P
2
)
P
1
PDE-5 36
P
1
P
2
Ring and disc shape
segments (baffles) (P
1
, P
2
)
Baffles of shape of turned
sectors of a circle
Section along axis is the same
as for double segments
baffles.
Baffles can be inclined spiral
flow of fluid outside tubes
PDE-5 37
Longitudinal baffles
Spiral baffles
(continuous or from segments)
PDE-5 38
Passes in HE = flow inside tubes
Multi pass arrangement makes possible to choose a proper fluid
speed in tubes and thus optimization of a HE design (optimal
relation between heat passage coefficient (coefficient of heat
transfer) and pressure loss).
Single pass HE
inlet outlet
chamber (head, bottom)
PDE-5 39
front chamber back
baffle
Four passes HE
pepka
baffle in the front chamber
(inlet/outlet)
inlet/outlet back
chamber (cover)
Two passes HE
PDE-5 40
Twelve passes HE
PDE-5 41
Tubular multipasses HE in sugary
Examples of tubular heat exchangers
PDE-5 42
Zahvae vy
(12-ti chod)
Juice heaters
(12 passes)
baffles separating
passes
flat cover with
reinforcing
PDE-5 43
Tchod trubkov vmnk Tubular HE with 3 passes
(kad chod po 11 trubkch) (every pass with 11 tubes)
baffle with
sealing
flat cover of
back chamber
flange with
sealing
PDE-5 44
Sketch of juice heater
Juice necks
Condensate outlet
Upper juice chamber
Lower chamber
Upper cover
Bottom cover
Bottom
tubeplate
Steam neck
Steam inlet
Connecting bar
Condensate
outlet
Condensate outlet
PDE-5
45
Baffles in chambers have various shape (line, arc ..) optimal tube plate design
and space utilization (in the place where are baffles are not tubes), optimal flow,
easy production and cleaning, good tightness ....
In sugar industry HE with number of passes on juice side from 6 to 12 are used.
Examples of baffles sealing
baffle
sealing
HE cover
baffle
baffle
tube plate with tubes
sealing in groove
For multi passes HE flat heads (covers) are often used with stiffening ribs (see
exercises) owing to easier design, manufacturing and maintenance.
Baffles can be welded to tube plate and sealed on a flat cover (usual) or welded to
cover (dished) and sealed on tube plate.
PDE-5 46
Inlet and outlet necks
Necks cross sections are determined by speed of flow and
depends on its density, pressure loss, droplets or particle
contents (abrasion), HE design etc.
Speeds are chosen individually.
baffle in front chamber
PDE-5 47
Examples of recommended speeds for various fluids according
my experiences:
(values are valid for common cases in food or chemical industries)
Steam (vapour) in inlet neck 10 25 m/s
Vapour in outlet neck (tube) 10 15 m/s
Condensate in outlet tube 0.2 0.5 m/s
(condensate is on boundary line vapour/water
owing pressure loss it becomes superheated
steam arises double phases flow)
Heated/cooled or evaporated liquid inlet 1 3 m/s
Heated/cooled liquid outlet 1 3 m/s
Evaporated liquid outlet 1 2 m/s
(boiling liquid is on boundary line vapour/liquid)
Pump intake between evaporator bodies 0.5 1.0 m/s
Non condensing gases (inerts) from calandrias 10 15 m/s
PDE-5 48
vapour + inerts
Condensate is on a boundary line.
Every pressure loss causes that it starts
to be superheated vapour forms
(with >>> specific volume) two
phases flow
30%
condensate
Problems with condensate draining fromheating
chambers (calandrias) of heaters and evaporators
Ex.:
Mixture state on a boundary line: 105 C, 120,8 kPa
Condensate specific volume is 0,001047 m
3
/kg
Specific volume of arisen vapour is 1,419 m
3
/kg 1355 krt vt
PDE-5 49
Tubes protection against of dynamic effect of
entering fluid
If the incoming fluid has too high speed it causes vibration of
tubes that are in front of the inlet (wake wortexes see later),
or their abrasion danger of theor rupture.
For the protection we can use:
Enlargement of inlet neck ( < speed), cutout in tube bundle
or deflection plate (baffle) in front of inlet neck and their
combination.
PDE-5 50
Examples of inlet necks design
neck enlargement
cutout in bundle
tube bundle
baffle (deflector)
cutout in tube
bundle
+ baffle
more inlet necks
(usually from 1 to 4)
PDE-5 51
Annulus around inlet and slots in inner shell
distributing annulus
cover with juice inlet
heating steam inlet
HE or evaporator shell
slots in shell (in front of the inlet are not slots!)
slots are for steam inlet into intertube space
tube bundle
PDE-5 52
HE supporting
Horizontal HEs are usually on saddle supports or footings,
vertical HEs are on footings (foots) - more later.
fixed saddle sliding saddle - dilatation
PDE-5 53
Tube plates
d
T
D
K
s
p
s
P
D
K
s
K
shell
tube plate
shell
flange
Welded in shell Welded in flange
sealing
Welded to shell and serving as flange
PDE-5 54
Locked between two
flanges (cover and shell)
cover flange
shell flange
tube plate
sealing
Floating tube plate
(it is used for high thermal
dilatations)
floating tube plate
external HE shell
flange of tube plate
flange of floating cover
PDE-5 55
For high thermal dilatations HEs with U shape tubes are used too
(hairpin tubes).
Advantage:
It is possible to take out the tube bundle from a shell.
Disadvantage:
Problematic cleaning of tubes inside (only by a chemical way
but not mechanically).
PDE-5 56
Other way how to solve problems with dilatations is installation
of a compensator in a HE shell
Zpsoby pipojen kompenztoru k plti tlakov ndoby
Ways of compensator joint with pressure vessel shell
Kompenztor v plti vmnku tepla
Compensator in the HE shell
Kompenztor v dupliktorovmplti
Compensator in jacketed kettle shell
PDE-5 57
Jacketed kettles shell heating or cooling
(examples according SN)
Ndoby s plnm dupliktorovmpltm
Vessels with total jacketed kettle
Ndoby s vlcovm dupliktorovmpltm
Vessels with cylindrical jacketed kettle
A Zatek usmrujc roubovice Begin of streamline spiral (channel)
B Konec usmrujc roubovice End of streamline spiral (channel)
1) Spojen pl kuelovm pechodem Shell connection with conical transition
2) Spojen pl deskovm pechodem Shell connection with plate transition
1) 2) 1) 2)
Ohvac (chladc) kapalina
Heating (cooling) liquid
PDE-5 58
Ndoby s kanly ve tvaru roubovice
Vessels with helical channels
Ndoby s dupliktorovmpltm a rozprkami
(vylemovnm)
Vessels with jacketed kettle with spacing
PDE-5 59
Ndoby s kanly a registrem
Vessels with channels and input/output wall tubes
Spojen dupliktorovho plt s ndobou
kuelovm pechodem
Joint of jacked kettle and vessel shell with conical transition
Spojen dupliktorovho plt s ndobou deskovm
pechodem
Joint of jacked kettle and vessel shell with conical transition
Usmrujc spirla
Streamline spiral
Spojen dupliktorovho plt se dnem
Joint of jacked kettle and bottom
Spojen dupliktorovho plt vylemovnm
Joint of jacked kettle and vessel shell with flanging
kuelovm pechodem
conical transition
kroukem
ring
Spojen dupliktorovho plt s ndobou trubkovmi rozprkami
Joint of jacketed kettle and vessel shell with spacers
Kanly
Channels
PDE-5 60
PDE-5
61
Supporting elements of pressure vessels, apparatuses and HEs
They are used for mounting of vessels etc., their settlement on a given place
(basement, supporting structure etc.).
Lifting necks (hinge pins)
s
1
l
without supporting plate with supporting plate circular square
d
1
e
s D
R
F
Example of an apparatus erection
(installation) with a crane, rope and
hook.
PDE-5 62
Other supporting elements are lifting eyes (see next page).
Examples of saddle supports, footings, and supporting foots
are on following pages.
These supporting elements induce additional stresses in a
vessel shell.
Therefore we must calculate with it (e.g. a bending moment
during a vessel erection from horizontal position to vertical
one)!!!
PDE-5 63
Nosn oka
Lifting eyes
Vlcov skoepina bez vztunho prstence
Cylindrical shell without reinforcing ring
Nosn oko pivaen v podlnm smru
Lifting eye welded in axial direction
Nosn oko pivaen v obvodovm smru
Lifting eye welded in radial direction
Vlcov skoepina s vztunm prstencem
Cylindrical shell with reinforcing ring
(pokud pevnostn nevyhovuje tlouka plt)
Nosn oko pivaen
v obvodovm smru
Lifting eye welded in
radial direction
Nosn oko pivaen
v podlnm smru
Lifting eye welded in
axial direction
Pklady pouit zvsnch ok
Examples of lifting eyes utilization
Axiln
Radiln
PDE-5 64
Oprn patky
Footings
A na dvou symetricky umstnch podporch
B na tech a vce podporch
C obecn podepen ndoba (krom typ uloen A, B)
A
B
C
Vlcov skoepina bez vztunch element
Supporting plate
Foundation
(concrete)
Supporting plate
Saddle support
Sedlov podpory
Saddle supports
Welded footing
with or without
supporting
plate
Bended footing
with or without
sup. plate
Welded footing
lightened
Welded footing
to I profile
PDE-5 65
Oprn nohy
Supporting foots
Vlcov skoepina vyztuen prstenci
Cylindrical shell with reinforcing rings
Svisl
Vertical
ikm
Skew
Uvnit
Inside
Vn
Outside
PDE-5 66
Nosn oka Lifting eyes
PDE-5 67
PDE-5 68
Podprn nohy Supporting foots
PDE-5 69
Cylindrical vessel support with manhole (skirt)
PDE-5 70
Alfa Laval has the widest range of compact heat
exchangers:
Plate
Evaporator
All welded -
Compabloc
Gasketed
Brazed
Plate
Condenser
PDE-5 71
Deskov
vmnk
tepla
Plate HE
Compabloc
vmnk tepla
Compabloc HE
Spirlov
vmnk tepla
Spiral HE
Rekuperace tepla Heat recovery
AlfaRex
celosvaovan
vmnk tepla
Full welded HE
PDE-5 72
Prostorov nroky deskovho a trubkovho
vmnku o stejnm vkonu
Dimensions of shell and tube HE and
plate HE with the same capacity
prostor pro mont
trubkovho svazku
PDE-5 73
Spirlov vmnk tepla
(vhodn pro kaly a jin
kapaliny obsahujc stice)
Jedin kanl Samo itn
One channel Self cleaning
Spiral heat exchanger
(useful for sludge and other
liquids containing particles)
PDE-5 74
Tlakov a teplotn limity
deskovch a spirlovch
vmnk tepla
Tlak (bar
petlak
)
Overpressure
AlfaRex
Spirlov
Spiral
40
32
30
25
Teplota (

C)
Temperature
Compablo
c
160 350 400
Tsnn
Gaskete
d
Polo-
svaovan
Semi-welded
-50
Pressure and temperature
limits of plate and spiral heat
exchangers